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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 150: 17-29, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796508

RESUMO

Leptospirosis and brucellosis are zoonotic diseases with global distributions that represent severe hazards to humans and animals. We investigated exposure to Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. in samples from Amazonian manatees Trichechus inunguis, Amazon river dolphins Inia geoffrensis, and a tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis. The animals were free-ranging or undergoing in situ rehabilitation in the mid-Solimões River region, Brazilian Amazon. Serum samples from 19 Amazonian manatees were tested by microscopic agglutination test, Rose Bengal test, and 2-mercaptoethanol Brucella agglutination test. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. were detected in 63% of the manatees tested and serovar Patoc was considered the infecting serovar in all positive samples. Titers were generally low, indicating chronic exposure, but higher titers indicative of an active infection were detected in 3 animals. Anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were not detected. Tissue and/or body fluid samples from 12 Amazon river dolphins, a tucuxi, and 2 Amazonian manatees were investigated by multiplex PCR and bacteriology for Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. All samples were negative. However, Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from uterine fluid, lymph node, and lung of 3 Amazon river dolphins. Bacillus spp. were isolated from milk and synovial fluid from 2 Amazon river dolphins and from a milk sample from 1 Amazonian manatee. Knowledge of the pathogens present in Amazonian manatees, Amazon river dolphins, and tucuxis is of great relevance to species conservation and environmental health. Although no clinical signs were noted, further research is needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of infection by Leptospira sp. serovar Patoc in Amazonian aquatic mammals.


Assuntos
Brucella , Golfinhos , Leptospira , Trichechus inunguis , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Golfinhos/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Trichechus inunguis/microbiologia
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(13): 4863-4871, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human brucellosis is a zoonosis with an extremely wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Focal splenic involvement is very uncommon, particularly in the pediatric age group, during the illness' acute phase. CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old boy, already receiving third-generation cephalosporin treatment, was transferred from a local hospital to the University Pediatric Department for fever, anemia, increased inflammation index, and multiple, hyper-echogenic splenic lesions on abdominal ultrasound. Initial diagnostic laboratory investigations for Brucella infection, including the Widal-Wright test, were found to be negative. However, further diagnostic laboratory analysis using the chemiluminescent immunoassay was positive for Brucella IgM antibodies. Treatment with rifampicin at a dose of 150 mg/Kg/twice daily and co-trimethoprim at a dose of 80 mg/Kg/twice daily was started and continued for 7 weeks. IgM antibodies were undetectable after 2 weeks of treatment, and after 6 weeks of treatment, abdominal ultrasound documented a reduction of the diameter of the major splenic infiltrate from 1 to 0.5 cm. At 3 and 5 months of follow-up, re-evaluation of the abdominal lesions displayed complete resolution of the splenic lesions and a complete clinical recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The present case and a literature review are presented in this study since a standard diagnostic laboratory evaluation for brucellosis may miss the diagnosis, and in suspected cases, the laboratory analysis should be extended. Splenic abscesses are known to be rare in brucellosis, but the diagnosis should be considered in children with severe focal lesions, as specific antibiotic treatment may result in complete clinical recovery.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Esplenopatias , Abscesso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Brucelose/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Masculino , Esplenopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Esplenopatias/tratamento farmacológico
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(7): 1185-1190, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human brucellosis is one of the most common zoonosis infections, with an important impact on the health and economy worldwide. This study aimed to update and provide epidemiological information on this infection and evaluate Rose Bengal Test, which is used as an essential diagnostic test for brucellosis in Erbil. METHODOLOGY: A total of 325 participants seeking care and reporting fever at Rizgary Teaching Hospital were enrolled. Blood samples were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal Test and blood culture followed by species identification. A questionnaire was administered to detect the risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable and confirmed brucellosis was 12.3% (95% CI 9.2-16.3) and 9.5% (95% CI 6.8-13.2) respectively. The majority of cases were in the age group of 18-39 years. Brucellosis was significantly associated with raw milk consumption (OR = 10.3 95% CI 5-22.4) and contact with livestock (OR = 11.5 95% CI 5.6-23.9). Brucella melitensis (58.1%) and Brucella abortus (41.9%) are the dominant species in the area. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Rose Bengal Test in comparison to the blood culture were 100%, 96.9%, 77.5 %, and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Brucellosis is a significant cause of fever in Erbil and could be diagnosed by the Rose Bengal Test taking into account the compatibility of clinical features with the positive result. The vaccination of livestock and boiling or pasteurization of milk are essential procedures to reduce the frequency of human brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Rosa Bengala , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Gado , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e935259, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Cardiac inflammatory pseudotumors are rarely observed. Their etiology might include immunologic abnormalities, fibrogenetic disorders, specific reactions to infections or abnormalities related to trauma, necrosis, or neoplasm. Life-threatening ventricular tachycardia and cases of sudden death related to cardiac tumors have been reported. The present report describes and discusses diagnostic and therapeutic solutions for the treatment of nonsarcoid multiorgan pseudotumors with cardiac involvement. CASE REPORT A 38-year-old woman presented to the clinic with symptomatic ventricular tachycardia. As coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and channelopathy were ruled out, and electrocardiograms were not typical of idiopathic arrhythmia, the patient underwent detailed diagnostics which included targeted endomyocardial biopsy, which revealed a cardiac inflammatory pseudotumor. Laborious testing (and eventually, antibiotic therapy) led to ex juvantibus diagnosis of multiorgan disseminated brucellosis with cardiac involvement. Treatment with ceftriaxone, doxycycline, and rifampicin resulted in a complete resolution of all lesions after 3 months, and sustained recovery was observed during a 5-year follow-up. As the risk of ventricular tachycardia could not be reliably predicted, the patient had a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implanted. CONCLUSIONS A vast diagnostic armamentarium of modern medicine allowed us to diagnose an unsuspected and rare cardiac inflammatory pseudotumor. In the case of travelers, the possibility of regionally specific illnesses, especially infections, must be taken into consideration as possible causes of arrhythmias. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in patients with 'idiopathic ventricular tachycardias' to detect non-apparent myocardial lesions which may result from the underlying cause of the arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas , Neoplasias Cardíacas , Taquicardia Ventricular , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/diagnóstico , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/terapia , Humanos , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia
5.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1859-1866, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786155

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a severe public health problem in China. However, analysis on related infection events is lacking. We performed a systematic analysis of brucellosis laboratory infection and vaccine infection events from 2006 to 2019 in China based on the published literatures. Our analysis showed that most laboratoryBrucellainfections in hospitals were found in Southern China. The identification and handling of suspected samples ofBrucellainfection without following the recommended biosafety protection was the main risk factor. It is important to strengthen the preventive awareness of clinical laboratory staff and physicians, while highlighting the compulsory handling and identification of suspectedBrucella-infected samples in biosafety facilities and following biosafety practices. However, a severe Brucella infection accident at the Northeast Agricultural University, with 28 positive cases, showed that strengthening the management in teaching experiments of students in the veterinary-related profession is essential. However, cluster S2 vaccine strain infection events caused by vaccination and production were mainly observed in Northern China. Strengthening vaccination skills, personal protection, and improving the biosafety management of vaccine production and implementing regular risk surveillance is mandatory. Our analysis provides helpful clues for control of public health events involving brucellosis, as well as implementing intervention strategies is urgent.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Vacinas , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Saúde Pública , Vacinação
6.
J Immunol ; 209(3): 488-497, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840160

RESUMO

Mammalian GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can inhibit innate immunity signaling in a spatiotemporal fashion; however, the role of bacterial GAPs in mediating innate immunity remains unknown. In this study, we show that BspI, a Brucella type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein, containing a GAP domain at the C terminus, negatively regulates proinflammatory responses and host protection to Brucella abotus infection in a mouse model. In macrophages, BspI inhibits the activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) kinase, but it does not inhibit activation of ATF6 and PERK. BspI suppresses induction of proinflammatory cytokines via inhibiting the activity of IRE1 kinase caused by VceC, a type IV secretion system effector protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ectopically expressed BspI interacts with IRE1 in HeLa cells. The inhibitory function of BspI depends on its GAP domain but not on interaction with small GTPase Ras-associated binding protein 1B (RAB1B). Collectively, these data support a model where BspI, in a GAP domain-dependent manner, inhibits activation of IRE1 to prevent proinflammatory cytokine responses.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV , Animais , Brucella abortus , Brucelose/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Inflamação , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/metabolismo
7.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(1): 57-64, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891767

RESUMO

Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in many regions worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of hydro-ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) samples collected from six different regions of Iran against five Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) clinical isolates causing human brucellosis and an antibiotic-resistant B. abortus vaccinal strain (RB51). Brucella clinical isolates were first carefully identified using conventional molecular typing and Brucella bio-typing methods. Different Brucella strains were then confronted with EEPs using the disk-diffusion agar method to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of each propolis extract. Chemical composition of EEPs was then determined using HPLC-DAD, and the main phenolic compounds were quantified. It was found that all EEPs displayed significant antimicrobial activities against Brucella strains, though to varying extents. All tested clinical strains were susceptible to different EEPs with inhibition zones ranging from 18 to 38 mm diameter. Interestingly, the RB51 vaccine strain was more susceptible to EEP6 (from Markazi province), compared to conventional antibiotics used in the treatment of brucellosis. Substantial differences observed in EEP antimicrobial activity could be due to their distinct botanical origins and chemical compositions as confirmed by our HPLC analysis. The promising inhibitory effect of some propolis preparations against a broad spectrum of Brucella strains points to the need for further studies in the context of systematic clinical investigations and opens up the way for the development of natural complements in support of conventional antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Própole , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Própole/química , Própole/farmacologia
8.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 39(2): 157-165, 2022 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856988

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis and a public health problem in developing countries that also causes great economic losses in livestock. In Mexico it is endemic and Chiapas, a state in the south of the country, stands out for the presence of the disease in humans. Through the review of the state of the art it was found that factors such as the high production of cattle, the limited institutional strategies to control the disease in livestock, the lack of sanitary regulation of the genus Brucella in dairy and meat products and the location of the state of Chiapas on the border with Central America could be determining factors for the prevalence of human brucellosis in this region of Mexico.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Humanos , Gado , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269963, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834538

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species, which are intramacrophage pathogens that make treating this disease challenging. The negative effects of the treatment regime have prompted the development of new antimicrobials against brucellosis. A new treatment modality for antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is the use of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we examined the antibacterial activities of silver and gold NPs (SNPs and GNPs, respectively), the resistance developed by Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) and Brucella abortus (B. abortus) strains and the toxicity of both of these NPs in experimental rats. To test the bactericidal effects of the SNPs and GNPs, we used 22 multidrug-resistant Brucella isolates (10 B. melitensis and 12 B. abortus). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both types of NPs were determined utilizing the microdilution technique. To test the stability of resistance, 7 B. melitensis and 6 B. abortus isolates were passaged ten times in culture with subinhibitory concentrations of NPs and another ten times without NPs. Histopathological analysis was completed after rats were given 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg NPs orally for 28 consecutive days. The MIC values (µg/ml) of the 10-nm SNPs and 20-nm GNPs against B. melitensis were 22.43 ± 2.32 and 13.56 ± 1.22, while these values were 18.77 ± 1.33 and 12.45 ± 1.59 for B. abortus, respectively. After extensive in vitro exposure, most strains showed no resistance to the 10-nm SNPs or 20-nm GNPs. The NPs and antibiotics did not cross-react in any of the evolved Brucella strains. SNPs and GNPs at doses below 2 mg/kg were not harmful to rat tissue according to organ histopathological examinations. However, a greater dose of NPs (2 mg/kg) harmed all of the tissues studied. The bactericidal properties of NPs are demonstrated in this work. Brucella strains develop similar resistance to SNPs and GNPs, and at low dosages, neither SNPs nor GNPs were hazardous to rats.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Brucella , Brucelose , Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Brucella/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucella abortus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucella melitensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Ouro/farmacologia , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Ouro/toxicidade , Compostos de Ouro/farmacologia , Compostos de Ouro/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Ouro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Ratos , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/uso terapêutico , Prata/toxicidade , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Prata/toxicidade
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7140909, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898677

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a well-known and harmful zoonotic disease that poses a severe threat to public health and wild and dairy animals. Due to a lack of monitoring and awareness, disease incidence has increased. Therefore, this study was conducted for the first time to ascertain the status of seroprevalence of brucellosis, hematological, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes in different breeds of cattle reared under tropical-desert conditions in Pakistan. This study comprised 570 cattle of different breeds. We recorded some epidemiological traits, including age and gender. The blood samples were obtained from all the cattle, screened with RBPT, and then confirmed by ELISA and PCR. The results recorded an overall 11.75%, 10.7%, and 9.64% prevalence of brucellosis based on RBPT, ELISA, and PCR. We obtained nonsignificant results in different age and sex groups of cattle. The results showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower values of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin quantity, hematocrit, lymphocytes, and monocytes in infected cases. The results showed that the total leukocyte and neutrophil cells significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased. The lipid peroxidation parameters (MDA- and NO-scavenging activity of erythrocyte) increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in infected cattle, whereas significantly reduced antioxidant enzymes like SOD, RGSH, and CAT were. Similarly, significantly lower serum albumin levels and total serum proteins were recorded in infected cattle.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Estresse Oxidativo , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35884334

RESUMO

Currently, brucellosis seriously threatens the health of humans and animals and hinders the development of animal husbandry. However, the diagnostic methods for brucellosis have some disadvantages, such as low sensitivity, long detection time, professional operation, and high cost. This study aims to establish a convenient, fast, effective, and inexpensive detection method for brucellosis. Gold nanoparticles with ß-cyclodextrin as a reducing agent were prepared and optimized, applied to rapid vertical flow technology (RVFT), and used to establish a kit for the detection of brucellosis. In this study, gold nanoparticles prepared from ß-cyclodextrin were applied to RVFT for the first time, and on this basis, silver staining amplification technology was introduced, which further improved the sensitivity and reduced the detection limit of this method. Standard Brucella-Positive Serum (containing Brucella antibody at 4000 IU/mL) could be detected in this system even for a dilution factor of 1 × 10-3. The detection limit was 4 IU/mL. RVFT is simple to operate, has a short reaction time, and is 5-6 min visible to the naked eye, without any equipment.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Ciclodextrinas , Nanopartículas Metálicas , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Ouro , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tecnologia
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(3): 622-629, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780342

RESUMO

This study was performed to determine the seropositivity of human brucellosis among the patients suffering from pyrexia of unidentified origin. This cross-sectional study was performed at department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from September 2018 to August 2019; among the patients of pyrexia of unknown origin visited inpatient and outpatient facility of department of Medicine and department of Paediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) in Mymensingh division of Bangladesh. A total of 400 serum samples were screened by Brucella-specific latex agglutination test to determine seropositivity. Seven percent (7.0%) (28/400) serum samples were found to be seropositive for brucellosis by detecting Brucella-specific antibody at a titer ≥1:160. Therefore, Brucella-specific latex agglutination test may be recommended as a screening test for human brucellosis in developing and underdeveloped countries.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Febre , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
Agri ; 34(3): 213-216, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792692

RESUMO

In this article, we report a patient with migraine who was hospitalized with a prediagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri and diagnosed as neurobrucellosis with isolated intracranial hypertension presentation. A 22-year-old woman was admitted to emergency department with a complaint of headache. Her anamnesis indicated that she had migraine for 7 years. Neurological examination revealed bilateral papilledema. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed 80 lymphocytes per mm3 with 178 mg/dL protein. Opening pressure was 260 mmH2O. Brucella tube agglutination and Rose Bengal tests were positive in blood and CSF. She was diagnosed as neurobrucellosis. If the systemic findings are insignificant and neurological findings are atypical such as isolated papillary edema, neurobrucellosis may not be considered and its diagnosis may be delayed. We believe that brucella serology should be included in the diagnostic protocols in endemic areas. Thus, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent complications of neurobrucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Papiledema , Pseudotumor Cerebral , Adulto , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Papiledema/diagnóstico , Papiledema/etiologia , Pseudotumor Cerebral/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Radiol Case Rep ; 16(5): 1-9, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711686

RESUMO

Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon serious complication of brucellosis. Diagnosis of neurobrucellosis could be difficult due to non-specific clinical and radiological findings. So, in endemic regions, neurobrucellosis should be included in the differential diagnosis list of patients with recent neurological disorders. We report an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with neurologic deficits in the central and peripheral nervous system and MRI lesions in the brainstem, spinal cord, and nerve roots Also, related articles are reviewed in the discussion section.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Cauda Equina , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico por imagem , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Cauda Equina/diagnóstico por imagem , Cauda Equina/patologia , Cerebelo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4617-4624, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750543

RESUMO

Ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in sheep. This study aimed to evaluate transplacental infection and pathogenicity of B.ovis wild type strain ATCC 25,840 (WT B.ovis) and the candidate vaccine strain B.ovis ΔabcBA in pregnant mice. A total of 40 BALB/c mice were equally divided into 4 groups: (i) non immunized and uninfected control mice (3/10 mice became pregnant); (ii) non immunized and challenged with WT B.ovis (5/10 pregnant); (iii) inoculated only with B.ovis ΔabcBA (6/10 pregnant); (iv) immunized with B.ovis ΔabcBA and challenged with WT B.ovis (5/10 pregnant). Female mice bred, and five days after visualization of the vaginal plug, they were inoculated intraperitoneally (ip) with 100 µL of sterile PBS, 100 µL of 1 × 106 CFU of B.ovis ΔabcBA, or 100 µL of 1 × 106 CFU of B.ovis WT, according to each group. At the 17th day of gestation, samples of spleen, liver, uterus, placenta, fetus and mammary gland were obtained for bacteriology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Non immunized mice challenged with B.ovis WT developed necrotizing placentitis as well as microgranulomas in the liver and spleen. These findings support the notion that B.ovis infection in pregnant mice induces lesions that are similar to those caused by B.abortus in the same animal model. B.ovis ΔabcBA was not recovered from any of the sampled organs, and it did not cause any gross or microscopic lesions, indicating that it is a safe and attenuated strain in this experimental model. In addition, B.ovis ΔabcBA was induced protective immunity as demonstrated by decreased numbers of B.ovis WT in the liver, uterus and fetuses of immunized mice after the challenge with B.ovis WT.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Brucelose , Brucella ovis , Brucelose , Vacinas , Animais , Brucella abortus , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Gravidez , Ovinos , Baço
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(5): 807-812, 2022 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656951

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical presentation of brucellosis is variable. Therefore, it must be confirmed with laboratory findings. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT) is commonly used for diagnosis of brucellosis. ELISA tests differentiate between IgM and IgG antibodies. However, there are evidences revealing that they do not have sufficient specificity. This study aimed to determine an ELISA optimal index value in the diagnosis of brucellosis. METHODOLOGY: Brucella STAT and ELISA IgM/IgG tests of patients admitted to the hospital with signs and symptoms of brucellosis between January 2017 and December 2019 were evaluated in the Microbiology Laboratory. RESULTS: ELISA IgM and IgG serum median index value was significantly higher in STAT positive (1 ≥ 1:160) group (p < 0.001 for both). By ROC analysis of 117 patients, when the IgM index value was determined to be 2.44, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 85.7%, 71.4%, 60%, and 90.9%, respectively, and when the IgG index 7.85 was determined, these values were 85.7%, 53.7%, 36.7%, and 92.3%, respectively was detected. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was revealed that Vircell Brucella had a good clinical diagnostic performance for index value of 2.44 for IgM test kit and 7.95 for IgG test kit. If the diagnosis of brucellosis is correctly predicted with index values in Brucella IgM and IgG tests before STAT analysis, they can be used in the process of clinical decision. In addition to the results of Brucella ELISA, reporting index values and determining optimal index values for each laboratory can help the diagnosis of brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 63, 2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis poses a serious threat to human and animal health, particularly in developing countries such as China. The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is one of the most severely brucellosis-endemic provinces in China. Currently, the host immune responses functioning to control Brucella infection and development remain poorly understood. The aim of this study is to further clarify the key immunity characteristics of diverse stages of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia. METHODS: We collected a total of 733 blood samples from acute (n = 137), chronic (n = 316), inapparent (n = 35), recovery (n = 99), and healthy (n = 146) groups from the rural community of Inner Mongolia between 2014 and 2015. The proportions of CD4+, CD8+, Th1, Th2, and Th17 T cells in peripheral blood and the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes were examined using flow cytometry analysis. The differences among the five groups were compared using one-way ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis method, respectively. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly different among the acute, chronic, recovery, and healthy control groups (P < 0.05), with lower proportions of CD4+ T cells and a higher proportion of CD8+ T cells in the acute, chronic, and recovery groups. The proportion of Th1 cells in the acute, chronic, and inapparent groups was higher than that in the healthy and recovery groups; however, there was no significant difference between patients and healthy individuals (P > 0.05). The proportion of Th2 lymphocytes was significantly higher in the acute and healthy groups than in the inapparent group (P < 0.05). The proportion of Th17 cells in the acute group was significantly higher than that in the healthy control, chronic, and inapparent groups (P < 0.05). Finally, the highest expression of TLR4 in lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes was observed in the recovery group, and this was followed by the acute, chronic, healthy control, and inapparent groups. There was a significant difference between the recovery group and the other groups, except for the acute group (P < 0.05). Moreover, a correlation in TLR4 expression was observed in lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes among the five groups (r > 0.5), except for the inapparent group between lymphocytes and granulocytes (r = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Two key factors (CD8+ T cells and TLR4) in human immune profiles may closely correlate with the progression of brucellosis. The detailed function of TLR4 in the context of a greater number of cell types or tissues in human or animal brucellosis and in larger samples should be further explored in the future.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , População Rural , Receptor 4 Toll-Like
18.
New Microbiol ; 45(2): 115-123, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699560

RESUMO

Infectious diseases still register significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance through a mandatory notification system allows the continuous analysis of the situation even at a local level and its importance has been highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aimed to outline the importance of the mandatory notification system as a Public Health tool in the continuous monitoring of infectious diseases. To this aim, we carried out a cross-sectional study examining the notifications reported in the Italian territory of Messina, Sicily, in the period 2001-2020. The institutional websites were examined and the notification data were used to obtain the incidences. Overall, a significant reduction of the incidence notification trend was observed. Chickenpox was by far the most notified infectious disease, followed by scabies, pediculosis, and brucellosis. Outbreaks of brucellosis, measles and hepatitis A occurred. All the diseases decreased over time, except syphilis, for which a significant increase was observed. Surveillance of infectious diseases through a mandatory notification system remains a bulwark of public health despite underreporting. Our study reflects the situation of a typical high-income area, although some unexpected criticisms are highlighted. Continuous information about correct behaviors through education campaigns are crucial in order to improve the situation. Keywords: mandatory notifications, infectious diseases, surveillance, public health Corresponding author: Alessio Facciolà, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy. Email: afacciola@unime.it.


Assuntos
Brucelose , COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Notificação de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sicília
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 224, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucella suis is a zoonotic pathogen with a serious impact on public health and the pig industry worldwide. Information regarding B. suis in pigs in Egypt is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of B. suis in slaughtered domestic pigs at El-Basatin abattoir in Cairo, Egypt. A total of 1,116 domestic pigs slaughtered in 2020 were sampled for Brucella isolation and identification. Identified Brucella isolates were molecularly confirmed at species, and biovar levels using Bruce ladder PCR and Suis ladder multiplex PCR. Additionally, high-risk practices of 16 abattoir workers (4 veterinarians, 10 butchering and evisceration workers, and 2 scalding workers) were investigated using a pre-piloted structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Brucella isolates were recovered from 1.3% of examined pigs (n = 14) at consistently low rates (1.1-2.9%) across the year of sampling from February to December 2020. All isolates were confirmed as B. suis biovar (bv) 2. Remarkably, 92.9% (13/14) of isolates showed atypical ability to produce H2S and hence were considered as B. suis bv2 atypical phenotype. The prevalence was higher in males (1.8%) than in females (0.9). However, this difference was not significant (Odds ratio = 1.9; CI 95% 0.7 - 5.7; P = 0.2). No detectable pathological lesions were associated with B. suis bv2 infection in examined pigs. All strains were isolated from cervical lymph nodes, highlighting a potential oral transmission. High-risk practices were recorded among swine abattoir workers in this study: 75% do not wear gloves or disinfect their knives daily, and 18.8% were willing to work with open wound injuries. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of B. suis bv2 in Egypt. Detection of H2S producing B. suis bv2 atypical phenotype is alarming as it may result in misinterpretation of these isolates as highly human pathogenic B. suis bv1 in Egypt and possibly elsewhere. Further epidemiological tracing studies are crucial for the detection of the origin of this biovar. Including pigs in the national surveillance program of brucellosis, and an education program for swine abattoir workers about occupational risk of B. suis is a need in Egypt.


Assuntos
Brucella suis , Brucelose , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Brucella suis/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(6): e1010621, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771771

RESUMO

Brucellae are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli that chronically infect various mammals and cause brucellosis. Human brucellosis is among the most common bacterial zoonoses and the vast majority of cases are attributed to B. melitensis. Using transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) analysis, we showed that among 3369 predicted genes of the B. melitensis genome, 861 are required for optimal growth in rich medium and 186 additional genes appeared necessary for survival of B. melitensis in RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. As the mucosal immune system represents the first defense against Brucella infection, we investigated the early phase of pulmonary infection in mice. In situ analysis at the single cell level indicates a succession of killing and growth phases, followed by heterogenous proliferation of B. melitensis in alveolar macrophages during the first 48 hours of infection. Tn-seq analysis identified 94 additional genes that are required for survival in the lung at 48 hours post infection. Among them, 42 genes are common to RAW 264.7 macrophages and the lung conditions, including the T4SS and purine synthesis genes. But 52 genes are not identified in RAW 264.7 macrophages, including genes implicated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, methionine transport, tryptophan synthesis as well as fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Interestingly, genes implicated in LPS synthesis and ß oxidation of fatty acids are no longer required in Interleukin (IL)-17RA-/- mice and asthmatic mice, respectively. This demonstrates that the immune status determines which genes are required for optimal survival and growth of B. melitensis in vivo.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Brucella melitensis/genética , Brucella melitensis/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Mamíferos , Camundongos
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