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1.
J Theor Biol ; 557: 111331, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309118

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 saw severe detriments to public health being inflicted by COVID-19 disease throughout 2020. In the lead up to Christmas 2020, the UK Government sought an easement of social restrictions that would permit spending time with others over the Christmas period, whilst limiting the risk of spreading SARS-CoV-2. In November 2020, plans were published to allow individuals to socialise within 'Christmas bubbles' with friends and family. This policy involved a planned easing of restrictions in England between 23-27 December 2020, with Christmas bubbles allowing people from up to three households to meet throughout the holiday period. We estimated the epidemiological impact of both this and alternative bubble strategies that allowed extending contacts beyond the immediate household. We used a stochastic individual-based model for a synthetic population of 100,000 households, with demographic and SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological characteristics comparable to England as of November 2020. We evaluated five Christmas bubble scenarios for the period 23-27 December 2020, assuming our populations of households did not have symptomatic infection present and were not in isolation as the eased social restrictions began. Assessment comprised incidence and cumulative infection metrics. We tested the sensitivity of the results to a situation where it was possible for households to be in isolation at the beginning of the Christmas bubble period and also when there was lower adherence to testing, contact tracing and isolation interventions. We found that visiting family and friends over the holiday period for a shorter duration and in smaller groups was less risky than spending the entire five days together. The increases in infection from greater amounts of social mixing disproportionately impacted the eldest. We provide this account as an illustration of a real-time contribution of modelling insights to a scientific advisory group, the Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Modelling, Operational sub-group (SPI-M-O) for the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) in the UK, during the COVID-19 pandemic. This manuscript was submitted as part of a theme issue on "Modelling COVID-19 and Preparedness for Future Pandemics".


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Características da Família
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1378, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing (CT) is an important, but resource-intensive tool to control outbreaks of communicable diseases. Under pandemic circumstances, public health services may not have sufficient resources at their disposal to effectively facilitate CT. This may be addressed by giving cases and their contact persons more autonomy and responsibility in the execution of CT by public health professionals, through digital contact tracing support tools (DCTS-tools). However, the application of this approach has not yet been systematically investigated from the perspective of public health practice. Therefore, we investigated public health professionals' perspectives and needs regarding involving cases and contact persons in CT for COVID-19 through DCTS-tools. METHODS: Between October 2020 and February 2021, we conducted online semi-structured interviews (N = 17) with Dutch public health professionals to explore their perspectives and needs regarding the involvement of cases and contact persons in CT for COVID-19 through DCTS-tools, in the contact identification, notification, and monitoring stages of the CT-process. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Four main themes related to Dutch public health professionals' perspectives and needs regarding involving cases and contact persons in CT for COVID-19 through DCTS-tools emerged from the data: 'Distinct characteristics of CT with DCTS-tools'; 'Anticipated benefits and challenges of CT for COVID-19 with DCTS- tools'; 'Circumstances in CT for COVID-19 that permit or constrain the application of DCTS-tools'; and 'Public health professionals' needs regarding the development and application of DCTS-tools for CT'. Public health professionals seem to have a positive attitude towards involving cases and contact persons through DCTS-tools. Public health professionals' (positive) attitudes seem conditional on the circumstances under which CT is performed, and the fulfilment of their needs in the development and application of DCTS-tools. CONCLUSIONS: Dutch public health professionals seem positive towards involving cases and contact persons in CT for COVID-19 through DCTS-tools. Through adequate implementation of DCTS-tools in the CT-process, anticipated challenges can be overcome. Future research should investigate the perspectives and needs of cases and contact persons regarding DCTS-tools, and the application of DCTS-tools in practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Saúde Pública , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Países Baixos
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19673, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385141

RESUMO

The reconstruction of missing information in epidemic spreading on contact networks can be essential in the prevention and containment strategies. The identification and warning of infectious but asymptomatic individuals (i.e., contact tracing), the well-known patient-zero problem, or the inference of the infectivity values in structured populations are examples of significant epidemic inference problems. As the number of possible epidemic cascades grows exponentially with the number of individuals involved and only an almost negligible subset of them is compatible with the observations (e.g., medical tests), epidemic inference in contact networks poses incredible computational challenges. We present a new generative neural networks framework that learns to generate the most probable infection cascades compatible with observations. The proposed method achieves better (in some cases, significantly better) or comparable results with existing methods in all problems considered both in synthetic and real contact networks. Given its generality, clear Bayesian and variational nature, the presented framework paves the way to solve fundamental inference epidemic problems with high precision in small and medium-sized real case scenarios such as the spread of infections in workplaces and hospitals.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Redes Neurais de Computação
4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 427, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic COVID-19 cases have complicated the surveillance and tracking of the pandemic. Previous studies have estimated that 15-25% of all infectees remain asymptomatic. METHODS: Based on contact tracing data from Oslo, Norway, we estimated transmission and susceptibility dynamics among symptomatic and asymptomatic cases and their contacts as identified by manual contact tracing between September 1, 2020, and September 1, 2021. RESULTS: Among 27,473 indexes and 164,153 registered contacts, the secondary attack rate (SAR-14) was estimated to be 28% lower through asymptomatic exposure (13%) compared to symptomatic exposure (18%). Furthermore, those infected by asymptomatic cases were almost three times more likely to be asymptomatic compared to those infected by symptomatic cases. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic cases spread the virus to a greater extent than asymptomatic, and infectees are more likely to be asymptomatic if their assumed infector was asymptomatic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Busca de Comunicante , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Noruega/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361198

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic posed challenges to governments in terms of contact tracing. Like many other countries, Germany introduced a mobile-phone-based digital contact tracing solution ("Corona Warn App"; CWA) in June 2020. At the time of its release, however, it was hard to assess how effective such a solution would be, and a political and societal debate arose regarding its efficiency, also in light of its high costs. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of the CWA, considering prevented infections, hospitalizations, intensive care treatments, and deaths. In addition, its efficiency was to be assessed from a monetary point of view, and factors with a significant influence on the effectiveness and efficiency of the CWA were to be determined. Mathematical and statistical modeling was used to calculate infection cases prevented by the CWA, along with the numbers of prevented complications (hospitalizations, intensive care treatments, deaths) using publicly available CWA download numbers and incidences over time. The monetized benefits of these prevented cases were quantified and offset against the costs incurred. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify factors critically influencing these parameters. Between June 2020 and April 2022, the CWA prevented 1.41 million infections, 17,200 hospitalizations, 4600 intensive care treatments, and 7200 deaths. After offsetting costs and benefits, the CWA had a net present value of EUR 765 m in April 2022. Both the effectiveness and efficiency of the CWA are decisively and disproportionately positively influenced by the highest possible adoption rate among the population and a high rate of positive infection test results shared via the CWA.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aplicativos Móveis , Humanos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2239661, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322090

RESUMO

Importance: Contact tracing is a core strategy for preventing the spread of many infectious diseases of public health concern. Better understanding of the outcomes of contact tracing for COVID-19 as well as the operational opportunities and challenges in establishing a program for a jurisdiction as large as New York City (NYC) is important for the evaluation of this strategy. Objective: To describe the establishment, scaling, and maintenance of Trace, NYC's contact tracing program, and share data on outcomes during its first 17 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included people with laboratory test-confirmed and probable COVID-19 and their contacts in NYC between June 1, 2020, and October 31, 2021. Trace launched on June 1, 2020, and had a workforce of 4147 contact tracers, with the majority of the workforce performing their jobs completely remotely. Data were analyzed in March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number and proportion of persons with COVID-19 and contacts on whom investigations were attempted and completed; timeliness of interviews relative to symptom onset or exposure for symptomatic cases and contacts, respectively. Results: Case investigations were attempted for 941 035 persons. Of those, 840 922 (89.4%) were reached and 711 353 (75.6%) completed an intake interview (women and girls, 358 775 [50.4%]; 60 178 [8.5%] Asian, 110 636 [15.6%] Black, 210 489 [28.3%] Hispanic or Latino, 157 349 [22.1%] White). Interviews were attempted for 1 218 650 contacts. Of those, 904 927 (74.3%) were reached, and 590 333 (48.4%) completed intake (women and girls, 219 261 [37.2%]; 47 403 [8.0%] Asian, 98 916 [16.8%] Black, 177 600 [30.1%] Hispanic or Latino, 116 559 [19.7%] White). Completion rates were consistent over time and resistant to changes related to vaccination as well as isolation and quarantine guidance. Among symptomatic cases, median time from symptom onset to intake completion was 4.7 days; a median 1.4 contacts were identified per case. Median time from contacts' last date of exposure to intake completion was 2.3 days. Among contacts, 30.1% were tested within 14 days of notification. Among cases, 27.8% were known to Trace as contacts. The overall expense for Trace from May 6, 2020, through October 31, 2021, was approximately $600 million. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite the complexity of developing a contact tracing program in a diverse city with a population of over 8 million people, in this case study we were able to identify 1.4 contacts per case and offer resources to safely isolate and quarantine to over 1 million cases and contacts in this study period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Quarentena
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360891

RESUMO

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised major health policy questions. Direct transmission via respiratory droplets seems to be the dominant route of its transmission. However, indirect transmission via shared contact of contaminated objects may also occur. The contribution of each transmission route to epidemic spread might change during lock-down scenarios. Here, we simulate viral spread of an abstract epidemic considering both routes of transmission by use of a stochastic, agent-based SEIR model. We show that efficient contact tracing (CT) at a high level of incidence can stabilize daily cases independently of the transmission route long before effects of herd immunity become relevant. CT efficacy depends on the fraction of cases that do not show symptoms. Combining CT with lock-down scenarios that reduce agent mobility lowers the incidence for exclusive direct transmission scenarios and can even eradicate the epidemic. However, even for small fractions of indirect transmission, such lockdowns can impede CT efficacy and increase case numbers. These counterproductive effects can be reduced by applying measures that favor distancing over reduced mobility. In summary, we show that the efficacy of lock-downs depends on the transmission route. Our results point to the particular importance of hygiene measures during mobility lock-downs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Fômites , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos
8.
BMJ ; 379: e073153, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the transmission dynamics of the monkeypox outbreak in the UK, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in July 2022. DESIGN: Contact tracing study, linking data on case-contact pairs and on probable exposure dates. SETTING: Case questionnaires from the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA), United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 2746 people with polymerase chain reaction confirmed monkeypox virus in the UK between 6 May and 1 August 2022. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incubation period and serial interval of a monkeypox infection using two bayesian time delay models-one corrected for interval censoring (ICC-interval censoring corrected) and one corrected for interval censoring, right truncation, and epidemic phase bias (ICRTC-interval censoring right truncation corrected). Growth rates of cases by reporting date, when monkeypox virus was confirmed and reported to UKHSA, were estimated using generalised additive models. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 37.8 years and 95% reported being gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (1160 out of 1213 reporting). The mean incubation period was estimated to be 7.6 days (95% credible interval 6.5 to 9.9) using the ICC model and 7.8 days (6.6 to 9.2) using the ICRTC model. The estimated mean serial interval was 8.0 days (95% credible interval 6.5 to 9.8) using the ICC model and 9.5 days (7.4 to 12.3) using the ICRTC model. Although the mean serial interval was longer than the incubation period for both models, short serial intervals were more common than short incubation periods, with the 25th centile and the median of the serial interval shorter than the incubation period. For the ICC and ICRTC models, the corresponding estimates ranged from 1.8 days (95% credible interval 1.5 to 1.8) to 1.6 days (1.4 to 1.6) shorter at the 25th centile and 1.6 days (1.5 to 1.7) to 0.8 days (0.3 to 1.2) shorter at the median. 10 out of 13 linked patients had documented pre-symptomatic transmission. Doubling times of cases declined from 9.07 days (95% confidence interval 12.63 to 7.08) on the 6 May, when the first case of monkeypox was reported in the UK, to a halving time of 29 days (95% confidence interval 38.02 to 23.44) on 1 August. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the instantaneous growth rate of monkeypox incidence indicates that the epidemic peaked in the UK as of 9 July and then started to decline. Short serial intervals were more common than short incubation periods suggesting considerable pre-symptomatic transmission, which was validated through linked patient level records. For patients who could be linked through personally identifiable data, four days was the maximum time that transmission was detected before symptoms manifested. An isolation period of 16 to 23 days would be required to detect 95% of people with a potential infection. The 95th centile of the serial interval was between 23 and 41 days, suggesting long infectious periods.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Varíola dos Macacos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Homossexualidade Masculina , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275667, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of school contacts in the spread of the virus and the effectiveness of school closures in controlling the epidemic is still debated. We aimed to quantify the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the school setting by type of school, characteristics of the index case and calendar period in the Province of Reggio Emilia (RE), Italy. The secondary aim was to estimate the speed of implementation of contact tracing. METHODS: A population-based analysis of surveillance data on all COVID-19 cases occurring in RE, Italy, from 1 September 2020, to 4 April 2021, for which a school contact and/or exposure was suspected. An indicator of the delay in contact tracing was calculated as the time elapsed since the index case was determined to be positive and the date on which the swab test for classmates was scheduled (or most were scheduled). RESULTS: Overall, 30,184 and 13,608 contacts among classmates and teachers/staff, respectively, were identified and were recommended for testing, and 43,214 (98.7%) underwent the test. Secondary transmission occurred in about 40% of the investigated classes, and the overall secondary case attack rate was 4%. This rate was slightly higher when the index case was a teacher but with almost no differences by type of school, and was stable during the study period. Speed of implementation of contact tracing increased during the study period, with the time from index case identification to testing of contacts being reduced from seven to three days. The ability to identify the possible source of infection in the index case also increased. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the spread of the Alpha variant during the study period in RE, the secondary case attack rate remained stable from school reopening in September 2020 until the beginning of April 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Incidência
10.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(6): 728-738, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194817

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted vulnerable populations, including those who are non-English-speaking and those with lower socioeconomic status; yet, participation of these groups in contact tracing was initially low. Distrust of government agencies, anticipated COVID-19-related stigma, and language and cultural barriers between contact tracers and communities are common challenges. PROGRAM: The Community Outreach Specialist (COS) program was established within the Connecticut Department of Public Health (DPH) COVID-19 contact tracing program to encourage participation in contact tracing and address a need for culturally competent care and social and material support among socially vulnerable and non-English-speaking populations in 11 high-burden jurisdictions in Connecticut. IMPLEMENTATION: In partnership with state and local health departments, we recruited 25 COS workers with relevant language skills from target communities and trained them to deliver contact tracing services to vulnerable and non-English speaking populations. EVALUATION: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from ContaCT, DPH's enterprise contact tracing system. Overall, the COS program enrolled 1938 cases and 492 contacts. The proportion of residents reached (ie, called and interviewed) in the COS program was higher than that in the regular contact tracing program for both cases (70% vs 57%, P < .001) and contacts (84% vs 64%, P < .001). After adjusting for client age, sex, race and ethnicity, language, and jurisdiction, we found that the COS program was associated with increased reach for contacts (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.17-1.99) but not for cases (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.70-0.88). Rapid qualitative analysis of programmatic field notes and meeting reports provided evidence that the COS program was feasible and acceptable to clients and contributed to COVID-19 education and communication efforts. CONCLUSION: A COS program employing a client-centered, community-engaged strategy for reaching vulnerable and non-English-speaking populations was feasible and more effective at reaching contacts than standard COVID-19 contact tracing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equidade em Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(5): 623-627, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205662

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Snohomish County, WA, the time from obtaining a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test and initiating contact tracing is 4-6 days. We tested whether emergency department (ED)-based contact tracing reduces time to initiation and completion of contact tracing investigations. METHODS: All eligible coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive patients were offered enrollment in this prospective case-control study. Contact tracers were present in the ED from 7 AM to 2 AM for 60 consecutive days. Tracers conducted interviews using the Washington State Department of Health's extended COVID-19 reporting form, which is also used by the Snohomish Health District (SHD). RESULTS: Eighty-one eligible SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were identified and 71 (88%) consented for the study. The mean time between positive COVID-19 test result and initiation of contact tracing investigation was 111 minutes with a median of 32 minutes (range: 1-1,203 minutes). The mean time from positive test result and completion of ED-based contact tracing investigation was 244 minutes with a median of 132 minutes (range: 23-1,233 minutes). In 100% of the enrolled cases, contact tracing was completed within 24 hours of a positive COVID-19 test result. For comparison, during this same period, SHD was able to complete contact tracing in 64% of positive cases within 24 hours of notification of a positive test result (P < 0.001). In the ED, each case identified a mean of 2.8 contacts as compared to 1.4 contacts identified by SHD-interviewed cases. There was no statistically significant difference between the percentage of contacts reached through ED contact tracing (82%) when compared to the usual practice (78%) (P = 0.16). CONCLUSION: When contact tracing investigations occur at the point of diagnoses, the time to initiation and completion are reduced, there is higher enrollment, and more contacts are identified.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e057522, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the effectiveness of contact tracing using real-time location system (RTLS) compared with the conventional (electronic medical records (EMRs)) method via an emerging infectious disease (EID) outbreak simulation exercise. The aims of the study are: (1) to compare the time taken to perform contact tracing and list of contacts identified for RTLS versus EMR; (2) to compare manpower and manpower-hours required to perform contact tracing for RTLS versus EMR; and (3) to extrapolate the cost incurred by RTLS versus EMR. DESIGN: Prospective case study. SETTING: Sengkang General Hospital, a 1000-bedded public tertiary hospital in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: 1000 out of 4000 staff wore staff tags in this study. INTERVENTIONS: A simulation exercise to determine and compare the list of contacts, time taken, manpower and manpower-hours required between RTLS and conventional methods of contact tracing. Cost of both methods were compared. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: List of contacts, time taken, manpower required, manpower-hours required and cost incurred. RESULTS: RTLS identified almost three times the number of contacts compared with conventional methods, while achieving that with a 96.2% reduction in time taken, 97.6% reduction in manpower required and 97.5% reduction in manpower-hours required. However, RTLS incurred significant equipment cost and might take many contact tracing episodes before providing economic benefit. CONCLUSION: Although costly, RTLS is effective in contact tracing. RLTS might not be ready at present time to replace conventional methods, but with further refinement, RTLS has the potential to be the gold standard in contact tracing methods of the future, particularly in the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Pandemias , Sistemas Computacionais , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Humanos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6307, 2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274183

RESUMO

Understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission within and among communities is critical for tailoring public health policies to local context. However, analysis of community transmission is challenging due to a lack of high-resolution surveillance and testing data. Here, using contact tracing records for 644,029 cases and their contacts in New York City during the second pandemic wave, we provide a detailed characterization of the operational performance of contact tracing and reconstruct exposure and transmission networks at individual and ZIP code scales. We find considerable heterogeneity in reported close contacts and secondary infections and evidence of extensive transmission across ZIP code areas. Our analysis reveals the spatial pattern of SARS-CoV-2 spread and communities that are tightly interconnected by exposure and transmission. We find that locations with higher vaccination coverage and lower numbers of visitors to points-of-interest had reduced within- and cross-ZIP code transmission events, highlighting potential measures for curtailing SARS-CoV-2 spread in urban settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1963, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low engagement in contact tracing for COVID-19 dramatically reduces its impact, but little is known about how experiences, environments and characteristics of cases and contacts influence engagement. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of COVID-19 cases and contacts from the New Haven Health Department's contact tracing program for interviews about their contact tracing experiences. We analyzed transcripts thematically, organized themes using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, Behavior (COM-B) model, and identified candidate interventions using the linked Behavior Change Wheel Framework. RESULTS: We interviewed 21 cases and 12 contacts. Many felt physically or psychologically incapable of contact tracing participation due to symptoms or uncertainty about protocols. Environmental factors and social contacts also influenced engagement. Finally, physical symptoms, emotions and low trust in and expectations of public health authorities influenced motivation to participate. CONCLUSION: To improve contact tracing uptake, programs should respond to clients' physical and emotional needs; increase clarity of public communications; address structural and social factors that shape behaviors and opportunities; and establish and maintain trust. We identify multiple potential interventions that may help achieve these goals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Pública , Motivação
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276661, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301881

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, digital contact-tracing has been employed in many countries to monitor and manage the spread of the disease. However, to be effective such a system must be adopted by a substantial proportion of the population; therefore, public trust plays a key role. This paper examines the NHS COVID-19 smartphone app, the digital contact-tracing solution in the UK. A series of interviews were carried out prior to the app's release (n = 12) and a large scale survey examining attitudes towards the app (n = 1,001) was carried out after release. Extending previous work reporting high level attitudes towards the app, this paper shows that prevailing negative attitudes prior to release persisted, and affected the subsequent use of the app. They also show significant relationships between trust, app features, and the wider social and societal context. There is lower trust amongst non-users of the app and trust correlates to many other aspects of the app, a lack of trust could hinder adoption and effectiveness of digital contact-tracing. The design of technology requiring wide uptake, e.g., for public health, should embed considerations of the complexities of trust and the context in which the technology will be used.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aplicativos Móveis , Humanos , Busca de Comunicante , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010755, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In November 2019, an outbreak of Lassa Fever occurred among health workers in a non-endemic district in Sierra Leone. The outbreak resulted in five cases, including two that were exported to the Netherlands. The outbreak tested multiple technical capacities in the International Health Regulations (2005) in a real-life setting. As such, an after action review (AAR) was undertaken as recommended by World Health Organization. We report on the findings of the AAR including best practices and lessons learnt. METHODS: A two stage review process was employed. The first stage involved national pillar level reviews for each technical pillar and one review of the district level response. The second stage brought together all pillars, including participants from the national and sub-national level as well as health sector partners. National guidelines were used as references during the deliberations. A standardized template was used to report on the key findings on what happened, what was supposed to happen, what went well and lessons learnt. RESULTS: This was a hospital associated outbreak that likely occurred due to a breach in infection prevention and control (IPC) practices resulting in three health workers being infected during a surgical operation. There was a delay in detecting the outbreak on time due to low index of suspicion among clinicians. Once detected, the outbreak response contained the outbreak within one incubation period. Areas that worked well included coordination, contact tracing, active case search and ring IPC. Notable gaps included delays in accessing local emergency funding and late distribution of IPC and laboratory supplies. CONCLUSIONS: The incident management system worked optimally to contain this outbreak. The core technical gaps identified in surveillance, IPC and delay in deployment of resources should be addressed through systemic changes that can mitigate future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Febre Lassa , Busca de Comunicante , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Febre Lassa/diagnóstico , Febre Lassa/epidemiologia , Febre Lassa/prevenção & controle , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
18.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 90S-95S, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a survey to understand how people's willingness to share information with contact tracers, quarantine after a COVID-19 exposure, or activate and use a smartphone exposure notification (EN) application (app) differed by the person or organization making the request or recommendation. METHODS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative survey with hypothetical scenarios asking participants (N = 2157) to engage in a public health action by health care providers, public health departments, employers, and others. We used Likert scales and ordered logistic regression to compare willingness to take action based on which person or organization made the request, and we summarized findings by race and ethnicity. RESULTS: The highest levels of willingness to engage in contact tracing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.55-1.96), quarantine (aOR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.69-2.15), download/activate an EN app (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16-1.46), and notify other EN users (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.27-1.60) were reported when the request came from the participant's personal health care provider rather than from federal public health authorities. When compared with non-Hispanic White participants, non-Hispanic Black participants reported significantly higher levels of willingness to engage in contact tracing (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18-1.48), quarantine (aOR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.37-1.63), download/activate an EN app (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI, 2.01-2.38), and notify other EN users (aOR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.49-1.79). CONCLUSIONS: Partnering with individuals and organizations perceived as trustworthy may help influence people expressing a lower level of willingness to engage in each activity, while those expressing a higher level of willingness to engage in each activity may benefit from targeted communications.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Quarentena , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Notificação de Doenças , Parceiros Sexuais
19.
Euro Surveill ; 27(43)2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305336

RESUMO

BackgroundTracking person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the population is important to understand the epidemiology of community transmission and may contribute to the containment of SARS-CoV-2. Neither contact tracing nor genomic surveillance alone, however, are typically sufficient to achieve this objective.AimWe demonstrate the successful application of the integrated genomic surveillance (IGS) system of the German city of Düsseldorf for tracing SARS-CoV-2 transmission chains in the population as well as detecting and investigating travel-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection clusters.MethodsGenomic surveillance, phylogenetic analysis, and structured case interviews were integrated to elucidate two genetically defined clusters of SARS-CoV-2 isolates detected by IGS in Düsseldorf in July 2021.ResultsCluster 1 (n = 67 Düsseldorf cases) and Cluster 2 (n = 36) were detected in a surveillance dataset of 518 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Düsseldorf (53% of total cases, sampled mid-June to July 2021). Cluster 1 could be traced back to a complex pattern of transmission in nightlife venues following a putative importation by a SARS-CoV-2-infected return traveller (IP) in late June; 28 SARS-CoV-2 cases could be epidemiologically directly linked to IP. Supported by viral genome data from Spain, Cluster 2 was shown to represent multiple independent introduction events of a viral strain circulating in Catalonia and other European countries, followed by diffuse community transmission in Düsseldorf.ConclusionIGS enabled high-resolution tracing of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an internationally connected city during community transmission and provided infection chain-level evidence of the downstream propagation of travel-imported SARS-CoV-2 cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Viagem , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Busca de Comunicante , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Genômica
20.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 67S-75S, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Toward common methods for system monitoring and evaluation, we proposed a key performance indicator framework and discussed lessons learned while implementing a statewide exposure notification (EN) system in California during the COVID-19 epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: California deployed the Google Apple Exposure Notification framework, branded CA Notify, on December 10, 2020, to supplement traditional COVID-19 contact tracing programs. For system evaluation, we defined 6 key performance indicators: adoption, retention, sharing of unique codes, identification of potential contacts, behavior change, and impact. We aggregated and analyzed data from December 10, 2020, to July 1, 2021, in compliance with the CA Notify privacy policy. RESULTS: We estimated CA Notify adoption at nearly 11 million smartphone activations during the study period. Among 1 654 201 CA Notify users who received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, 446 634 (27%) shared their unique code, leading to ENs for other CA Notify users who were in close proximity to the SARS-CoV-2-positive individual. We identified at least 122 970 CA Notify users as contacts through this process. Contact identification occurred a median of 4 days after symptom onset or specimen collection date of the user who received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Smartphone-based EN systems are promising new tools to supplement traditional contact tracing and public health interventions, particularly when efficient scaling is not feasible for other approaches. Methods to collect and interpret appropriate measures of system performance must be refined while maintaining trust and privacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Notificação de Doenças , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , California/epidemiologia
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