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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 160-174, ene.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1155521

RESUMO

Há crescente interesse sobre o comportamento abusivo sofrido por trabalhadores nas cozinhas de restaurantes comerciais, uma vez que agressões físicas e verbais parecem ser comuns neste contexto laboral. Este estudo objetivou identificar a prevalência do assédio moral e descrever as características das situações em que ele ocorre entre trabalhadores da gastronomia. Participaram do estudo 160 indivíduos com graduação em gastronomia, sendo que 95 eram do sexo feminino (59,4%), com idade média de 30,81 anos (DP = 8,34). Os mesmos responderam ao Questionário Biossociodemográfico e Laboral e ao Questionário de Atos Negativos, cujos dados foram analisados descritivamente. Os resultados indicaram elevados índices de prevalência de assédio moral (63,1%) e de violência psicológica (33,8%), que alertam sobre a importância de divulgar informações sobre o assédio moral e seus prejuízos, visando a uma maneira mais saudável de gerenciar e trabalhar na cozinha.


Great interest in abusive behavior suffered by workers in commercial restaurant kitchens was observed. In this work context, verbal and physical aggression seems to be common. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of moral harassment and describe the characteristics of the situations in which it occurs among gastronomy workers. Participants were 160 individuals undergraduate in gastronomy and 95 were female (59.4%), that have an average age of 30.81 years (SD = 8.34). The participants answered the Biosociodemographic and Labor Questionnaire and the Negative Acts Questionnaire, whose data were analyzed descriptively. The results indicated high prevalence rates of moral harassment (63.1%) and psychological violence (33.8%), which warn the importance of disclosing information about bullying and its harms, aiming at a healthier way to manage and work in the kitchen.


Una creciente preocupación por el comportamiento abusivo que sufren los trabajadores en las cocinas de restaurantes comerciales ha sido observada. Esta agresión puede ser verbal o física y parece ser común en este contexto laboral. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia del bullying y describir las características de las situaciones en las que ocurre entre los trabajadores de la gastronomía. Los participantes fueron 160 individuos con un título en gastronomía, de los cuales 95 eran mujeres (59.4%), con una edad promedio de 30.81 años (DE = 8.34). Los participantes respondieron el Cuestionario Biosociodemográfico y Laboral y el Cuestionario de Actos Negativos, cuyos datos fueron analizados descriptivamente. Los resultados indicaron altas tasas de prevalencia de acoso moral (63.1%) y violencia psicológica (33.8%), que advierten sobre la importancia de divulgar información sobre el acoso y sus daños, con el objetivo de una forma más saludable de manejar y trabajar en la cocina.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Restaurantes , Trabalho , Inquéritos e Questionários , Culinária , Agressão , Bullying , Violência no Trabalho , Categorias de Trabalhadores
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bullying victimization and its effect on symptoms of depression have received attention from researchers, but few studies have considered the potential mechanism. The aim of this study was to examine a moderated mediation model for the association between bullying victimization and depressive symptoms in terms of it being mediated by social anxiety, and investigated whether sleep duration would show moderating effects in this relationship. METHODS: In this study, there were 2956 students, who completed three questionnaires, including a bullying victimization scale, as well as a social anxiety and epidemiologic studies depression scale. RESULTS: Bullying victimization's effects on depressive symptoms were mediated by social anxiety. Furthermore, sleep duration moderated the relationship between bullying victimization and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The research contributes by clarifying the mechanisms underlying the relationship between bullying victimization and depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudantes
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808808

RESUMO

Violence in adolescent and young couples is a major issue given its high prevalence and the serious consequences that it brings. For this reason, this research has stated two main objectives. In the first place, to ascertain the level of agreement between both members of the couple both with regard to occurrence and frequency of violence. Second, to ascertain the level of agreement on the frequency of use of conflict resolution strategies in problematic situations in 141 heterosexual couples. The age of the sample was between 17 and 30. The tools used were the DVQ-R questionnaire and the Spanish adaptation by Bonache, Ramírez-Santana, and González-Mendez (2016) of the Inventory of Conflict Resolution Styles (CSRI)The results indicate that of the 141 couples in the sample, 112 were identified as violent, thus indicating a high prevalence of violence within their partner relationships. Regarding the levels of agreement and accordance, statistically significant discrepancies are reflected in the perception of violence between men and women, analyzing both roles (aggression and victimization). Finally, also noteworthy is use of the strategy of negative involvement in conflicts, with significant differences in relation to sex; it is the girls who make the most use of this strategy, and the high level of agreement on the frequency of problem-solving is reflected on that strategy.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Negociação , Violência
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808837

RESUMO

This research article investigates the effect of organisational climate and technology usage on employees' physiological and emotional health damage resulting from face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying at the workplace. Furthermore, we investigated emotional intelligence as a coping strategy to moderate employee physiological and emotional health damage. The research used a quantitative research design. A five-point Likert-scale questionnaire was used to collect data from a multistage sample of 500 officials from Pakistan's four service sectors. Results revealed that organisational climate and technology usage are negatively related to face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying at the workplace. At the same time, workplace bullying adversely affects an employee's emotional and physiological health. However, emotional intelligence can reduce an employee's emotional health damage due to workplace bullying. Thus, we suggest incorporating emotional intelligence training at the workplace to minimise the devastating effects of face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying on employees' physical and emotional health.


Assuntos
Bullying , Cyberbullying , Emoções , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tecnologia , Local de Trabalho
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807409

RESUMO

Knowledge of the processes of aggression and victimization in couple relationships cannot be approached through the treatment of single variables. It needs a multidimensional perspective that establishes a web of relationships between variables of different types. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to explore the interrelationships between and interdependence of empathy, moral disengagement, homophobic attitudes, and prejudice as explanatory variables of discrimination and violence towards couples due to gender issues; and (ii) to delimit predictive indicators of the manifestation of aggressive attitudes and prejudices towards homosexual couples. The sample comprised 778 young people of ages 18 to 24 years (M = 19.9; SD = 1.6). Through the use of four instruments, it was found that empathy is a strong protector against homophobic attitudes, while moral disengagement is a predictor of aggressive attitudes towards same-sex couples. The results make it possible to delimit homophobic profiles and obtain predictive indicators that will be key elements in the design of programs and measures to prevent violence towards couples for reasons of gender.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Violência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799679

RESUMO

Cyberbullying victimization is associated with mental health problems and reported to occur more in nonheterosexual orientation youth (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ)) than among heterosexual youth. Parental support may protect against mental health problems after being victimized, but nonsupportive parental influences may also exacerbate harm. This study investigated whether parenting dimensions (autonomy support, psychological control) moderated the associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems among heterosexual and LGBQ adolescents. An anonymous survey was completed by 1037 adolescents (M age = 15.2 ± 1.9, 50% female). Regression analyses examined associations between victimization, sexual orientation, and mental health problems, and investigated the moderating role of parenting. Both forms of victimization were associated with higher mental health problems. LGBQ youth experienced more depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation than heterosexual youth. Lower levels of parental psychological control and higher levels of autonomy support were related to having fewer mental health problems. However, perceived autonomy support appeared less protective when adolescents experienced more frequent victimization. Moreover, parental psychological control was related to heightened risk for suicidal plans specifically among LGBQ youth and also exacerbated the association between cyberbullying victimization and stress among LGBQ youth. These findings underscore the need to address parenting in whole-school antibullying and mental health promotion programs.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar , Comportamento Sexual
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801832

RESUMO

Mediation analysis has been confirmed as a very useful statistical tool in the social sciences, especially in school-related studies. This type of analysis was used in the present study to examine the mediating role of classroom climate (measured with the classroom environmental scale), categorized into three dimensions, namely involvement, affiliation, and teacher support, on the relationship between peer victimization and peer aggression. The participants consisted of 2011 adolescents (50.67% boys and 49.32% girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.17; SD = 1.47), enrolled in schools in Andalusia (Spain). Findings revealed a significant direct relationship of all the dimensions. They also revealed that teacher support was the only dimension that mediates in the relationship between peer violence and peer aggression. The results and their implications for improving classroom climate and school violence are discussed.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Agressão , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803516

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that cyber victimization is consistently associated with higher problem behaviors such as problematic technology use. However, little research has examined specific individual dispositions that can serve as a buffer in the link between cyber victimization and higher problematic uses of technology (i.e., problematic Internet, smartphone, and social media), such as core self-evaluations (CSE). A convenience sample of 1211 high school students, 657 females, 554 males, aged 12 to 18 (mean age = 13.74) completed measures of cyber victimization, CSE, and different problematic technology-related behaviors. Results of correlational analysis revealed significant associations between cyber victimization and all problematic uses of technology. Our findings also suggested that high CSE weakened the relationship between cyber victimization and two of the three problematic uses of technology. Consistent with social compensation theory, cyber victimization was concurrently linked to different problematic uses of technology. Low CSE also strengthened the link between cyber victimization and problems use of smartphones and social media and also showed a marginally significant interaction with cyber victimization in predicting problematic Internet use. Implications of these preliminary findings are discussed and avenues for further research are offered.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Criança , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Tecnologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805596

RESUMO

In China, researchers have translated and validated several scales to measure victimization behavior. The aim of the present study was to validate the Chinese version of the victimization subscale of the Revised Peer Experiences Questionnaire (RPEQ) among primary school students. Primary school students aged between 8 and 13 years old (n = 1048) were asked to complete the Chinese version of the victimization subscale of the RPEQ and related scales. We examined internal consistency and the factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Depression, peer relationship, and sleep scales were used to measure construct validity. The CFA results suggested that the four-factor model had a good model fit. The results indicated that internal reliability was good (Cronbach's α = 0.83). Construct validity was mostly supported by scores on the Chinese version of the victimization subscale of the RPEQ that strongly and positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with peer relationship and sleep quality. The present study indicated that the Chinese version of the victimization subscale of the RPEQ has adequate reliability and validity for measuring bullying problems among Chinese primary school students.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , China , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Psychol ; 155(4): 441-456, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830888

RESUMO

This longitudinal study examined the link between peer victimization and relational aggression by testing the mediating roles of sadness and anger rumination, with attention to gender differences, among Chinese adolescents. Survey measures were administrated to 2,152 junior middle school students at two time points, one year apart. The results found that self-reported peer victimization (but not peer-nominated victimization) positively predicted relational aggression one year later, and this link was completely mediated by sadness and anger rumination. Specifically, perceived peer victimization exerted a positive influence on both sadness and anger rumination, thereby increasing adolescents' tendency to exhibit relational aggression one year later. Furthermore, victimized boys' elevated relational aggression was predominantly accounted for by their high sadness rumination, whereas victimized girls' elevated relational aggression was mainly due to their great anger rumination. Such a gender-difference suggests that interventions to reduce adolescents' externalizing problems may be most effective when tailored to each gender specifically.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Agressão , Ira , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Tristeza , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803073

RESUMO

Recently, studies linking the emotion of dispositional gratitude to cyberbullying have attracted attention. However, this is still a seminal research area that requires further scientific studies. Through longitudinal data, this study aims to analyze the mitigating effect of gratitude on cybervictimization and two indicators of adolescent subjective well-being, namely school and life satisfaction. To this end, 221 adolescents attending private schools in Peru (age: mean (M) = 12.09; standard deviation (SD) = 0.89) were selected to respond to a self-administered questionnaire in two waves that were six months apart. Descriptive data show that 27% of cybervictims also suffer other types of traditional bullying. The overlaps between forms of bullying contribute to higher probabilities of experiencing low school and life satisfaction compared to non-victims after six months. The results of the moderation analysis show that experience high gratitude help students to maintain stable levels of life satisfaction regardless of the prevalence of cyberbullying after six months The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of fostering gratitude from early ages.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Humanos , Lactente , Internet , Satisfação Pessoal , Peru , Fatores de Proteção , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(2): e00037220, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729302

RESUMO

Mobbing, or bullying in the workplace, has gained relevance in recent decades due to its growing magnitude and negative effects on workers' health. There are various approaches for studying the issue. However, thus far the evidence is scarce in Latin America and is focused on specific samples. This study aims to analyze workplace bullying and its association with mental health in the wage-earning population and to determine the extent to which this association is modified by gender. A survey was conducted with a sample of 1,995 male and female salaried workers in Chile's three main metropolitan areas (Greater Santiago, Greater Valparaíso, and Greater Concepción) with three-stage random selection (blocks, households, and individuals). Prevalence rates for depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic medication, and stress were 10.9%, 12.8%, and 13%, respectively, and there was a strong relationship between mental health variables and workplace bullying, which persisted in the adjusted models. When comparing this association in the models stratified by gender, no significant differences were observed between men and women.


Assuntos
Bullying , Saúde Mental , Brasil , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
13.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 1-9, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies have used cross-sectional designs, very few of which have examined the bidirectional relationship between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms. This study examined bidirectional relationships among adolescents' cybervictimization, peer pressure, and depressive symptoms, and the mediating effect of peer pressure. As a further expansion of the present study, we examined whether these relationships would vary as the roles of gender and economic stress. METHODS: Participants were 2,407 adolescents (Mage = 12.75, SD = 0.58; nmale = 1191). They provided data in two waves (12 months apart). RESULTS: Results showed that there were significant bidirectional relationships between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms and peer pressure. Peer pressure significantly mediated the relationship between cybervictimization at Time 1 and depressive symptoms at Time2. For males, the relationship between cybervictimization at Time 1 and depressive symptoms at Time2 became stronger. For females, there was no significant bidirectional relationship between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms. In addition, family socioeconomic status and adolescents perceived economic stress did not moderate the longitudinal relationships among cybervictimization, peer pressure, and depressive symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Different types of victimization needed to be included. In addition, more waves data served to explore the mediating effects. CONCLUSIONS: The increase of cybervictimization predicts higher levels of adolescents' depressive symptoms, but only for males and not for females. Peer pressure mediates the relationship between cybervictimization and depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669764

RESUMO

(1) Background: Cyberbullying is a social concern in adolescents. The practice of physical activity is a key factor in protection against cyberbullying related to the multiple psychological benefits. Therefore, the study sets out to analyse the relationship between amount, types, enjoyment of physical activity and performance in physical education with cyberbullying. (2) Methods: A sample of 867 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from two schools in Andalusia (Spain) was studied. A computer-based questionnaire given in the classroom was used, with two questions about the type of physical activity, one on physical education performance, the Scale of Enjoyment of Physical Activity (PACES) and the Spanish version of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ). (3) Results: Clear relationships were found between the practice of physical activity and cybervictimisation. However, less involvement has been observed among girls who practice physical activity in cyberaggression. (4) Conclusions: In relation to the types of physical activity, it seems that practising physical activities that involve competition can help to develop defence mechanisms against cyberaggression, as well as improve values to be less involved in cyberaggression.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Prazer
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent victims of bullying are more likely to experience a range of mental health problems. Although research has investigated the relationship between bullying victimization and various addictive behaviors, the impact of bullying on problem video gaming (PVG) remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and PVG as mediated by the presence of internalizing and externalizing problems. METHODS: Survey responses were collected from 6353 high-school students aged 12 to 18. Measures include bullying victimization (physical, verbal, cyber and indirect), internalizing (e.g., anxious and depressive symptoms) and externalizing (e.g., aggressive and delinquent problems) problems, and PVG (measured by the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form). RESULTS: Mediation analyses indicated that the relationship between verbal bullying and PVG was completely mediated by the presence of internalizing and externalizing problems. The relationship between physical bullying and PVG was completely mediated by externalizing problems and the relationship between cyberbullying and PVG was completely mediated by internalizing problems. Lastly, the relationship between indirect bullying and PVG was partially mediated by externalizing and internalizing problems. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that different types of bullying victimization are differentially associated with PVG, with mental health symptoms significantly mediating this relationship.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estudantes
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 140, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is believed that clients with psychological trauma experiences have a poor prognosis with regard to treatment participation and outcomes for substance use disorders. However, knowledge on the effect of the number of trauma experiences is scarce. METHODS: Using data from drug use disorder (DUD) treatment in Denmark, we assessed the impact of having experienced multiple potentially traumatic experiences on DUD treatment efficacy. Baseline and follow-up data from 775 young participants (mean age = 20.2 years, standard deviation = 2.6) recruited at nine treatment centers were included in analyses. RESULTS: Analyses showed that participants who were exposed multiple trauma experiences also reported a significantly higher intake of cannabis at treatment entry, and a lower well-being score than participants who reported less types or no types of victimization experiences. During treatment, patients with multiple types of trauma experiences showed a slower rate of reduction of cannabis than patients with few or no trauma experiences. The number of trauma types was not associated with number of sessions attended or the development of well-being in treatment. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results show that although traumatized youth in DUD treatment show up for treatment, helping them to reduce substance use during treatment is uniquely challenging. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN88025085 , date of registration: 29.08.2016, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Trauma Psicológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652564

RESUMO

This study explores the effects of a toxic workplace environment (TWE) on employee engagement (EE). Building on conservation of resources (COR) theory and organizational support theory (OST), this study proposed a research model. In this research model, a toxic workplace environment negatively affected employee engagement, directly and indirectly, through organizational support (OS) and employee well-being (EW). In this study, we used a quantitative research approach, and data were collected from 301 workers employed in the small and medium-size enterprises of China. To estimate the proposed relationships of the research model, we used partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM 3.2.2). The results of this study confirmed that a toxic workplace environment has a negative impact on employee engagement. Moreover, the findings of this research confirm that organizational support and employee well-being significantly mediate a toxic workplace environment and employee engagement. The conclusions of this study are as follows: First, the direct relationship between a toxic workplace environment and employee engagement confirms that if employees are working in a toxic environment, they will spread negative feelings among other co-workers. The feelings that come with a toxic workplace environment, i.e., harassment, bullying, and ostracism, can be detrimental and lead to unnecessary stress, burnout, depression, and anxiety among the workers. Second, employee well-being will affect employee behaviors that enhance employee engagement with the work as well as with the organization. Third, organizational support also increases employee engagement with the work as well as with the organization. So, it is also confirmed that when workers perceive the support from the organization, their sense of belonging to the organization is strengthened.


Assuntos
Bullying , Esgotamento Profissional , China , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Engajamento no Trabalho , Local de Trabalho
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668095

RESUMO

Bullying involvement may have an adverse effect on children's educational outcomes, particularly academic achievement. However, the underlying mechanisms and factors behind this association are not well-understood. Previous meta-analyses have not investigated mediation factors between bullying and academic achievement. This meta-analysis examines the mediation effect of cognitive-motivational factors on the relationship between peer victimization and academic achievement. A systematic search was performed using specific search terms and search engines to identify relevant studies that were selected according to specific criteria resulting in 11 studies encompassing a sample total of 257,247 children (10 years and younger) and adolescents (11 years and older) (48-59% female). Some studies were longitudinal and some cross sectional and the assessment for each factor was performed by various methods (self, peer, teacher, school and mixed reports). Children involved in bullying behaviour were less likely to be academically engaged (k = 4) (OR = 0.571, 95% CI [0.43, 0.77], p = 0.000), to be less motivated (k = 7) (OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.69, 0.97], p = 0.021), to have lower self-esteem (k = 1) (OR = 0.12, 95% CI [0.07, 0.20], p = 0.000) and lower academic achievement (k = 14) (OR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.49, 0.79], p = 0.000). Bullying involvement was also significantly related to overall cognitive-motivational factors (k = 17, OR = 0.67, 95% CI [0.59, 0.76], p = 0.000). Cognitive-motivational factors, taken together, mediated the association between bullying victimisation and academic achievement (k = 8, OR = 0.74, 95% CI (0.72, 0.77), p = 0.000). Bullying victimisation was negatively related to cognitive-motivational factors, which, in turn, was associated with poorer academic achievement. These findings were moderated by the design of the studies, assessment methods for the bullying reports, mediators and outcomes, country, age of children in the sample and/or types of bullying. The findings are of relevance for practitioners, parents, and schools, and can be used to guide bullying interventions. Interventions should focus on improving internal and external motivational factors including components of positive reinforcement, encouragement, and programs for enhancing academic engagement and achievement amongst children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668204

RESUMO

This cross-sectional descriptive study identified risk factors and predictors related to the perpetration of and potential for cyberbullying among adolescents, respectively. The analysis included a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. Data were assessed from 2590 middle-school student panels obtained during the first wave of the Korean Child and Youth Panel Survey 2018. Of these respondents, 63.7% said they had not experienced the perpetration of cyberbullying. However, a subsequent count model analysis showed that several factors were significantly associated with cyberbullying, including offline delinquency, aggression, smartphone dependency, and smartphone usage on weekends (either 1-3 h or over 3 h). A logit model analysis also showed several predictive factors that increased the likelihood of cyberbullying, including gender (boys), offline delinquency, aggression, smartphone usage during weekdays (1-3 h), computer usage during weekends (1-3 h), and negative parenting. These identified risks and predictors should be useful for interventions designed to prevent the perpetration of cyberbullying among middle school students.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672282

RESUMO

With the aim of investigating the impact of gender-related personality characteristics on bullying perceptions and outcomes, a correlational study was designed with 114 individuals who had used a public health service aimed at harassed workers identifying themselves as victims of mobbing in central Italy. The study was conducted using the following questionnaires: the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ), a measure of workplace bullying; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), used to provide information to measure personality dimensions for workplace screening; the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BRIEF) which assesses four domains assumed to represent the quality of life construct; and the Suicidal Potential Scale (SPS) used to assess suicidal ideation. MMPI-2 profile results show a significant elevation of specific MMPI scales and gender differences. When compared to women, men who complain of being the victims of negative actions at work are more depressed, paranoid, introverted, anxious, and obsessive, and have higher anger levels and lower self-esteem. Many different MMPI-2 scales are also predictors of quality of life (QoL) perceptions and suicidal tendencies. The NAQ total score, however, predicts quality of life and suicide risk. Perceptions of negative actions have a serious effect on life outcomes. The results provide useful indications on personality profiles and gender differences, which can be understood as antecedents in the perception of negative events, and factors capable of modulating the effect of perceived bullying actions on outcomes.


Assuntos
Bullying , Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , MMPI , Masculino , Percepção , Personalidade
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