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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0261595, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413520

RESUMO

Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Rwanda, although, there is a paucity of documented evidence about the disease in slaughtered cattle. A cross-sectional study was conducted in slaughtered cattle (n = 300) to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Corresponding tissues were cultured onto a modified Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria (CITA) selective medium and analysed for Brucella spp. using the 16S-23S ribosomal interspacer region (ITS), AMOS, and Bruce-ladder PCR assays. The seroprevalence was 20.7% (62/300) with RBT, 2.9% (8/300) with i-ELISA, and 2.9% (8/300) using both tests in series. Brucella-specific 16S-23S ribosomal DNA interspace region (ITS) PCR detected Brucella DNA in 5.6% (17/300; Brucella culture prevalence). AMOS-PCR assay identified mixed B. abortus and B. melitensis (n = 3), B. abortus (n = 3) and B. melitensis (n = 5) while Bruce-ladder PCR also identified B. abortus (n = 5) and B. melitensis (n = 6). The gold standard culture method combined with PCR confirmation identified 5.6% Brucella cultures and this culture prevalence is higher than the more sensitive seroprevalence of 2.9%. This emphasizes the need to validate the serological tests in Rwanda. The mixed infection caused by B. abortus and B. melitensis in slaughtered cattle indicates cross-infection and poses a risk of exposure potential to abattoir workers. It is essential to urgently strengthen a coordinated national bovine brucellosis vaccination and initiate a test-and-slaughter program that is not presently applicable in Rwanda.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose Bovina , Brucelose , Bovinos , Animais , Brucella/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Rosa Bengala
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 868, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human brucellosis has become one of the major public health problems in China, and increases atypical manifestations, such as fever of unknown origin (FUO), and misdiagnosis rates has complicated the diagnosis of brucellosis. To date, no relevant study on the relationship between brucellosis and FUO has been conducted. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 35 patients with confirmed human brucellosis and prospectively recorded their outcomes by telephone interview. The patients were admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University between January 01, 2013 and October 31, 2019. Patient data were collected from hospital medical records. RESULTS: The percentage of males was significantly higher than that of female in FUO (78.95% vs. 21.05%, P < 0.05), and 80% of the patients had a clear history of exposure to cattle and sheep. Moreover, 19 (54%) cases were hospitalized with FUO, among which the patients with epidemiological histories were significantly more than those without (P < 0.05). The incidence of toxic hepatitis in FUO patients was higher than that in non-FUO patients (89% vs. 50%, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the misdiagnosis rate was considerably higher in the FUO group than in the non-FUO group (100% vs. 63%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Brucellosis is predominantly FUO admission in a non-endemic area of China, accompanied by irregular fever and toxic hepatitis. Careful examination of the epidemiological history and timely improvement of blood and bone marrow cultures can facilitate early diagnosis and prevent misdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Bovinos , Ovinos , Animais , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/diagnóstico , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/epidemiologia , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Hospitalização
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277118, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322602

RESUMO

Brucellosis is one of the main livestock disease risks in Kazakhstan. It's been endemic there since 1930, accounting for over 1300 human cases per annum. The economic loss was 45 million USD in 2015 alone. Since 1952, Kazakhstan has implemented various control strategies with little success. One Health approaches have been suggested to tackle brucellosis, however, there is a lack of evidence for best practices to operationalise One Health in the literature, and methods for implementation are not established. The intention of this study was to introduce the One Health approach during the evaluation phase of the policy cycle. A two-day workshop was organized by the authors to familiarize participants with the evaluation methodology. Twenty-one specialists representing veterinary and public health sector, together with researchers, took part in this study. For two weeks following the workshop, first author conducted individual interviews with workshop participants to obtain individual scorings to assess knowledge integration capacity (One Health-ness). The evaluation results show that there is a lack of knowledge about the perceived damage caused by brucellosis to animal owners and other stakeholders. There is insufficient data available about farmers' practices, interests and motivations, and also data is missing for important transmission processes such as the amount of unsafe dairy consumption. The absence of such data illustrates the extent of the uncertainty to which decision-makers are exposed despite well-elaborated transmission models and supports the importance of co-producing solutions with participatory methods. The results suggest the need for broader involvement of stakeholders. Outputs of this study could help navigate the initial stages of One Health operationalization.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Brucelose/veterinária , Gado , Fazendeiros
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 351, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261738

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a significant zoonotic disease and one of the most common neglected diseases worldwide. It can infect a wide range of domestic and wild animal species. Infected animals are usually culled, causing substantial economic losses to animal owners and the country's economy in general. The disease is endemic among cattle, sheep, and goats in many countries around the Middle East and prevalent in most Gulf Cooperation Council countries, comprising a significant public health risk in the region. This study investigated the seroprevalence of brucellosis among camels in Qatar. Two hundred and forty-eight samples were collected from dromedary camels from 28 farms across the entire country. Each sample was tested for Brucella antibodies with both Rose Bengal and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only samples that tested positive by both tests were considered seropositive for brucellosis. The overall prevalence was (20.6%, 95% CI, 15.7-26.1). The association between sex and seropositivity was slightly significant (Χ2 = 4.32, P = 0.04), with higher seroprevalence in females. Camels below breeding age (i.e., < 4 years old) showed decreased seropositivity (3.4%, 95% CI, 0.1-17.8), compared to (22.8%, 95% CI, 17.4-29.0) seropositivity in camels ≥ 4 years of age, with a significant association between age groups and seropositivity (P = 0.02). Our results indicate that the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Qatar's camels is alarming, mandating more efforts to control the disease. The findings of this study will aid in selecting better effective measures to control camel brucellosis in Qatar. Further studies need to be conducted on Brucella infection among camels to determine the predisposing risk factors and the steps that should be followed to control brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças das Cabras , Feminino , Bovinos , Ovinos , Animais , Camelus , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Rosa Bengala , Catar/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Cabras , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 208: 105771, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183654

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with significant economic and public health impacts. The disease has been found in ruminants, including camels, but clinical diagnosis of camel brucellosis is difficult due to the lack of clinical signs. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the Buffered Plate Antigen Test (BPAT), Rose Bengal Test (RBT), and indirect ELISA (i-ELISA) for the diagnosis of Brucella infection in dromedary camels imported from Sudan to Egypt. The secondary objective of the study was to calculate the animal-level true prevalence of Brucella infection in imported camels. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 921 apparently healthy camels randomly selected from those imported from Sudan and kept in the quarantine stations in the Shalateen area of the Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, between June 2018 and January 2019. Serum samples were collected and analyzed using BPAT, RBT, and i-ELISA. The posterior estimates [medians and 95% Bayesian probability intervals (95% BPI)] for Se and Sp of the three serological tests were obtained using Bayesian latent class models (BLCMs). The BLCM was fitted with the assumption that the BPAT and RBT tests were conditionally dependent on the true brucellosis status of camels. All tests had comparable and high Se (>86%) and Sp (>98%). The animal-level true prevalence of Brucella infection in imported camels was 8.6% (95% BPI: 6.8 - 10.7). Based on these findings, the three assays could be used for the initial screening of Brucella infection in camels. However, the BPAT and RBT are more suitable for use in camel brucellosis control and eradication program in Egypt because of their low unit cost and fast turnaround time compared to the i-ELISA. In addition, BPAT and RBT could be performed in the field where in-vivo tests are rarely used due to logistic and management constraints.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Camelus , Animais , Rosa Bengala , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Transversais , Teorema de Bayes , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária
6.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 25(3): 411-418, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155554

RESUMO

Brucella canis infection is one of the most important causes of infertility in dogs and is a zoonosis for which no effective treatment or vaccines exist. It is not a mandatory notifiable disease. Following an increase of cases in Europe and worldwide, an investigation was performed to evaluate how much Italian and Polish veterinarians and breeders know about canine brucellosis and understand their perceptions of this infection. For this reason, two questionnaires were prepared, in Italian and Polish. Eighteen Italian and Polish veterinarians, specialists in canine reproduction, responded to the first survey and 44.4% of them affirmed having diagnosed canine brucellosis at least once in their clinical practice, and different perceptions emerged regarding the infection in the two countries. The second survey was completed by 145 Italian and Polish breeders; the disease was completely unknown to 22.8% of them, whereas 2.1% had diagnosed infection by B. canis in their kennels. In conclusion, knowledge of B. canis infection differs between these countries, with extremes ranging from diagnosed cases to complete underestimation of the presence of the problem. However, based on international data and reporting of a recent large outbreak in Italy, awareness of this contagious infectious disease and its management must be increased.


Assuntos
Brucella canis , Brucelose , Doenças do Cão , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Brucelose/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Polônia
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2544-2552, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178040

RESUMO

The northern areas of China are traditional endemic regions for brucellosis in both animals and humans, while occasional outbreaks of brucellosis have been observed in neglected southern provinces. On 16 December 2020, Chongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CQCDC) received a report of 15 Brucella seropositive employees in a biological products company. The CQCDC and the local health administrative department launched an investigation that included identification of cases, laboratory testing of samples, and employees' interview to identify the cause of this incident. A case-control study was implemented to compare high-risk factors between cases and serology-negative personals. Human and animal serum samples and environmental swabs were collected for testing. A total of 61 recessive infectors were found with an infection rate of 43.57% (61/140). Fisher's exact test showed that there were significant differences in Brucella infection rates among different post classifications (p = 0.02), working places (p = 0.007), and buildings (p < 0.0001). Case-control study showed that working in vaccine production workshop was independently associated with an increased risk of infection (odds ratio (OR): 2.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-5.19). The positive detection rate was 88.06% (59/67) for production environment and 16.67% (2/12) for external environment. The investigation indicated that close contact with biological products and aerosol were the potential transmission routes of this outbreak under the condition of insufficient personal protection and disinfection. Our study provides new epidemiological evidence for a more detailed understanding of occupational infections with live attenuated Brucella vaccine.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Vacina contra Brucelose , Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Humanos , Brucella/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , China/epidemiologia , Aerossóis
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 34(6): 964-967, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127840

RESUMO

We conducted a cross-sectional serologic study at Kampala City abattoir in Uganda on 287 small ruminants (221 goats and 66 sheep) to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis. The samples were tested using a modified rose bengal test (mRBT) and an indirect ELISA (iELISA). Small ruminant Brucella spp. seropositivity was 18 of 287 (6.3%) by mRBT and 19 of 287 (6.6%) by iELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis by mRBT was non-significantly higher in goats (17 of 221; 7.7%) than in sheep (1 of 66, 1.5%; p = 0.069), and also non-significantly higher by the iELISA in goats (18 of 221; 8.1%) than in sheep (1 of 66, 1.5%; p = 0.057). Brucellosis in slaughtered goats and sheep is a public health hazard to abattoir workers and consumers that calls for control and eradication measures at the farm level, given that testing is not carried out routinely at slaughter points.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ovinos , Animais , Cabras , Matadouros , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Rosa Bengala , Uganda/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Ruminantes
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010816, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) is endemic in many countries around the world, therefore, identifying what is required to control and prevent the disease is essential. The health promotion concept and five areas of action, presented in the Ottawa Charter (1986) may help understand how to go forward in the prevention of the disease. Israel serves as a case study. AIM: To identify barriers to the control and prevention of brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) in Israel by analyzing trends in incidence in conjunction with interventions implemented over the last seven decades, applying the health promotion areas of action. METHODS: 1. A document review approach was adopted to develop a list of interventions implemented in Israel to prevent and control brucellosis and identify barriers to implementation. These were analysed using the health promotion areas of action. 2. Data from the mandatory reporting of infectious diseases in Israel regarding brucellosis in humans between 1951 and 2021 are presented and analyzed in conjunction with the interventions implemented. RESULTS: A large range of interventions were implemented following outbreaks of the disease. These interventions followed the health promotion areas of action, including mainly: policy, education and environment and brought about a decrease in the disease among both animals and humans. However, major interventions were discontinued after a few years. In addition, we identified some areas of action that could be much improved on. The interventions, in many cases were not simultaneously implemented or coordinated, decreasing the chances of them having the expected long term impact. CONCLUSIONS: Control and prevention of the disease in Israel is partial. Areas of action that could be improved include enforcement of regulations, strengthening community action and improving personal skills. Simultaneous and continuous implementation of the interventions may achieve the goals of sustained prevention and control. There seems to be a lack of a long-term strategy and an integrated holistic intervention approach that may contribute to the control and prevention of the disease.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia
10.
Malays J Pathol ; 44(2): 269-276, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043590

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human brucellosis is a zoonotic disease in Malaysia. This study analysed six-year retrospective seropositivity trends of human brucellosis cases from 2014 to 2019. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 1,281 serum samples were obtained from suspected brucellosis patients were included. The sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgM and IgG antibodies for Brucella spp. Samples with equivocal or positive antibody index were confirmed with an immunocapture agglutination. RESULTS: During the study period, 5.8% (n=74) of suspected cases showed seropositivity for human brucellosis. The central region has the highest seropositivity cases of human brucellosis. Consumption of unpasteurised milk was significantly associated with human brucellosis in this study with adjusted odds ratio ((AOR) = 4.56, 95% CI = 2.6, 8.02, p-value < 0.001). The age group of less than 15 years old was more likely to contract brucellosis ((AOR) = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.01, 7.84 p-value < 0.048). CONCLUSION: Serological tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. However, diagnosis using serology is often challenging without the presence of a convalescent sample. In conclusion, even though human brucellosis has a low prevalence rate, the disease has serious public health implications. The usage of effective diagnostic tools as well as implementation of 'One Health' approach are the way forward to prevent and control of brucellosis in the country.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 926812, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937257

RESUMO

Human brucellosis (HB) has re-emerged in China since the mid-1990s, and exhibited an apparent geographic expansion shifted from the traditional livestock regions to the inland areas of China. It is often neglected in non-traditional epidemic areas, posing a serious threat to public health in big cities. We carried out a retrospective epidemiological study in Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. It utilizes long-term surveillance data on HB during 2008-2021 and investigation data during 2014-2021. A total of 1989 HB cases were reported in Xi'an, consisting of 505 local cases, i.e., those located in Xi'an and 1,484 non-local cases, i.e., those located in other cities. Significantly epidemiological heterogeneity was observed between them, mainly owing to differences in the gender, occupation, diagnostic delays, and reporting institutions. Serological investigations suggested that 59 people and 1,822 animals (sheep, cattle, and cows) tested positive for brucellosis from 2014 to 2021, with the annual average seroprevalence rates were 1.38 and 1.54%, respectively. The annual animal seroprevalence rate was positively correlated with the annual incidence of non-local HB cases. Multivariate boosted regression tree models revealed that gross domestic product, population density, length of township roads, number of farms, and nighttime lights substantially contributed to the spatial distribution of local HB. Approximately 7.84 million people inhabited the potential infection risk zones in Xi'an. Our study highlights the reemergence of HB in non-epidemic areas and provides a baseline for large and medium-sized cities to identify regions, where prevention and control efforts should be prioritized in the future.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011728

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a prevalent zoonotic disease worldwide. However, the spatiotemporal patterns evolution and its driving factors of Brucellosis have not been well explored. In this study, spatiotemporal scan statistics were applied to describe the spatiotemporal pattern of evolution in Brucellosis from 2003 to 2019 in mainland China, and GeoDetector analysis was further conducted to explore the driving effects of environmental, meteorological, and socioeconomic factors. We identified a distinct seasonal pattern for Brucellosis, with a peak in May and lowest incidence between September and December. High-risk clusters were first observed in the northwestern pastoral areas and later expanded to the southern urban areas. The spatiotemporal heterogeneity was mainly explained by total SO2 emissions, average annual temperature, sheep output, and consumption of meat per capita with explanatory powers of 45.38%, 44.60%, 40.76%, and 30.46% respectively. However, the explanatory power changed over time. Specifically, the explanatory power of average annual temperature tended to decrease over time, while consumption of meat per capita and total output of animal husbandry tended to increase. The most favorable conditions for the spread of Brucellosis include 0.66-0.70 million tons of SO2 emissions, 9.54-11.68 °C of average annual temperature, 63.28-72.40 million heads of sheep output, and 16.81-20.58 kg consumption of meat per capita. Brucellosis remains more prevalent in traditional pastoral areas in Northwest China, with the tendency of spreading from pastoral to non-pastoral, and rural to urban, areas. Total SO2 emission, average annual temperature, sheep output, and consumption of meat per capita dominated the spatial heterogeneity of Brucellosis with changes in explanatory power over time.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , População Rural , Ovinos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012008

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the occurrence of zoonotic problems reported by dairy small ruminant farmers in Greece and to study potential associations with socio-demographic characteristics of the farmers and management practices applied in the farms. A countrywide investigation was performed in 325 sheep and 119 goat farms in the 13 administrative regions of Greece. The selected farms were visited and interviews were conducted with respective farmers. The occurrence of zoonotic problems in the farmers was recorded. A total biosecurity score (0-6) was devised, based on biosecurity practices followed in farms. Sixty-seven farmers (15.10%, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 12.1-18.7%) reported experiencing a zoonotic problem. Most of the farmers (n = 57) (85.1%, 95% CI: 74.76-91.7%, of those with a zoonotic problem) (12.8%, 95% CI: 10.0-16.3%, of all) reported that the zoonotic problem had been brucellosis. Odds ratio for the occurrence of brucellosis in goat farmers was 1.879 (95% CI: 1.051-3.359) compared to the occurrence of the infection in sheep farmers (p = 0.033). For the outcome 'occurrence of brucellosis' in sheep farmers, the application of hand-milking, the availability of a separate lambing area and the presence of cats in the farm emerged as significant (p < 0.01); for the same outcome in goat farmers, only the availability of a separate kidding area emerged as significant (p = 0.001). The mean biosecurity score in farms in the continental area of the country was significantly higher than in the islands: 3.45 ± 0.05 versus 2.76 ± 0.28, respectively (p = 0.006), whilst there was also a significantly higher score in farms, where the farmer reported occurrence of brucellosis: 3.68 ± 0.15 versus 3.34 ± 0.06 in farms, where the farmer did not report such an incident (p = 0.042). In farms, where the above predictors prevail, farmers should be warned of an increased potential risk for human infection and biosecurity measures should be implemented and tightened.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Fazendeiros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Fazendas , Cabras , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ovinos
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 150: 17-29, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796508

RESUMO

Leptospirosis and brucellosis are zoonotic diseases with global distributions that represent severe hazards to humans and animals. We investigated exposure to Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. in samples from Amazonian manatees Trichechus inunguis, Amazon river dolphins Inia geoffrensis, and a tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis. The animals were free-ranging or undergoing in situ rehabilitation in the mid-Solimões River region, Brazilian Amazon. Serum samples from 19 Amazonian manatees were tested by microscopic agglutination test, Rose Bengal test, and 2-mercaptoethanol Brucella agglutination test. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. were detected in 63% of the manatees tested and serovar Patoc was considered the infecting serovar in all positive samples. Titers were generally low, indicating chronic exposure, but higher titers indicative of an active infection were detected in 3 animals. Anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were not detected. Tissue and/or body fluid samples from 12 Amazon river dolphins, a tucuxi, and 2 Amazonian manatees were investigated by multiplex PCR and bacteriology for Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. All samples were negative. However, Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from uterine fluid, lymph node, and lung of 3 Amazon river dolphins. Bacillus spp. were isolated from milk and synovial fluid from 2 Amazon river dolphins and from a milk sample from 1 Amazonian manatee. Knowledge of the pathogens present in Amazonian manatees, Amazon river dolphins, and tucuxis is of great relevance to species conservation and environmental health. Although no clinical signs were noted, further research is needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of infection by Leptospira sp. serovar Patoc in Amazonian aquatic mammals.


Assuntos
Brucella , Golfinhos , Leptospira , Trichechus inunguis , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Golfinhos/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Trichechus inunguis/microbiologia
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7140909, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898677

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a well-known and harmful zoonotic disease that poses a severe threat to public health and wild and dairy animals. Due to a lack of monitoring and awareness, disease incidence has increased. Therefore, this study was conducted for the first time to ascertain the status of seroprevalence of brucellosis, hematological, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes in different breeds of cattle reared under tropical-desert conditions in Pakistan. This study comprised 570 cattle of different breeds. We recorded some epidemiological traits, including age and gender. The blood samples were obtained from all the cattle, screened with RBPT, and then confirmed by ELISA and PCR. The results recorded an overall 11.75%, 10.7%, and 9.64% prevalence of brucellosis based on RBPT, ELISA, and PCR. We obtained nonsignificant results in different age and sex groups of cattle. The results showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower values of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin quantity, hematocrit, lymphocytes, and monocytes in infected cases. The results showed that the total leukocyte and neutrophil cells significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased. The lipid peroxidation parameters (MDA- and NO-scavenging activity of erythrocyte) increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in infected cattle, whereas significantly reduced antioxidant enzymes like SOD, RGSH, and CAT were. Similarly, significantly lower serum albumin levels and total serum proteins were recorded in infected cattle.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Estresse Oxidativo , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269963, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834538

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species, which are intramacrophage pathogens that make treating this disease challenging. The negative effects of the treatment regime have prompted the development of new antimicrobials against brucellosis. A new treatment modality for antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is the use of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we examined the antibacterial activities of silver and gold NPs (SNPs and GNPs, respectively), the resistance developed by Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) and Brucella abortus (B. abortus) strains and the toxicity of both of these NPs in experimental rats. To test the bactericidal effects of the SNPs and GNPs, we used 22 multidrug-resistant Brucella isolates (10 B. melitensis and 12 B. abortus). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both types of NPs were determined utilizing the microdilution technique. To test the stability of resistance, 7 B. melitensis and 6 B. abortus isolates were passaged ten times in culture with subinhibitory concentrations of NPs and another ten times without NPs. Histopathological analysis was completed after rats were given 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg NPs orally for 28 consecutive days. The MIC values (µg/ml) of the 10-nm SNPs and 20-nm GNPs against B. melitensis were 22.43 ± 2.32 and 13.56 ± 1.22, while these values were 18.77 ± 1.33 and 12.45 ± 1.59 for B. abortus, respectively. After extensive in vitro exposure, most strains showed no resistance to the 10-nm SNPs or 20-nm GNPs. The NPs and antibiotics did not cross-react in any of the evolved Brucella strains. SNPs and GNPs at doses below 2 mg/kg were not harmful to rat tissue according to organ histopathological examinations. However, a greater dose of NPs (2 mg/kg) harmed all of the tissues studied. The bactericidal properties of NPs are demonstrated in this work. Brucella strains develop similar resistance to SNPs and GNPs, and at low dosages, neither SNPs nor GNPs were hazardous to rats.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Brucella , Brucelose , Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Brucella/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucella abortus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucella melitensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Ouro/farmacologia , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Ouro/toxicidade , Compostos de Ouro/farmacologia , Compostos de Ouro/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Ouro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Ratos , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/uso terapêutico , Prata/toxicidade , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Prata/toxicidade
17.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1859-1866, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786155

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a severe public health problem in China. However, analysis on related infection events is lacking. We performed a systematic analysis of brucellosis laboratory infection and vaccine infection events from 2006 to 2019 in China based on the published literatures. Our analysis showed that most laboratoryBrucellainfections in hospitals were found in Southern China. The identification and handling of suspected samples ofBrucellainfection without following the recommended biosafety protection was the main risk factor. It is important to strengthen the preventive awareness of clinical laboratory staff and physicians, while highlighting the compulsory handling and identification of suspectedBrucella-infected samples in biosafety facilities and following biosafety practices. However, a severe Brucella infection accident at the Northeast Agricultural University, with 28 positive cases, showed that strengthening the management in teaching experiments of students in the veterinary-related profession is essential. However, cluster S2 vaccine strain infection events caused by vaccination and production were mainly observed in Northern China. Strengthening vaccination skills, personal protection, and improving the biosafety management of vaccine production and implementing regular risk surveillance is mandatory. Our analysis provides helpful clues for control of public health events involving brucellosis, as well as implementing intervention strategies is urgent.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Vacinas , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Saúde Pública , Vacinação
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(7): 1185-1190, 2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human brucellosis is one of the most common zoonosis infections, with an important impact on the health and economy worldwide. This study aimed to update and provide epidemiological information on this infection and evaluate Rose Bengal Test, which is used as an essential diagnostic test for brucellosis in Erbil. METHODOLOGY: A total of 325 participants seeking care and reporting fever at Rizgary Teaching Hospital were enrolled. Blood samples were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal Test and blood culture followed by species identification. A questionnaire was administered to detect the risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable and confirmed brucellosis was 12.3% (95% CI 9.2-16.3) and 9.5% (95% CI 6.8-13.2) respectively. The majority of cases were in the age group of 18-39 years. Brucellosis was significantly associated with raw milk consumption (OR = 10.3 95% CI 5-22.4) and contact with livestock (OR = 11.5 95% CI 5.6-23.9). Brucella melitensis (58.1%) and Brucella abortus (41.9%) are the dominant species in the area. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Rose Bengal Test in comparison to the blood culture were 100%, 96.9%, 77.5 %, and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Brucellosis is a significant cause of fever in Erbil and could be diagnosed by the Rose Bengal Test taking into account the compatibility of clinical features with the positive result. The vaccination of livestock and boiling or pasteurization of milk are essential procedures to reduce the frequency of human brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Rosa Bengala , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Gado , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Agri ; 34(3): 213-216, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792692

RESUMO

In this article, we report a patient with migraine who was hospitalized with a prediagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri and diagnosed as neurobrucellosis with isolated intracranial hypertension presentation. A 22-year-old woman was admitted to emergency department with a complaint of headache. Her anamnesis indicated that she had migraine for 7 years. Neurological examination revealed bilateral papilledema. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed 80 lymphocytes per mm3 with 178 mg/dL protein. Opening pressure was 260 mmH2O. Brucella tube agglutination and Rose Bengal tests were positive in blood and CSF. She was diagnosed as neurobrucellosis. If the systemic findings are insignificant and neurological findings are atypical such as isolated papillary edema, neurobrucellosis may not be considered and its diagnosis may be delayed. We believe that brucella serology should be included in the diagnostic protocols in endemic areas. Thus, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent complications of neurobrucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Papiledema , Pseudotumor Cerebral , Adulto , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Papiledema/diagnóstico , Papiledema/etiologia , Pseudotumor Cerebral/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
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