Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.369
Filtrar
2.
S D Med ; 73(2): 82-86, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135057

RESUMO

Suicide currently ranks as the second leading cause of death in the U.S. in youth ages 10-24, and in young adults ages 25-34. It is also the third leading cause of death in youth and young adults worldwide. Although there are multiple factors that increase one's risk for suicide, a history of a previous suicide attempt is likely one of the strongest predictors of a future completed suicide. Alcohol use, substance use, bullying, a history of mental illness, a family history of suicide, hopelessness, and many other risk factors exist that may increase one's risk for attempting suicide. Implementation of screening questionnaires such as the PHQ-A, PHQ-9, or the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale may help clinicians identify those patients who may be struggling with depression or who may be at risk for suicide. Research has shown that approximately 45 percent of patients who die by way of suicide visited their primary care provider within a month before completing suicide, so it is important that clinicians become comfortable with evaluating and talking with their patients about suicide.


Assuntos
Bullying , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Depressão , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 137: 105457, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058093

RESUMO

Automated vehicles (AVs), the wide adoption of which is expected to improve traffic safety significantly, are penetrating our roads. The AVs that are testing on public roads have been bullied by human road users. We are not sure whether the bullying incidents are isolated or will be common in the future. In a cross-national survey (N = 998 drivers in China and South Korea), we developed an eleven-item bullying intention questionnaire. We assumed and confirmed that, overall, participants had a greater intention to bully machine drivers than to bully other human drivers. Compared to the Korean participants, the Chinese participants reported a greater intention to drive aggressively. The correlations of their intention to bully AVs with their attitude toward AVs and with risk-benefit perception of AVs were weak. Male participants (vs. female participants) and younger participants (vs. older participants) reported a greater intention to drive aggressively. Drivers' aggressive behaviors toward AVs might be common in the future, which might increase traffic risk and hinder the implementation of this technology.


Assuntos
Direção Agressiva/psicologia , Automóveis , Bullying/psicologia , Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nursing ; 50(3): 48-52, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068707

RESUMO

Bullying can occur at all levels of nursing, and anyone could be targeted. This article offers strategies to identify bullying behaviors and discusses the prevalence of incivility in the nursing profession with a focus on vertical violence.


Assuntos
Bullying , Relações Interprofissionais , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Enfermagem/organização & administração , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
6.
PLoS Med ; 17(2): e1003021, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strengthening Evidence base on scHool-based intErventions for pRomoting adolescent health (SEHER) is a multicomponent, whole-school health promotion intervention delivered by a lay counsellor or a teacher in government-run secondary schools in Bihar, India. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the intervention after two years of follow-up and to evaluate the consistency of the findings observed over time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomised trial in which 75 schools were randomised (1:1:1) to receive the SEHER intervention delivered by a lay counsellor (SEHER Mitra [SM]) or a teacher (Teacher as SEHER Mitra [TSM]), respectively, alongside a standardised, classroom-based life skills Adolescence Education Program (AEP), compared to AEP alone (control group). The trial design was a repeat cross-sectional study. Students enrolled in grade 9 (aged 13-15 years) in the 2015-2016 academic year were exposed to the intervention for two years and the outcome assessment was conducted at three time points─at baseline in June 2015; 8-months follow-up in March 2016, when the students were still in grade 9; and endpoint at 17-months follow-up in December 2016 (when the students were in grade 10), the results of which are presented in this paper. The primary outcome, school climate, was measured with the Beyond Blue School Climate Questionnaire (BBSCQ). Intervention effects were estimated using mixed-effects linear or logistic regression, including a random effect to adjust for within-school clustering, minimisation variables, baseline cluster-level score of the outcome, and sociodemographic characteristics. In total, 15,232 students participated in the 17-month survey. Compared with the control group, the participants in the SM intervention group reported improvements in school climate (adjusted mean difference [aMD] = 7.33; 95% CI: 6.60-8.06; p < 0.001) and most secondary outcomes (depression: aMD = -4.64; 95% CI: -5.83-3.45; p < 0.001; attitude towards gender equity: aMD = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.65-1.40; p < 0.001; frequency of bullying: aMD = -2.77; 95% CI: -3.40 to -2.14; p < 0.001; violence victimisation: odds ratio [OR] = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04-0.14; p < 0.001; and violence perpetration: OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09-0.29; p < 0.001). There was no evidence of an intervention effect in the TSM group compared with control group. The effects of the lay counsellor-delivered intervention were larger for most outcomes at 17-months follow-up compared with those at 8 months: school climate (effect size [ES; 95% CI] = 2.23 [1.97-2.50] versus 1.88 [1.44-2.32], p < 0.001); depression (ES [95% CI] = -1.19 [-1.56 to -0.82] versus -0.27 [-0.44 to -0.11], p < 0.001); attitude towards gender equity (ES [95% CI] = 0.53 [0.27-0.79] versus 0.23 [0.10-0.36], p < 0.001); bullying (ES [95% CI] = -2.22 [-2.84 to -1.60] versus -0.47 [-0.61 to -0.33], p < 0.001); violence victimisation (OR [95% CI] = 0.08 [0.04-0.14] versus 0.62 [0.46-0.84], p < 0.001); and violence perpetration (OR [95% CI] = 0.16 [0.09-0.29] versus 0.68 [0.48-0.96], p < 0.001), suggesting incremental benefits with an extended intervention. A limitation of the study is that 27% of baseline participants did not complete the 17-month outcome assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The trial showed that the second-year outcomes were similar to the first-year outcomes, with no effect of the teacher-led intervention and larger benefits on school climate and adolescent health accruing from extending lay counsellor-delivered intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02907125.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Atitude , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Meio Social , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sexismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0223235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971942

RESUMO

Workplace bullying is a significant cause of stress at work. Existing studies, primarily based on Western-oriented frameworks and instruments, have largely overlooked the role of culture. This oversight questions whether understandings generated from those studies can be generalised to employees working in Eastern countries, which differ on important cultural dimensions. To date, there is no Eastern-based instrument for measuring workplace bullying. In two studies, we developed and validated such a measure: the Malaysian Workplace Bullying Index (MWBI). Study 1 entailed a content validation of bullying behaviours via written records (diaries) completed by Malaysian bullying victims. The 19 validated behaviours formed the basis of Study 2, with additions from the wider literature. Study 2 used survey data collected at three time-points from Malaysian employees exposed to bullying at work. The final result was an 18-item scale with two nine-item factors: work-related bullying and person-related bullying. Overall, the MWBI is a psychometrically sound measure of workplace bullying in Eastern workplaces.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Emoções , Psiquiatria , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cultura , Emprego/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(1): 19-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms in medical resident are associated with workplace bullying. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in medical residents. Moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms were defined as greater than 8 points on the International Prostate Symptom Score. Residents were classified as bullied if their total score on the Negative Acts Questoinnarie-Revised, was above 41 points. Perceived bullying was considered as present when any positive answer was documented in a specific question to measure this variable. Bivariate analysis to determine statistical differences between presence of lower urinary tract symptoms and exposure to both types of bullying was performed using χ² . The magnitude and directions of all associations were determined by calculating the Odds Ratio with 95% level of confidence. RESULTS: 209 residents were included, 63% men; 68% reported at least one lower urinary tract symptom, of which, 56% were mild, 10% moderate and 2% severe. The prevalence of bullying was 42% while perceived bullying was present in 39%. Residents with ≥8 points on the International Prostate Symptom Score had higher risk of being exposed to bullying (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-6.7, p=0.01) and/or perceived bullying (OR: 3.1 95% CI: 1.3-7.5, p=0.00). Female gender had greater risk than man for presenting lower urinary tract symptoms at basal state (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-6.6, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Medical residents with moderate or severe urinary tract symptoms may be related to bullying. Being a woman is associated with an increased risk of developing LUTS.


Assuntos
Bullying , Internato e Residência , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior , Médicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/epidemiologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/psicologia , Masculino , Médicos/psicologia , Prevalência
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 103-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929215

RESUMO

Background: Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence (WPV) that can affect job performance and health of the workers. Aims: This study sought to determine the prevalence of psychological WPV among employees working in a tertiary health institution in a South-eastern state of Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done in 2018 among healthcare workers at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu State using a pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Study Questionnaire. Proportionate sampling method was used to select 412 respondents. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 23 using Chi-square test of significance and P value set at 0.05. Results: Prevalence of psychological violence among the participants was 49.7%. Verbal abuse was the most form of psychological violence experienced 168 (40.8%) followed by bullying 29 (7.0%) while sexual abuse was reported by 8 (1.9%). Majority 114 (55.6%) of the perpetrators of the psychological violence were patient's relative, whereas 48 (23.4%) were staff members. In response to the violence, 58 (28.6%) of the healthcare workers took no action, while only 2 (1%) completed incident/accident form. Bullying was statistically significantly higher in healthcare workers who have spent less than 10 years (χ2 = 3.978 P = 0.046). There was a significant association between verbal abuse and frequent interaction with patients (χ2 = 4.757, P = 0.029). Conclusion: This study has shown that the prevalence of psychological WPV was high among healthcare workers in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State. Therefore, there is need for the hospital management to develop policy interventions specific to psychological WPV.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Relações Profissional-Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia
10.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(3): 129-138, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Para athletes reap significant health benefits from sport but are vulnerable to non-accidental harms. Little is known about the types and impacts of non-accidental harms Para athletes face. In this literature review, we summarise current knowledge and suggest priorities for future research related to non-accidental harms in Para athletes. DESIGN: Six electronic databases were searched between August and September 2017. 2245 articles were identified in the initial title/abstract review, and 202 records were selected for full-text review following preliminary screening. Two independent examiners evaluated each full text, and eight citations were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus and Academic Search Premier. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Inclusion criteria: (A) human participants; (B) written in English; (C) descriptive, cohort and case series, case-control, qualitative, mixed methods studies and all clinical trials; and (D) data pertain to harassment/abuse of youth, recreational, collegiate, national-level and/or elite-level athletes with a physical and/or intellectual impairment. RESULTS: Most studies focused on young, visually impaired athletes and approximately half of all studies described high rates of bullying and its social implications. One study confirmed remarkably high rates of psychological, physical and sexual harms in Para athletes, compared with able-bodied peers. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying in young, visually impaired athletes is described most commonly in the available literature. Due to the limited amount of data, the prevalence of non-accidental harms in Para athletes remains unclear and information on trends over time is similarly unavailable.


Assuntos
Bullying , Abuso Físico , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos
11.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1690846, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787035

RESUMO

Problem: Student mistreatment represents an ongoing challenge for US medical schools. Students experiencing mistreatment may become marginalized and cynical, and they have higher rates of burnout, depression and substance use disorders. Although numerous attempts to eliminate mistreatment have been proposed, best practices remain elusive. We formed a unique student-faculty collaboration (the Ending Mistreatment Task Force) that allowed all voices to be heard and enabled identification of five interventions to reduce mistreatment.Intervention: The EMTF developed and implemented five key interventions: 1) a shared mistreatment definition; 2) measures to increase faculty accountability, including adding professionalism expectations to faculty members' contracts and performance reviews; 3) a Professionalism Office to respond promptly to students' reports of mistreatment and provide feedback to faculty; 4) tools to help teachers provide authentic learning environments for students, while addressing generational misunderstandings; and 5) student-produced videos, helping faculty understand the impact of mistreatment as seen through students' eyes.Context: These interventions occurred at one medical school where mistreatment reports were consistently above national averages.Impact: Over 6 years, the interventions helped reduce the rate of student-reported mistreatment by 36% compared with a 4% decline across all US medical schools.Lessons: The collaborations between students and faculty helped each party identify unexpected misunderstandings and challenges. We learned that students want hard questions, although faculty are often afraid to challenge students for fear of offending them or being reported. We clarified differences between mistreatment and sub-optimal learning environments and openly discussed the pervasive opinion that 'some' mistreatment is important for learning. We also identified ongoing challenges, including the need to solicit residents' perspectives regarding mistreatment and develop proper responses to disrespectful comments directed at patients, family and colleagues. The collaboration reinforced students' and faculty members' shared commitment to upholding a respectful learning and clinical care environment and ending mistreatment.


Assuntos
Bullying , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Relações Interprofissionais , Assédio Sexual , Estudantes de Medicina , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 14: [1-9], 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1096339

RESUMO

Objetivo: categorizar a vitimização por bullying e cyberbullying em adolescentes. Método: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo, exploratório, transversal, com estudantes adolescentes de duas escolas públicas e duas particulares que respondeream um questionário, em seguida, empregou-se o instrumento Multidimentional Peer Victimation Scale adaptado para a mensuração do bullying. Utilizou-se o teste Kruskal-Wallis para a comparação entre médias e a correlação de Pearson para relacionar as variáveis estudadas com as ocorrências de vitimização. Resultados: revela-se que aproximadamente 78% dos estudantes das escolas relataram, pelo menos, uma ocorrência de bullying nos últimos seis meses e 17% sofreram metade das vitimizações totais no mesmo período. Mostraram-se, pela média do bullying entre as escolas, diferenças significantes, e a comparação com dados da literatura indicou preocupação nos graus moderado e severo. Conclusão: conclui-se que as classificações das vitimizações foram consistentes com a literatura. Observaram-se diferenças nas características das vítimas nos diferentes contextos educacionais com a premência de ações interdisciplinares contra o bullying.(AU)


Objective: to categorize victimization by bullying and cyberbullying in adolescents. Method: this is a quantitative, descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional study with adolescent students from two public schools and two private schools that answered a questionnaire, then the Multidimentional Peer Victimation Scale instrument was used, adapted to measure bullying. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare means and Pearson's correlation to relate the variables studied with the occurrences of victimization. Results: it is revealed that approximately 78% of school students reported at least one occurrence of bullying in the last six months and 17% suffered half of the total victimizations in the same period. Significant differences were shown by the mean of bullying between schools, and the comparison with data in the literature indicated concern in the moderate and severe degrees. Conclusion: it is concluded that the victimization classifications were consistent with the literature. Differences in the characteristics of the victims were observed in different educational contexts with the urgency of interdisciplinary actions against bullying.(AU)


Objetivo: categorizar la victimización por bullying y cyberbullying en adolescentes. Método: este es un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio, transversal con estudiantes adolescentes de dos escuelas públicas y dos escuelas privadas que respondieron a un cuestionario, luego se usó el instrumento Multidimentional Peer Victimation Scale adaptado para medir el acoso escolar. La prueba de Kruskal-Wallis se utilizó para comparar medias y la correlación de Pearson para relacionar las variables estudiadas con los casos de victimización. Resultados: se revela que aproximadamente el 78% de los estudiantes escolares informaron al menos una ocurrencia de acoso escolar en los últimos seis meses y el 17% sufrió la mitad de las victimizaciones totales en el mismo período. Las diferencias significativas se mostraron por la media de la intimidación entre las escuelas, y la comparación con los datos en la literatura indicó preocupación en los grados moderados y severos. Conclusión: se concluye que las clasificaciones de victimización fueron consistentes con la literatura. Se observaron diferencias en las características de las víctimas en diferentes contextos educativos con la urgencia de acciones interdisciplinarias contra el acoso escolar.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudantes , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Cyberbullying , Saúde Pública , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
13.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(1): 9-14, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), workplace bullying victimisation and bullying behaviours to subordinates among Japanese workers. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based cross-sectional survey among workers who had enacted 0, 1 and ≥2 types of bullying behaviours that had been directed towards subordinates in the past 3 years (n=309 for each group, total N=927). We assessed ACEs with questionnaires about adverse experiences at home and bullying victimisation at school. The total and controlled direct effects of ACEs on the number of bullying behaviours to subordinates were estimated from a baseline-adjusted and a direct-effect marginal structural ordinal logistic model, respectively. RESULTS: There was a positive dose-response association between the level of ACEs and the frequency of workplace bullying victimisation, as well as the number of bullying behaviours enacted at work after adjustment for sex, age and childhood socioeconomic status (both p<0.001). Workers in the highest tertile of ACEs compared with the lowest tertile had 3.15 (95% CI 2.20 to 4.50) times higher odds of having perpetrated more bullying behaviours at work. The magnitude of the effect was 2.57 (95% CI 1.70 to 3.90) via pathways not mediated by workplace bullying victimisation in a direct-effect marginal structural model. CONCLUSIONS: People who had ACEs were at increased risk later in life of enacting bullying behaviours at work. Current findings may be useful to prevent bullying behaviours at work.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 17(2): 297-317, jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043053

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar un estudio de caso situacional sobre el acoso homo-lesbofóbico en la educación preuniversitaria en Cuba, a partir del testimonio de tres personas que estudiaron en diferentes Institutos Preuniversitarios Vocacionales de Ciencias Exactas (IPVCE), tomadas como muestra de máxima variación. Se llevó a cabo una serie de entrevistas semiestructuradas que arrojaron como resultado que estos espacios de educación interna resultan propicios para el ejercicio del acoso basado en la presunción de una orientación sexual diferente. El personal docente no parece preparado para enfrentar estos episodios. Las secuelas en los participantes, víctimas o no, son graves. Quede este estudio exploratorio como primer paso para futuras profundizaciones.


Abstract (analytical) This research involved a situational case study on homo-lesbo-phobic bullying in pre-university education in Cuba based on the testimony of three people who studied in different educational institutions who were taken as a sample of maximum variation. A series of interviews was conducted that highlighted how these internal education spaces are conducive to harassment based on the presumption of a different sexual orientation. Teachers are not prepared to manage these episodes. The consequences for participants, both victims and others, are serious. This exploratory study is a first step towards further in-depth research on this problem.


Resumo (analítico) O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar um estudo de caso situacional sobre o bullying homo-lesbofóbico no ensino pré-universitário em Cuba a partir do depoimento de três pessoas que estudaram em diferentes IPVC, tomadas como amostra de máxima variação. Foi realizada uma série de entrevistas que mostraram que esses espaços internos de educação são propícios ao exercício do assédio com base na presunção de uma orientação sexual diferente. O corpo docente não parece preparado para enfrentar esses episódios. As consequências nos participantes, vítimas ou não, são graves. Deixa-se este estudo exploratório como um primeiro passo para um futuro aprofundamento.


Assuntos
Bullying , Homofobia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861365

RESUMO

This study has three objectives: to examine whether adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight differ from others in terms of offline victimization at school, cybervictimization, self-esteem, and difficulties relating to peers; to examine the possible effects of offline and cybervictimization on self-esteem and difficulties relating to peers; and to examine the possible moderating role of perceiving oneself as overweight on those effects. Previously validated questionnaires were applied to a sample of 3145 adolescents in Asturias (Spain). Descriptive, inferential, correlational, and structural equation analyses were performed. Adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight reported being victims of both offline victimization and most forms of cybervictimization to a greater extent than those who did not perceive themselves as overweight. They also reported lower self-esteem and more peer difficulties (shyness or social anxiety). In both groups of adolescents, victimization and cybervictimization were correlated with each other, both types of victimization had direct, negative effects on self-esteem, and self-esteem in turn had a direct, negative effect on peer difficulties. Furthermore, offline victimization had a direct, positive effect on peer difficulties. Perceiving oneself as overweight moderated the effect of self-esteem on peer difficulties. In adolescents perceiving themselves as overweight, low self-esteem was a stronger risk factor of peer difficulties than in the rest of the adolescents. With high overall self-esteem there were no significant differences in peer difficulties between the adolescents perceiving themselves as overweight and the rest of the adolescents.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877683

RESUMO

From the theoretical framework offered by the self-determination theory, the objective of the study was to test a predictor model of bullying behaviors based on the physical education teacher's supportive style, the students' satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and self-determined motivation. A total of 608 students of both sexes, between 11 and 15 years of age, from primary and secondary schools in the province of Alicante (Spain) voluntarily completed questionnaires to measure each of the variables under study. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The results showed that the autonomy supportive style positively predicted the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, which, in turn, positively predicted self-determined motivation towards physical education. The latter negatively predicted bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. The controlling style presented inverse relationships to those of the autonomy supportive style. These results are in line with the positions of the self-determination theory and underline the potential responsibility of physical education teachers in the struggle against bullying, and how, by supporting autonomy and avoiding a controlling style, they can help reduce bullying perpetration and victimization.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Autonomia Pessoal , Satisfação Pessoal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881733

RESUMO

Bullying affects thousands of teenagers worldwide and has devastating consequences. Various studies suggest that the personality of teenagers is a risk profile for bullying. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the personality of teenagers aged 14 to 16 years from three education centres located in the province of Seville (Spain) and bullying in any of its victim or aggressor roles. A multi-centre cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted in three education centres in the province of Seville (Spain). The sample consisted of 93 students. In order to measure the two main variables, the Bull-S test was used for bullying, and the EPQ-J questionnaire was used for personality traits. A descriptive and correlation analysis was performed between variables. The results showed that 14% (n = 13) of the sample were detected as victims and another 14% (n = 13) were detected as aggressors. Statistically significant differences were found between neuroticism (p = 0.044; Phi = 0.615), sincerity (p = 0.016; V de Cramer = 0.474), and anti-social behaviour (p = 0.007; Phi = 0.620) with the variables victim/aggressor. Bullies are typically males who score high on neuroticism and anti-social behaviour, with a tendency towards social dissimulation.


Assuntos
Bullying , Personalidade , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861426

RESUMO

Weight-based teasing (WBT) by family members is commonly reported among youth and is associated with eating and mood-related psychopathology. Military dependents may be particularly vulnerable to family WBT and its sequelae due to factors associated with their parents' careers, such as weight and fitness standards and an emphasis on maintaining one's military appearance; however, no studies to date have examined family WBT and its associations within this population. Therefore, adolescent military dependents at-risk for adult obesity and binge-eating disorder were studied prior to entry in a weight gain prevention trial. Youth completed items from the Weight-Based Victimization Scale (to assess WBT by parents and/or siblings) and measures of psychosocial functioning, including the Beck Depression Inventory-II, The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Social Adjustment Scale. Eating pathology was assessed via the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and height and fasting weight were measured to calculate BMIz. Analyses of covariance, adjusting for relevant covariates including BMIz, were conducted to assess relationships between family WBT, eating pathology, and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 128 adolescent military dependents (mean age: 14.35 years old, 54% female, 42% non-Hispanic White, mean BMIz: 1.95). Nearly half the sample (47.7%) reported family WBT. Adjusting for covariates, including BMIz, family WBT was associated with greater eating pathology, poorer social functioning and self-esteem, and more depressive symptoms (ps ≤ 0.02). Among military dependents with overweight and obesity, family WBT is prevalent and may be linked with eating pathology and impaired psychosocial functioning; prospective research is needed to elucidate the temporal nature of these associations.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bullying , Família , Militares , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicopatologia , Autoimagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA