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1.
Aggress Behav ; 50(4): e22159, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888010

RESUMO

The situational model of bystander behavior is a validated 5-step process for understanding intervention in bullying and sexual harassment, yet the individual-level and contextual-level factors that facilitate the progression from one step to the next are not well understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether individual characteristics (social-emotional skills, affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and personal attitudes toward bullying and sexual harassment) and contextual-level factors (school climate and perceived peer attitudes toward bullying and sexual harassment) explained the association between subsequent steps of the bystander intervention model. A sample of 788 high school students completed several validated measures of these constructs. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that each step significantly and positively predicted the next step, and the addition of a direct path from accepting responsibility to helping improved model fit. The mediational model indicated that individual-level characteristics had significant direct effects on interpreting bullying and sexual harassment as problems, accepting responsibility, and helping, and indirect effects from noticing the bullying and sexual harassment to all subsequent steps except knowing. In contrast, contextual-level effects contributed to accepting responsibility in an inverse direction.


Assuntos
Bullying , Empatia , Grupo Associado , Assédio Sexual , Estudantes , Humanos , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
2.
J Sch Psychol ; 105: 101315, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876544

RESUMO

Peer defending has been shown to protect bullied peers from further victimization and social-emotional problems. However, research examining defending behavior has demonstrated positive and negative social-emotional adjustment effects for defending students themselves. To explain these mixed findings, researchers have suggested that associations between defending behavior and social-emotional adjustment may be buffered by protective factors (i.e., defender protection hypothesis) or exacerbated by vulnerability or risk factors (i.e., defender vulnerability hypothesis). Consistent with these hypotheses, the present study aimed to investigate whether relationships with teachers and peers would moderate the association between defending behavior and social-emotional adjustment. This three-wave longitudinal study examined the association between peer nominated defending behavior and later self-reported depressive symptoms and self-esteem in 848 Belgian students in Grades 4-6 (53% girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.90 at Wave 1). Peer nominated positive and negative teacher-student relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) and peer relationships (i.e., acceptance and rejection) were included as moderators. Clustered multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that defending behavior did not predict later depressive symptoms (ß = -0.04, p = .80) or self-esteem (ß = -0.19, p = .42). The lack of these associations could be explained by the defender protection and vulnerability hypotheses. However, contrary to our expectations, teacher-student closeness and peer acceptance did not play a protective role in the association between defending behavior and social-emotional adjustment (ß = -1.48-1.46, p = .24-0.96). In addition, teacher-student conflict and peer rejection did not put defending students at risk for social-emotional maladjustment (ß = -1.96-1.57, p = .54-0.97). Thus, relationships with teachers and peers did not moderate the association between defending behavior and later depressive symptoms and self-esteem.


Assuntos
Bullying , Depressão , Ajustamento Emocional , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Ajustamento Social , Estudantes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Depressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Bélgica , Professores Escolares/psicologia
3.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 52(3): 289-300, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of adolescents with depression has been increasing annually, with individuals often exhibiting non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the family (childhood abuse), school (peer victimization), and individual (psychological resilience) factors of adolescents with depression with or without NSSI (the Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation [C-FASM] scale), and to analyze the correlation between the above psychological and social factors and the frequency of NSSI, to provide a basis for NSSI prevention and intervention in adolescents with depression. METHODS: We recruited 355 adolescents with depressive symptoms to participate in this study and divided them into Group NSSI (N = 227) and Group no-NSSI (n-NSSI) (N = 128) based on the C-FASM scale. The Short-Form Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), Multidimensional Peer Visualization Scale (MPVS), and Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RISC) scores were compared between two groups of adolescents. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between NSSI frequency and the above scores. RESULTS: Emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and total CTQ-SF score in Group NSSI were significantly higher than those in Group n-NSSI (all p < 0.001). Physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, attacks on property, and total MPVS score in Group NSSI were significantly higher than those in Group n-NSSI (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.009, p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Goal concentration, emotion regulation, positive perception, family support, interpersonal assistance, and total RISC score in Group NSSI were significantly lower than those in Group n-NSSI (all p < 0.001). The frequency of NSSI was significantly positively correlated with emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and total CTQ-SF score (r = 0.366, p < 0.001; r = 0.411, p < 0.001; r = 0.554, p < 0.001; r = 0.220, p = 0.001; r = 0.255, p < 0.001; r = 0.673, p < 0.001). The frequency of NSSI was significantly positively correlated with physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, attacks on property, and total MPVS score (r = 0.418, p < 0.001; r = 0.455, p < 0.001; r = 0.447, p < 0.001; r = 0.555, p = 0.001; r = 0.704, p < 0.001). The frequency of NSSI was significantly negatively correlated with goal concentration, emotion regulation, positive perception, family support, interpersonal assistance, and total RISC score (r = -0.393, p < 0.001; r = -0.341, p < 0.001; r = -0.465, p < 0.001; r = -0.272, p = 0.001; r = -0.160, p = 0.016; r = -0.540, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of family (childhood abuse), school (peer victimization), and individual (psychological resilience) factors for NSSI in depressed adolescents, and these factors are closely related to NSSI frequency. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Maintaining a good family environment, solving the problem of peer victimization at school, and developing corresponding measures to improve psychological resilience are of great significance for improving the mental health of depressed adolescents and reducing the risk of NSSI.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Vítimas de Crime , Depressão , Resiliência Psicológica , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Criança , Bullying/psicologia , Correlação de Dados
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 722, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unprofessional behaviours between healthcare workers are highly prevalent. Evaluations of large-scale culture change programs are rare resulting in limited evidence of intervention effectiveness. We conducted a multi-method evaluation of a professional accountability and culture change program "Ethos" implemented across eight Australian hospitals. The Ethos program incorporates training for staff in speaking-up; an online system for reporting co-worker behaviours; and a tiered accountability pathway, including peer-messengers who deliver feedback to staff for 'reflection' or 'recognition'. Here we report the final evaluation component which aimed to measure changes in the prevalence of unprofessional behaviours before and after Ethos. METHODS: A survey of staff (clinical and non-clinical) experiences of 26 unprofessional behaviours across five hospitals at baseline before (2018) and 2.5-3 years after (2021/2022) Ethos implementation. Five of the 26 behaviours were classified as 'extreme' (e.g., assault) and 21 as incivility/bullying (e.g., being spoken to rudely). Our analysis assessed changes in four dimensions: work-related bullying; person-related bullying; physical bullying and sexual harassment. Change in experience of incivility/bullying was compared using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Change in extreme behaviours was assessed using multivariable binary logistic regression. All models were adjusted for respondent characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 3975 surveys were completed. Staff reporting frequent incivility/bullying significantly declined from 41.7% (n = 1064; 95% CI 39.7,43.9) at baseline to 35.5% (n = 505; 95% CI 32.8,38.3; χ2(1) = 14.3; P < 0.001) post-Ethos. The odds of experiencing incivility/bullying declined by 24% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.76; 95% CI 0.66,0.87; P < 0.001) and odds of experiencing extreme behaviours by 32% (aOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.54,0.85; P < 0.001) following Ethos. All four dimensions showed a reduction of 32-41% in prevalence post-Ethos. Non-clinical staff reported the greatest decrease in their experience of unprofessional behaviour (aOR 0.41; 95% CI 0.29, 0.61). Staff attitudes and reported skills to speak-up were significantly more positive at follow-up. Awareness of the program was high (82.1%; 95% CI 80.0, 84.0%); 33% of respondents had sent or received an Ethos message. CONCLUSION: The Ethos program was associated with significant reductions in the prevalence of reported unprofessional behaviours and improved capacity of hospital staff to speak-up. These results add to evidence that staff will actively engage with a system that supports informal feedback to co-workers about their behaviours and is facilitated by trained peer messengers.


Assuntos
Bullying , Cultura Organizacional , Humanos , Austrália , Feminino , Masculino , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1568, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To solve the problem of workplace bullying among nurses, it is necessary to review the effects of interventions and generalize the findings. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of cognitive rehearsal programs on workplace bullying among hospital nurses. METHODS: Data were collected from March 30 to April 11, 2021, and 11,048 journal articles published in South Korea and internationally were examined across eight databases. Nine articles were selected for inclusion in the systematic literature review; five of the nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. For randomized controlled trials, the risk of bias was evaluated, and for non-randomized controlled trials, the study quality was evaluated using the Risk of Bias for Non-randomized Studies version 2.0. Egger's regression test was performed to determine publication bias. RESULTS: Of the nine articles selected for this study, two were randomized controlled trials and seven were non-randomized controlled trials. The I2 value was 18.9%, indicating non-significant heterogeneity. The overall effect size of the cognitive rehearsal programs was -0.40 (95% confidence interval: -0.604 to -0.196; Z = -3.85; p = .0001) in a random-effects model, indicating a large effect size with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, cognitive rehearsal programs that address workplace bullying among hospital nurses are effective. Health policymakers must implement cognitive rehearsal programs in a policy manner to address the problems of bullying in the workplace.


Assuntos
Bullying , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem Hospitalar , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem Hospitalar/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , República da Coreia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 419, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have simultaneously focused on the associations of vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, school bullying, and Internet addiction (IA) with depressive symptoms. This study aimed to explore the direct and indirect effects of the above factors on depressive symptoms in adolescents by constructing a structural equation model (SEM). METHODS: This study was conducted in Qingdao from September to November 2021. A total of 6195 secondary school students aged 10-19 years were included in the analysis. Information on all variables was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. An SEM was constructed with depressive symptoms as the endogenous latent variable, IA as the mediating variable, and vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, and school bullying as the exogenous latent variables. The standardized path coefficients (ß) were the direct effects between the latent variables, and the indirect effects were obtained by the product of direct effects between relevant latent variables. RESULTS: The median value with the interquartile range of depressive symptom scores was 7 (3,12). Vegetable and fruit intake (ß=-0.100, P<0.001) and physical activity (ß=-0.140, P<0.001) were directly negatively related to depressive symptoms. While school bullying (ß=0.138, P<0.001) and IA (ß=0.452, P<0.001) were directly positively related to depressive symptoms. IA had the greatest impact on depressive symptoms. Vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, and school bullying could not only directly affect depressive symptoms, but also indirectly affect depressive symptoms through the mediating effect of IA, the indirect effects and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were -0.028 (-0.051, -0.007), -0.114 (-0.148, -0.089) and 0.095 (0.060, 0.157), respectively. The results of the multi-group analysis showed that the SEM we constructed still fit in boy and girl groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, school bullying, and IA had a significant direct impact on depressive symptoms, among which IA had the greatest impact. In addition, both vegetable and fruit intake, school bullying, and physical activity indirectly affected depressive symptoms through the mediating effect of IA. The impact of IA on depressive symptoms should be given extra attention by schools and parents. This study provides a scientific and effective basis for the prevention and control of adolescent depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Bullying , Depressão , Exercício Físico , Frutas , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Estudantes , Verduras , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem , China/epidemiologia
7.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 19(1)2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874968

RESUMO

Peer victimization contributes to the development of major depressive disorders (MDDs). While previous studies reported differentiated peripheral physiological responses in peer-victimized individuals with depression, little is known about potential alterations of cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to social stimuli in depressive patients with a history of peer victimization. Using a social condition paradigm, the present study examined whether peer victimization alters conditioned cortical responses to potentially threatening social stimuli in MDD patients and healthy controls. In the task, we studied ERPs to conditioned stimuli (CSs), i.e. still images of faces, that were coupled to unconditioned socially negative and neutral evaluative video statements. Peer victimization was related to more pronounced P100 amplitudes in reaction to negative and neutral CSs. Attenuated P200 amplitudes in peer-victimized individuals were found in response to negative CSs. Cortical responses to CSs were not influenced by a diagnosis of MDD. The results suggest altered responsiveness to interpersonal information in peer-victimized individuals. Facilitated early processing of social threat indicators may prevent peer-victimized individuals from adaptive responses to social cues, increasing their vulnerability for depression.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Grupo Associado , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Bullying/psicologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1473, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between exposure to work-related violence/threats and harassment, and future sickness absence (SA) due to common mental disorders (CMDs), taking familial factors (shared genetics and early-life environment) and neuroticism into account. METHODS: The study sample included 8795 twin individuals from the Swedish Twin Project of Disability Pension and Sickness Absence (STODS), including survey data from the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE). Self-reported work-related violence and/or threats as well as work-related harassment (including bullying) and national register data on SA due to CMDs were analyzed using standard logistic regression, and conditional logistic regression among complete twin pairs discordant on exposures. Individuals were followed for a maximum of 13 years. Interactions between neuroticism and exposures were assessed using both multiplicative and additive interaction analyses. RESULTS: Exposure to work-related violence/threats was associated with higher odds of SA due to CMDs when adjusting for age, sex, marital status, children, education, type of living area, work characteristics, and symptoms of depression and burnout (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.52-2.95). Higher odds of SA due to CMDs were also found for exposure to harassment (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10-2.11) and a combined indicator of exposure to violence/threats and/or harassment (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.52-2.59), compared with the unexposed. Analyses of twins discordant on exposure, using the unexposed co-twin as reference, showed reduced ORs. These ORs were still elevated but no longer statistically significant, potentially due to a lack of statistical power. No multiplicative interaction was found between neuroticism and exposure to work-related violence/threats, or harassment. However, a statistically significant additive interaction was found between neuroticism and exposure to violence/threats, indicating higher odds of SA due to CMDs in the group scoring lower on neuroticism. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to work-related offensive behaviors was associated with SA due to CMDs. However, the results indicated that these associations may be partly confounded by familial factors. In addition, an interaction between exposure and neuroticism was suggested. Thus, when possible, future studies investigating associations and causality between offensive behaviors at work and mental health-related outcomes, should consider familial factors and neuroticism.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neuroticismo , Licença Médica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303466, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805502

RESUMO

An authoritative school climate, along with greater teacher support and warm relations among peers are frequently connected with less school bullying. The main aim of this paper is to examine the direct link as perceived by students between teachers' disciplinary practices and bullying in school and students' satisfaction with school. The indirect relationships are explored via the mediation of school belonging and the moderation of sex. High school students (N = 860, 40.4% male students) completed the Delaware School Climate Survey, the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale at a single time point. In general, teachers' disciplinary practices have significant direct effects on perceptions of bullying and satisfaction with school. Positive disciplinary (direct effect = .28, SE = .04) and SEL techniques (direct effect = .22, SE = .04) are related to bullying only among males, while punitive techniques are directly linked to school bullying unrelated to sex (b = .03, SE = .05). Similarly, the effect of positive disciplinary (direct effect = .27, SE = .08) and SEL (direct effect = .21, SE = .08) techniques on satisfaction with school was significant only among males. A direct relationship between punitive disciplinary techniques and satisfaction with school was not recognized. The mediation analysis revealed the indirect effects of teachers' disciplinary practices on the dependent variables via school belonging to be stronger among females. Teachers' negative modeling through punitive disciplinary practices leads to more bullying. School belonging may serve as a protective factor related to the negative impact of teachers' disciplinary practices on school bullying as well as satisfaction with school, especially among females. Interventions should be focused on fostering school belonging along with the development of positive sex-specific disciplinary practices.


Assuntos
Bullying , Satisfação Pessoal , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Humanos , Bullying/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 337: 115936, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705042

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of ADHD diagnosis by the age of 10 on the suicide/self-harm risk at age 14 and examine factors that may modify/mediate the association, a longitudinal study based on the nationwide survey consisting of 5,107 children in Australia was used. Self-harm and suicidal risks in children with ADHD at age 14 were the main outcomes; ADHD medication, history of bullied or depression, and other sociodemographic disadvantages, were treated as covariates. The diagnosis of ADHD at age 10 is associated with elevated risks of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, planning, or attempts by age 14, with greater susceptibility in males. The pathway from ADHD symptoms to suicide/self-harm could also be mediated by depression and exposure to bullying assessed at age 12. Note that depression and exposure to bullying might at best contribute to less than 10 % of the total effect of ADHD diagnosis on either the risk of suicide or self-harm. Early gender-tailored intervention and prevention strategies are crucial in clinical practice and health policy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Bullying , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Feminino , Adolescente , Criança , Austrália/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Psychosom Res ; 182: 111692, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between threat-related adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the risk of chronic lung diseases (CLDs). METHODS: The data used for this study were extracted from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative survey of respondents recruited from 450 villages/urban communities in 28 provinces. Threat-related ACEs were constructed using five adverse factors: household substance abuse, physical abuse, domestic violence, unsafe neighbourhood, and bullying). Participants were divided into three groups according to their number of threat-related ACEs at baseline and at follow-up. The association between threat-related ACEs and CLD prevalence in the cross-sectional study was calculated using logistic regression models. The association between threat-related ACEs and CLD onset was evaluated using Cox proportional regression models in the cohort study. Potential confounders were considered in both the cross-sectional and cohort studies. RESULTS: The CLD prevalence in the total population, no exposure group, exposure to one threat-related ACE, and exposure to at least two threat-related ACEs were 10.07% (1320/13104), 9.20% (665/7232), 10.89% (421/3865), and 11.66% (234/2007), respectively. Exposure to one threat-related ACE (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.07-1.41) and exposure to at least two threat-related ACEs (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.11-1.55) were significantly associated with higher CLD prevalence rates. The cohort study included 11,645 participants. During the 7-year follow-up, 738 CLD incidents were identified. Similarly, exposure to one threat-related ACE (HR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) and at least two threat-related ACEs (HR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.35-2.00) were significantly associated with a higher CLD incidence risk. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to threat-related ACEs was significantly associated with a higher CLD prevalence risk and onset. It is crucial to identify individuals who have encountered childhood threats and prioritise the monitoring of their pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Pneumopatias , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2359267, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38803196

RESUMO

In 2017, the Gulf crisis led to a blockade that severely restricted Qatar's air, land, and sea access. This political crisis had far-reaching consequences, particularly affecting cross-national families and children. This qualitative analysis explores the effects of the blockade's political instability on individuals and families, specifically for Qatari citizens married to non-Qatari spouses and their cross-national children. Applying the General Aggression Model and Social Learning Theory, we interviewed 24 individuals residing in Qatar from nations directly affected by the crisis (Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). Two main themes emerged: first, the characteristics of aggressive and bullying behaviour, and second, the impacts on the well-being of cross-national families. The results showed that Qatari women and their children suffered disproportionately due to gender-based citizenship rights issues. The impacts on their well-being included heightened anxiety, depression, feelings of danger, uncertainty, and division within individuals, families, and communities. Recommendations include increasing collaborative efforts between governments, educational institutions, and community-based organizations, which are crucial to addressing aggressive and bullying behaviour across all age groups fostering a more harmonious and resilient society.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bullying , Hostilidade , Política , Humanos , Bullying/psicologia , Catar , Feminino , Agressão/psicologia , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adolescente
13.
J Adolesc Health ; 75(1): 51-59, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739055

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This population-based cohort study aimed to examine the association with childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bullying experiences during adolescence among Digital Generation individuals, exploring both traditional and cyberbullying. METHODS: This study included data from 15,240 participants, collected from the Taiwan Adolescent to Adult Longitudinal Study project. Participants, initially in seventh and 10th grade in 2015, were selected through a multistage stratified sampling approach. Self-report questionnaires assessed traditional and cyberbullying victimization experiences during adolescence, with 5-year longitudinal follow-up. Childhood ADHD diagnoses were identified by linking data to Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2015. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship between childhood ADHD and bullying victimization while controlling for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Individuals diagnosed with childhood ADHD exhibited a significantly higher likelihood of experiencing bullying during adolescence (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-1.80). This association extended to various forms of bullying, including physical (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.20-1.68), verbal (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.20-1.67), relational (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.71), and cyber (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14-1.61). Additional factors positively associated with bullying victimization included male, binge drinking, and depression, while a positive campus atmosphere was protective against bullying. However, there is no evidence for interactions between these factors and ADHD in their associations with bullying. DISCUSSION: Childhood ADHD increases the risk of both traditional and cyberbullying during adolescence. Recognizing this risk is essential for targeted interventions and further research on underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autorrelato , Estudos de Coortes , Criança
14.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 247: 104310, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761756

RESUMO

Prevalence estimates of sibling bullying indicate it occurs more frequently and with more negative consequences than peer bullying, yet many countries do not track or investigate the phenomenon. University students from Argentina, Estonia, and the United States were surveyed to investigate their retrospective experiences involving sibling bullying, how often it occurred, the roles held, and the forms communicated. In the aggregated data, roughly 50 % of the sampled emerging adults (N = 3477) reported experience with sibling bullying, with the dual role of bully-victim being the most frequently reported role held by males and females, with the second role being bully for males and victim for females. Verbal forms of bullying were most frequently reported by males and females, with physical, relational, and technological forms occurring less frequently, indicating the importance of studying the messages conveyed during bullying incidents. Variations between biological sex, bullying role and form were detected that indicate siblings experience bullying in ways that are unique from peer bullying. Country comparisons revealed bullying frequencies varied among males and females, suggesting sibling bullying experiences are likely to be culturally influenced. More research is warranted to examine the negative impact bullying has on sibling psycho-social development and the potential transfer to non-familial relationships and contexts. Discussion of these findings and the implications for academics and practitioners alike is provided.


Assuntos
Bullying , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estônia/epidemiologia , Relações entre Irmãos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Irmãos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
15.
Child Abuse Negl ; 153: 106809, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological maltreatment by teachers and peer victimization are significant public health issues among youth. However, few studies have verified transactional associations between psychological maltreatment by teachers and peer victimization at the within-person level and the mediating roles of depression and aggression have yet to be fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the transactional associations between psychological maltreatment by teachers and peer victimization from middle childhood to early adolescence, separating within- and between-person variation. The study also examined whether youth's depression and aggression mediated the associations. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 4945 Chinese youth (Mage = 9.92 years, SD = 0.73 53 % boys) completed a packet of measures on five occasions at 6-month intervals from May of 2017 to May of 2019. METHODS: Random Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Models (RI-CLPMs) were used to distinguish between- and within-person effects. RESULTS: The results indicated that: (a) Psychological maltreatment by teachers predicted peer victimization, and vice versa; (b) Depression (but not aggression) mediated the associations from peer victimization to psychological maltreatment by teachers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings supported bidirectional spillover effects between adverse teacher-student and peer interactions and demonstrated at the within-person level that such effects were transmitted indirectly via youth's depression.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Depressão , Grupo Associado , Professores Escolares , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Criança , Agressão/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , População do Leste Asiático
16.
Child Abuse Negl ; 153: 106812, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly-victimization is more detrimental to adolescents' physical and mental health than is a single type of victimization. However, there has been limited research on the trajectory of poly-victimization among Chinese adolescents. OBJECTIVE: Identify the different developmental trajectories of poly-victimization among Chinese adolescents over time and examine the influencing factors of poly-victimization trajectories. METHODS: Data from four surveys conducted between 2020 and 2022, encompassing a cohort of 319 adolescents who had experienced poly-victimization, were utilized to identify their developmental trajectories via group-based trajectory modeling. Potential influencing factors were screened and compared using ANOVA or chi-square tests, while factors affecting the developmental trajectories of poly-victimization were analyzed through multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified three poly-victimization trajectories among adolescents: increasing poly-victimization (n = 39, 12.2 %), relieved poly-victimization (n = 228, 71.5 %), and fluctuating poly-victimization (n = 52, 16.3 %). Our findings indicate that boys, and those with poor class grade ranking, a lower level of parental education, lower household economy, smoking, drinking, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation, constitute the primary focus for the prevention and treatment of poly-victimization. CONCLUSION: We identified three poly-victimization trajectories, highlighting a significant heterogeneity in poly-victimization development. Understanding the characteristics of these developmental trajectories is crucial for realizing the dynamics of different poly-victimization subgroups and informing effective interventions.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , China/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Fatores de Risco , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , População do Leste Asiático
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12015, 2024 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38797740

RESUMO

The study aimed to examine the association of expanded adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with psychological distress in adulthood. The data from nation-wide online cohort was used for analysis. Community dwelling adults in Japan were included. The ACEs was assessed by 15 items of ACE-J, including childhood poverty and school bullying. Severe psychological distress was determined as the score of Kessler 6 over 13. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, by using sample weighting. A total of 28,617 participants were analyzed. About 75% of Japanese people had one or more ACEs. The prevalence of those with ACEs over 4 was 14.7%. Those with ACEs over 4 showed adjusted odds ratio = 8.18 [95% CI 7.14-9.38] for severe psychological distress. The prevalence of childhood poverty was 29% for 50-64 year old participants and 40% of 65 or older participants. The impact of childhood poverty on psychological distress was less than other ACEs in these age cohorts. Bullying was experienced 21-27% in young generations, but 10% in 65 or older participants. However, the impact on psychological distress in adulthood was relatively high in all age groups. ACEs have impacted mental health for a long time. Future research and practice to reduce ACEs are encouraged.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Bullying , Saúde Mental , Desastres Naturais , Pobreza , Humanos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Japão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Criança , Instituições Acadêmicas , Angústia Psicológica , Prevalência , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 337: 115968, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820653

RESUMO

This paper analyzed the role of depression as a mediator in the association between bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide risk in adolescent females. A total of 751 Colombian adolescent females (M= 13.71, SD=1.897), who were administered the Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire and Cyberbullying. Bullying victimization and aggression and cyberbullying victimization were found to contribute statistically significant effects that explaining 22 % of the variance in depression. The variables of victimization in bullying and cyberbullying and depression explained 64 % of the variance in suicidal risk, and depression mediated the association between victim and aggressor roles in bullying and cyberbullying in predicting suicidal risk, whose total direct and indirect effects are statistically significant. The findings support the role of depression as a mediating variable between bullying and cyberbullying and suicidal risk in female adolescents and highlight the importance of focusing prevention and intervention efforts on risk factors for depression and suicidal behavior in cases of bullying and cyberbullying.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Depressão , Suicídio , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Agressão/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
20.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1295, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Qingyang is located in the northwest of China. By analyzing the current situation and risk factors of bullying in junior high schools in Qingyang City, and identify relevant data for formulating prevention and control measures of bullying in western backward areas. METHODS: Qingyang City is divided into four regions based on economic level and population quality. One junior high school is randomly selected from each region, a total of 1200 students from 4 junior high schools of different levels in Qingyang City were randomly selected, and the "Questionnaire on Middle School Students' School bullying" was administered between December 2021 and February 2022. RESULTS: The reporting rate of bullying in junior high schools in Qingyang was 47.35%. The incidence of campus bullying among urban-rural integration junior high schools, senior students, and male students is higher than that of municipal -level junior high schools, junior students, and female students (P< 0.05). The results of binary logistic regression showed that the second grade of junior high school (OR = 1.39,95% CI: 1.022-1.894), poor student performance (OR = 1.744,95% CI: 1.09-2.743), external dissatisfaction (OR = 2.09,95% CI: 1.177-3.427), mother working in an enterprise (OR = 1.623,95% CI: 1.074-2.453), and urban-rural integration middle school (OR = 3.631,95% CI: 2.547-5.177) were factors affecting bullying in junior high school campus. CONCLUSION: The reporting rate of bullying in junior high schools in Qingyang City was relatively high, mostly occurring in places lacking supervision and after-school hours. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Bullying , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Humanos , China , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Bullying/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança
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