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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(4): 885-895, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting response to exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in active Crohn's disease (CD) could lead to therapy personalization and pretreatment optimization. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the ability of pretreatment parameters to predict fecal calprotectin (FCal) levels at EEN completion in a prospective study in children with CD. METHODS: In children with active CD, clinical parameters, dietary intake, cytokines, inflammation-related blood proteomics, and diet-related metabolites, metabolomics and microbiota in feces, were measured before initiation of 8 wk of EEN. Prediction of FCal levels at EEN completion was performed using machine learning. Data are presented with medians (IQR). RESULTS: Of 37 patients recruited, 15 responded (FCal < 250 µg/g) to EEN (responders) and 22 did not (nonresponders). Clinical and immunological parameters were not associated with response to EEN. Responders had lesser (µmol/g) butyrate [responders: 13.2 (8.63-18.4) compared with nonresponders: 22.3 (12.0-32.0); P = 0.03], acetate [responders: 49.9 (46.4-68.4) compared with nonresponders: 70.4 (57.0-95.5); P = 0.027], phenylacetate [responders: 0.175 (0.013-0.611) compared with nonresponders: 0.943 (0.438-1.35); P = 0.021], and a higher microbiota richness [315 (269-347) compared with nonresponders: 243 (205-297); P = 0.015] in feces than nonresponders. Responders consumed (portions/1000 kcal/d) more confectionery products [responders: 0.55 (0.38-0.72) compared with nonresponders: 0.19 (0.01-0.38); P = 0.045]. A multicomponent model using fecal parameters, dietary data, and clinical and immunological parameters predicted response to EEN with 78% accuracy (sensitivity: 80%; specificity: 77%; positive predictive value: 71%; negative predictive value: 85%). Higher taxon abundance from Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroides and phenylacetate, butyrate, and acetate were the most influential variables in predicting lack of response to EEN. CONCLUSIONS: We identify microbial signals and diet-related metabolites in feces, which could comprise targets for pretreatment optimization and personalized nutritional therapy in pediatric CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Microbiota , Criança , Humanos , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Nutrição Enteral , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão , Metaboloma , Butiratos , Acetatos , Fenilacetatos
2.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1347676, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590519

RESUMO

The gut-lung axis is critical during viral respiratory infections such as influenza. Gut dysbiosis during infection translates into a massive drop of microbially produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Among them, butyrate is important during influenza suggesting that microbiome-based therapeutics targeting butyrate might hold promises. The butyrate-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium duncaniae (formerly referred to as F. prausnitzii) is an emerging probiotic with several health-promoting characteristics. To investigate the potential effects of F. duncaniae on influenza outcomes, mice were gavaged with live F. duncaniae (A2-165 or I-4574 strains) five days before infection. Supplementation of F. duncaniae was associated with less severe disease, a lower pulmonary viral load, and lower levels of lung inflammation. F. duncaniae supplementation impacted on gut dysbiosis induced by infection, as assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Interestingly, F. duncaniae administration was associated with a recovery in levels of SCFAs (including butyrate) in infected animals. The live form of F. duncaniae was more potent that the pasteurized form in improving influenza outcomes. Lastly, F. duncaniae partially protected against secondary (systemic) bacterial infection. We conclude that F. duncaniae might serve as a novel next generation probiotic against acute viral respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Probióticos , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Disbiose/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Butiratos , Faecalibacterium/genética
3.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120632, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531129

RESUMO

To provide a sufficient supply of electron donors for the synthesis of caproic acid, yeast fermentation was employed to increase ethanol production in the anaerobic fermentation of Chinese cabbage waste (CCW). The results showed that the caproic acid yield of CCW with ethanol pre-fermentation was 7750.3 mg COD/L, accounting for 50.2% of the total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs), which was 32.5% higher than that of the CCW without yeast inoculation. The synchronous fermentation of yeast and seed sludge significantly promoted the growth of butyric acid consuming bacterium Bacteroides, resulting in low yields of butyric acid and caproic acid. With yeast inoculation, substrate competition for the efficient ethanol conversion in the early stage of acidogenic fermentation inhibited the hydrolysis and acidfication. Without yeast inoculation, the rapid accumulation of TVFAs severely inhibited the growth of Bacteroidetes. In the reactor with ethanol pre-fermentation, the key microorganism for caproic acid production, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_12, was selectively enriched.


Assuntos
Brassica , Microbiota , Fermentação , Caproatos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Esgotos/química , Butiratos , Etanol , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reatores Biológicos
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(4): 137, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436734

RESUMO

Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, is a source of energy for colonocytes. Butyrate is essential for improving gastrointestinal (GI) health since it helps colonocyte function, reduces inflammation, preserves the gut barrier, and fosters a balanced microbiome. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, which are phylogenetically varied. The two most prevalent subgroups are associated with Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Now, the mechanism for the production of butyrate from microbes is a very vital topic to know. In the present study, we discuss the genes encoding the core of the butyrate synthesis pathway and also discuss the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase, instead of butyrate kinase, which usually appears to be the enzyme that completes the process. Recently, butyrate-producing microbes have been genetically modified by researchers to increase butyrate synthesis from microbes. The activity of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to several clinical trials to assess its effectiveness as a potential cancer treatment. Among various significant roles, butyrate is the main energy source for intestinal epithelial cells, which helps maintain colonic homeostasis. Moreover, people with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have distinct gut microbiota from healthy adults and frequently have dysbiosis of the butyrate-producing bacteria in their guts. So, with an emphasis on colon and lung cancer, this review also discusses how the microbiome is crucial in preventing the progression of certain cancers through butyrate production. Further studies should be performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of how these specific butyrate-producing bacteria can control both colon and lung cancer progression and prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Butiratos , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle
5.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2323234, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436093

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is linked to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Gut microbiota may partially mediate this association and could be potential targets for intervention; however, its role is understudied. We included 1,592 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infants Longitudinal Development Cohort. Data on environmental exposure and lifestyle factors were collected prenatally and throughout the first three years. Weight outcomes were measured at one and three years of age. Stool samples collected at 3 and 12 months were analyzed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA to profile microbial compositions and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify the metabolites. We showed that quitting smoking during pregnancy did not lower the risk of offspring being overweight. However, exclusive breastfeeding until the third month of age may alleviate these risks. We also reported that maternal smoking during pregnancy significantly increased Firmicutes abundance and diversity. We further revealed that Firmicutes diversity mediates the elevated risk of childhood overweight and obesity linked to maternal prenatal smoking. This effect possibly occurs through excessive microbial butyrate production. These findings add to the evidence that women should quit smoking before their pregnancies to prevent microbiome-mediated childhood overweight and obesity risk, and indicate the potential obesogenic role of excessive butyrate production in early life.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Butiratos , Firmicutes
6.
J Toxicol Sci ; 49(4): 151-161, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556352

RESUMO

Alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) is composed of isoquercitrin and its glucosylated derivatives and has many biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. However, the effect of AGIQ administered orally on gut microbiota composition remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of AGIQ on the gut microbiota of animals in different dose groups. Male rats and mice received different doses of AGIQ (1.5%, 3%, or 5% w/v) in diet for carcinogenic or chronic toxicity studies (rasH2 mice: 6 months; Sprague-Dawley rats: 12 months). Male minipigs received 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Fecal samples were collected from the different animal species and analyzed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. No significant changes were observed in alpha and beta diversity of the gut microbiota. Characteristic bacteria that responded to AGIQ were identified in each animal species, and, interestingly, Kineothrix alysoides, a butyrate-producing bacterium, was commonly detected in all three species, suggesting that it may be related to the biological activities of AGIQ. AGIQ selectively modulated the number of beneficial butyrate-producing commensal bacterium beneficial bacteria without changing the diversity of gut microbiota, which further supports the safe use of AGIQ in food products.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Suínos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Porco Miniatura , Bactérias/genética , Administração Oral , Butiratos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
7.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299349, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551926

RESUMO

The role of the gut microbiota in energy metabolism of the host has been established, both in overweight/obesity, as well as in undernutrition/stunting. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota may predispose to stunting. The aim of this study was to compare the gut microbiota composition of stunted Indonesian children and non-stunted children between 36 and 45 months from two sites on the East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) islands. Fecal samples were collected from 100 stunted children and 100 non-stunted children in Kupang and North Kodi. The gut microbiota composition was determined by sequencing amplicons of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Moreover, fecal SCFA concentrations were analyzed. The microbiota composition was correlated to anthropometric parameters and fecal metabolites. The phyla Bacteroidetes (Bacteroidota; q = 0.014) and Cyanobacteria (q = 0.049) were significantly higher in stunted children. Three taxa at genus levels were consistently significantly higher in stunted children at both sampling sites, namely Lachnoclostridium, Faecalibacterium and Veillonella (q < 7 * 10-4). These and 9 other taxa positively correlated to the z-score length-for-age (zlen), while 11 taxa negatively correlated with zlen. Several taxa also correlated with sanitary parameters, some of which were also significantly different between the two groups. All three fecal SCFA concentrations (acetate, propionate and butyrate) and their total were lower in stunted children compared to non-stunted children, although not significant for butyrate, indicating lower energy-extraction by the gut microbiota. Also, since SCFA have been shown to be involved in gut barrier function, barrier integrity may be affected in the stunted children. It remains to be seen if the three taxa are involved in stunting, or are changed due to e.g. differences in diet, hygiene status, or other factors. The observed differences in this study do not agree with our previous observations in children on Java, Indonesia. There are differences in infrastructure facilities such as clean water and sanitation on ENT and Java, which may contribute to the differences observed. The role of the gut microbiota in stunting therefore requires more in depth studies. Trial registration: the trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier number NCT05119218.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Criança , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Transtornos do Crescimento/microbiologia , Bacteroidetes/genética , Butiratos , Fezes/microbiologia
8.
Food Res Int ; 182: 114173, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519188

RESUMO

Wet-type grinder (WG) is a nanofiber technology used to atomize dietary fiber-rich materials. WG-treated okara (WGO) exhibits high dispersion and viscosity similar to those of viscous soluble dietary fibers. Here, we studied the effect of WGO supplementation on obesity and gut microbiota composition in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. WGO intake suppressed body weight gain and fat accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, lowered cholesterol levels, and prevented HFD-induced decrease in muscle mass. WGO supplementation also led to cecum enlargement, lower pH, and higher butyrate production. The bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) were sequenced to determine the gut microbiota composition of the fecal samples. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA revealed that WGO treatment increased the abundance of butyrate producer Ruminococcus and reduced the abundances of Rikenellaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Prevotellaceae, which are related to metabolic diseases. Metabolomics analysis of the plasma of WGO- and cellulose-treated mice were conducted using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that the primary bile acid biosynthesis pathway was significantly positively regulated by WGO intake instead of cellulose. These results demonstrate that WG is useful for improving functional properties of okara to prevent metabolic syndromes, including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Camundongos , Animais , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/metabolismo , Celulose/farmacologia , Butiratos , DNA Ribossômico/farmacologia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298930, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507436

RESUMO

The rumen represents a dynamic microbial ecosystem where fermentation metabolites and microbial concentrations change over time in response to dietary changes. The integration of microbial genomic knowledge and dynamic modelling can enhance our system-level understanding of rumen ecosystem's function. However, such an integration between dynamic models and rumen microbiota data is lacking. The objective of this work was to integrate rumen microbiota time series determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing into a dynamic modelling framework to link microbial data to the dynamics of the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production during fermentation. For that, we used the theory of state observers to develop a model that estimates the dynamics of VFA from the data of microbial functional proxies associated with the specific production of each VFA. We determined the microbial proxies using CowPi to infer the functional potential of the rumen microbiota and extrapolate their functional modules from KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes). The approach was challenged using data from an in vitro RUSITEC experiment and from an in vivo experiment with four cows. The model performance was evaluated by the coefficient of variation of the root mean square error (CRMSE). For the in vitro case study, the mean CVRMSE were 9.8% for acetate, 14% for butyrate and 14.5% for propionate. For the in vivo case study, the mean CVRMSE were 16.4% for acetate, 15.8% for butyrate and 19.8% for propionate. The mean CVRMSE for the VFA molar fractions were 3.1% for acetate, 3.8% for butyrate and 8.9% for propionate. Ours results show the promising application of state observers integrated with microbiota time series data for predicting rumen microbial metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Propionatos , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Propionatos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
11.
Neurobiol Dis ; 193: 106464, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452948

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation contributes to the pathology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it can be observed even with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal phase of AD. Free water (FW) imaging estimates the extracellular water content and has been used to study neuroinflammation across several neurological diseases including AD. Recently, the role of gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The relationship between FW imaging and gut microbiota was examined in patients with AD and MCI. Fifty-six participants underwent neuropsychological assessments, FW imaging, and gut microbiota analysis targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. They were categorized into the cognitively normal control (NC) (n = 19), MCI (n = 19), and AD (n = 18) groups according to the neuropsychological assessments. The correlations of FW values, neuropsychological assessment scores, and the relative abundance of gut microbiota were analyzed. FW was higher in several white matter tracts and in gray matter regions, predominantly the frontal, temporal, limbic and paralimbic regions in the AD/MCI group than in the NC group. In the AD/MCI group, higher FW values in the temporal (superior temporal and temporal pole), limbic and paralimbic (insula, hippocampus and amygdala) regions were the most associated with worse neuropsychological assessment scores. In the AD/MCI group, FW values in these regions were negatively correlated with the relative abundances of butyrate-producing genera Anaerostipes, Lachnospiraceae UCG-004, and [Ruminococcus] gnavus group, which showed a significant decreasing trend in the order of the NC, MCI, and AD groups. The present study showed that increased FW in the gray matter regions related to cognitive impairment was associated with low abundances of butyrate producers in the AD/MCI group. These findings suggest an association between neuroinflammation and decreased levels of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate that is one of the major gut microbial metabolites having a potentially beneficial role in brain homeostasis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Butiratos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
12.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 97, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) is a common glomerular disease in children. Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum), a probiotic producing butyric acid, exerts effective in regulating inflammation. This study was designed to elucidate the effect of C. butyricum on PNS inflammation through the gut-kidney axis. METHOD: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (CON), C. butyricum control group (CON+C. butyricum), PNS model group (PNS), and PNS with C. butyricum group (PNS+C. butyricum). The PNS model was established by a single injection of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) through the tail vein. After 1 week of modeling, the mice were treated with C. butyricum for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the mice were euthanized and associated indications were investigated. RESULTS: Since the successful modeling of the PNS, the 24 h urine protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), urine urea nitrogen (UUN), urine creatinine (UCr), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A were increased, the kidney pathological damage was aggravated, while a reduction of body weights of the mice and the anti-inflammatory IL-10 significantly reduced. However, these abnormalities could be dramatically reversed by C. butyricum treatment. The crucial Th17/Tregs axis in PNS inflammation also was proved to be effectively regulated by C. butyricum treatment. This probiotic intervention notably affected the expression levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein, and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt). 16S rRNA sequencing showed that C. butyricum could regulate the composition of the intestinal microbial community and found Proteobacteria was more abundant in urine microorganisms in mice with PNS. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured and showed that C. butyricum treatment increased the contents of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid in feces, acetic acid, and valeric acid in urine. Correlation analysis showed that there was a closely complicated correlation among inflammatory indicators, metabolic indicators, microbiota, and associated metabolic SCFAs in the gut-kidney axis. CONCLUSION: C. butyricum regulates Th17/Tregs balance via the gut-kidney axis to suppress the immune inflammatory response in mice with PNS, which may potentially contribute to a safe and inexpensive therapeutic agent for PNS.


Assuntos
Clostridium butyricum , Síndrome Nefrótica , Humanos , Criança , Camundongos , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Inflamação , Rim , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Butiratos , Interleucina-6 , Acetatos
13.
Microbiol Res ; 282: 127660, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442454

RESUMO

Nonresponse to biologic agents in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses a significant public health burden, and the prediction of response to biologics offers valuable insights for IBD management. Given the pivotal role of gut microbiota and their endogenous metabolites in IBD, we conducted a systematic review to investigate the potential of fecal microbiota and mucosal microbiota and endogenous metabolomic markers as predictors for biotherapy response in IBD patients. A total of 38 studies were included in the review. Following anti-TNF-α treatment, the bacterial community characteristics of IBD patients exhibited a tendency to resemble those observed in healthy controls, indicating an improved clinical response. The levels of endogenous metabolites butyrate and deoxycholic acid were significantly associated with clinical remission following anti-TNF-α therapy. IBD patients who responded well to vedolizumab treatment had higher levels of specific bacteria that produce butyrate, along with increased levels of metabolites such as butyrate, branched-chain amino acids and acetamide following vedolizumab treatment. Crohn's disease patients who responded positively to ustekinumab treatment showed higher levels of Faecalibacterium and lower levels of Escherichia/Shigella. In conclusion, fecal microbiota and mucosal microbiota as well as their endogenous metabolites could provide a predictive tool for assessing the response of IBD patients to various biological agents and serve as a valuable reference for precise drug selection in clinical IBD patients.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Humanos , Bactérias , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Butiratos , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 83, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interplay between gut microbiota (GM) and the metabolization of dietary components leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) is affected by a range of factors including colonic pH and carbohydrate source. However, there is still only limited knowledge on how the GM activity and metabolite production in the gastrointestinal tract could be influenced by pH and the pH gradient increases along the colon. RESULTS: Here we investigate the effect of pH gradients corresponding to levels typically found in the colon on GM composition and metabolite production using substrates inulin, lactose, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in an in vitro colon setup. We investigated 3 different pH regimes (low, 5.2 increasing to 6.4; medium, 5.6 increasing to 6.8 and high, 6.0 increasing to 7.2) for each fecal inoculum and found that colonic pH gradients significantly influenced in vitro simulated GM structure, but the influence of fecal donor and substrate was more pronounced. Low pH regimes strongly influenced GM with the decreased relative abundance of Bacteroides spp. and increased Bifidobacterium spp. Higher in vitro simulated colonic pH promoted the production of SCFAs in a donor- and substrate-dependent manner. The butyrate producer Butyricimonas was enriched at higher pH conditions, where also butyrate production was increased for inulin. The relative abundance of Phascolarctobacterium, Bacteroides, and Rikenellaceae also increased at higher colonic pH, which was accompanied by increased production of propionate with GOS and FOS as substrates. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results show that colonic substrates such as dietary fibres influence GM composition and metabolite production, not only by being selectively utilized by specific microbes, but also because of their SCFA production, which in turn also influences colonic pH and overall GM composition and activity. Our work provides details about the effect of the gradients of rising pH from the proximal to distal colon on fermenting dietary substrates in vitro and highlights the importance of considering pH in GM research.


Assuntos
Inulina , Prebióticos , Prebióticos/análise , Inulina/metabolismo , Força Próton-Motriz , Fermentação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Bacteroidetes
15.
Int J Oncol ; 64(4)2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426581

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The etiology of cancer has not been fully elucidated yet, and further enhancements are necessary to optimize therapeutic efficacy. Butyrate, a short­chain fatty acid, is generated through gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber. Studies have unveiled the relevance of butyrate in malignant neoplasms, and a comprehensive understanding of its role in cancer is imperative for realizing its full potential in oncological treatment. Its full antineoplastic effects via the activation of G protein­coupled receptors and the inhibition of histone deacetylases have been also confirmed. However, the underlying mechanistic details remain unclear. The present study aimed to review the involvement of butyrate in carcinogenesis and its molecular mechanisms, with a particular emphasis on its association with the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy, as well as discussing relevant clinical studies on butyrate as a therapeutic target for neoplastic diseases to provide new insights into cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Butiratos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Butiratos/farmacologia , Butiratos/uso terapêutico , Fibras na Dieta , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Food Funct ; 15(6): 3186-3198, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441170

RESUMO

The modern diet delivers nearly equal amounts of carbohydrates and protein into the colon representing an important protein increase compared to past higher fiber diets. At the same time, plant-based protein foods have become increasingly popular, and these sources of protein are generally less digestible than animal protein sources. As a result, a significant amount of protein is expected to reach the colon and be available for fermentation by gut microbiota. While studies on diet-microbiota interventions have mainly focused on carbohydrate fermentation, limited attention has been given to the role of protein or protein-fiber mixtures as fermentation substrates for the colonic microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate: (1) how changing the ratio of protein to fiber substrates affects the types and quantities of gut microbial metabolites and bacteria; and (2) how the specific fermentation characteristics of different types of fiber might influence the utilization of protein by gut microbes to produce beneficial short chain fatty acids. Our results revealed that protein fermentation in the gut plays a crucial role in shaping the overall composition of microbiota communities and their metabolic outputs. Surprisingly, butyrate production was maintained or increased when fiber and protein were combined, and even when pure protein samples were used as substrates. These findings suggest that indigestible protein in fiber-rich substrates may promote the production of microbial butyrate perhaps including the later stages of fermentation in the large intestine.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Butiratos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 398: 130530, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447619

RESUMO

Bio-photoelectrochemical cell (BPEC) is an emerging technology that can convert the solar energy into electricity or chemicals. However, traditional BPEC depending on abiotic electrodes is challenging for microbial/enzymatic catalysis because of the inefficient electron exchange. Here, electroactive bacteria (Shewanella loihica PV-4) were used to reduce graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and produce co-assembled rGO/Shewanella biohydrogel as a basic electrode. By adsorbing chlorophyll contained thylakoid membrane, this biohydrogel was fabricated as a photoanode that delivered maximum photocurrent 126 µA/cm3 under visible light. Impressively, the biohydrogel could be served as a cathode in BPEC by forming coculture system with genetically edited Clostridium ljungdahlii. Under illumination, the BPEC with above photoanode and cathode yielded âˆ¼ 5.4 mM butyrate from CO2 reduction, 169 % increase compared to dark process. This work provided a new strategy (nanotechnology combined with synthetic biology) to achieve efficient bioelectricity and valuable chemical production in PBEC.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Dióxido de Carbono , Grafite , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Butiratos , Hidrogéis , Eletricidade , Luz , Eletrodos
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(6): 4980-4999, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modulated by differences in genetic and environmental factors, laboratory mice often show progressive weight gain, eventually leading to obesity and metabolic dyshomeostasis. Since the geroneuroprotector CMS121 has a positive effect on energy metabolism in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes, we investigated the potential of CMS121 to counteract the metabolic changes observed during the ageing process of wild type mice. METHODS: Control or CMS121-containing diets were supplied ad libitum for 6 months, and mice were sacrificed at the age of 7 months. Blood, adipose tissue, and liver were analyzed for glucose, lipids, and protein markers of energy metabolism. RESULTS: The CMS121 diet induced a 40% decrease in body weight gain and improved both glucose and lipid indexes. Lower levels of hepatic caspase 1, caspase 3, and NOX4 were observed with CMS121 indicating a lower liver inflammatory status. Adipose tissue from CMS121-treated mice showed increased levels of the transcription factors Nrf1 and TFAM, as well as markers of mitochondrial electron transport complexes, levels of GLUT4 and a higher resting metabolic rate. Metabolomic analysis revealed elevated plasma concentrations of short chain acylcarnitines and butyrate metabolites in mice treated with CMS121. CONCLUSIONS: The diminished de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased acetyl-CoA, acylcarnitine, and butyrate metabolite levels, could contribute to safeguarding not only the peripheral system but also the aging brain. By mimicking the effects of ketogenic diets, CMS121 holds promise for metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, since these diets are hard to follow over the long term.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Camundongos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Butiratos/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica
19.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497653

RESUMO

Early-life olfactory sensory experience induces dramatic synaptic glomeruli remodeling in the Drosophila juvenile brain, which is experientially dose-dependent, temporally restricted, and transiently reversible only in a short, well-defined critical period. The directionality of brain circuit synaptic connectivity remodeling is determined by the specific odorant acting on the respondent receptor class of olfactory sensory neurons. In general, each neuron class expresses only a single odorant receptor and innervates a single olfactory synaptic glomerulus. In the Drosophila genetic model, the full array of olfactory glomeruli has been precisely mapped by odorant responsiveness and behavioral output. Ethyl butyrate (EB) odorant activates Or42a receptor neurons innervating the VM7 glomerulus. During the early-life critical period, EB experience drives dose-dependent synapse elimination in the Or42a olfactory sensory neurons. Timed periods of dosed EB odorant exposure allow investigation of experience-dependent circuit connectivity pruning in juvenile brain. Confocal microscopy imaging of antennal lobe synaptic glomeruli is done with Or42a receptor-driven transgenic markers that provide quantification of synapse number and innervation volume. The sophisticated Drosophila genetic toolkit enables the systematic dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating brain circuit remodeling.


Assuntos
Butiratos , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios , Receptores Odorantes , Animais , Encéfalo , Bulbo Olfatório , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Drosophila
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(4): 156, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480544

RESUMO

Postbiotics are produced by microbes and have recently gained importance in the field of oncology due to their beneficial effects to the host, effectiveness against cancer cells, and their ability to suppress inflammation. In particular, butyrate dominates over all other postbiotics both in quantity and anticancer properties. Pancreatic cancer (PC), being one of the most malignant and lethal cancers, reported a decreased 5-year survival rate in less than 10% of the patients. PC causes an increased mortality rate due to its inability to be detected at an early stage but still a promising strategy for its diagnosis has not been achieved yet. It is necessary to diagnose Pancreatic cancer before the metastatic progression stage. The available blood biomarkers lack accurate and proficient diagnostic results. Postbiotic butyrate is produced by gut microbiota such as Rhuminococcus and Faecalibacterium it is involved in cell signalling pathways, autophagy, and cell cycle regulation, and reduction in butyrate concentration is associated with the occurrence of pancreatic cancer. The postbiotic butyrate is a potential biomarker that could detect PC at an early stage, before the metastatic progression stage. Thus, this review focused on the gut microbiota butyrate's role in pancreatic cancer and the immuno-suppressive environment, its effects on histone deacetylase and other immune cells, microbes in major butyrate synthesis pathways, current biomarkers in use for Pancreatic Cancer.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Butiratos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico
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