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1.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(2): 98-99, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105131

RESUMO

Human brucellosis can be caused by different Brucella spp. When conducting operations in a country with high rates of brucellosis, extra precautions should be taken. Appropriate personal protective measures should be used in situations when close contact with animal carcasses cannot be avoided. Clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are discussed.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/terapia , Cadáver , Humanos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26076, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032738

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There has been no ideal surgical approach for lumbar brucella spondylitis (LBS). This study aims to compare clinical efficacy and safety of posterior versus anterior approaches for the treatment of LBS.From April 2005 to January 2015, a total of 27 adult patients with lumbar brucella spondylitis were recruited in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to surgical approaches. Thirteen cases in group A underwent 1-stage anterior debridement, fusion, and fixation, and 14 cases in group B underwent posterior debridement, bone graft, and fixation. The clinical and surgical outcomes were compared in terms of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, hospitalizations, bony fusion time, complications, visual analog scale score, recovery of neurological function, deformity correction.Lumbar brucella spondylitis was cured, and the grafted bones were fused within 11 months in all cases. It was obviously that the operative time and intraoperative blood loss of group A were more than those of group B (P = .045, P = .009, respectively). Kyphotic deformity was signifcantly corrected in both groups after surgery; however, the correction rate was higher in group B than in group A (P = .043). There were no significant differences between the two groups in hospitalizations, bony fusion time, and visual analog scale score in the last follow-up (P = .055, P = .364, P = .125, respectively).Our results suggested that both anterior and posterior approaches can effectively cure lumbar brucella spondylitis. Nevertheless, posterior approach gives better kyphotic deformity correction, less surgical invasiveness, and less complications.


Assuntos
Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Brucelose/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Espondilite/cirurgia , Adulto , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante Ósseo/efeitos adversos , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Espondilite/diagnóstico , Espondilite/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 460, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This case report describes the clinical process of a shepherd who suffered brucellosis-related endocarditis (BE) and spondylitis (BS) and was infected with Brucella melitensis biovar 3 (B. melitensis biovar 3). CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old male patient was admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Shihezi University on October 11, 2018, due to over 3 months of intermittent fever, back pain, and heart trouble. The Rose Bengal Plate test was positive, the standard agglutination test titer for brucellosis was 1/800, and the blood culture was positive for B. melitensis biovar 3. Three instances of transthoracic echocardiography examination at days 1, 25, and 376 after admission to the hospital and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) checks at days 5 and 38 revealed that the size of the vegetation on the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve increased from 0.7 × 1.4 cm to 1.2 × 1.5 cm and that the left atrium and ventricle were enlarged. The MRI and CT results showed hyperplasia of the second and third vertebra, a cold abscess formed on both sides of the psoas major muscles, and the vertebra hyperplasia became aggravated at a later time point. The patient's situation deteriorated, and heart failure was discovered on October 22, 2019. At the moment of submission of this manuscript, the patient remains in bed at home because of severe debility caused by brucellosis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of endocarditis combined with spondylitis caused by B. melitensis biovar 3 in a shepherd. Brucellosis infection can cause work-power losses because of misdiagnosis or a lack of proper treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for a successful outcome.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Espondilite/microbiologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/patologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/microbiologia , Valva Mitral/patologia , Espondilite/diagnóstico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916050

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a highly prevalent zoonotic disease characterized by abortion and reproductive dysfunction in pregnant animals. Although the mortality rate of Brucellosis is low, it is harmful to human health, and also seriously affects the development of animal husbandry, tourism and international trade. Brucellosis is caused by Brucella, which is a facultative intracellular parasitic bacteria. It mainly forms Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCV) in the host cell to avoid the combination with lysosome (Lys), so as to avoid the elimination of it by the host immune system. Brucella not only has the ability to resist the phagocytic bactericidal effect, but also can make the host cells form a microenvironment which is conducive to its survival, reproduction and replication, and survive in the host cells for a long time, which eventually leads to the formation of chronic persistent infection. Brucella can proliferate and replicate in cells, evade host immune response and induce persistent infection, which are difficult problems in the treatment and prevention of Brucellosis. Therefore, the paper provides a preliminary overview of the facultative intracellular parasitic and immune escape mechanisms of Brucella, which provides a theoretical basis for the later study on the pathogenesis of Brucella.


Assuntos
Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , Doença Crônica , Humanos
5.
J Anim Sci ; 99(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822982

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify possible effects of different vaccination strategies (concomitantly or not) against brucellosis and clostridia on intake, performance, feeding behavior, blood parameters, and immune responses of dairy heifers calves. Fifty heifers calves were enrolled [38 Gyr (Zebu, Bos taurus indicus) and 12 5/8 Holstein × Gyr]. At 120 d of age, animals were randomly distributed among 3 groups: B (n = 18), vaccinated against brucellosis; C (n = 14), vaccinated against clostridia and CB (n = 18), vaccinated concomitantly for both. Rectal and thermographic temperatures were evaluated on days -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7,10, 14, and 28 relatives to the vaccination day. Feed and water intake, body weight (BW), and feeding behavior were monitored daily by an electronic feeding system. Blood was sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28, relative to the vaccination day for determination of glucose and ß -hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations. Blood sampled on day 0 (prevaccination) and on days 28 and 42 were used to evaluate the immune response against Brucella abortus and clostridia. There was an increase in rectal temperature between the first and the third day postvaccination in the 3 groups. The thermography revealed an increase of local temperature for 7 d on groups B and CB. Group C had increased local temperature for a longer period, lasting for up to 14 d. Dry mater intake was reduced for groups B and CB, but no alteration was observed for group C. No alterations regarding initial BW, final BW, average daily weight gain, and feed efficiency were observed. No differences were observed for the 3 vaccination groups for blood parameters throughout the evaluation period. The concomitant vaccination against brucellosis and clostridia led to lower neutralizing antibody titers against epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens and botulinum toxin type C of C. botulinum (C > CB > B). When cellular proliferation assay and serological tests to B. abortus were evaluated, no differences were observed between groups B and CB. The present results indicate that the concomitant vaccination against brucellosis and clostridia has no relevant impact on the intake, performance, and feeding behavior of dairy calves. However, the concomitant vaccination of vaccines against these 2 pathogens impacts animal immunity against clostridial infections.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Imunidade , Vacinação/veterinária
6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910282

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the clinical effect of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine on brucellosis and its influence on humoral immune indexes. Methods: In October 2019, 169 cases of brucellosis hospitalized in Tianjin Second People's Hospital were selected as the research objects, and divided into two groups according to the random number method, 84 cases in the integrated treatment group and 85 cases in the western medicine treatment group. The western medicine treatment group was given antibiotics and other routine western medicine support treatment. The integrated treatment group was given traditional Chinese medicine for treatment based on syndrome differentiation, on the basis of western medicine treatment group, and 6 weeks was a course of treatment. The clinical efficacy and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome scores were compared between the two groups of patients after treatment, and the changes in humoral immune indexes, biochemical, and liver and kidney functions of the patients before and after treatment were analyzed. Results: The total effective rate was 100.00% (84/84) in the integrated treatment group and 97.65% (83/85) in the western medicine treatment group. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05) . The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05) . There was no statistically significant difference in TCM syndrome scores between the two groups before treatment (P>0.05) , and the TCM syndrome scores after treatment were lower than before treatment (P<0.05) . Among them, the TCM syndrome scores of the integrated treatment group were lower than those of the western medicine treatment group (P<0.05) . There was no significant difference in IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, miRNA-155, C-reactive protein (CRP) , erythrocyte sedimention rate (ESR) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) between the two groups before treatment (P>0.05) . After treatment, IgG, IgA, IgM, miRNA-155, CRP, ESR, ALT and AST were all lower than before treatment, and C3 and C4 complement levels were higher than before treatment (P<0.05) . Among them, IgG, IgA, IgM, miRNA-155, CRP, ESR, ALT and AST in the integrative treatment group were all lower than the western medicine treatment group, while the C3 and C4 complement levels were higher than the western medicine treatment group (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The treatment of brucellosis with integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine can significantly improve the TCM syndrome score and reduce the levels of CRP and ESR. The mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of the patient's humoral immunological indicators.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , MicroRNAs , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , China , Complemento C4 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
7.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(2): 113-124, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882646

RESUMO

Brusellosis is the world's most common bacterial zoonotic infection and is still endemic in many developing countries. The clinical appearance of brucellosis is not specific, but the course and severity of the infection varies. In this study, it was aimed to determine the relationship between laboratory parameters and clinical response and organ involvement in patients with Brucellosis diagnosed with specific diagnostic tests. In the study, 100 patients without previous diagnosis of Brucellosis who have admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and had positive Brucella tube agglutination tests and whose clinic was compatible with Brucellosis were evaluated prospectively. Patients were invited to be checked in the 1st, 2nd and 6th weeks . Patients with hip pain and low back pain were evaluated with sacroiliac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar MRI for sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis. Patients with liver and bone marrow involvements, sacroiliitis, spondylodiscitis and orchitis were recorded as the patients with organ involvement. After six weeks, the decline of the complaints was considered as a clinical response. In the 6th week of the treatment, it was observed that platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) levels were lower in patients with a clinical response compared to the patients with no clinical response which was statistically significant (p= 0.01, p= 0.02). Platelet and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) level in patients with organ involvement in the 1st and 6th weeks of the treatment, were observed to be lower than the patients without organ involvement which was statistically significant (week 1: p= 0.001, p= 0.01; week 6: p= 0.03, p= 0.01). Among patients with organ involvement and non-organ involvement, the area under the curve was 66% in the ROC curve analysis for PLR at the onset of the treatment. When the cut-off value was taken as 128.8%, the sensitivity was 55%, and the specificity was 78%. Depending on the level of platelet at the beginning of the treatment, in the ROC curve analysis carried out among patients with organ involvement and non-organ involvement, the area under the curve was 73% and when the cut off value was taken as 256000, the sensitivity was 71%, and the specificity was 68%. In the 6th week of the treatment, the area under the curve was observed as 67% in the ROC curve analysis of the PDW level among patients from whom clinical responses were received and not received. When the cut-off value was taken as 10.75%, the sensitivity was 65%, and the specificity was 70%. In the ROC curve analysis of the MPV value for clinical response, the area under the curve was 66%, and when the cut-off value was taken as 9.95, the sensitivity was observed as 52%, and the specificity was 74%. As a result, in the evaluation of the clinical response, which is important in the termination of the treatment in patients with Brucellosis, the use of MPV and PDW values in the evaluation of organ involvement and platelet level and PLO in the follow up, are cheap, easily accessible biomarkers that can be used clinically.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Biomarcadores , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 308-313, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the epidemiology of human brucellosis in the West Bank over the past 20 years, with a focus on recent trends in disease incidence from 2000 to 2020. METHODS: A long-term descriptive epidemiological study was conducted, based on the Palestinian Ministry of Health records from 2000 to 2020. RESULTS: The total number of cases was 7935 and the average annual incidence rate (AAIR) was 9.4 cases per 100 000 population. The AAIR ranged from 17.9 in 2000 to 15.7 cases per 100 000 population in 2020. The AAIR decreased markedly from 17.9 in 2000, to 2.9 cases per 100 000 population in 2012. A dramatic increase in cases started from 2013 onwards, reaching a peak in 2016. Higher incidence was reported in males (57.1%) and among the age group 11-20 years (29%). A higher number of cases was reported during April, May, and June. A total of 2850 patients (62.7%) reported contact with animals, and approximately 30% had at least one infected household member. CONCLUSIONS: The dramatic increase in human brucellosis in the West Bank was linked to the impaired control and surveillance of the disease. Mass vaccination, regular screenings, raising public health awareness, and monitoring of milk and homemade dairy products represent some recommended precautionary measures for coping with the epidemic.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 129, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease that may have a variety of clinical manifestations when it affects the nervous system. Ischemic stroke is a rare clinical symptom, but if it is not diagnosed and treated early, it may cause more severe consequences. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 38-year-old man presenting with hearing impairment for four years and sudden weakness of the right limb for two years, recurrent aphasia, and gradual weakness of bilateral lower limbs for nine months. He had bilateral positive Babinski's sign. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed raised protein and pleocytosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic infarcts in the pons and extensive enhancement of spinal meninges combined with spinal cord atrophy and ischemia. The tests revealed Brucella Rose Bengal positive in serum and CSF. Brucella culture in CSF was also positive. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of CSF revealed positive for Brucella with 105 species were detected. He showed significant improvement with antibiotics at five months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Neurobrucellosis may mimic stroke and transverse myelitis like syndromes. NB is a treatable infectious condition and should always be considered in the differentials, especially if there are risk factors, as in our case.


Assuntos
Brucelose/complicações , Mielite Transversa/etiologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Brucella , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 280, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a major public health problem that seriously affects developing countries and could cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry and great harm to human health. Reasonable prediction of the incidence is of great significance in controlling brucellosis and taking preventive measures. METHODS: Our human brucellosis incidence data were extracted from Shanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We used seasonal-trend decomposition using Loess (STL) and monthplot to analyse the seasonal characteristics of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province from 2007 to 2017. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, a combined model of ARIMA and the back propagation neural network (ARIMA-BPNN), and a combined model of ARIMA and the Elman recurrent neural network (ARIMA-ERNN) were established separately to make predictions and identify the best model. Additionally, the mean squared error (MAE), mean absolute error (MSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the performance of the model. RESULTS: We observed that the time series of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province increased from 2007 to 2014 but decreased from 2015 to 2017. It had obvious seasonal characteristics, with the peak lasting from March to July every year. The best fitting and prediction effect was the ARIMA-ERNN model. Compared with those of the ARIMA model, the MAE, MSE and MAPE of the ARIMA-ERNN model decreased by 18.65, 31.48 and 64.35%, respectively, in fitting performance; in terms of prediction performance, the MAE, MSE and MAPE decreased by 60.19, 75.30 and 64.35%, respectively. Second, compared with those of ARIMA-BPNN, the MAE, MSE and MAPE of ARIMA-ERNN decreased by 9.60, 15.73 and 11.58%, respectively, in fitting performance; in terms of prediction performance, the MAE, MSE and MAPE decreased by 31.63, 45.79 and 29.59%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The time series of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province from 2007 to 2017 showed obvious seasonal characteristics. The fitting and prediction performances of the ARIMA-ERNN model were better than those of the ARIMA-BPNN and ARIMA models. This will provide some theoretical support for the prediction of infectious diseases and will be beneficial to public health decision making.


Assuntos
Brucelose/diagnóstico , Modelos Estatísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estações do Ano
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692068

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease worldwide. It has protean clinical manifestation and sometimes may has a life-threatening complication. A 4-year-old boy presented with a history of fever, myalgia and appetite loss for 3 weeks. On examination, he had hepatosplenomegaly. The initial working diagnosis was an infection, autoimmune disease and malignancy. Investigations showed positive Brucella serology, and he was started on rifampicin and cotrimoxazole. He was further investigated because of persistent fever, which revealed evidence of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). He continued treatment for brucellosis, except rifampicin which was replaced with doxycyclin due to a worsening liver function. The child showed complete clinical and biochemical improvement after 6 weeks of therapy. HLH is a life-threatening condition and should be suspected in children with brucellosis, who did not respond to appropriate antibiotics treatment. Secondary HLH does not always require specific therapy; it may improve with adequate treatment of the underlying condition.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Animais , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doxiciclina , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Masculino , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Zoonoses
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 79, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brucellosis is a zoonosis almost chronic disease. Brucellosis bacteria can remain in the environment for a long time. Thus, climate irregularities could pave the way for the survival of the bacterium brucellosis. Brucellosis is more common in men 25 to 29 years of age, in the western provinces, and in the spring months. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of climatic factors as well as predicting the incidence of brucellosis in Qazvin province using the Markov switching model (MSM). This study is a secondary study of data collected from 2010 to 2019 in Qazvin province. The data include brucellosis cases and climatic parameters. Two state MSM with time lags of 0, 1 and 2 was fitted to the data. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) was used to evaluate the models. RESULTS: According to the BIC, the two-state MSM with a 1-month lag is a suitable model. The month, the average-wind-speed, the minimum-temperature have a positive effect on the number of brucellosis, the age and rainfall have a negative effect. The results show that the probability of an outbreak for the third month of 2019 is 0.30%.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Zoonoses , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino
13.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e928592, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Brucellosis is a major health problem, especially in endemic countries. Although musculoskeletal system involvement is common with brucellosis, the development of septic arthritis in connection with brucellosis has been rarely reported. CASE REPORT A 7-year-old girl presented with high-grade fever and severe right hip pain. Based on her clinical picture, laboratory tests, and radiographic images, septic arthritis was diagnosed and subsequently managed with standard septic arthritis treatment. The severity of hip pain significantly decreased after hip drainage. However, a high-grade fever persisted, raising suspicion of brucellosis, which was confirmed by serological testing. Standard treatment of brucellosis was administered and the patient responded well. CONCLUSIONS Brucella arthritis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of septic hip, especially in endemic areas. The nonpurulent nature of the hip aspirate should raise suspicion of brucella arthritis. Early diagnosis of brucella septic arthritis is important to avoid serious complications.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa , Brucella , Brucelose , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Quadril , Humanos
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009171, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617596

RESUMO

Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for a worldwide zoonotic infection-Brucellosis, which has been associated with high morbidity rate in humans and severe economic losses in infected livestock. The natural route of infection is through oral and nasal mucosa but the invasion process through host gut mucosa is yet to be understood. Studies have examined the role of NLRP6 (NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing-6 protein) in gut homeostasis and defense against pathogens. Here, we investigated the impact of gut microbiota and NLRP6 in a murine model of Ba oral infection. Nlrp6-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were infected by oral gavage with Ba and tissues samples were collected at different time points. Our results suggest that Ba oral infection leads to significant alterations in gut microbiota. Moreover, Nlrp6-/- mice were more resistant to infection, with decreased CFU in the liver and reduction in gut permeability when compared to the control group. Fecal microbiota transplantation from WT and Nlrp6-/- into germ-free mice reflected the gut permeability phenotype from the donors. Additionally, depletion of gut microbiota by broad-spectrum-antibiotic treatment prevented Ba replication in WT while favoring bacterial growth in Nlrp6-/-. Finally, we observed higher eosinophils in the gut and leukocytes in the blood of infected Nlrp6-/- compared to WT-infected mice, which might be associated to the Nlrp6-/- resistance phenotype. Altogether, these results indicated that gut microbiota composition is the major factor involved in the initial stages of pathogen host replication and partially also by the resistance phenotype observed in Nlrp6 -/- mice regulating host inflammation against Ba infection.


Assuntos
Brucelose/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Brucella abortus , Brucelose/microbiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Permeabilidade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
15.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(5): 1264-1275, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630313

RESUMO

Wildlife migrations provide important ecosystem services, but they are declining. Within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), some elk Cervus canadensis herds are losing migratory tendencies, which may increase spatiotemporal overlap between elk and livestock (domestic bison Bison bison and cattle Bos taurus), potentially exacerbating pathogen transmission risk. We combined disease, movement, demographic and environmental data from eight elk herds in the GYE to examine the differential risk of brucellosis transmission (through aborted foetuses) from migrant and resident elk to livestock. For both migrants and residents, we found that transmission risk from elk to livestock occurred almost exclusively on private ranchlands as opposed to state or federal grazing allotments. Weather variability affected the estimated distribution of spillover risk from migrant elk to livestock, with a 7%-12% increase in migrant abortions on private ranchlands during years with heavier snowfall. In contrast, weather variability did not affect spillover risk from resident elk. Migrant elk were responsible for the majority (68%) of disease spillover risk to livestock because they occurred in greater numbers than resident elk. On a per-capita basis, however, our analyses suggested that resident elk disproportionately contributed to spillover risk. In five of seven herds, we estimated that the per-capita spillover risk was greater from residents than from migrants. Averaged across herds, an individual resident elk was 23% more likely than an individual migrant elk to abort on private ranchlands. Our results demonstrate links between migration behaviour, spillover risk and environmental variability, and highlight the utility of integrating models of pathogen transmission and host movement to generate new insights about the role of migration in disease spillover risk. Furthermore, they add to the accumulating body of evidence across taxa that suggests that migrants and residents should be considered separately during investigations of wildlife disease ecology. Finally, our findings have applied implications for elk and brucellosis in the GYE. They suggest that managers should prioritize actions that maintain spatial separation of elk and livestock on private ranchlands during years when snowpack persists into the risk period.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Cervos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brucella abortus , Bovinos , Ecossistema
16.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(5): 340-347, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Rose Bengal test (RBT) is a commonly used simple serological test for brucellosis. We assessed brucellosis in individuals <18 years for RBT performance; duration of RBT positivity following infection; and potential factors associated with RBT seroconversion timing. METHODS: The medical files of first hospital admissions of brucellosis, 2005-2014, southern Israel, were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Overall, RBT was positive in 99% of 416 primary brucellosis admissions. The mean age was 9.8 ± 4.5 years; all patients were of Bedouin ethnicity. Of 273 patients with subsequent RBT testing, RBT remained positive in 169 cases (duration range: 0.1-122 months). Overall, 104 patients had subsequent negative RBT result (duration range: 0.9-127; median: 29.9 months). Comparing fast (<30 months) vs. slow (≥30 months) seroconversion, IgM titres ≥1:640 were more common in fast seroconversion episodes (53% vs. 23%, p = .003). Anaemia was more common in the slow seroconversion group (76% vs. 52%, p = .02). Age, gender, ethnicity, fever, arthralgia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, liver enzymes, bacteraemia and adequate treatment rates were similar. CONCLUSIONS: RBT positivity rate in first hospital visit was high. Fast negative seroconversion was associated with high IgM titres and lower anaemia rates at first presentation. These findings may assist early recognition of long-lasting brucellosis patients in endemic regions.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Rosa Bengala , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Israel , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Soroconversão
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 13, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new candidate vector vaccine against human brucellosis based on recombinant influenza viral vectors (rIVV) subtypes H5N1 expressing Brucella outer membrane protein (Omp) 16, L7/L12, Omp19 or Cu-Zn SOD proteins has been developed. This paper presents the results of the study of protection of the vaccine using on guinea pigs, including various options of administering, dose and frequency. Provided data of the novel vaccine candidate will contribute to its further movement into the preclinical stage study. METHODS: General states of guinea pigs was assessed based on behavior and dynamics of a guinea pig weight-gain test. The effectiveness of the new anti-brucellosis vector vaccine was determined by studying its protective effect after conjunctival, intranasal and sublingual administration in doses 105 EID50, 106 EID50 and 107 EID50 during prime and boost vaccinations of animals, followed by challenge with a virulent strain of B. melitensis 16 M infection. For sake of comparison, the commercial B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine was used as a control. The protective properties of vaccines were assessed by quantitation of Brucella colonization in organs and tissues of infected animals and compared to the control groups. RESULTS: It was observed a gradual increase in body weight of guinea pigs after prime and booster immunization with the vaccine using conjunctival, intranasal and sublingual routes of administration, as well as after using various doses of vaccine. The most optimal way of using the vaccine has been established: double intranasal immunization of guinea pigs at a dose of 106 EID50, which provides 80% protection of guinea pigs from B. melitensis 16 M infection (P < 0.05), which is comparable to the results of the effectiveness of the commercial B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: We developed effective human vaccine candidate against brucellosis and developed its immunization protocol in guinea pig model. We believe that because of these studies, the proposed vaccine has achieved the best level of protection, which in turn provides a basis for its further promotion.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Vacina contra Brucelose/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Brucelose/genética , Brucella melitensis/imunologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Administração Intranasal , Administração Oftálmica , Administração Sublingual , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Peso Corporal , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucella melitensis/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Cobaias , Humanos , Imunização Secundária
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008977, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411798

RESUMO

Hospitals in Kenya continue to use the Febrile Antigen Brucella Agglutination Test (FBAT) to diagnose brucellosis, despite reports showing its inadequacy. This study generated hospital-based evidence on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the FBAT, compared to the Rose Bengal Test (RBT).Twelve hospitals in western Kenya stored patient serum samples that were tested for brucellosis using the FBAT, and these were later re-tested using the RBT. Data on the running time and cost of the FBAT, and the treatment prescribed for brucellosis, were collected. The cost-effectiveness of the two tests, defined as the cost in US Dollars ($) per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted, was determined, and a basic sensitivity analysis was run to identify the most influential parameters. Over a 6-month period, 180 patient serum samples that were tested with FBAT at the hospitals were later re-tested with RBT at the field laboratory. Of these 24 (13.3%) and 3 (1.7%) tested positive with FBAT and RBT, respectively. The agreement between the FBAT and RBT was slight (Kappa = 0.12). Treatment prescribed following FBAT positivity varied between hospitals, and only one hospital prescribed a standardized therapy regimen. The mean $/DALY averted when using the FBAT and RBT were $2,065 (95% CI $481-$6,736) and $304 (95% CI $126-$604), respectively. Brucellosis prevalence was the most influential parameter in the cost-effectiveness of both tests. Extrapolation to the national level suggested that an estimated $338,891 (95% CI $47,000-$1,149,000) per year is currently spent unnecessarily treating those falsely testing positive by FBAT. These findings highlight the potential for misdiagnosis using the FBAT. Furthermore, the RBT is cost-effective, and could be considered as the mainstay screening test for human brucellosis in this setting. Lastly, the treatment regimens must be harmonized to ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics for treatment.


Assuntos
Testes de Aglutinação/economia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucelose/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hospitais , Humanos , Rosa Bengala
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(1): 160-163, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503714

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a global public health problem, and the research on its diagnostic methods is still one of the hot fields. This article compares the diagnostic criteria of brucellosis of China, the United States and World Health Organization. The main detection methods of brucellosis in China and the current progress of molecular biological detection are described,and the characteristics of different diagnostic methods are compared. Although a relatively complete diagnostic system has been established in China, up to now, there is still no simple and rapid detection method with high sensitivity and specificity, indicating that further studies are needed to provide scientific evidence for the improvement of the diagnosis criteria of brucellosis in China.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos
20.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(1): 101043, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies are important tools to assess the diversity of Brucella isolates and to estimate their epidemiological relationship among isolates from different geographical origins. In this study the MLVA16 (multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis based on 16 loci) was employed to investigate the diversity of Brucella spp. Isolated from humans and animals for epidemiological purposes and to determine the most common Brucella genotypes in Iran. METHODS: We designed a molecular-based study to evaluate the potential reservoirs of human brucellosis. After isolation and identification of 54 Brucella spp human and animal specimens from three regions of Iran, bacterial genomic DNA was extracted MLVA with three panel was used for the genotyping of isolates. The size of PCR products were analyzed and converted to repeat unit numbers using a published allele numbering system and data set was imported into Bionumerics. RESULTS: Three isolates (5.55%) were identified as Brucella abortus and 51 (94.44%) as Brucella melitensis. Two isolates of Brucella abortus were from humans and one from an animal. Thirty-four Brucella melitensis isolates were from humans and 17 from animals. Using MLVA16-genotyping, 54 isolates with genetic similarity coefficient of 80% were divided into 46 genotypes and 22 genotypes were represented by a single isolate, while 4, 2, 1 and 2 genotypes were represented by 2, 3, 4 and 7 isolates, respectively. The most prevalent genotype was represented by 14 isolates. There were two other frequent genotypes each represented by seven isolates, among which only one was restricted to a geographic region. Discriminatory power for each locus was determined in this study and panel 2B shows the high discretionary power [Bruce04 (0.837), Bruce30 (0.806), Bruce 09 (0.787), Bruce 07 (0.772), Bruce16 (0.766)]. CONCLUSION: MLVA16 analysis of 54 Brucella isolates showed high level polymorphism in their genotypes. Only two genotypes, each observed in seven isolates, were related to one another and only one of these genotypes were found in to two separate regions.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Animais , Brucella melitensis/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Repetições Minissatélites/genética
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