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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3877-3886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581535

RESUMO

Introduction: Vaccine formulation with appropriate adjuvants is an attractive approach to develop protective immunity against pathogens. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNs) are considered as ideal adjuvants and delivery systems because of their great potential for enhancing immune responses. In the current study, we have designed nanoparticle-based vaccine candidates to induce immune responses and protection against B. melitensis and B. abortus. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, we used three Brucella antigens (FliC, 7α-HSDH, BhuA) and two multi-epitopes (poly B and poly T) absorbed by CaPNs. The efficacy of each formulation was evaluated by measuring humoral, cellular and protective responses in immunized mice. Results: The CaPNs showed an average size of about 90 nm with spherical shape and smooth surface. The CaPNs-adsorbed proteins displayed significant increase in cellular and humoral immune responses compared to the control groups. In addition, our results showed increased ratio of specific IgG2a (associated with Th1) to specific IgG1 (associated with Th2). Also, immunized mice with different vaccine candidate formulations were protected against B. melitensis 16M and B. abortus 544, and showed same levels of protection as commercial vaccines (B. melitensis Rev.1 and B. abortus RB51) except for BhuA-CaPNs. Discussion: Our data support the hypothesis that these antigens absorbed with CaPNs could be effective vaccine candidates against B. melitensis and B. abortus.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Vacina contra Brucelose/química , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Nanopartículas/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucella melitensis/imunologia , Brucelose/imunologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of statistical models for the accurate forecast and timely determination of the outbreak of infectious diseases is very important for the healthcare system. Thus, this study was conducted to assess and compare the performance of four machine-learning methods in modeling and forecasting brucellosis time series data based on climatic parameters. METHODS: In this cohort study, human brucellosis cases and climatic parameters were analyzed on a monthly basis for the Qazvin province-located in northwestern Iran- over a period of 9 years (2010-2018). The data were classified into two subsets of education (80%) and testing (20%). Artificial neural network methods (radial basis function and multilayer perceptron), support vector machine and random forest were fitted to each set. Performance analysis of the models were done using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Root Error (MARE), and R2 criteria. RESULTS: The incidence rate of the brucellosis in Qazvin province was 27.43 per 100,000 during 2010-2019. Based on our results, the values of the RMSE (0.22), MAE (0.175), MARE (0.007) criteria were smaller for the multilayer perceptron neural network than their values in the other three models. Moreover, the R2 (0.99) value was bigger in this model. Therefore, the multilayer perceptron neural network exhibited better performance in forecasting the studied data. The average wind speed and mean temperature were the most effective climatic parameters in the incidence of this disease. CONCLUSIONS: The multilayer perceptron neural network can be used as an effective method in detecting the behavioral trend of brucellosis over time. Nevertheless, further studies focusing on the application and comparison of these methods are needed to detect the most appropriate forecast method for this disease.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Previsões/métodos , Mineração de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008164, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392223

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of remarkable importance worldwide. The focus of this systematic review was to investigate occupational brucellosis and to identify the main infection risks for each group exposed to the pathogen. Seven databases were used to identify papers related to occupational brucellosis: CABI, Cochrane, Pubmed, Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The search resulted in 6123 studies, of which 63 were selected using the quality assessment tools guided from National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Case Report Guidelines (CARE). Five different job-related groups were considered greatly exposed to the disease: rural workers, abattoir workers, veterinarians and veterinary assistants, laboratory workers and hunters. The main risk factors and exposure sources involved in the occupational infection observed from the analysis of the articles were direct contact with animal fluids, failure to comply with the use of personal protective equipment, accidental exposure to live attenuated anti-brucellosis vaccines and non-compliance with biosafety standards. Brucella species frequently isolated from job-related infection were Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis and Brucella canis. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed using the case-control studies and demonstrated that animal breeders, laboratory workers and abattoir workers have 3.47 [95% confidence interval (CI); 1.47-8.19] times more chance to become infected with Brucella spp. than others individuals that have no contact with the possible sources of infection. This systematic review improved the understanding of the epidemiology of brucellosis as an occupational disease. Rural workers, abattoir workers, veterinarians, laboratory workers and hunters were the groups more exposed to occupational Brucella spp. infection. Moreover, it was observed that the lack of knowledge about brucellosis among frequently exposed professionals, in addition to some behaviors, such as negligence in the use of individual and collective protective measures, increases the probability of infection.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Brucella/genética , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/microbiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008071, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437346

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a bacterial endemic zoonotic disease of global significance with detrimental impacts on public health and food animal production. It is caused by Brucella spp., an expanding group of pathogens able to infect various host species. Bovines and small ruminants, which excrete the bacteria in milk and in reproductive discharges, are major sources of infection for humans and other animals. Contact with contaminated animals and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products are the main routes for human infection. In spite of the considerable progress of knowledge gained and success achieved in brucellosis control in the developed world, this disease continues to be an important burden in the Middle East (ME). Common risk factors implicated in the difficulty and complexity of brucellosis control within the region include (1) social and political instabilities; (2) insufficient resources and infrastructure for appropriate diagnosis, reporting, and implementation of control measures; (3) variation of livestock husbandry systems and their commingling with other livestock and wildlife; and (4) traditional cultural practices, including consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. Development of core interdisciplinary competencies is required for a true One Health-based endeavor against the disease. National awareness and educational programs addressing all population sectors from consumers to decision-makers seem to be the next logical, sustainable, and economically viable approach toward improving disease status in this region. In the present review, we describe the current situation of brucellosis in the ME, focusing on the major limitations and shortcomings regarding disease control. We propose a regional approach toward public awareness of brucellosis as the first step in mitigating the disease and discuss the potential benefits, and components of such a strategy, which can further be used as a model for other endemic zoonotic diseases.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Animais , Brucella/classificação , Brucella/genética , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vaccination is the most important tool for controlling brucellosis, but currently there is no vaccine available for canine brucellosis, which is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by Brucella canis. This study aimed to evaluate protection and immune response induced by Brucella ovis ΔabcBA (BoΔabcBA) encapsulated with alginate against the challenge with Brucella canis in mice and to assess the safety of this strain for dogs. METHODS: Intracellular growth of the vaccine strain BoΔabcBA was assessed in canine and ovine macrophages. Protection induced by BoΔabcBA against virulent Brucella canis was evaluated in the mouse model. Safety of the vaccine strain BoΔabcBA was assessed in experimentally inoculated dogs. RESULTS: Wild type B. ovis and B. canis had similar internalization and intracellular multiplication profiles in both canine and ovine macrophages. The BoΔabcBA strain had an attenuated phenotype in both canine and ovine macrophages. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alginate-encapsulated BoΔabcBA (108 CFU) induced lymphocyte proliferation, production of IL-10 and IFN-γ, and protected against experimental challenge with B. canis. Dogs immunized with alginate-encapsulated BoΔabcBA (109 CFU) seroconverted, and had no hematologic, biochemical or clinical changes. Furthermore, BoΔabcBA was not detected by isolation or PCR performed using blood, semen, urine samples or vaginal swabs at any time point over the course of this study. BoΔabcBA was isolated from lymph nodes near to the site of inoculation in two dogs at 22 weeks post immunization. CONCLUSION: Encapsulated BoΔabcBA protected mice against experimental B. canis infection, and it is safe for dogs. Therefore, B. ovis ΔabcBA has potential as a vaccine candidate for canine brucellosis prevention.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucella ovis/genética , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Alginatos/química , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Brucella canis/patogenicidade , Brucella ovis/imunologia , Brucella ovis/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunização , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutação , Ovinos
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(3): 389-394, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294841

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the current status of duplicated reporting of brucellosis in China during 2005-2017, to understand the impact of duplicated reporting on the incidence of brucellosis, analyze the possible causes of duplicated reporting, and put forward propose solutions to further improve the brucellosis surveillance data quality. Methods: Data were from brucellosis case reporting cards in National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS), Excel 2010 software was used to establish the database, the duplicated reporting was identified by using Spark DataFrame aggregation analysis in Python 3.2. Results: During 2005-2017, a total of 499 577 cases of brucellosis were reported, but the duplicated reporting rate was 75.76/10 000 (3 785/499 577). The duplicated reporting rate in same year was 37.21/10 000 (1 859/499 577), the duplicated reporting rate in other year was 39.87/10 000 (1 992/499 577) and the overall duplicated reporting rate increased year by year. The duplicated reporting rate in same institution was 33.59% (1 271/3 785) and the duplicated reporting rate by other institutions was 66.41% (2 514/3 785). Hospitals had the highest number of duplicated reporting (2 757), and community healthcare centers had the highest of duplicated reporting rate (281.27/10 000) (123/4 373). The reported incidence of brucellosis was 2.926 4/100 000 in 2017, the corrected incidence was 2.844 8/100 000 after removing the duplicated reporting, which was the maximum decrease from 2005 to 2017, the corrected incidence decreased by 2.79%. From 2005 to 2017, the average reported incidence of brucellosis in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region was 14.712 0/100 000, and the corrected incidence was 14.060 0/100 000 after removing the duplicate reporting, with a decrease by 4.43%, the biggest decline in China. The average reported incidence of brucellosis in Ningxia Hui autonomous region was 13.987 1/100 000, and the corrected incidence of brucellosis was 13.662 2/100 000, with a decrease of 2.32%, ranking second in China. The reasons for duplicated reporting of brucellosis included repeated medical care seeking in same or different medical institutions in same year or other year, including the repeated medical care seeking in other areas. Conclusions: During 2005-2017, the number of duplicated reporting of brucellosis cases was on the rise in China. Hospital and community health service centers had highest case number and rate of duplicate reporting respectively, the duplicated reporting was mainly caused by re-reporting by other institutions or in other years. The duplicated reporting of brucellosis had greatly affected the accuracy of surveillance data of brucellosis in some provinces, such as Xinjiang and Ningxia. It is recommended to further strengthen brucellosis reporting management, improve data quality of NNDRS.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(3): 412-416, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294845

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the discovery of human brucellosis cases in new affected counties in Sichuan province, 2015-2017, and provide evidences for prevention and control of human brucellosis. Methods: The incidence data and outbreak data of human brucellosis in Sichuan were collected from Chinese Infectious Disease Surveillance Reporting System, and face to face interview, telephone interview and on-line survey were conducted to collect the case information, such as epidemiological characteristics, medical care seeking. Results: The incidence of human brucellosis in Sichuan has increased obviously since 2013, and 103 counties reported human brucellosis cases for the first time. A total of 23 cases of human brucellosis were investigated, and the common symptoms of the cases was fever, accounting for 91.30% (21/23). The cases mainly sought medical care in hospitals under county-level for the first time, accounting for 73.91% (17/23), and the misdiagnosis rate was 91.30% at the first diagnosis (21/23). The median interval between onset and diagnosis was 52 days, and the longest one was 142 days. Only 4.35% (1/23) cases knew human brucellosis, and when they contacted with suspected livestock, the use rate of protective clothing was 30.43% (7/23), the use rate of gloves was 8.70% (2/23), the use rate of mask was 4.35% (1/23), and the rate of washing hands with disinfectant after contact with livestock was 4.35% (1/23). Goat was suspected to be the infection source of all the cases, and 34.75% (8/23) of the cases were from Gansu, Qinghai and other provinces. The overall awareness rate of human brucellosis in the doctors was 34.58% (102/295), and the training rate was 58.31% (172/295). Only 33.33% (11/33) of the hospitals could perform laboratory diagnosis of human brucellosis and 34.78% (8/23) of county CDCs could carry out laboratory test of human brucellosis. Conclusions: The prevention and control of human brucellosis is facing challenge in Sichuan. The misdiagnosis rate was very high in newly affected counties, and the diagnosis were delayed obviously. The awareness of human brucellosis was low in the cases, and their awareness of self-protection was poor. The awareness rate about human brucellosis in doctors was low and they need more training; the capacity of brucellosis laboratory diagnosis in hospitals and CDCs at county-level should be improved.


Assuntos
Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Médicos/psicologia
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1007979, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298382

RESUMO

Brucella species are facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria relevant to animal and human health. Their ability to establish an intracellular niche and subvert host cell pathways to their advantage depends on the delivery of bacterial effector proteins through a type IV secretion system. Brucella Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR)-domain-containing proteins BtpA (also known as TcpB) and BtpB are among such effectors. Although divergent in primary sequence, they interfere with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to inhibit the innate immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms implicated still remain unclear. To gain insight into the functions of BtpA and BtpB, we expressed them in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic cell model. We found that both effectors were cytotoxic and that their respective TIR domains were necessary and sufficient for yeast growth inhibition. Growth arrest was concomitant with actin depolymerization, endocytic block and a general decrease in kinase activity in the cell, suggesting a failure in energetic metabolism. Indeed, levels of ATP and NAD+ were low in yeast cells expressing BtpA and BtpB TIR domains, consistent with the recently described enzymatic activity of some TIR domains as NAD+ hydrolases. In human epithelial cells, both BtpA and BtpB expression reduced intracellular total NAD levels. In infected cells, both BtpA and BtpB contributed to reduction of total NAD, indicating that their NAD+ hydrolase functions are active intracellularly during infection. Overall, combining the yeast model together with mammalian cells and infection studies our results show that BtpA and BtpB modulate energy metabolism in host cells through NAD+ hydrolysis, assigning a novel role for these TIR domain-containing effectors in Brucella pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Brucella abortus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brucelose/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Brucella abortus/metabolismo , Brucelose/microbiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Conformação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008235, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287327

RESUMO

Brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus, is a major disease of cattle and humans worldwide distributed. Eradication and control of the disease has been difficult in Central and South America, Central Asia, the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Epidemiological strategies combined with phylogenetic methods provide the high-resolution power needed to study relationships between surveillance data and pathogen population dynamics, using genetic diversity and spatiotemporal distributions. This information is crucial for prevention and control of disease spreading at a local and worldwide level. In Costa Rica (CR), the disease was first reported at the beginning of the 20th century and has not been controlled despite many efforts. We characterized 188 B. abortus isolates from CR recovered from cattle, humans and water buffalo, from 2003 to 2018, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed in 95 of them. They were also assessed based on geographic origin, date of introduction, and phylogenetic associations in a worldwide and national context. Our results show circulation of five B. abortus lineages (I to V) in CR, phylogenetically related to isolates from the United States, United Kingdom, and South America. Lineage I was dominant and probably introduced at the end of the 19th century. Lineage II, represented by a single isolate from a water buffalo, clustered with a Colombian sample, and was likely introduced after 1845. Lineages III and IV were likely introduced during the early 2000s. Fourteen isolates from humans were found within the same lineage (lineage I) regardless of their geographic origin within the country. The main CR lineages, introduced more than 100 years ago, are widely spread throughout the country, in contrast to new introductions that seemed to be more geographically restricted. Following the brucellosis prevalence and the farming practices of several middle- and low-income countries, similar scenarios could be found in other regions worldwide.


Assuntos
Brucella abortus/classificação , Brucella abortus/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/microbiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Genótipo , Animais , Brucella abortus/genética , Búfalos , Bovinos , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Prevalência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008108, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236091

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease globally, with particularly high burdens in pastoral settings. While the zoonotic transmission routes for Brucella spp. are well known, the relative importance of animal contact, food-handling and consumption practices can vary. Understanding the local epidemiology of human brucellosis is important for directing veterinary and public health interventions, as well as for informing clinical diagnostic decision making. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Ijara District Hospital, north-eastern Kenya. A total of 386 individuals seeking care and reporting symptoms of febrile illness were recruited in 2011. Samples were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. using a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and results compared to those from the test for brucellosis used at Ijara District Hospital, the febrile Brucella plate agglutination test (FBAT). A questionnaire was administered to all participants and risk factors for brucellosis identified using logistic regression with an information theoretic (IT) approach and least absolute shrinkage and selection (LASSO). Sixty individuals were RT-PCR positive, resulting in a prevalence of probable brucellosis of 15.4% (95% CI 12.0-19.5). The IT and LASSO approaches both identified consuming purchased milk as strongly associated with elevated risk and boiling milk before consumption strongly associated with reduced risk. There was no evidence that livestock keepers were at different risk of brucellosis than non-livestock keepers. The FBAT had poor diagnostic performance when compared to RT-PCR, with an estimated sensitivity of 36.6% (95% CI 24.6-50.1) and specificity of 69.3% (95% CI 64.0-74.3). Brucellosis is an important cause of febrile illness in north-eastern Kenya. Promotion of pasteurisation of milk in the marketing chain and health messages encouraging the boiling of raw milk before consumption could be expected to lead to large reductions in the incidence of brucellosis in Ijara. This study supports the growing evidence that the FBAT performs very poorly in the diagnosis of brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucella/genética , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gado , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/microbiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(1): 49-58, 20200401.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095643

RESUMO

La brucelosis es una zoonosis que en humanos está relacionada íntimamente con la enfermedad en animales domésticos y de interés económico. Presenta 2 patrones: urbano-alimentario (consumo de leche y quesos no pasteurizados) y el rural-laboral (exposición profesional al ganado infectado). El objetivo consistió en conocer las características epidemiológicas y las técnicas que arriban al diagnóstico de Brucelosis, en un consultorio del Instituto de Medicina Tropical, del 2017 al 2019. Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo y corte transverso. Se realizó el análisis de 44 pacientes con diagnóstico de Brucelosis. El 25 % de los pacientes requirieron internación. El rango de edad estuvo entre 7 a 61 años, con una media de 29 años, y una moda de 22. Las puertas de entrada fueron: por contacto con cabras positivas en el campo de práctica, faenadores, veterinarios, vacunadores, y por ingesta de leche sin pasteurizar. Las muestras serológicas por reacción de Huddleson fueron positivas a bajas diluciones; Aglutinación en tubo: 31 muestras positivas; aglutinación con 2 mercaptoetanol: 11 muestras positivas. Se llegó a la identificación de cepas Brucella melitensis biotipo 1: en 13 pacientes. Nuestro estudio indica la presencia de brucelosis humana, fundamentalmente por contacto directo debido a razones profesionales y /o laborales. La vigencia de Brucelosis deriva de una situación endémica en el ganado, y por tanto se deberán intensificar las medidas del saneamiento del ganado (vacunación) y la educación de la población de riesgo.


Brucellosis is a zoonosis in humans that is closely related to the disease in domestic and of economic interest- animals. It presents 2 main patterns: urban-alimentary (for consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheeses) and the rural-occupational (for professional exposure to infected cattle). The objective was to know the frequency of cases and the different laboratory techniques that arrives to the diagnosis of Brucellosis, in the Tropical Medicine Institute (IMT by its acronym in Spanish) during the period of 2017 to 2019. It has been made a descriptive and cross-sectional investigation. It was based on the analysis of 44 patients diagnosed with Brucellosis. 25% of the patients (11) required hospitalization. The age range was between 7 to 61 years, with a mean of 29 years old and a mode of 22. The portals of entry were: by contact with positive goats in the field of practice, slaughterhouses, veterinarians, vaccinators, and consume of unpasteurized milk. The serological samples by Huddleson reaction were positive with low dilutions; tube agglutination: 31 positive samples; agglutination with 2 mercaptoethanol: 11 positive samples. Biotype 1 of Brucella melitensis: identified in 13 patients. Our study indicates the existence of human brucellosis, mainly through direct contact due to professional and/or occupational reasons. This incidence must derive from an endemic situation in cattle, and therefore the measures of sanitation of cattle (vaccination) and education of the population at risk should be intensified


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 63, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a quite normal zoonotic infection, which is caused by immediate contact with animals infected with Brucella or its products. IL-10 (- 1082 G/A, - 819 C/T, - 592C/A) and IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphisms have a great relationship with IL-10 and IL-6 production, which brings about Brucellosis pathogenesis and development. So far, the results of published literatures were controversial. Now, we perform a meta-analysis in different ethnic populations to get a more precise estimate of above polymorphisms with Brucellosis susceptibility. METHODS: Both OR and corresponding 95%CI were enrolled to make an assessment of the association strength through extracting genotyping frequency of cases and controls. The χ2-test based Q-statistic and I2 statistics were applied. If there was no evident heterogeneity, the fixed-effects model would be applied. If not, the random-effects model would be used. RESULTS: The significant associations were only found in Asian population of - 819 loci under three genetic models as follows: (Allele model: OR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.44-0.82, P = 0.001), (homozygote comparison: OR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.09-0.62, P = 0.003), (recessive genetic model: OR = 0.22, 95%CI = 0.05-0.91, P = 0.036). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IL-10 - 819 loci polymorphism contributes no risk to Caucasian population but may be associated with decreased risk in Asian population. And IL-10 -1082 G/A, 592 loci and IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism are not associated with Brucellosis risk.


Assuntos
Brucelose/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Brucelose/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Aust Vet J ; 98(5): 216-221, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucella spp. are globally important zoonotic bacteria, which have historically been considered pathogens of warm-blooded species. More recently, new strains of Brucella have been cultured from a broader range of animals including terrestrial and marine mammals and amphibians. These new isolates are classified as 'atypical' brucellae and differ from the classical stains by host tropism, phenotypic traits or phylogenetic distance. Atypical Brucella have previously been described as the cause of localised and systemic infection in frogs. CASE REPORT: This report describes the clinical features, pathology, microbiology and molecular characteristics of persistent Brucella spp. infection in two Australian green tree frogs and its isolation in an additional in-contact, clinically well frog. CONCLUSION: The two frogs that died had severe nephritis attributed to brucellosis with disseminated infection identified in one animal.


Assuntos
Brucella/genética , Brucelose/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , DNA Bacteriano , Filogenia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 249, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the considerable efforts made to address the issue of brucellosis worldwide, its prevalence in dairy products continues to be difficult to estimate and represents a key public health issue around the world today. The aim of the present study was to better understand the epidemiology of this disease in mainland China. We set out to investigate the yearly spatial distribution and possible hotspots of the disease. METHODS: Human brucellosis data from mainland China between 2007 and 2016 were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. A geographic information system ArcGIS10.3 (ESRI, Redlands) was used to identify potential changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of human brucellosis in mainland China during the study period. These distributions were evaluated using three-dimensional trend analysis and spatial autocorrelation analyse. A gravity-center was used to analyse the migration track of human brucellosis. RESULTS: A total of 399,578 cases of human brucellosis were reported during the 10-year study period. The monthly incidence of brucellosis in China demonstrates clear seasonality. Spring and summer are the peak seasons, while May is the peak month for brucellosis. Three-dimensional trend analysis suggests that brucellosis is on the rise from south to north, and that the epidemic situation in northern China is more severe. Between 2007 and 2016, the overall migration distance of the brucellosis incidence gravity-center was 906.43 km, and the direction was southwest. However, the overall gravity center of brucellosis was still in the northern part of China. In the global autocorrelation analysis, brucellosis in China demonstrated a non-random distribution between 2013 and 2014, with spatial autocorrelation (Z > 1.96, P < 0.05) and a clustering trend, while no clustering trend was found from 2007 to 2012 or from 2015 to 2016. In the local autocorrelation analysis, a Low-Low cluster phenomenon was found in the south of China in 2013 and 2014. CONCLUSION: Human brucellosis remains a widespread challenge, particularly in northern China. The hotspots highlight potential high-risk areas which may require special plans and resources for monitoring and controlling the disease.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Epidemias , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Incidência , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a ubiquitous zoonotic disease globally. It is endemic among bovines, sheep, and goats in Albania. The national control and eradication programs for brucellosis has been applied on sheep and goat farms as well as large dairy cattle farms, i.e., those with more than ten milking cows. The current study aims at estimating the herd and average individual animal prevalence of brucellosis in the national beef cattle herds, the missing information that was essential to propose the most appropriate control measures for this sub-population. Rose Bengal Test (RBT), Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA), and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were used as serological tests and classical bacteriology for isolation. Results were also used to investigate the difference in sensitivity between the assays used. METHODOLOGY: In total, 655 animals from 38 beef cattle herds from six southern districts of Albania were sampled. Sera were tested using RBT, FPA, and ELISA. Fifteen positive cows and a bull from eight high-prevalence positive herds were slaughtered, and particular tissue samples were collected for bacteriology. RESULTS: The overall herd seroprevalence in the tested beef cattle population was 55%, while the overall average within-herd prevalence (including only positive herds) was 38.3%, 42.7%, and 45.6% determined by the RBT, ELISA, and FPA, respectively. FPA was used for the first time in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Albania, and its sensitivity was higher than RBT and ELISA. Three B. abortus strains were identified, two from the supra-mammary lymph node of two cows and one from the epididymis of a seropositive bull. CONCLUSION: Brucellosis was highly prevalent in beef cattle in the southern part of Albania, and B. abortus was isolated from this subpopulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first statistically based survey of bovine brucellosis in beef herds in Albania. Using the FPA in parallel with other serological tests improved overall diagnostic sensitivity. Test and slaughter policy is not a rational approach for the control of brucellosis in beef cattle in Albania, and vaccination is only applicable, including strict control of the movement of animals.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos/microbiologia , Albânia/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Bovinos/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229863, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150564

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both humans and animals. To date, laboratory surveillance is still essentially based on the traditional MLVA-16 methodology and the associated epidemiological information is frequently scarce. Our goal was to contribute to the improvement of Brucella spp. surveillance through the implementation of a whole genome sequencing (WGS) approach. We created a curated ready-to-use species-specific wgMLST scheme enrolling a panel of 2656 targets (http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3575026) and used this schema to perform a retrospective analysis of the genetic relatedness among B. melitensis strains causing human infection in Portugal (a country where brucellosis is an endemic disease) from 2010 to 2018. The strains showed a phylogenetic clustering within genotype II (25 out of 36) and IV (4 out of 36), and shared clades with strains isolated from countries with which Portugal has intense food trading, tourism and similar eating habits, such as Spain, Italy and Greece. In addition, our results point to the identification of strong associations between B. melitensis strains, likely underlying missed "outbreaks" as 22 out of the 36 strains showed genetic linkage with others. In fact, the applied gene-by-gene approach grouped these strains into six genetic clusters each one containing putative epidemiological links. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed in order to define the appropriate range of cut-offs (probable non-static cut-offs) that best illustrate the association between genetic linkage and epidemiological information and may serve as alerts for the health authorities. The release of this freely available and scalable schema contributes to the required technological transition for laboratorial surveillance of brucellosis and will facilitate the assessment of ongoing and future outbreaks in order to prevent the transmission spread.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis/genética , Brucelose/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(2): 142-147, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135615

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of patients with Brucella endocarditis. Methods: The clinical data of 9 patients with Brucella endocarditis admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital from October 2008 to August 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Through the electronic medical record system of the hospital. Through assessing the electronic medical record system of the hospital, demographic data, main symptoms, vital signs, blood culture, Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test, echocardiography, electrocardiogram, chest imaging and other clinical data of included patients were inquired and recorded. Patients were followed up by telephone for medication, operation and outcome. Results: The 9 patients were all Han nationality, aged from 25 to 66 years, 7 out of 9 patients were male, and they came from Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Beijing. Of the 9 patients, 5 were farmers, 2 were self-employed, 1 was a technician, and 1 was unemployed. Of the 9 cases, 8 had a history of close contact with cattle and sheep, and 5 had a history of eating beef and mutton. Rose-Bengal Plate Agglutination Test and blood culture were positive in all 9 patients. Aortic valve was involved in 7 out of 9 patients, mitral and tricuspid valve was involved in 1 patient, respectively, and aortic dissection occurred in 1 patient. Condition of 1 patient rapidly deteriorated after admission and finally died during hospitalization despite antibiotic therapy, the remaining patients received long-term antibiotic treatment. A total of 7 patients who underwent valve replacement were followed up. One patient died of cerebral hemorrhage 6 months after operation, and the remaining 6 patients recovered well after valve replacement. Heart failure occurred in all 9 patients, and pericardial effusion occurred in 8 patients. Electrocardiogram showed low voltage of the QRS complex in the limb in 3 cases and poor R-wave progression in V(1)-V(3) lead in 2 cases, and sinus tachycardia in 2 cases. One patient developed non-specific ST-T abnormalities. All patients had fever, 7 patients complained of weakness, and 6 patients complained of palpitations. Among the 9 patients, 7 cases had anemia, 7 patients had pneumonia, 6 had bilateral pleural effusion, 4 had thrombocytopenia. Creatinine was above normal in 4 patients, urine protein was positive in 3 patients, Delta Bilirubin was higher in 3 cases. Conclusions: Patients with Brucella endocarditis often suffer from heart failure and have severe complications. Adequate antibiotic therapy in combination with valve replacement is effective for the treatment of patients with Brucella endocarditis.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Endocardite Bacteriana , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , China , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ovinos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 202, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted from infected animals to humans, osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a devastating disease that affects patients' life with pain, dysfunction of walking and always lead to total hip arthroplasty (THA). We presented a case of ONFH which was very likely due to the infection of Brucella spp. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 49 years-old male who was a herder living in Inner Mongolia, the northern part of China. He first showed recurrent fever then presented bilateral hip pain, which was confirmed to be brucellosis and ONFH on the right side of the hip. He was admitted to our center showed bilateral ONFH with the restrictive movement of both hips. We performed THA after it was confirmed that the infection has been cured. The patient can walk with the help of the walker the second day after surgery. CONCLUSION: Brucellosis is still a common epidemic disease worldwide, which can lead to many complications, brucellosis arthritis is the most common complication of Brucellosis. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head can also present in the patients with brucellosis. All the patients presented with recurrent fever and hip pain, who is from the epidemic region, should be taken both septic arthritis and ONFH into consideration.


Assuntos
Brucelose/diagnóstico , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , China , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rifampina/uso terapêutico
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