Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.157
Filtrar
1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 936-942, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605459

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is one of the important infectious causes of Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO). The objective of the present study was to determine the seropositivity and molecular detection of human brucellosis among the patients with pyrexia of unknown origin on both risk and non-risk group of individuals in greater Mymensingh. A total of 400 blood samples were randomly collected from pyretic patients started from September 2018 to August 2019. Questionnaires were used to collect data on both risk and non-risk group of individuals. All samples were initially screened for anti-Brucella antibodies using the Brucella-specific latex agglutination test. For accurate investigation, seropositive as well as seronegative serum samples were tested by BCSP31 Brucella genus-specific TaqMan real-time PCR. Overall 32(8%) cases were positive out of 400 samples by Brucella-specific latex agglutination test and/or BCSP31 Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR. Brucella-specific latex agglutination test documented 7% (28/400) positivity for brucellosis. 22(5.5%) samples found Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR positive out of 400 samples. Most real-time PCR positive cases were found from sero-positive samples of risk group population (15/32). Sero-negative but real-time PCR positive cases also found only from risk group population (4/32). There were 10 seropositive cases where real-time PCR was negative. In addition to Brucella-specific latex agglutination test as a screening test, Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR was performed for confirmation and also to avoid unjustified costs, drug toxicity, and masking of other potentially dangerous diseases.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Febre , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Testes de Função Tireóidea
2.
Sante Publique ; 33(2): 275-284, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553872

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brucellosis, the most common zoonosis globally, is considered a major public health problem. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective study was carried out over 21 years (1998-2018) to determine the epidemiological features of human brucellosis in the province of El-Oued (south-eastern Algeria). RESULTS: 1,832 confirmed cases of human brucellosis were reported during the study period, with an average incidence rate of around 12.26 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The annual distribution of the incidence was characterized by an increasing trend and a strong fluctuation ; its values ranged between 2.27 and 24.96 per 100,000 inhabitants. The monthly distribution showed that the highest incidence rates were recorded from mid-February to July, with a peak of 2.74 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in April.Human brucellosis has affected all municipalities. The highest incidence rate was observed in border municipalities such as Ben Guecha and Oum Tiour (89.76 and 66.14 per inhabitants, respectively).The incidence in the male population was higher than that of the female at 14.63 versus 9.83 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively, noting that it increases with age. Individuals over 65 years are the most at risk, with an incidence rate of 22.32 per 100,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSION: Along with strengthening preventive measures in the population, eliminating brucellosis in animals is the most effective method to protect humans against infection.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Zoonoses , Argélia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 450, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533635

RESUMO

Brucellosis caused by facultative intracellular bacteria, Brucella, remains a global threat to both animal and human health. In this study we aimed to identify potential risk factors of bovine brucellosis and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of livestock keepers in Hisar, India. A standardized questionnaire was used to collate information regarding potential risk factors of bovine brucellosis and livestock owners' KAPs. A total of 127 livestock keepers were involved. Serum samples from their animals (n = 635) were tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Out of these, 78 (61.4%) of the herds had at least one seropositive animal, and 302 (47.6%) of the cattle were seropositive. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between intensive farm type (OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.6-16.7; P = 0.009), hygienic disposal of aborted fetuses (OR = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.08-0.9; P = 0.04) and herd seropositivity for brucellosis. The majority, 96 (75.6%) of the respondents, were males aged 18-50, and 82 (64.6%) owned a small-backyard farm. Only 51 (40.2%) of the participants knew about brucellosis; out of them, 54.9% (28/51) could not identify clinical signs of brucellosis. Six (11.8%) participants indicated abortion as the most noticeable clinical sign, and 45.1% indicated that consumption of raw milk is associated with high risk of contracting brucellosis. A large proportion of respondents confirmed that milk from their animals was regularly consumed (86.6%) and sold (59.8%) to other people. These results suggest that bovine brucellosis is endemic in Haryana, where Brucella-contaminated milk is likely being regularly sold. Brucellosis control efforts in Haryana should include education programs to raise awareness of the disease and means to control it in cattle and to prevent zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina , Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gado , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 483, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, strong intervention measures, such as lockdown, travel restriction, and suspension of work and production, may have curbed the spread of other infectious diseases, including natural focal diseases. In this study, we aimed to study the impact of COVID-19 prevention and control measures on the reported incidence of natural focal diseases (brucellosis, malaria, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome [HFRS], dengue, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome [SFTS], rabies, tsutsugamushi and Japanese encephalitis [JE]). METHODS: The data on daily COVID-19 confirmed cases and natural focal disease cases were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We described and compared the difference between the incidence in 2020 and the incidence in 2015-2019 in four aspects: trend in reported incidence, age, sex, and urban and rural distribution. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) (p, d, q) × (P, D, Q)s model was adopted for natural focal diseases, malaria and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and an ARIMA (p, d, q) model was adopted for dengue. Nonparametric tests were used to compare the reported and the predicted incidence in 2020, the incidence in 2020 and the previous 4 years, and the difference between the duration from illness onset date to diagnosed date (DID) in 2020 and in the previous 4 years. The determination coefficient (R2) was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the model simulation. RESULTS: Natural focal diseases in Jiangsu Province showed a long-term seasonal trend. The reported incidence of natural focal diseases, malaria and dengue in 2020 was lower than the predicted incidence, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The reported incidence of brucellosis in July, August, October and November 2020, and SFTS in May to November 2020 was higher than that in the same period in the previous 4 years (P < 0.05). The reported incidence of malaria in April to December 2020, HFRS in March, May and December 2020, and dengue in July to November 2020 was lower than that in the same period in the previous 4 years (P < 0.05). In males, the reported incidence of malaria in 2020 was lower than that in the previous 4 years, and the reported incidence of dengue in 2020 was lower than that in 2017-2019. The reported incidence of malaria in the 20-60-year age group was lower than that in the previous 4 years; the reported incidence of dengue in the 40-60-year age group was lower than that in 2016-2018. The reported cases of malaria in both urban and rural areas were lower than in the previous 4 years. The DID of brucellosis and SFTS in 2020 was shorter than that in 2015-2018; the DID of tsutsugamushi in 2020 was shorter than that in the previous 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for COVID-19 may help control the epidemics of natural focal diseases in Jiangsu Province. The reported incidence of natural focal diseases, especially malaria and dengue, decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. COVID-19 prevention and control measures had the greatest impact on the reported incidence of natural focal diseases in males and people in the 20-60-year age group.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 942, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an important neglected bacterial zoonotic disease that has been affecting animals and humans for decades. Malaria has been considered major cause of illness in tropical areas, including Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify prevalence and risk factors of human brucellosis and malaria among patients with fever in malaria-endemic areas attending health institutes in Awra and Gulina district, Afar Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A purposive cross-sectional study was conducted among febrile patients who attended health institutes in Awra and Gulina district of Afar region from February to May 2019. 3-5 ml blood samples were collected, thick and thin blood films were prepared and examined for malaria; serum was separated and tested for anti-Brucella using Rose Bengal Plate Test, and the seropositives were subjected to ELISA. Data were entered using EpiData3.1 and analyses were performed using Stata SE 14. RESULTS: A total of 444 febrile individuals (59.5% female) of age ranging from 2 to 83 years (mean = 26.1, SD = ± 11.8) were participated in this study. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was 31.5% (95% CI; 27.4-36.0%) by RBPT and 15.8% (95% CI; 12.7-19.7%) by ELISA, as well as the prevalence of malaria (P. falciparum) was 4.3% (95% CI; 2.7-6.6%) among febrile patients. Malaria was more common in males (7.2% 95% CI; 4.2-12.1%) than in female (2.3% 95% CI; 1.0-5.0%, p = 0.01) and in non-married than in married (7.6% 95% CI; 4.1-13.6% vs. 2.9% 95% CI; 1.5-5.4%, p = 0.02). Being male (AOR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.36-4.26, p < 0.002), drinking raw milk (AOR = 26.68, 95%CI: 3.22- 221.13, p = 0.002) and boiled milk (AOR = 17.52, 95%CI: 2.06-149.04, p = 0.009) and touching aborted fetus/discharges without protective (AOR = 2.56, 95%CI: 1.01-6.528.50, p = 0.048) were independently associated with brucellosis among febrile patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of brucellosis in fever patients in this study area is higher than malaria. Consumption of raw milk and contact with animal discharge can cause significant risk of Brucella infection. So, brucellosis disease must be sought in the differential diagnosis, like ELISA test that can be used to differentiate from other febrile diseases like malaria.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Malária , Animais , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101694, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418757

RESUMO

In this study, we report the serological, bacteriological and whole genome sequencing data of a 6 years study of Brucella abortus in Meghalaya, India. Investigation of 3060 sera samples indicated overall prevalence of 6.4% by Rose Bengal Plate Test and 10.7% by ELISA. Considerably higher prevalence was observed among milk samples (17.5%, n = 362) and in blood samples (37.7%, n = 262) by direct PCR. Clinical samples (n = 94) from late abortion cases yielded 11 B. abortus isolates. Multi-locus sequence typing indicated circulation of single sequence type, ST1. Whole genome sequencing (n = 8) and phylogenomic analysis revealed close clustering of majority of isolates in two clusters alongwith genomes from other countries, indicating global relatedness among B. abortus. Taken together, the results of our study revealed the putative hotspot of infection in the dairy-dominant districts of the state and also calls for concerted One Health based action for prevention and control of this zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Brucella abortus/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Índia/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Gravidez
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00762021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231771

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis and brucellosis cause immunosuppression that worsens the clinical condition of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We investigated the serological profile and risk factors of PLWHA. METHODS: Serum samples (n=238) were researched for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal and tube agglutination tests and Leptospira spp. antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. RESULTS: All samples were negative for Brucella spp. For leptospirosis, four samples (1.69%) were positive, and Andamana was the prevalent serovar. CONCLUSIONS: Low or no detection of these zoonoses does not reduce their importance in PLWHA. Vigilant, educational, and preventive measures should be adopted.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Infecções por HIV , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco
8.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101690, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: Brucellosis in livestock causes huge economic loses of developing countries and demonstrates a serious health risks to the patrons of infected dairy goods and meat. Prevention of brucellosis in cattle relies on the trustworthiness of the techniques utilized to detect the causative pathogen. In the current investigation, we described the exploration of the well-known real-time PCR technique based on the Brucella-specific IS711 with different tissue samples of dromedary camels in Qatar. RESULTS: The findings of the real-time PCR unveiled the occurrence of Brucella spp in 60 % of lung tissues, 71.42 % of liver tissues, 72 % of spleen tissues, 25 % of kidney tissues, and 42.42 % of placental fluid samples. Among them, the liver tissues and spleen tissues possessed the highest number of positive results, whereas kidney tissues displayed the lowest number of positive results for Brucella spp. CONCLUSION: The findings of this investigation discloses that PCR technique is a sensitive and specific technique for the identification of Brucella spp. in dromedary camels. Most of the tissues samples showed the presence of Brucella spp. and also we concluded that there is a need for further studies to be conducted in order to identify specific species of Brucella.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Camelus , Bovinos , Feminino , Placenta , Gravidez , Catar/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
9.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e282-e288, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221477

RESUMO

Objectives: Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonotic disease which can have serious health implications for affected humans and livestock. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical presentation, geographical distribution and risk factors of brucellosis cases admitted over a four-year period to two hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This observational study was conducted from January 2015 to December 2018 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and Armed Forces Hospital in Muscat. All patients with probable or definitive diagnoses of brucellosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the World Health Organization were included. Relevant data were gathered from the patients' medical records, including results from standard agglutination tests, Brucella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, bacterial blood or tissue/aspirate cultures and Brucella polymerase chain reaction tests. Results: A total of 64 patients were diagnosed with brucellosis over the study period. The median age was 31.5 years and 73.4% were male. The majority (95.2%) presented with fever, followed by weight loss (51%), transaminitis (48.4%), peripheral arthritis/arthralgia (15.9%) and back pain (spondylodiscitis/sacroiliitis; 23.4%). Overall, 75.5% reported having consumed raw dairy products, while only 25.9% gave a positive history of animal contact. Conclusion: Patients with brucellosis presented with a wide range of clinical features, the most predominant of which was fever. The majority of patients were residents of or had recently visited Salalah and had consumed raw dairy products. These findings highlight the need for healthcare practitioners to maintain a high index of suspicion for this diagnosis. Moreover, further regulatory measures are necessary to oversee the sale of raw/unpasteurised dairy products.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Zoonoses Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Brucella/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omã/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(2): 281-289, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human brucellosis is a global health problem. Mexico is one of the main countries affected; timely diagnosis and serological tests are the basis for detection. AIM: To know the frequency of confirmed cases of brucellosis in different of Family Medicine Units of the Mexican Social Security Institute in the state of Puebla, Mexico. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in patients of both genders, adults and pediatrics, with clinical manifestations suggestive of brucellosis; serological tests were performed for the confirmatory diagnosis. RESULTS: Out of a total of 77 patients, 39 (50.6%) were positive, 21 (27.3%) cases coming out of infection, 9 (11.7%) were negative and 8 (10.4%) were defined with immunological memory; of positive cases, 32 (82.1%) were found in the adult group and 30 (76.9%) were female. CONCLUSION: Around half of samples were confirmed as brucellosis, the clinical manifestations of the patients studied were non-specific, which highlights the importance of laboratory diagnosis.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Adulto , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Testes Sorológicos
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1728-1731, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013863

RESUMO

Brucellosis, a neglected zoonotic disease acquired from contaminated food products, remains a public health concern worldwide. We describe an outbreak in which commercially sold camel milk containing Brucella melitensis was distributed across Israel. Whole-genome sequencing linked patients infected with B. melitensis to wholesale camel milk and unregulated livestock trade.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Camelus , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Israel , Leite
12.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105951, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study pursues three main objectives: 1) exploring the spatial distribution patterns of human brucellosis (HB); 2) identifying parameters affecting the disease spread; and 3) modeling and predicting the spatial distribution of HB cases in 2012-2016 and 2017-2018, respectively, in rural districts of Mazandaran province, Iran. METHODS: We collected data on the disease incidence, demography, ecology, climate, topography, and vegetation. Using the Global Moran's I statistic, we measured spatial autocorrelation between log (number of HB cases). We applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify areas with high and low risk of the disease. To investigate the relationships between the factors affecting the incidence of HB as input variables together and the factors with the log (number of HB cases) as an output variable, we used the statistical linear regression model and the Pearson correlation coefficient. Then, we implemented a GIS-based adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with two subtractive clustering and fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering methods to model and predict the spatial distribution of HB. RESULTS: Global Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated that the type of HB distribution is clustered in all years except 2014 and 2017, which are random. According to the Getis-Ord Gi* analysis, the location of the hot spots varied during 2012-2018. In 2012 and 2013, most of the hot spots were seen in the west of the province. While in 2018, they were mostly concentrated in the eastern regions of the province. The linear regression model indicated that the parameters affecting the incidence of HB are independent of each other and can explain only 25.3% of the total changes in the log (number of HB cases). The results of the Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there were positive relationships between vegetation, log (population), and the number of sheep and cattle (p-value < 0.05). The above-mentioned factors had the strongest positive correlation with the log (number of HB cases) (p-value < 0.01). These results may be due to the fact that vegetation regions are suitable for livestock grazing, attracting large crowds of people. Therefore, this will increase HB cases. We compared the results of subtractive clustering and FCM clustering methods by evaluation criteria (e.g., linear correlation coefficient (LCC) and mean absolute error (MAE)) in two phases of development and assessment of the ANFIS model. In the assessment phase, we predicted the spatial distribution of log (number of HB cases) in 2017 and 2018 by subtractive clustering (R2 = 0.699, LCC or R = 0.692, MAE = 0.509, MSE = 0.455) and by FCM clustering (R2 = 0.704, LCC or R = 0.697, MAE = 0.512, MSE = 0.448) that showed FCM clustering outperformed the subtractive clustering. CONCLUSION: The findings may have important implications for public health. The emergence of the hot spots in the east of the province can be a warning to the health system. Health authorities can use the findings of this study to predict the spread of HB and perform HB prevention programs. They can also investigate the factors affecting the prevalence of the disease, identify high-risk areas, and ultimately allocate resources to high-risk regions.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Lógica Fuzzy , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise Espacial , Animais , Clima , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Estatísticos
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e149, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985607

RESUMO

Brucellosis remains one of the main zoonoses worldwide. Epidemiological data on human brucellosis in Spain are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of inpatient brucellosis in Spain between 1997 and 2015. A retrospective longitudinal descriptive study was performed. Data were requested from the Health Information Institute of the Ministry of Health and Equality, which provided us with the Minimum Basic Data Set of patients admitted to the National Health System. We also obtained data published in the System of Obligatory Notifiable Diseases. A total of 5598 cases were registered. The period incidence rate was 0.67 (95% CI 0.65-0.68) cases per 100 000 person-years. We observed a progressive decrease in the number of cases and annual incidence rates. A total of 3187 cases (56.9%) came from urban areas. The group most at risk comprised men around the fifth decade of life. The average (±s.d.) hospital stay was 12.6 days (±13.1). The overall lethality rate of the cohort was 1.5%. The number of inpatients diagnosed with brucellosis decreased exponentially. The group of patients with the highest risk of brucellosis in our study was males under 45 years of age and of urban origin. The lethality rate has reduced to minimum values. It is probable that hospital discharge records could be a good database for the epidemiological analysis of the hospital management of brucellosis and offer a better information collection system than the notifiable diseases system (EDO in Spanish).


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brucella , Brucelose/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 257: 109072, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965789

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a prevalent disease in Costa Rica (CR), with an increasing number of human infections. Close to half of homes in CR have one or more dogs, corresponding to ∼1.4 million canines, most of them in the Central Valley within or near the cities of San José, Heredia, and Alajuela. From 302 dog sera collected from this region, 19 were positive for Brucella canis antigens, and five had antibodies against smooth lipopolysaccharide, suggesting infections by both B. canis and other Brucella species. B. canis strains were isolated in the Central Valley from 26 kennel dogs and three pet dogs, all displaying clinical signs of canine brucellosis. We detected three recent introductions of different B. canis strains in kennels: two traced from Mexico and one from Panama. Multiple locus-variable number tandem repeats (MLVA-16) and whole-genome sequencing (WGSA) analyses showed that B. canis CR strains comprise three main lineages. The tree topologies obtained by WGSA and MLVA-16 just partially agreed, indicating that the latter analysis is not suitable for phylogenetic studies. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis resolved five different B. canis groups, showing less resolution power than the MLVA-16 and WGSA. Lactobacillic acid was absent in linages I and II but present in linage III, supporting the recent introductions of B. canis strains from Mexico. B. canis displaying putative functional cyclopropane synthase for the synthesis of lactobacillic acid are phylogenetically intertwined with B. canis with non-functional protein, indicating that mutations have occurred independently in the various lineages.


Assuntos
Brucella canis/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Brucella canis/classificação , Brucella canis/patogenicidade , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , México , Panamá , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 252-261, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049112

RESUMO

Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis is endemic in the Republic of Azerbaijan but a complex mix of fiscal, political and technical constraints has impeded regulatory authority decision making for adoption of a sustainable national control programme. This paper reports a series of epidemiologic studies of the disease in animals and humans which we conducted between 2009 and 2020. A preliminary study and a subsequent larger study using vaccination of all non-pregnant female sheep and goats of breeding age and all females between 3 and 8 months with conjunctival Rev1 vaccine both recorded significant reduction in small ruminant seroprevalences. A case control study of winter pasture flocks found many case and control farmers used raw milk to make dairy products for sale, ate fresh cheese and sold dairy products in unregulated markets. Almost all farmers expressed willingness to pay a portion of the costs associated with elimination of brucellosis from their flocks. A pilot human study in 2009 led to a large study in 2017 which recorded an overall seroprevalence of 8.1% in humans. Persons in farm related occupations were at greater risk than urban persons and males were more likely to be seropositive than females. Risk factors included keeping small ruminants, using raw milk cheese and slaughtering animals whereas having heard education information about brucellosis and vaccinating against brucellosis were protective.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Brucelose/administração & dosagem , Brucella melitensis , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Azerbaijão/epidemiologia , Brucella melitensis/imunologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária
16.
Microb Pathog ; 155: 104921, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930414

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease affecting human and livestock health. This meta-epidemiological study is aiming to draw a comprehensive picture of the Brucella prevalence in Iranian livestock, trying to estimate most affected subgroups as well as the most appropriate methods and sampling conditions for brucellosis screening programs. A literature search was performed among data published between 1 January 1970 and July 2020. Different subgroups were compared according to animal species, gender, age, sampling season, sampling locations as well as the diagnostic method used for brucellosis screening. To determine heterogeneity of studies, Chi-squared test was used and a random effect model (REM) estimated the pooled prevalence among subgroups. A total of 45 publications, comprising 240 studies/data-reports, were evaluated. A significant increase in the number of studies was found over time (Coefficient = 0.151, p value < 0.001). The most studied species in Iran was cow (n = 75), followed by sheep (n = 63), goat (n = 45), camel (n = 40) and Buffalo (n = 16). The most identified Brucella species in livestock were Brucella melitensis (n = 50), Brucella abortus (n = 39), mix infection of B. melitensis and B. abortus (n = 11) and vaccine strain of B. melitensis Rev1 (n = 4). PCR-based tests were the most common applied diagnostic method (n = 140), while the highest prevalence rate of positive samples was obtained by indirect ELISA (69%). The prevalence of brucellosis was significantly higher in females (10.91%) compared to males (8.23%). The meta-epidemiological study of brucellosis in Iranian livestock would help to strengthen surveillance, control and prevention approaches to counter the spread of this zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Animais , Brucella abortus , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Gado , Ovinos
17.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(2): 109-114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis, which has profound public health and economic consequences, is endemic to Saudi Arabia. Brucella is transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals or by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. Manifestations of brucellosis are protean and require a combination of drugs to prevent the emergence of resistance. The WHO recommends the use of doxycycline with rifampicin or an aminoglycoside for brucellosis, but experts in Saudi Arabia prefer to avoid the use of rifampicin and aminoglycosides to lessen the possibility of emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: Compare rifampicin and doxycycline in the treatment of human brucellosis versus various combinations of doxycycline, with either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole), quinolones or aminoglycosides, and describe the clinical manifestations of brucellosis. DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Single tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Diagnosis of brucellosis was based on positive serology by standard agglutination test (SAT), or isolation by culture of Brucella species from blood, body fluid or tissue. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cure rate with the use of doxycycline in combination with either co-trimoxazole, quinolone or aminoglyco-sides in comparison to doxycycline/rifampicin and the clinical features of brucellosis. SAMPLE SIZE: 123. RESULTS: In 118 (96%) patients, the median IgG/IgM antibody titers at diagnosis and at 6 and 12 months were 1:1280/1:1280, 1:640/1:640, and 1:320/1:160, respectively. There were no differences in outcome between treatment regimens, as evidenced by a significant decrease in SAT titers and symptom resolution within six months. Five (4%) patients relapsed from non-adherence to treatment, but responded well to a second course of treatment. Blood cultures were positive in 50 patients (41%) patients. Fever, arthralgia and back pain were the most common symptoms. Good serological and clinical responses were achieved in 96% of patients. Relapse in 4% (n=5) was due to self-reported non-adherence. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective, relatively small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Doxycycline with co-trimoxazole is as efficacious as doxycycline/rifampicin in non-focal brucellosis and is preferred in countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 308-313, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the epidemiology of human brucellosis in the West Bank over the past 20 years, with a focus on recent trends in disease incidence from 2000 to 2020. METHODS: A long-term descriptive epidemiological study was conducted, based on the Palestinian Ministry of Health records from 2000 to 2020. RESULTS: The total number of cases was 7935 and the average annual incidence rate (AAIR) was 9.4 cases per 100 000 population. The AAIR ranged from 17.9 in 2000 to 15.7 cases per 100 000 population in 2020. The AAIR decreased markedly from 17.9 in 2000, to 2.9 cases per 100 000 population in 2012. A dramatic increase in cases started from 2013 onwards, reaching a peak in 2016. Higher incidence was reported in males (57.1%) and among the age group 11-20 years (29%). A higher number of cases was reported during April, May, and June. A total of 2850 patients (62.7%) reported contact with animals, and approximately 30% had at least one infected household member. CONCLUSIONS: The dramatic increase in human brucellosis in the West Bank was linked to the impaired control and surveillance of the disease. Mass vaccination, regular screenings, raising public health awareness, and monitoring of milk and homemade dairy products represent some recommended precautionary measures for coping with the epidemic.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 132, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. In Nepal, the presence of brucellosis in small ruminants, namely sheep and goats, has impacted farmers' livelihood and the food safety of consumers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Rupandehi district of Nepal during January to March 2020 to investigate the seroepidemiology and associated risk factors of brucellosis in the sheep and goat population. Altogether, 19 sheep and 60 goat farms in the district were visited. Owners were interviewed to get information on animals, including their management and movement patterns. Three hundred fifty-seven samples (80 sheep and 277 goat samples) were collected proportionately based on farm sizes. Each serum sample was tested with Rose Bengal Test and ELISA to estimate the seropositivity of brucellosis. Logistic regression was carried out to calculate corresponding odds ratios of each variable associated with detection of brucellosis. RESULTS: At the farm level, 31.6% (6/19; 95% CI: 12, 54%) of sheep farms and 3.3% (2/60, 95% CI: 0.9, 11.4%) of goat farms were seropositive to brucellosis. Out of 80 sheep serum samples, 12 (15%; 95% CI: 8.79-24.41%) and out of 277 goat serum samples, three (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.37-3.14%) were seropositive to brucellosis. Age greater than 1.5 years (OR = 5.56, 95% CI: 1.39, 29.38; p = 0.02) and herd size of greater than 100 (OR = 4.74, 95% CI: 1.23, 20.32, p = 0.03) were identified as significant risk factors for seropositivity of brucellosis in the sheep population. While in the goat population, none of the variables was identified as a significant risk factor. CONCLUSION: The study provides evidence that the older sheep and the sheep from the large herds were at higher risk of brucellosis. A control program should be put in place immediately in the sheep population because they may transmit infections to other livestock as they were regularly moved for grazing and selling purposes. Also, strict biosecurity measures should be implemented among pastoralists to prevent brucellosis transmission in them. We suggest further one health-based study to reveal the transmission dynamics of brucellosis between animals and humans.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucella/imunologia , Brucelose/sangue , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Cabras , Nepal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...