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1.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 17, 2023 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep loss is a serious global health concern. Consequences include memory deficits and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Our previous research showed that melatonin can effectively improve cognitive impairment and intestinal microbiota disturbances caused by sleep deprivation (SD). The present study further explored the mechanism by which exogenous melatonin prevents SD-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we established fecal microbiota transplantation, Aeromonas colonization and LPS or butyrate supplementation tests to evaluate the role of the intestinal microbiota and its metabolites in melatonin in alleviating SD-induced memory impairment.  RESULTS: Transplantation of the SD-gut microbiota into normal mice induced microglia overactivation and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus, cognitive decline, and colonic microbiota disorder, manifesting as increased levels of Aeromonas and LPS and decreased levels of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136 and butyrate. All these events were reversed with the transplantation of SD + melatonin-gut microbiota. Colonization with Aeromonas and the addition of LPS produced an inflammatory response in the hippocampus and spatial memory impairment in mice. These changes were reversed by supplementation with melatonin, accompanied by decreased levels of Aeromonas and LPS. Butyrate administration to sleep-deprived mice restored inflammatory responses and memory impairment. In vitro, LPS supplementation caused an inflammatory response in BV2 cells, which was improved by butyrate supplementation. This ameliorative effect of butyrate was blocked by pretreatment with MCT1 inhibitor and HDAC3 agonist but was mimicked by TLR4 and p-P65 antagonists.  CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbes and their metabolites mediate the ameliorative effects of melatonin on SD-induced cognitive impairment. A feasible mechanism is that melatonin downregulates the levels of Aeromonas and constituent LPS and upregulates the levels of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136 and butyrate in the colon. These changes lessen the inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus through crosstalk between the TLR4/NF-κB and MCT1/ HDAC3 signaling pathways. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Melatonina , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Camundongos , Privação do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Melatonina/farmacologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Butiratos , Clostridiales , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Food Funct ; 14(2): 1099-1112, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594489

RESUMO

Pulmonary inflammation as one of the extraintestinal manifestations of ulcerative colitis (UC) has attracted extensive attention, and its pathogenesis is closely related to gut dysbiosis. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL-99 (BL-99) can alleviate osteoporosis caused by UC, but less research has been done on other extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) caused by UC. This study aimed to explore the role and potential mechanisms of BL-99 on DSS-induced pulmonary complications in colitis mice. The results showed that BL-99 decreased weight loss, disease activity index score, colonic pathology score, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) in colitis mice. BL-99 also alleviated DSS-induced lung pathological damage by suppressing the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory monocytes, and macrophages. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed lower abundances of several potentially pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Shigella, and Clostridium perfringens) and enrichment in specific beneficial bacteria (e.g., Adlercreutzia and Bifidobacterium animalis) in colitis mice with BL-99 treatment. Targeted metabolomics suggested that BL-99 intervention promoted the production of intestinal acetate and butyrate. Finally, we observed that the pulmonary expression of primary acetate and butyrate receptors, including FFAR2, FFAR3, and, GPR109a, was up-regulated in BL-99-treated mice, which negatively correlated with inflammatory monocytes and macrophages. Altogether, these results suggest that BL-99 might be utilized as a probiotic intervention to prevent the incidence of colitis-related lung injury owing to its ability to shape the intestinal microbiota and suppress inflammation.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium animalis , Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Lesão Pulmonar , Animais , Camundongos , Bifidobacterium animalis/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675302

RESUMO

Abnormal mutations in the microbial structure of early-weaning mammals are an important cause of enteritis. Based on the multiple known beneficial functions of butyrate, we hypothesized that butyrate would alleviate the imbalance of intestinal homeostasis induced by early weaning in animals. However, the mechanisms of action between butyrate and intestinal microbes are still poorly explored. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether butyrate exerts beneficial effects on the structure of the intestinal flora of weanling rabbits and their intestinal homeostasis, growth and development, and we attempted to elucidate the potential mechanisms of action through a combined omics analysis. We found that dietary butyrate upregulated the transcription of tight junction-related proteins in the epithelial barrier and improved the intestinal microbial structure by suppressing harmful bacteria and promoting beneficial ones. Intestinal and plasma metabolomes were also altered. The bile acid secretion, α-linolenic acid, apoptotic, and prostate cancer pathways responded to the positive dietary butyrate-induced metabolic changes in the weanling rabbits, resulting in the inhibition of inflammation, improved antioxidant capacity, increased rates of cell proliferation and survival, and decreased levels of apoptosis. Additionally, dietary butyrate suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory factors and enhanced positive appetite regulation, which increased the average daily gain of the rabbits. These results demonstrated that dietary butyrate can help maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier, improve the structural composition of the intestinal microflora, enhance organismal metabolism, inhibit inflammation, reduce post-weaning anorexia, and promote growth and development in early-weaning rabbits. These positive effects of dietary butyrate were exerted via the modulation of the microbe-gut-brain axis.


Assuntos
Butiratos , Dieta , Masculino , Animais , Coelhos , Butiratos/farmacologia , Butiratos/metabolismo , Desmame , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
4.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678175

RESUMO

Our recent report illustrated the unitedly advantageous effects of postbiotic butyrate on active vitamin D3 (VD3)-orchestrated innate immunity in Salmonella colitis. There is growing awareness that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) can regulate intestinal immunity and barrier function, through modulating cecal inflammation and junction proteins expression. Hence, we researched the participation of AhR-regulated tight junction functions on the united effects of butyrate and VD3 on intestinal defense to Salmonella infection. Salmonella colitis model were elicited by oral gavage with 1 × 108 CFU of a S. typhimurium wild-type strain SL1344 in C57BL/6 mice. Before and after the colitis generation, mice were fed with butyrate and/or VD3 by oral gavage in the absence or presence of intraperitoneal injection of AhR inhibitor for 4 and 7 days, respectively. We observed that butyrate and VD3 could concert together to reduce the invasion of Salmonella in colitis mice by enhancing cecal cytokines and antimicrobial peptides expression and reducing zonulin and claudin-2 protein expressions in mucosal stain, compared to single treatment, which were counteracted by AhR inhibitor. It implies that AhR is involved in the united effects of butyrate and VD3 on the intestinal defense to Salmonella infection in colitis mice. This study discloses the promising alternative therapy of combining postbiotic and VD3 for invasive Salmonellosis and the pivotal role of AhR pathway.


Assuntos
Colite , Infecções por Salmonella , Camundongos , Animais , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Colite/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614212

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids as well as their bacterial producers are of increasing interest in inflammatory bowel diseases. Although less studied compared to butyrate, acetate might also be of interest as it may be less toxic to epithelial cells, stimulate butyrate-producing bacteria by cross-feeding, and have anti-inflammatory and barrier-protective properties. Moreover, one of the causative factors of the probiotic potency of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. boulardii is thought to be its high acetate production. Therefore, the objective was to preclinically assess the effects of high acetate concentrations on inflammation and barrier integrity in organoid-based monolayer cultures from ulcerative colitis patients. Confluent organoid-derived colonic epithelial monolayers (n = 10) were exposed to basolateral inflammatory stimulation or control medium. After 24 h, high acetate or control medium was administered apically for an additional 48 h. Changes in TEER were measured after 48 h. Expression levels of barrier genes and inflammatory markers were determined by qPCR. Pro-inflammatory proteins in the supernatant were quantified using the MSD platform. Increased epithelial resistance was observed with high acetate administration in both inflamed and non-inflamed conditions, together with decreased expression levels of IL8 and TNFα and CLDN1. Upon high acetate administration to inflamed monolayers, upregulation of HIF1α, MUC2, and MKI67, and a decrease of the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed. In our patient-derived human epithelial cell culture model, a protective effect of high acetate administration on epithelial resistance, barrier gene expression, and inflammatory protein production was observed. These findings open up new possibilities for acetate-mediated management of barrier defects and inflammation in IBD.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Humanos , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Colite/metabolismo
6.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 23(1): 13, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation is prevalent and involves both colon sensitivity and various changes in intestinal bacteria, particularly mucosa-associated microflora. Here we examined regulatory mechanisms of TRPV4 expression by co-culturing colon epithelial cell lines with intestinal bacteria and their derivatives. We also investigated TRPV4 expression in colon epithelium from patients with constipation. METHODS: Colon epithelial cell lines were co-cultured with various enterobacteria (bacterial components and supernatant), folate, LPS, or short chain fatty acids. TRPV4 expression levels and promoter DNA methylation were assessed using pyrosequencing, and microarray network analysis. For human samples, correlation coefficients were calculated and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between clinical background, rectal TRPV4 expression level and mucosa-associated microbiota. RESULTS: Co-culture of CCD841 cells with P. acnes, C. perfringens, or S. aureus transiently decreased TRPV4 expression but did not induce methylation. Co-culture with clinical isolates and standard strains of K. oxytoca, E. faecalis, or E. coli increased TRPV4 expression in CCD841 cells, and TRPV4 and TNF-alpha expression were increased by E. coli culture supernatants but not bacterial components. Although folate, LPS, IL-6, TNF-alpha, or SCFAs alone did not alter TRPV4 expression, TRPV4 expression following exposure to E. coli culture supernatants was inhibited by butyrate or TNF-alphaR1 inhibitor and increased by p38 inhibitor. Microarray network analysis showed activation of TNF-alpha, cytokines, and NOD signaling. TRPV4 expression was higher in constipated patients from the terminal ileum to the colorectum, and multiple regression analyses showed that low stool frequency, frequency of defecation aids, and duration were associated with TRPV4 expression. Meanwhile, incomplete defecation, time required to defecate, and number of defecation failures per 24 h were associated with increased E. faecalis frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Colon epithelium cells had increased TRPV4 expression upon co-culture with K. oxytoca, E. faecalis, or E. coli supernatants, as well as TNFα-stimulated TNFαR1 expression via a pathway other than p38. Butyrate treatment suppressed this increase. Epithelial TRPV4 expression was increased in constipated patients, suggesting that TRPV4 together with increased frequency of E. faecalis may be involved in the pathogenesis of various constipation symptoms.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Humanos , Butiratos/farmacologia , Colo/patologia , Constipação Intestinal/genética , Escherichia coli , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(1): e1011108, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656870

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mastitis, an important disease affecting the health of lactating women and the development of the dairy industry. However, the effect of the regulation of the gut microbiota by dietary components on mastitis development remains unknown. In this study, we found that a fiber-enriched diet alleviated Staphylococcus aureus (S. au)-induced mastitis in mice, which was dependent on the gut microbiota as depletion of the gut microbiota by antibiotics abolished this protective effect. Likewise, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from high-inulin (HI)-treated mice (HIF) to recipient mice improved S. au-induced mastitis in mice. Consumption of an HI diet and HIF increased fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels compared with the control group. Moreover, treatment with SCFAs, especially butyrate, alleviated S. au-induced mastitis in mice. Mechanistically, consumption of an HI diet enhanced the host antimicrobial program in macrophages through inhibiting histone deacetylase 3 by the production of butyrate. Collectively, our results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolism by dietary components is a potential strategy for mastitis intervention and serve as a basis for other infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Butiratos , Mastite , Humanos , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus , Lactação , Dieta , Mastite/terapia , Macrófagos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
8.
Biotechniques ; 74(1): 9-21, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601888

RESUMO

Butyrate and propionate represent two of three main short-chain fatty acids produced by the intestinal microbiota. In healthy populations, their levels are reportedly equimolar, whereas a deviation in their ratio has been observed in various diseased cohorts. Monitoring such a ratio represents a valuable metric; however, it remains a challenge to adopt short-chain fatty acid detection techniques in clinical settings because of the volatile nature of these acids. Here we aimed to estimate short-chain fatty acid information indirectly through a novel, simple quantitative PCR-compatible assay (liquid array diagnostics) targeting a limited number of microbiome 16S markers. Utilizing 15 liquid array diagnostics probes to target microbiome markers selected by a model that combines partial least squares and linear discriminant analysis, the classes (normal vs high propionate-to-butyrate ratio) separated at a threshold of 2.6 with a prediction accuracy of 96%.


Assuntos
Butiratos , Microbiota , Propionatos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Bactérias/genética
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(3): 1510-1517, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622307

RESUMO

Intestinal barrier function declines with aging. We evaluated the effect of dietary fibers and indigestible oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function by altering the microbiota of the elderly. The feces were anaerobically cultured with indigestible dextrin, inulin, partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), lactulose, raffinose, or alginate, and the fermented supernatant was added to inflammation-induced Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12 co-cultured cells. Our data showed that inulin- and PHGG-derived supernatants exerted a protective effect on the intestinal barrier. The protective effect was significantly positively correlated with total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and butyric acid production in the supernatant and negatively correlated with the claudin-2 (CLDN2) gene expression in the cultured cells. Furthermore, we showed that the CLDN2 levels are regulated by butyric acid. Thus, inulin and PHGG can change the intestinal environment of the elderly and maintain the intestinal barrier by accelerating the production of SCFAs and modifying the expression levels of barrier function-related genes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Inulina , Idoso , Humanos , Butiratos/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes , Fermentação , Galactanos/metabolismo , Inflamação , Inulina/farmacologia , Inulina/metabolismo , Mananas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura
10.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 7(1): 38-55, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550307

RESUMO

The microbiome modulates host immunity and aids the maintenance of tolerance in the gut, where microbial and food-derived antigens are abundant. Yet modern dietary factors and the excessive use of antibiotics have contributed to the rising incidence of food allergies, inflammatory bowel disease and other non-communicable chronic diseases associated with the depletion of beneficial taxa, including butyrate-producing Clostridia. Here we show that intragastrically delivered neutral and negatively charged polymeric micelles releasing butyrate in different regions of the intestinal tract restore barrier-protective responses in mouse models of colitis and of peanut allergy. Treatment with the butyrate-releasing micelles increased the abundance of butyrate-producing taxa in Clostridium cluster XIVa, protected mice from an anaphylactic reaction to a peanut challenge and reduced disease severity in a T-cell-transfer model of colitis. By restoring microbial and mucosal homoeostasis, butyrate-releasing micelles may function as an antigen-agnostic approach for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Colite , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Camundongos , Animais , Micelas , Butiratos
11.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 7(1): 3-5, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550306
12.
Clin Nutr ; 42(2): 61-75, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502573

RESUMO

Butyrate is a key energy source for colonocytes and is produced by the gut microbiota through fermentation of dietary fiber. Butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and also signals through three G-protein coupled receptors. It is clear that butyrate has an important role in gastrointestinal health and that butyrate levels can impact both host and microbial functions that are intimately coupled with each other. Maintaining optimal butyrate levels improves gastrointestinal health in animal models by supporting colonocyte function, decreasing inflammation, maintaining the gut barrier, and promoting a healthy microbiome. Butyrate has also shown protective actions in the context of intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, graft-versus-host disease of the gastrointestinal tract, and colon cancer, whereas lower levels of butyrate and/or the microbes which are responsible for producing this metabolite are associated with disease and poorer health outcomes. However, clinical efforts to increase butyrate levels in humans and reverse these negative outcomes have generated mixed results. This article discusses our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of butyrate action with a focus on the gastrointestinal system, the links between host and microbial factors, and the efforts that are currently underway to apply the knowledge gained from the bench to bedside.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Gastroenteropatias , Animais , Humanos , Butiratos , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137499, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493894

RESUMO

Benzene is a group I carcinogen determined by IARC. The prevalence of benzene in occupational and general environments increases the risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among workers and childhood leukemia. However, the mechanism of hematotoxicity induced by benzene remains unclear. Recently, the gut microbiota has been regarded as a pivotal part of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Therefore, in this study, we explored the function of gut microbiota in hematopoietic injury induced by benzene by 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that benzene exposure caused bone marrow damage, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) dysfunction, and peripheral blood cell reduction. Moreover, intestinal barrier damage and gut microbiota dysbiosis were also observed in benzene-exposed mice. Interestingly, two gut flora, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and unclassified_Muribaculaceae, were significantly up-regulated and associated with hematopoietic indicators, suggesting that gut-host crosstalk might mediate benzene hematotoxicity. Microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids, and tryptophan metabolites, are the primary mediators of the gut-host crosstalk. Therefore, we conducted absolute quantitative metabolomics to investigate the impact of benzene exposure on these metabolites in mice. The results showed that the concentration of SCFA butyrate, tryptophan metabolites kynurenine, and Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) were significantly altered after benzene exposure. However, no difference was found in bile acids. Significant correlations were found between altered metabolites and hematopoietic indicators. We then investigated the flora that derived these metabolites. Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and unclassified_Muribaculaceae were enriched in the butyrate metabolism and tryptophan metabolism pathways. Correlation analysis further suggested that unclassified_Muribaculaceae was positively associated with butyrate (r = 0.588, P < 0.05) and IPA (r = 0.59, P < 0.05). The above results demonstrated that unclassified_Muribaculaceae and microbiota-derived butyrate and IPA were involved in hematopoietic toxicity caused by benzene. This study provides insight into gut microbiota-derived metabolites-host crosstalk in benzene hematopoietic toxicity.


Assuntos
Butiratos , Microbiota , Camundongos , Animais , Benzeno/toxicidade , Propionatos , Triptofano , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácidos e Sais Biliares
14.
Infect Immun ; 91(1): e0025222, 2023 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515524

RESUMO

Despite an important link between the gut and ocular health, the role of the gut-eye axis remains elusive in ocular infections. In this study, we investigated the role of butyrate, a gut microbial metabolite, in the pathobiology of intraocular bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus) infection, endophthalmitis. We found that intravitreal administration of butyrate derivatives, sodium butyrate (NaB), or phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduced intraocular bacterial growth and retinal inflammatory response. The ocular tissue architecture and retinal function were preserved in butyrate-treated eyes. In cultured mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human retinal Müller glia, NaB or PBA treatment reduced S. aureus-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. However, in vivo data showed NLRP3-independent effects of butyrate. The butyrate-treated mouse retina and cells exhibited induced expression of antimicrobial molecules CRAMP (LL37) and S100A7/A8, resulting in increased bacterial phagocytosis and killing. Moreover, butyrate treatment enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent autophagy and promoted the co-localization of CRAMP in autophagosomes, indicating autophagy-mediated bacterial killing. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy in mice revealed its role in butyrate-mediated protection. Finally, butyrate exhibited synergy with antibiotic in promoting endophthalmitis resolution. Collectively, our study demonstrated the protective mechanisms of butyrate in ameliorating bacterial endophthalmitis. Therefore, butyrate derivatives could be explored as immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial therapeutics to improve visual outcomes in ocular bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Endoftalmite , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Butiratos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Autofagia , Inflamassomos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Endoftalmite/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111930, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461189

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop a highly bioactive postbiotic for weight management by bioconversion of whey (WHE) and polyphenol-rich citrus pomace extract (CPX) using kefir lactic acid bacteria (LAB). WHE and CPX bioconverted by kefir LAB (CPB) were fed to C57BL/6J mice on high-fat diets for five weeks and compared with oral administrations of saline (CON), WHE, CPX, and kefir LAB. Hesperetin, a potential therapeutic agent for obesity, was increased in the CPB after bioconversion from an inactive precursor. Compared with the CON group, the CPB group showed significantly reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight/body weight ratio, hypertriglyceridemia, and adipocyte diameter along with increased gene expression related to energy expenditure in adipose tissue (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the abundance of gut microbiota related to butyrate production was significantly altered in the CPB group compared with the CON group. There was a significant correlation between obesogenic biomarkers and the abundance of butyrate-producing and obesogenic gut microbiota. In conclusion, kefir LAB-derived bioconversion of WHE and CPX may be effective in combating obesity and obesity-related diseases.


Assuntos
Citrus , Kefir , Lactobacillales , Camundongos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Soro do Leite , Disbiose , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Obesidade , Butiratos , Extratos Vegetais
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(12): e2244912, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36469320

RESUMO

Importance: The pediatric obesity disease burden imposes the necessity of new effective strategies. Objective: To determine whether oral butyrate supplementation as an adjunct to standard care is effective in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, quadruple-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed from November 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021, at the Tertiary Center for Pediatric Nutrition, Department of Translational Medical Science, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy. Participants included children aged 5 to 17 years with body mass index (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile. Interventions: Standard care for pediatric obesity supplemented with oral sodium butyrate, 20 mg/kg body weight per day, or placebo for 6 months was administered. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the decrease of at least 0.25 BMI SD scores at 6 months. The secondary outcomes were changes in waist circumference; fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, ghrelin, microRNA-221, and interleukin-6 levels; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); dietary and lifestyle habits; and gut microbiome structure. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: Fifty-four children with obesity (31 girls [57%], mean [SD] age, 11 [2.91] years) were randomized into the butyrate and placebo groups; 4 were lost to follow-up after receiving the intervention in the butyrate group and 2 in the placebo group. At intention-to-treat analysis (n = 54), children treated with butyrate had a higher rate of BMI decrease greater than or equal to 0.25 SD scores at 6 months (96% vs 56%, absolute benefit increase, 40%; 95% CI, 21% to 61%; P < .01). At per-protocol analysis (n = 48), the butyrate group showed the following changes as compared with the placebo group: waist circumference, -5.07 cm (95% CI, -7.68 to -2.46 cm; P < .001); insulin level, -5.41 µU/mL (95% CI, -10.49 to -0.34 µU/mL; P = .03); HOMA-IR, -1.14 (95% CI, -2.13 to -0.15; P = .02); ghrelin level, -47.89 µg/mL (95% CI, -91.80 to -3.98 µg/mL; P < .001); microRNA221 relative expression, -2.17 (95% CI, -3.35 to -0.99; P < .001); and IL-6 level, -4.81 pg/mL (95% CI, -7.74 to -1.88 pg/mL; P < .001). Similar patterns of adherence to standard care were observed in the 2 groups. Baseline gut microbiome signatures predictable of the therapeutic response were identified. Adverse effects included transient mild nausea and headache reported by 2 patients during the first month of butyrate intervention. Conclusions and Relevance: Oral butyrate supplementation may be effective in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04620057.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/tratamento farmacológico , Grelina , Butiratos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Insulina , Colesterol
17.
Comput Biol Med ; 151(Pt B): 106287, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455296

RESUMO

Glutaminolysis is a typical hallmark of malignant tumors across different cancers. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, GLUD1) is one such enzyme involved in the conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate. High levels of GDH are associated with numerous diseases and is also a prognostic marker for predicting metastasis in colorectal cancer. Therefore, inhibiting GDH can be a crucial therapeutic target. Here in this study, we performed molecular docking analysis of 8 different plants derived single compounds collected from pubChem database for screening and selected decursin (DN) and decursinol angelate (DA). We performed molecular dynamics simulation (MD), monitored the stability, interaction for protein and docked ligand at 50 ns, and evaluated the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) free energy calculation on the twoselected compounds along with a standard inhibitor epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as reference. The final results showed the formation of stable hydrogen bond interactions by DN and DA in the residues of R400 and Y386 at the ADP activation site of GDH, which was important for the selective inhibition of GDH activity. Additionally, the total binding energy of DN and DA were -115.5 kJ/mol and -106.2 kJ/mol, which was higher than the standard reference GDH inhibitor EGCG (-92.8 kJ/mol). Furthermore, biochemical analysis for GDH inhibition substantiated our computational results and established DN and DA as novel GDH inhibitor. The percentage of IC50 inhibition for DN and DA were 1.035 µM and 1.432 µM. Conclusively, DN and DA can be a novel therapeutic drug for inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase.


Assuntos
Glutamato Desidrogenase , Neoplasias , Humanos , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Butiratos/análise , Butiratos/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Ensaios Enzimáticos
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1051797, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36568086

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota and its derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can reverse obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases, but whether it has an effect on obesity complicated by precocious puberty and its potential mechanism need to be further understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the gut microbiota and its derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on obesity-induced precocious puberty rats and their regulatory mechanisms. We constructed obesity-induced precocious puberty rats using a high-fat diet (HFD) had notable similarity to precocious puberty caused by obesity due to overeating in children. We then added acetate, propionate, butyrate or their mixture to the HFD, and investigated the effect of intestinal microbiota and its derived SCFAs on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) in rats with obesity-induced precocious puberty. We found that obesity-induced precocious puberty rats had an early first estrous cycle, increased hypothalamic mRNA expression of Kiss1, GPR54 and GnRH, and early gonadal maturation. Meanwhile, the intestinal microbiota imbalance and the main SCFAs production decreased in the colon. The addition of acetate, propionate, butyrate or their mixture to the HFD could significantly reverse the precocious puberty of rats, reduce GnRH release from the hypothalamus and delay the development of the gonadal axis through the Kiss1-GPR54-PKC-ERK1/2 pathway. Our findings suggest that gut microbiota-derived SCFAs are promising therapeutic means for the prevention of obesity-induced precocious puberty and provide new therapeutic strategies with clinical value.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ratos , Animais , Feminino , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Propionatos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Butiratos/farmacologia
19.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 31(12): 1269-1278, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Via pleiotropic targeting of membrane and nuclear fatty acid receptors regulating key metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the liver, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids could offer a unique therapeutic approach for the treatment of metabolic-inflammatory diseases such as NASH. However, they lack efficacy for the treatment of NASH, likely due to unfavorable distribution, metabolism, and susceptibility to peroxidation. AREAS COVERED: Structurally engineered fatty acids (SEFAs), as exemplified by icosabutate, circumvent the inherent limitations of unmodified long-chain fatty acids, and demonstrate markedly enhanced pharmacodynamic effects without sacrificing safety and tolerability. We cover icosabutate's structural modifications, their rationale and the fatty acid receptor and pathway targeting profile. We also provide an overview of the clinical data to date, including interim data from a Phase 2b trial in NASH subjects. EXPERT OPINION: Ideally, candidate drugs for NASH and associated liver fibrosis should be pleiotropic in mechanism and work upstream on multiple drivers of NASH, including lipotoxic lipid species, oxidative stress, and key modulators of inflammation, liver cell injury, and fibrosis. Icosabutate has demonstrated the ability to target these pathways in preclinical NASH models with interim data from the ICONA trial supporting, at least noninvasively, the clinical translation of highly promising pre-clinical data.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Butiratos/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática
20.
Cell Rep ; 41(11): 111809, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516747

RESUMO

The gut microbiota influences acetylation on host histones by fermenting dietary fiber into butyrate. Although butyrate could promote histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases, it may also undergo oxidation to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), a necessary cofactor for histone acetyltransferases. Here, we find that epithelial cells from germ-free mice harbor a loss of histone H4 acetylation across the genome except at promoter regions. Using stable isotope tracing in vivo with 13C-labeled fiber, we demonstrate that the microbiota supplies carbon for histone acetylation. Subsequent metabolomic profiling revealed hundreds of labeled molecules and supported a microbial contribution to host fatty acid metabolism, which declined in response to colitis and correlated with reduced expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. These results illuminate the flow of carbon from the diet to the host via the microbiota, disruptions to which may affect energy homeostasis in the distal gut and contribute to the development of colitis.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbiota , Camundongos , Animais , Acetilação , Histonas/metabolismo , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Isótopos/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Butiratos , Ácidos Graxos
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