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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1446, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-border livestock mobility through transhumance is mainly practiced in West African countries for seasonal access to resources and market. Cross-border herds are involved in the dynamic of transboundary animal diseases among them brucellosis taken as model. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease causing abortion. OBJECTIVES: This study explores the seroprevalence of brucellosis according to mobility and infection spread between Mali and Côte d'Ivoire in the context of seasonal cross-border transhumance. METHODS: From February to April 2021, a transversal serological survey of brucellosis was conducted on 521 cattle from 111 transhumant herds and 283 cattle from 59 sedentary herds, all from Mali. RESULTS: The global individual seroprevalence for Brucella spp. in transhumant and sedentary cattle from Mali was 8.2% (95% CI = 6.0-10.5). At herd level, seroprevalence was 21.2% with a significant variation between transhumant (11.7%) and sedentary (39.0%) herds. For herds in transhumance, cattle seropositivity was associated with a previous infection suspected by herdsmen odds ratio (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 1.1-18.1) and unknown abortion aetiology (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 1.0-17.3). The departure region (coming from Sikasso) and previous brucellosis infection or unexplained abortion could be used to predict Brucella infection in transhumant herds with a probability of around 60%. The risk of brucellosis introduction in host regions was high despite the individual animal seroprevalence of 3.6% and a low sale rate in transhumant cattle. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that testing transhumant during border control and survey of cattle markets and sales could improve risk control of the spread of disease at regional scale.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Zoonoses , Fatores de Risco
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 45(3): 379-384, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582612

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the current status of personal protection in occupational population at high risk for brucellosis in China and provide evidence for the evaluation of implementation of National Brucellosis Prevention and Control Plan (2016-2020). Methods: Four counties in Shanxi Province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region were selected to conduct a questionnaire survey in occupational population at high risk for brucellosis from December 2019 to July 2020 by using cross-sectional survey methods. Results: A total of 2 384 persons at high risk for brucellosis were surveyed, and the standardized utilization rate of personal protective equipment (PPE) was 20.13% (480/2 384). The utilization rate of glove, mask, rubber shoe, and work cloth were 38.26% (912/2 384), 31.80% (758/2 384), 32.01% (763/2 384) and 30.87% (736/2 384),respectively. There were significant differences in the utilization rate and standardized utilization rate of the four types of PPE among populations in different age, occupation, educational level and area groups (all P<0.001). The utilization rate and standardized utilization rate of PPE were lower in people over 60 years old, women, farmers, and those with lower educational level. The results of multivariate analysis showed that occupation and area were the influencing factors for the standardized utilization of PPE, the standardized utilization rates of PPE were higher in herdsmen and veterinarians. The standardized utilization rate of PPE in Yanggao County and Huocheng County was significantly higher than that in Zuoyun County and Hunyuan County. Conclusions: The utilization rate of the four types of PPE in occupational population at high risk for brucellosis was not high in China, and the standardized utilization rate was low, lower than the requirement in National Brucellosis Prevention and Control Plan, and there were significant differences among different areas. It is urgent to distribute PPE to occupational population at high risk for brucellosis and carry out health education about PPE utilization. Meanwhile, it is necessary to strengthen information exchange or sharing among different areas.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Fazendeiros , Inquéritos e Questionários , China/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012046, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brucellosis is a febrile zoonosis occurring among high-risk groups such as livestock keepers and abattoir workers and is a public health priority in Uganda. The technical complexities of bacteriological and molecular methods make serological approaches the cornerstone of diagnosis of human brucellosis in resource limited settings. Therefore, proper application and interpretation of serological tests is central to achieve a correct diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence and factors associated with anti-Brucella antibodies among slaughterhouse workers processing ruminants and pigs in three regions of the country with serial testing using a combination of the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and the BrucellaCapt test. An authorized clinician collected 543 blood samples from consenting abattoir workers as well as attribute medical and social demographic data. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with anti-Brucella sero-positivity. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The sero-prevalence among ruminant slaughterhouse workers ranged from 7.3% (95% CI: 4.8-10.7) using BrucellaCapt to 9.0% (95% CI: 6.3-12.7) using RBT. Slaughterhouse workers from the Eastern regions (AOR = 9.84, 95%CI 2.27-69.2, p = 0.006) and those who graze animals for alternative income (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.91-6.63, p = 0.040) were at a higher risk of exposure to Brucella. Similarly, those who wore Personal Protective Equipment (AOR = 4.83, 95%CI:1.63-18.0, p = 0.009) and those who slaughter cattle (AOR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.25-6.0, p = 0.006) were at a higher risk of exposure to Brucella. Those who slaughter small ruminants (AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.32-4.01, p = 0.048) were also at a higher risk of exposure to Brucella. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Our study demonstrates the combined practical application of the RBT and BrucellaCapt in the diagnosis of human brucellosis in endemic settings. Both pharmaceutical (e.g., routine testing and timely therapeutic intervention), and non-pharmaceutical (e.g., higher index of suspicion of brucellosis when investigating fevers of unknown origin and observation of strict abattoir hygiene) countermeasures should be considered for control of the disease in high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Humanos , Bovinos , Suínos , Matadouros , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Ruminantes , Fatores de Risco , Rosa Bengala , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011974, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470939

RESUMO

Animal hoarding disorder (AHD) is classified as a psychiatric obsessive-compulsive condition characterized by animal accumulation and often accompanied by unsanitary conditions and animal cruelty. Although AHD may increase pathogen transmission and spread, particularly for zoonotic diseases, human and dog exposure in such cases has yet to be fully established. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess Brucella canis in 19 individuals with AHD (11 households) and their 264 dogs (21 households) in Curitiba, the eighth largest city in Brazil, with approximately 1.8 million habitants. Anti-B. canis antibodies were detected by the 2-mercaptoethanol microplate agglutination test (2ME-MAT) and by a commercial lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), while molecular detection of previously positive seropositive samples was performed by conventional PCR. Although all the human samples were 2ME-MAT negative, 12/264 (4.5%, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.0-7.0%) dog samples were 2ME-MAT and LFIA positive, with 2ME-MAT titers ranging from 20 to 640. At least one dog in 4/21 (19.0%, 95% CI: 2.0-46.0%) households was seropositive. Despite the absence of seropositivity in individuals with AHD and the comparatively low seroprevalence in dogs, B. canis circulation and outbreaks should be considered in such human populations due to the high burden and recurrent character of B. canis exposure in high-density dog populations and the constant introduction of susceptible animals.


Assuntos
Brucella canis , Brucelose , Doenças do Cão , Transtorno de Acumulação , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Brucella canis/genética , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 172, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous miscarriage, a leading health concern globally, often occurs due to various factors, including infections. Among these, Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp. may have adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. While previous research has established a link between infections and spontaneous miscarriage, our study aimed specifically to investigate the presence of these two pathogens in abortion samples from women who experienced spontaneous miscarriages in Iran. Our study can add to the existing knowledge by focusing on Iran, a region with a high prevalence of C. burnetii and Brucella spp. As a result, it could provide a better understanding and unique insights into the relationship of these pathogens with spontaneous miscarriages in endemic regions. METHODS: From March 2021 to March 2022, a total of 728 abortion samples (including placenta and cotyledon) were collected from 409 women who had experienced spontaneous miscarriages in the provinces of Tehran, Fars, and West Azerbaijan in Iran. The specimens included 467 Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) and 261 fresh frozen samples. After DNA extraction from abortion samples, the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeted a specific fragment of the IS1111 and IS711 elements for molecular identification of C. burnetii and Brucella spp., respectively. Furthermore, the qPCR assay employing specific primers for different species was used to determine the species of Brucella. RESULTS: Among the studied women, 1 out of 409 (0.24%) samples tested positive for Brucella spp., specifically Brucella melitensis. There were no positive specimens for C. burnetii. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to understanding the potential involvement of Brucella species in spontaneous infectious abortion within endemic regions. The identification of B. melitensis in this study highlights the need for further research in this area. However, while our results suggest a relatively low or zero identification of these pathogens in our sample population, this does not rule out the possibility of undetected infections. Therefore, it is critical to acknowledge the limitations of the molecular techniques used (qPCR), which may have potential limitations such as sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, because 64.15% of our samples were FFPE, the sensitivity of the qPCR test may be reduced. These raise concerns about the accuracy of the reported prevalence rates and the potential for false positives or negatives.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Coxiella burnetii , Febre Q , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucella melitensis/genética , Febre Q/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4880, 2024 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418566

RESUMO

Human brucellosis has reemerged in China, with a distinct change in its geographical distribution. The incidence of human brucellosis has significantly risen in inland regions of China. To gain insights into epidemic characteristics and identify factors influencing the geographic spread of human brucellosis, our study utilized the Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm and interpretable machine learning techniques. The results showed a consistent upward trend in the incidence of human brucellosis, with a significant increase of 8.20% from 2004 to 2021 (95% CI: 1.70, 15.10). The northern region continued to face a serious human situation, with a gradual upward trend. Meanwhile, the western and southern regions have experienced a gradual spread of human brucellosis, encompassing all regions of China over the past decade. Further analysis using Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) demonstrated that higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and increased funding for education have the potential to reduce the spread. Conversely, the expansion of human brucellosis showed a positive correlation with bed availability per 1000 individuals, humidity, railway mileage, and GDP. These findings strongly suggest that socioeconomic factors play a more significant role in the spread of human brucellosis than other factors.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Humanos , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Umidade , Produto Interno Bruto , China/epidemiologia , Incidência , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 18, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a severe zoonotic disease that is often overlooked, particularly in impoverished countries. Timely identification of focal complications in brucellosis is crucial for improving treatment outcomes. However, there is currently a lack of established indicators or biomarkers for diagnosing these complications. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate potential warning signs of focal complications in human brucellosis, with the goal of providing practical parameters for clinicians to aid in the diagnosis and management of patients. METHODS: A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted in China from December 2019 to August 2021. The study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and complications of patients with brucellosis using a questionnaire survey and medical record system. The presence of warning signs for complications was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were used for variable screening and model evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 880 participants diagnosed with human brucellosis were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 50 years [interquartile range (IQR): 41.5-58.0], and 54.8% had complications. The most common organ system affected by complications was the osteoarticular system (43.1%), with peripheral arthritis (30.0%), spondylitis (16.6%), paravertebral abscess (5.0%), and sacroiliitis (2.7%) being the most prevalent. Complications in other organ systems included the genitourinary system (4.7%), respiratory system (4.7%), and hematologic system (4.6%). Several factors were found to be associated with focal brucellosis. These factors included a long delay in diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) = 3.963, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.906-8.238 for > 90 days], the presence of underlying disease (OR = 1.675, 95% CI 1.176-2.384), arthralgia (OR = 3.197, 95% CI 1.986-5.148), eye bulging pain (OR = 3.482, 95% CI 1.349-8.988), C-reactive protein (CRP) > 10 mg/L (OR = 1.910, 95% CI 1.310-2.784) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) elevation (OR = 1.663, 95% CI 1.145-2.415). The optimal cutoff value in ROC analysis was > 5.4 mg/L for CRP (sensitivity 73.4% and specificity 51.9%) and > 25 mm/h for ESR (sensitivity 47.9% and specificity 71.1%). CONCLUSIONS: More than 50% of patients with brucellosis experienced complications. Factors such as diagnostic delay, underlying disease, arthralgia, eye pain, and elevated levels of CRP and ESR were identified as significant markers for the development of complications. Therefore, patients presenting with these conditions should be closely monitored for potential complications, regardless of their culture results and standard tube agglutination test titers.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Diagnóstico Tardio , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artralgia/complicações , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto
8.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 23(1): 18, 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis, developing complications including arthritis, spondylitis, sacroiliitis, and osteomyelitis, is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the current world which causes economic losses to the livestock industry and is a great public health concern. Brucella melitensis are the main pathogen of brucellosis epidemics in China, most of which are located in northern China. However, there is limited knowledge about the epidemiology of osteoarthritis-associated brucellosis. This study was aimed to reveal the prevalence of osteoarthritis-associated brucellosis in Inner Mongolia and also to investigate the molecular characteristics of B. melitensis isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2018, the osteoarthritis symptoms of brucellosis in the Brucellosis department of a hospital in Inner Mongolia were investigated. Twenty osteoarthritis-associated B. melitensis strains, isolated from the inpatients in Inner Mongolia during 2013-2017, were subjected to whole genome sequencing. The multilocus sequence type (MLST) and core genome SNP (cgSNP) analysis were conducted to detect molecular epidemiological characteristics. The incidence of brucellosis osteoarthritis symptoms in males (85/120, 70.8%) was significantly higher than that in females (35/120, 29.2%), and the age of patients was concentrated between 41 and 60 years old. In silico analyses indicated ST8 was the prevalent sequence type and the transmission of osteoarthritis-associated B. melitensis among different geographical areas. All strains carry virulence genes, including cgs, lpsA, manCoAg, pgm, pmm, virB4, wbdA and wboA. CONCLUSION: Our study showed the close epidemiologically connection of osteoarthritis-associated B. melitensis strains in northern China. And ST8 was the prevalent sequence type which need our attention.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Osteoartrite , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Brucella melitensis/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Genótipo , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia
9.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(2): 327-338, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385992

RESUMO

Products of parturition are the predominant source of Brucella abortus for transmission in bison (Bison bison). Our objective was to assess whether preventing pregnancy in Brucella-seropositive bison reduced B. abortus shedding. Brucella-seropositive and -seronegative bison from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA were used in a replicated experiment. Each of two replicates (rep1, rep2) included a group of seropositive females treated with a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based immunocontraceptive (Treatment rep1, n=15; Treatment rep2, n=20) and an untreated group (Control rep1, n=14; Control rep2, n=16) housed separately. Seronegative sentinel females were placed in each group to monitor horizontal transmission. Seronegative males were co-mingled for breeding each year. Pregnant females were removed from treatment groups in the first year, but not thereafter. Each January-June we monitored for B. abortus shedding events-any parturition associated with culture-positive fluids or tissues. We analyzed probability of shedding events using a negative binomial generalized linear mixed model fit by maximum likelihood using Laplace approximation. Over 5 yr, we observed zero shedding events in Treatment rep1 vs. 12 in Control rep1. All five Control rep1 sentinels but zero (0/5) Treatment rep1 sentinels seroconverted. In the second replicate, Treatment rep2 had two shedding events over 3 yr and Control rep2 had five events over 2 yr. Sentinels in both Control rep2 (3/6) and Treatment rep2 (5/6) seroconverted by trial endpoint. Treatment rep1 showed a reduced shedding probability relative to Control rep1, Treatment rep2, and Control rep2 (log odds value -25.36 vs. -1.71, -1.39, and -0.23, respectively). Fixed effect predictor covariates, year and age, had no explanatory value. These data suggest that successful contraception of brucellosis-seropositive female bison prevents shedding of B. abortus by individual animals. However, contraceptive treatment may or may not sufficiently reduce disease transmission to reduce brucellosis prevalence in an affected herd.


Assuntos
Bison , Brucelose , Gravidez , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Brucella abortus , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Brucelose/veterinária , Wyoming
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011889, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, vaccination of livestock with attenuated strains of Brucella remains an essential measure for controlling brucellosis, although these vaccines may be dangerous to humans. The aim of this study was to review the risk posed to humans by occupational exposure to vaccine strains and the measures that should be implemented to minimize this risk. METHODS: This article reviewed the scientific literature indexed in PubMed up to September 30, 2023, following "the PRISMA guidelines". Special emphasis was placed on the vaccine strain used and the route of exposure. Non-occupational exposure to vaccine strains, intentional human inoculation, publications on exposure to wild strains, and secondary scientific sources were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Nineteen primary reports were found and classified in three subgroups: safety accidents in vaccine factories that led to an outbreak (n = 2), survellaince studies on vaccine manufacturing workers with a serologic diagnosis of Brucella infection (n = 3), and publications of infection by vaccine strains during their administration, including case reports, records of occupational accidents and investigations of outbreaks in vaccination campaigns (n = 14). Although accidental exposure during vaccine manufacturing were uncommon, they could provoke large outbreaks through airborne spread with risk of spread to the neighboring population. Besides, despite strict protection measures, a percentage of vaccine manufacturing workers developed positive Brucella serology without clinical infection. The most frequent type of exposure with symptomatic infection was needle injury during vaccine administration. Prolonged contact with the pathogen, lack of information and a low adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE) use in the work environment were commonly associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Brucella vaccines pose occupational risk of contagion to humans from their production to their administration to livestock, although morbidity is low and deaths were not reported. Recommended protective measures and active surveillance of exposed workers appeared to reduce this risk. It would be advisable to carry out observational studies and/or systematic registries using solid diagnostic criteria.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Brucelose , Brucella , Brucelose , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais , Humanos , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Gado , Vacinas Atenuadas
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 76, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis poses a significant public health concern. This study explores the spatial and temporal dynamic evolution of human brucellosis in China and analyses the spatial heterogeneity of the influencing factors related to the incidence of human brucellosis at the provincial level. METHODS: The Join-point model, centre of gravity migration model and spatial autocorrelation analysis were employed to evaluate potential changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of human brucellosis in mainland China from 2005 to 2021. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), and Multi-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (MGWR) models were constructed to analyze the spatial and temporal correlation between the incidence rate of human brucellosis and meteorological and social factors. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2021, human brucellosis in China showed a consistent upward trend. The incidence rate rose more rapidly in South, Central, and Southwest China, leading to a shift in the center of gravity from the North to the Southwest, as illustrated in the migration trajectory diagram. Strong spatial aggregation was observed. The MGWR model outperformed others. Spatio-temporal plots indicated that lower mean annual temperatures and increased beef, mutton, and milk production significantly correlated with higher brucellosis incidence. Cities like Guangxi and Guangdong were more affected by low temperatures, while Xinjiang and Tibet were influenced more by beef and milk production. Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang were more affected by mutton production. Importantly, an increase in regional GDP and health expenditure exerted a notable protective effect against human brucellosis incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Human brucellosis remains a pervasive challenge. Meteorological and social factors significantly influence its incidence in a spatiotemporally specific manner. Tailored prevention strategies should be region-specific, providing valuable insights for effective brucellosis control measures.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Regressão Espacial , Cidades , Incidência , Análise Espaço-Temporal
12.
Braz J Microbiol ; 55(1): 429-439, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aminoglycosides are vital antibiotics for treating Brucella infections, because they interfere with bacterial protein production and are often combined with other antibiotics. They are cost-effective, have fewer side effects, and can penetrate biofilms. The prevalence of brucellosis has increased in recent years, increasing the need for effective treatments. In addition, the emergence of multidrug-resistant Brucella strains has highlighted the need for an updated and comprehensive understanding of aminoglycoside resistance. This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the global prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance in B. melitensis and B. abortus. METHODS: A systematic search of online databases was conducted and eligible studies met certain criteria and were published in English. Quality assessment was performed using the JBI Checklist. A random-effects model was fitted to the data, and meta-regression, subgroup, and outlier/influential analyses were performed. The analysis was performed using R and the metafor package. RESULTS: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the average prevalence rates of streptomycin, gentamicin, and amikacin resistance were 0.027 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.015-0.049), 0.023 (95% CI, 0.017-0.032), and 0.008 (95% CI, 0.002-0.039), respectively. The prevalence of streptomycin resistance was higher in the unidentified Brucella group than in the B. abortus and B. melitensis groups (0.234, 0.046, and 0.017, respectively; p < 0.02). The prevalence of gentamicin resistance increased over time (r = 0.064; 95% CI, 0.018 to 0.111; p = 0.007). The prevalence of resistance did not correlate with the quality score for any antibiotic. Funnel plots showed a potential asymmetry for streptomycin and gentamicin. These results suggest a low prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the studied populations. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance in B. melitensis and B. abortus was low. However, gentamicin resistance has increased in recent years. This review provides a comprehensive and updated understanding of aminoglycoside resistance in B. melitensis and B. abortus.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Humanos , Brucella melitensis/genética , Brucella melitensis/metabolismo , Brucella abortus/genética , Brucella abortus/metabolismo , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Prevalência , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Estreptomicina/metabolismo , Gentamicinas/farmacologia
13.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(3): 82, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38289422

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a neglected worldwide zoonotic disease with more than 500,000 new human cases each year. Direct contact with infected animals and consumption of undercooked animal origin foods are the main routes of brucellosis transmission to humans. Although long endeavor has been applied to control and eliminate brucellosis from animal and human populations in developing countries especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the disease is still endemic in these regions. Many common or unique factors including raw milk consumption, unhygienic slaughter of livestock, extensive husbandry, budgetary limitations, misdiagnosis, and other conditions play a role in long-term endemicity of brucellosis in these locations. It has been shown that One Health is the only practical approach to control brucellosis; however, applying such methods is challenging in low-resource areas. In such conditions, brucellosis is continuously maintained in animals and repeatedly spread to human populations. In this article, factors playing a critical role in brucellosis endemicity, and the real conditions challenging the application of One Health approach in control of brucellosis are highlighted.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Países em Desenvolvimento , Animais , Humanos , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Gado
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 224: 106115, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219433

RESUMO

Bovine brucellosis, primarily caused by Brucella abortus, severely affects both animal health and human well-being. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for designing informed control and prevention measures. Lacking a gold standard test makes it challenging to determine optimal cut-off values and evaluate the diagnostic performance of tests. In this study, we developed a novel Bayesian Latent Class Model that integrates both binary and continuous testing outcomes, incorporating additional fixed (parity) and random (farm) effects, to calibrate optimal cut-off values by maximizing Youden Index. We tested 651 serum samples collected from six dairy farms in two regions of Henan Province, China with four serological tests: Rose Bengal Test, Serum Agglutination Test, Fluorescence Polarization Assay, and Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Our analysis revealed that the optimal cut-off values for FPA and C-ELISA were 94.2 mP and 0.403 PI, respectively. Sensitivity estimates for the four tests ranged from 69.7% to 89.9%, while specificity estimates varied between 97.1% and 99.6%. The true prevalences in the two study regions in Henan province were 4.7% and 30.3%. Parity-specific odds ratios for positive serological status ranged from 1.2 to 2.2 for different parity groups compared to primiparous cows. This approach provides a robust framework for validating diagnostic tests for both continuous and discrete tests in the absence of a gold standard test. Our findings can enhance our ability to design targeted disease detection strategies and implement effective control measures for brucellosis in Chinese dairy farms.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina , Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Brucella abortus , Teorema de Bayes , Análise de Classes Latentes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Brucelose Bovina/diagnóstico , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 224: 106101, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244415

RESUMO

Our study explored the patterns of bovine brucellosis dissemination in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by examining data on passive surveillance of bovine brucellosis cases from the Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuaria (IMA) (Animal Health Authority), as well as cattle population and bovine brucellosis testing, from 2011 to 2018 by means of a spatiotemporal analysis. We plotted cases, populations and testing distributions and performed spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I test) and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) analyses. Moreover, we assessed the correlation of the spatial distribution and the compiled data (brucellosis cases, cattle populations, and brucellosis testing) by Lee's test. Our results showed that bovine brucellosis cases occurred mainly in the Triângulo Mineiro, Alto Paranaíba and Northwest regions, which reported cases in all analyzed years (2011 to 2018). The cattle population of Minas Gerais was concentrated in the same regions as bovine brucellosis cases, and the performed tests through the analyzed years (2011 to 2018). Moran's I test results of the case data showed significant spatial autocorrelation in 2011, 2015 and 2018 (p value < 0.05), and from 2011 to 2018, the population and testing data were also significant in Moran's I test (p value < 0.01). The results of cluster analysis (LISA) of cases showed clusters mainly in the Triângulo Mineiro, Alto Paranaíba, Northwest and South regions in 2011, 2015 and 2018. The local clusters for cattle populations and brucellosis testing were also observed in the same regions as bovine brucellosis cases in all years (2011 to 2018). The correlation results between clusters (Lee's test) were 0.22 (p value < 0.01) in 2011, 0.15 (p value < 0.01) in 2015 and 0.43 (p value <0.01) in 2018 between cases and populations, and 0.25 (p value <0.01) in 2011, 0.14 (p value <0.01) in 2015 and 0.38 (p value < 0.01) in 2018 for testing and cases. Therefore, our results showed that brucellosis cases were distributed together with cattle populations and brucellosis testing data, indicating that brucellosis in cattle in Minas Gerais state is being identified where there are more animals and where more tests are performed.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina , Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Bovinos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Análise Espacial , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 3, 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic affliction instigated by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and is characterized by a diverse range of pervasiveness, multiple transmission routes, and serious hazards. It is imperative to amalgamate the current knowledge and identify gaps pertaining to the role of ticks in brucellosis transmission. METHODS: We systematically searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, Google Scholar, and PubMed on the topic published until April 23, 2022. The procedure was performed in accordance with the Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. The selected articles were categorized across three major topic areas, and the potential data was extracted to describe evidence-practice gaps by two reviewers. RESULTS: The search identified 83 eligible studies for the final analyses. The results highlighted the potential capacity of ticks in brucellosis transmission as evidenced by the detection of Brucella in 16 different tick species. The pooled overall prevalence of Brucella in ticks was 33.87% (range: 0.00-87.80%). The review also revealed the capability of Brucella to circulate in parasitic ticks' different developmental stages, thus posing a potential threat to animal and human health. Empirical evidence from in vitro rodent infection experiments has revealed that ticks possess the capability to transmit Brucella to uninfected animals (range: 45.00-80.00%). Moreover, significant epidemiological associations have been found between the occurrence of brucellosis in animals and tick control in rangelands, which further suggests that ticks may serve as potential vectors for brucellosis transmission in ruminants. Notably, a mere three cases of human brucellosis resulting from potential tick bites were identified in search of global clinical case reports from 1963 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: It is imperative to improve the techniques used to identify Brucella in ticks, particularly by developing a novel, efficient, precise approach that can be applied in a field setting. Furthermore, due to the lack of adequate evidence of tick-borne brucellosis, it is essential to integrate various disciplines, including experimental animal science, epidemiology, molecular genetics, and others, to better understand the efficacy of tick-borne brucellosis. By amalgamating multiple disciplines, we can enhance our comprehension and proficiency in tackling tick-borne brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Lacunas da Prática Profissional , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
17.
J Vet Med Sci ; 86(3): 295-299, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267042

RESUMO

In the western North Pacific, prominent granulomatous testes have been detected in many Brucella-infected common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), but there have been no reports in toothed cetaceans. We found severe orchitis with granulomatous lesions in a rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) stranded on the Pacific coast of Japan in 2011. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration of the lesions. DNA from the lesion was analyzed by PCR and it showed molecular biological similarities with those of Brucella-infected common minke whales and Brucella ceti of sequence-type 27 (ST27). These results suggest that the type of Brucella ceti that infected the dolphin was ST27, which may have caused severe orchitis. This study adds to our understanding of Brucella infections in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Golfinhos , Baleia Anã , Orquite , Masculino , Animais , Orquite/veterinária , Japão/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Cetáceos
18.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 24(2): 104-110, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37910779

RESUMO

Background: Although Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, and Brucella canis may infect humans and dogs worldwide, no study to date has assessed and compared owners and their dogs between island and mainland seashore areas. Materials and Methods: Accordingly, the study herein has applied serological tests, including Microplate Agglutination Test with 2-Mercaptoethanol, immunochromatographic assay, and Rose Bengal Test, and a Brucella genus-specific PCR assay to 195 owners and their 148 dogs living on 1 mainland seashore area and three nearby oceanic islands of southern Brazil. Results: No seropositivity to B. abortus and B. suis was detected in owner or dog sera. Anti-B. canis seropositivity was observed in 3/148 (2.0%) dogs, but no owner sample was seropositive to B. canis. In addition, all blood samples from both owners and dogs were negative on Brucella genus-specific PCR assay. Conclusions: The seropositive dogs were not related and lived on the seashore mainland area of Guaraqueçaba city. The absence of seropositivity on the islands and the low seropositivity on the seashore mainland could be attributed to geographic isolation, and suggest the low impact of the disease in the region. Despite being a zoonotic disease, brucellosis by B. canis is not included in the National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis, and its diagnosis and notification are not mandatory. The presence of seropositive dogs highlights the risk to human health and the importance of epidemiological surveillance actions in the region, as well as the need for the implantation of preventive measures to avoid the transmission of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Brucella canis , Brucelose , Doenças do Cão , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucella canis/genética , Brucella abortus
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(1): 52-63, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37889938

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus that infects elk (Cervus canadensis) and cattle (Bos taurus). There is the potential for transmission from wildlife to livestock through contact with infected material shed during abortions or live births. To understand the impact of exposure on pregnancy rates we captured 30-100 elk per year from 2011 through 2020, testing their blood for serologic exposure to B. abortus. Predicted pregnancy rates for seropositive animals were 9.6% lower in prime-age (2.5-15.5 yr; 85%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 74-91%) and 37.7% lower in old (>15.5 yr; 43%, 95% CI: 19-71%) elk as compared with seronegative animals. To understand the risk of seropositive elk shedding B. abortus bacteria and the effects of exposure on elk reproductive performance, we conducted a 5-yr longitudinal study monitoring 30 seropositive elk. We estimated the annual probability of a seropositive elk having an abortion as 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.15). We detected B. abortus at three abortions and two live births, using a combination of culture and PCR testing. The predicted probability of a pregnant seropositive elk shedding B. abortus during an abortion or live birth was 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04-0.19). To understand what proportion of seropositive elk harbored live B. abortus bacteria in their tissues, we euthanized seropositive elk at the end of 5 yr of monitoring and sampled tissues for B. abortus. Assuming perfect detection, the predicted probability of a seropositive elk having B. abortus in at least one tissue was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06-0.43). The transmission risk seropositive elk pose is mitigated by decreased pregnancy rates, low probability of abortion events, low probability of shedding at live birth events, and reasonably low probability of B. abortus in tissues.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Cervos , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Estudos Longitudinais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucella abortus , Animais Selvagens , Cervos/microbiologia
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2290839, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039063

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a commonly neglected zoonosis that remains a serious global public health concern. The epidemiological evolution of human brucellosis has considerably changed over the past few decades, and epidemic geography is continuously expanding. Human brucellosis is emerging and re-emerging, and is imported from areas where it is endemic due to travel, immigration, and international trade. The disease continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa, including West Asia, Central Asia, North Africa, and East Africa, with the highest incidence in Syria, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Iran, Algeria, and Kenya. Re-emerging cases are frequently recorded in places where brucellosis has been controlled, such as Bosnia, Herzegovina, Azerbaijan, and the USA. In countries with a high disease burden, disease control and eradication have been extremely difficult because of livestock farming being the only source of livelihood, unique religious beliefs regarding animals, nomadic lifestyle, and low socioeconomic levels. Interventions focused on protecting livestock keepers are needed, particularly for those assisting with goat and sheep births and the consumption of raw dairy products. Notably, in most countries with a high disease burden, each period of several years with a low incidence rate was followed by a subsequent increase in cases, highlighting the necessity of continuous investment and surveillance. In addition, advocacy for the inclusion of brucellosis as a globally mandated reported disease, strict restrictions on animal movement, mandated consumption of pasteurized milk, and health education are needed. This study will help form an evidence-based strategy for international organizations to curb the future spread of brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Comércio , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Internacionalidade , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Cabras , Quênia
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