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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 200, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107644

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize exposures to metals using biological samples collected on socioeconomically disadvantaged black pregnant women. We obtained 131 anonymous urine samples provided by black pregnant women visiting a Medicaid-serving prenatal clinic in Houston, TX, from March 27, 2017 to April 11, 2017. We analyzed urine samples for 15 metals including cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) and for creatinine and cotinine. We found that median concentrations of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and aluminum (Al) among black pregnant women in this study were 1.5 to 3 times higher than levels reported among a cohort of well-educated non-Hispanic white pregnancy planners. We also observed elevated levels of urinary Cd and antimony (Sb) as compared with those reported for a nationally representative sample of adult women in the USA. Based on the results of an exploratory factor analysis, potential sources of metal exposures in this population may arise in home environments or be due to diet, industrial and natural sources, or traffic.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Gestantes , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Metais Pesados/urina , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Texas
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36434-36440, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724128

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the secondary biological treatment plant effluent administration on the kidneys, urinary bladder, and testis of Wistar rats in relation to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation, since such an effluent is used for irrigation of edible plants. Male Wistar rats, randomly assigned into 5 groups, were treated with domestic sewage effluent (DSE) for 24 months. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the DSE, rats' tissues, and urine were estimated by means of atomic spectroscopy. Lead was rapidly accumulated in high amounts in rats' kidney and to a lesser extent in the testis whereas Cd concentration was raised in all tissues examined. Deposition of Cd and Pd in the kidney of the rats resulted in profound damage over time. The results showed that long-term administration to DSE as drinking water exposes living organisms to urogenital stress related to heavy metal concentration and pH of the effluent.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Água Potável/química , Chumbo/toxicidade , Sistema Urogenital/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Cádmio/urina , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Esgotos/química , Sistema Urogenital/metabolismo , Sistema Urogenital/patologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
3.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113341, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610512

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that is widely distributed in the environment. However, the mechanisms linking Cd exposure and type 2 diabetes risks are not completely elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of C-reactive protein (CRP) on the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk. We determined urinary Cd and plasma CRP concentrations among 3,140 adults from Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort. Dose-response relationships between urinary Cd, plasma CRP, and type 2 diabetes were explored using multivariate logistic regression and linear mixed regression models. Mediation analysis was performed to investigate the role of plasma CRP in the associations between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk. With adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios (ORs) of type 2 diabetes showed an upward trend when urinary Cd concentration gradually increased (P trend <0.01). Significantly positive dose-response relationships were observed between urinary Cd and plasma CRP, as well as between plasma CRP and type 2 diabetes risk. Compared to those when both Cd and CRP levels were low, the adjusted ORs (95%CI) of type 2 diabetes was the highest [2.053(1.395-3.020)] in individuals with high levels of urinary Cd and plasma CRP. Mediation analysis estimated that plasma CRP mediated 4.01% of the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk [mediating effect: OR (95%CI) = 1.019(1.002-1.057)]. Individuals with high levels of urinary Cd and plasma CRP had a much higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Plasma CRP may serve as a mediator in the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk, providing clues for further study on the biological pathway for type 2 diabetes related to Cd exposure.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Cádmio/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Adulto , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
4.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113325, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614327

RESUMO

Associations between single metal and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels have been reported in previous studies. However, the association between multi-metals exposure and FBG level are little known. To assess the joints of arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) co-exposure on FBG levels, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) statistical method was used to estimate the potential joint associations between As, Ni, Cd, Se, and Zn co-exposure and FBG levels among 1478 community-based Chinese adults from two counties, Shimen (n = 696) and Huayuan (n = 782), with different exposure profiles in Hunan province of China. The metals levels were measured in spot urine (As, Ni, and Cd) and plasma (Se and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, respectively. The exposure levels of all the five metals were significantly higher in Shimen area (median: As = 57.76 µg/L, Cd = 2.75 µg/L, Ni = 2.73 µg/L, Se = 112.67 µg/L, Zn = 905.68 µg/L) than those in Huayuan area (As = 41.14 µg/L, Cd = 2.22 µg/L, Ni = 1.88 µg/L, Se = 65.59 µg/L, Zn = 819.18 µg/L). The BKMR analyses showed a significantly positive over-all effect of the five metals on FBG levels when metals concentrations were all above the 50th percentile while a statistically negative over-all effect when metals concentrations were all under the 50th percentile in Shimen area. However, a totally opposite over-all effect of the mixture of the five metals on FBG levels was found in Huayuan area. BKMR also revealed a non-linear exposure-effect of Zn on FBG levels in Huayuan area. In addition, interaction effects of As and Se on FBG level were observed. The relationship between single or combined metals exposure and FBG was different against different exposure profiles. Potential interaction effects of As and Se on FBG levels may exist.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/urina , Níquel/urina , Selênio/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Chemosphere ; 234: 640-647, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234081

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to metals can have an adverse effect on the cardiovascular system. However, epidemiological studies of the associations of metals expose with hypertension among occupationally exposed workers were limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between urinary metal levels and the risk of hypertension among molybdenum miners and iron and steel foundry workers. The cross-sectional study had 395 participants. Urinary metal levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Log-binomial regression model and two-piece-wise regression model were applied to assess the dose-response relationship between metal exposure and hypertension. We observed that increased prevalence ratios for hypertension among the quartile of urinary concentrations of molybdenum, arsenic and lead were positive (all P for trend <0.05). Compared with the lowest quartiles, participants in the highest quartiles of molybdenum, arsenic and lead had a 2.58-fold, 4.30-fold and 4.85-fold increased probability of having hypertension, respectively. In the threshold effect analyses, we found the relationship was nonlinear between urinary molybdenum, cobalt, cadmium, arsenic and lead concentrations and the prevalence of hypertension. In addition, Pb, Mo, As and Co may have joint effect, and a strong positive correlation with the prevalence of hypertension. Conversely, the association between the joint effect of Cd, Pb and Mo versus the prevalence of hypertension is not significant. We provide reference levels of molybdenum, cobalt, cadmium, arsenic and lead that can be used to assess the effects of occupational metal exposure on hypertension.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Cobalto/urina , Hipertensão/urina , Chumbo/urina , Molibdênio/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234310

RESUMO

As the majority of experimental studies suggest cadmium being metalloestrogen, we examined cadmium/breast cancer (BC) association by histological and tumor receptor subtype in 509 invasive BC patients and 1170 controls. Urinary cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and categorized using tertiles of its distribution in the controls: <0.18, 0.18-0.33, >0.33 kg × 10-9/kg × 10-3 creatinine. Relative to the lowest category of urinary cadmium adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ductal BC was 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.58) in the intermediate and 1.53 (95% CI: 1.15-2.04) in the highest category. There was a significant association for hormone receptor-positive ductal BC: ORs per category increase were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.14-1.59) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.09-1.61) for progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.11-1.65) for ER+/PR+ BC. We found a significant association between cadmium and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) ductal BC. The strongest association with cadmium was for ER+/PR+/HER2- ductal BC. The associations between cadmium and lobular BC with hormone receptor-positive and HER2- were positive but insignificant. There was no evidence that the associations with cadmium differed for cancers with different tumor histology (p-heterogeneity > 0.05). This study provides evidence that urinary cadmium is associated with the risk of hormone receptor-positive and HER2- breast cancer independent of tumor histology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/urina , Cádmio/urina , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Fatores de Risco
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247904

RESUMO

Gold mining activities occurred throughout the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, leaving behind persistent toxic contaminants in the soil, dust, and water that include arsenic and cadmium. Despite a high level of concern among local residents about potential exposure and high breast cancer rates, no biomonitoring data has been collected to evaluate the levels of heavy metals. We conducted a study to characterize the urinary levels of heavy metals among women in this region by working with the community in Nevada County. Sixty women provided urine samples and completed a questionnaire. We examined levels of arsenic, cadmium, and other metals in relation to the length of residency in the area, age, dietary factors, recreational activities, and smoking. We compared urinary metal levels in participants to levels in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Overall, study participants had higher urinary levels of arsenic than women in the national sample. Cadmium levels were similar to the national average, although they were elevated in women ≥35 years who had lived in the region for 10 years or more. Arsenic levels were higher among women who smoked, ate fish, ate home-grown produce, and who reported frequent hiking or trail running, although these differences were not statistically significant. This study established a successful community-research partnership, which facilitated community dialogue about possible human health consequences of living in a mining-impacted area.


Assuntos
Ouro , Metais Pesados/urina , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , California , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 699-707, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108303

RESUMO

We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between prenatal cadmium (Cd) exposure and birth weight. PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases were searched for studies published before March 2019. We used a model-based method, standardizing effect size from linear regression models to include a maximum number of studies during our quantitative evaluations. As a result, 11 articles from the general population, containing 10 birth cohorts and one cross-sectional study, were included. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that a 50% increase of maternal urine Cd (UCd) would be associated with a 6.15 g decrease in neonatal birth weight (ß = -6.15 g, 95% CI: -10.81, -1.49) as well as a 50% increase of maternal blood Cd (BCd) would be associated with an 11.57 g decrease (ß = -11.57 g; 95% CI: -18.85, -4.30). Stratified analysis of UCd data indicated that the results of female newborns were statistically significant (ß = -8.92 g, 95% CI: -17.51, -0.34), as was the first trimester (ß = -11.34 g, 95% CI: -19.54, -3.14). Furthermore, increased UCd levels were associated with a higher rate of low birth weight (LBW) risk (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.22). This meta-analysis demonstrated that elevated maternal Cd levels are associated with decreased birth weight and higher LBW risk.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 54: 183-190, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asalouyeh (southern Iran) contains many pollution sources like petrochemical and gas refinery companies. Few studies were conducted on the body burden of metal(loid)s in occupationally exposed workers of the companies in this area. OBJECTIVES: The urine concentration of metal(loid)s in workers of gas refinery and petrochemical companies in Asalouyeh (who have been worked as "two weeks work-two weeks rest" schedule) was evaluated during a before-and-after observational study. The risks of metal(loid)s in drinking water and dust particles in the studied area were also assessed. METHODS: Urinary samples (n = 179) were gathered at the first day of two weeks of work (before) and at the end of two weeks of work (after). The concentration of V, Ni, Mn, Cd, and As was measured using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The health hazards of metal(loid)s in the air dust and drinking water of workers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The median concentration of metal(loid)s for workers of gas refinery and petrochemical companies for before and after two weeks of work was measured, respectively, as: As (11.44 and 9.31 µg/L), Ni (1.06 and 0.51 µg/L), Cd (0.36 and 0.31 µg/L), Mn (0.29 and 0.24 µg/L), and V (0.08 and 0.05 µg/L). After two weeks work, the median of all metal(loid)s in the urine of petrochemical and gas refinery workers was significantly increased. The non-cancer risk due to intake metal(loid)s from drinking water was more than the threshold value and the cancer risk from drinking water and inhaled air dust was less than the threshold. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed the effect of gas refinery and petrochemical activities on increasing the metal(loid)s concentration of the worker's body and the necessity to protect this group. Additionally, the metal(loid)s intake from drinking water and inhaled dust posed no cancer risk to the workers.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Poeira/análise , Metais Pesados/urina , Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Humanos , Níquel/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Vanádio/urina
10.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 54: 36-43, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109619

RESUMO

Data (N = 9882) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2003-2014 for US adults aged ≥20 years were analyzed to evaluate the variabilities in concentrations of blood and urine lead across various stages of glomerular function. Those who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in glomerular function stage 1 (GF-1), those who had eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-2, those who had eGFR between 45 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-3A, those who had eGFR between 15 and 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-3B/4. There were consistent increases in adjusted geometric means (AGM) for both blood and urine lead from GF-1 to GF-3A even though increases were not uniform from one GF stage to another. For the total population, AGMs for blood lead were 1.23, 1.78, 2.25, and 2.25 µg/dL for GF-1, GF-2, GF-3A, and GF-3B/4 respectively. AGMs for urine lead were 0.49, 0.61, 0.68, and 0.47 µg/L for GF-1, GF-2, GF-3A, and GF-3B/4 respectively. Thus, from GF-3A to GF-3B/4, AGMs for both blood and urine lead decreased. However, percent increases from GF-1 to GF-3A for urine lead were smaller than for blood lead and percent decreases from GF-3A to GF-3B/4 for urine lead were larger than for blood lead. Females had lower AGMs than males for both blood and urine lead. Also, smoker-nonsmoker differences for blood lead narrowed as kidney function deteriorated but smoker-nonsmoker differences for urine cadmium lead as kidney function deteriorated. Smokers had sharper increases in AGMs for blood and urine lead than nonsmokers from GF-1 to GF-3A but at GF-3B/4, this difference was reduced to 0.17 µg/dL.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rim/metabolismo , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19272-19281, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069655

RESUMO

As cadmium levels are increasing in the environment, the adverse effects of cadmium exposure specifically associated with chronic diseases are receiving increasing attention. Several population-based studies have been conducted on the association between cadmium and diabetes mellitus (DM) but have reported controversial results. Here, we aimed to evaluate the association between cadmium exposure and DM. In this meta-analysis, a random effects model was used because there was evidence of heterogeneity among studies. A dose-response relationship was assessed through a restricted cubic spline model with three knots. The results showed a positive association between cadmium levels in the body and DM (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52). The cadmium levels in the body were defined on the basis of combined urinary and blood cadmium. Subgroup analysis further indicated a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and DM (OR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02-1.69). The dose-response analysis results showed a positive association between levels of urinary cadmium above 2.43 µg/g creatinine and DM, and the risk of DM increased by 16% for each l µg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium levels. The results from our meta-analysis indicate that cadmium levels in the body are positively associated with DM, and urinary cadmium levels above 2.43 µg/g creatinine are associated with an increased risk of DM.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Cádmio/toxicidade , Creatinina/urina , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus/urina , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(3): 556-562, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826206

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a well-recognized, hazardous toxic heavy metal, and the adverse effects of high-level Cd exposure on human health have been well documented. However, little is known about the health effects of low-level environmental Cd exposure on pregnant women. The objective of this study was to assess urinary metabolic alterations in pregnant women exposed to environmental Cd, and to identify informative biomarkers. Urine samples from 246 pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy were collected, and urinary Cd concentrations were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urinary metabolomics was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Cd-related metabolic biomarkers were examined by comparing the samples of the first and third tertiles of Cd exposure classifications, using a partial least-squares discriminant (PLS-DA) model. Five putative biomarkers were identified, including L-cystine, L-tyrosine, dityrosine, histamine, and uric acid, all of which were related to oxidative stress and nephrotoxic effects induced by Cd exposure. The results show that low-level environmental Cd exposure could induce metabolite profile alterations in pregnant women, which might be associated with adverse health effects. Our findings provide new insights into the early molecular events following Cd exposure, and may be valuable for the health risk assessment of Cd exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Metaboloma , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Citosina/urina , Feminino , Histamina/urina , Humanos , Metabolômica , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/urina , Gestantes , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/urina , Ácido Úrico/urina
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(13): 13464-13475, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911968

RESUMO

Pregnant women, a vulnerable population, can be exposed to a variety of environmental metals that may adversely affect their health at elevated concentrations. Moreover, environmental exposure and risk disparities are associated with several factors such as sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy complications, and nutritional supplementation indicators. Our aim was to investigate whether and how the urinary metal concentrations vary according to these factors in a large pregnancy and birth cohort. Urinary levels of seven metals including manganese, zinc, selenium, arsenic, cadmium, thallium, and lead were assessed in 7359 participants across Wuhan City in China. In all, 7359 urine samples from the third trimester were analyzed and 15 sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy complications, and nutritional supplementation indicators were assessed: maternal age, household income, multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, etc. Concentrations of Zn, As, and Cd were detected in all urine samples; Mn, Se, Tl, and Pb were detected in 95.3%, 99.8%, 99.8%, and 99.9% urine samples, respectively. The geometric mean (GM) of creatinine-adjusted urinary Mn, Zn, Se, As, Cd, Tl, and Pb concentrations were 1.42, 505.44, 18.24, 30.49, 0.64, 0.55, and 3.69 µg/g. Factors that associated with environmental metals concentration were as follows: (1) Urinary Zn and Cd concentrations increased with maternal age. (2) Pregnant women with higher education had lower Cd concentrations. (3) Pregnant women with folic acid supplementation had lower Mn and with multivitamin supplementation had higher Se and lower Tl. Our results demonstrated that the maternal age, education level, folic acid supplementation, and multivitamin supplementation were significantly associated with environmental metal concentrations. Furthermore, studies are recommended to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Manganês/urina , Metais/urina , Selênio/urina , Zinco/urina , Adulto , Arsênico/química , Cádmio/química , China , Cidades , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Manganês/química , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Selênio/química , Zinco/química
14.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 27, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length (TL) is considered a potential marker for future disease and lifelong health, but few epidemiological studies have examined the determinants of TL in early life. The study aim was to investigate whether there is an association between prenatal cadmium exposure and relative cord blood TL in Chinese newborns. METHODS: Participants were 410 mother-newborn pairs drawn from a prospective birth cohort study conducted in Wuhan, China, between November 2013 and March 2015. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women during their period of institutional delivery. Urinary cadmium concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection was used to measure relative TL using genomic DNA isolated from umbilical cord blood leukocytes. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate the effect of prenatal urinary cadmium concentration on relative cord blood TL. RESULTS: The geometric mean of maternal urinary cadmium concentration was 0.68 µg/g creatinine. In the multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, per doubling of maternal urinary cadmium concentration was associated with 6.83% (95% CI - 11.44%, - 1.97%; P = 0.006) shorter relative cord blood TL. Stratified analyses indicated that the inverse association between prenatal urinary cadmium and newborn relative TL was more pronounced among female infants and mothers < 29 years, while there were no significant effect modification according to infant sex (P for interaction = 0.907) and maternal age (P for interaction = 0.797). CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that increased maternal urinary cadmium was associated with shortened relative cord blood TL. The results provide more evidence of the negative effects of environmental cadmium exposure and suggest that accelerated aging or cadmium-related diseases may begin in early life.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Telômero/patologia , Adulto , Cádmio/urina , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leucócitos/patologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 52: 22-28, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732886

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal that can be relatively high in brown meat from crab and there is concern that it may accumulate in long-term crabmeat consumers posing a health risk. Sixteen healthy habitual crabmeat consumers and twenty five healthy non-crabmeat consumers were recruited through completion of a seafood frequency questionnaire. Whole blood and urine samples were analysed for Cd levels and urinary beta-2-microglobulin, an established marker of Cd-induced kidney toxicity, to determine levels in crabmeat consumers. Whole blood Cd levels were significantly elevated in the crabmeat-consuming group, whereas urinary levels of Cd and beta-2-microglobulin were not. Whole blood Cd levels can be both a short and long-term marker for Cd intake and levels might be expected to be elevated in the crabmeat consumers as crabmeat can contain Cd. However, crabmeat consumers did not show increases in a more established long-term marker of Cd (urinary Cd) and consistent with this, no change in a Cd-induced kidney toxicity marker. Consequently, in conclusion, compared to consumers who reported very little crabmeat consumption, healthy middle-aged consumers who regularly consume brown crabmeat products (an average of 447 g/week) for an average of 16 years showed no change in long-term Cd exposure or kidney toxicity.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/química , Cádmio/urina , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Microglobulina beta-2/urina , Animais , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(2): 207-211, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744274

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between environmental factors as urinary cadmium and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in adults. Methods: Case-control study was adopted, including 166 cases and 427 controls. General characteristics of the subjects were collected by a structured questionnaire. FPG, biochemical indexes and urinary cadmium (UCd) were detected respectively, while UCd was corrected with creatinine. Unconditioned logistic regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between UCd and DM. Results: Levels of UCd appeared higher in cases with the following characteristics as: having primary school education (P=0.016), being female (P=0.013), being non-smokers (P=0.014) or non-alcoholic (P=0.025), and with BMI>25.00 kg/m(2) (P=0.040, P=0.025) than those appeared in the control group. Same results were shown in the 60-69 years (P=0.024) old group. Data from the unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that family history of DM (OR=3.19, 95%CI: 1.45-7.03), education status (OR=1.50,95%CI: 1.08-2.08) and UCd (OR=1.61, 95%CI: 1.08-2.41) were influencing factors on DM. Conclusion: A close association between UCd and DM was noticed. UCd appeared a risk factor on DM that called for setting up related prevention program to reduce the exposure of Cd and to control the risk on DM.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 173: 429-435, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798186

RESUMO

Both cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure can induce kidney damage. However, the effects of combined exposure to Cd and Pb on renal function at environmental levels have not been fully clarified. In this study we investigated the renal function in a Chinese population co-exposed to Cd and Pb. A total of 331 subjects (215 women and 116 men), living in either a control or a polluted area, were included in this study. Cd and Pb in blood and urine (BCd, BPb, UCd, and UPb), and kidney effect markers including urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), were determined, and the association between exposure markers and renal effect biomarkers were analyzed. The exposure levels in the polluted area were significantly higher than in the control area (all p < 0.01). The eGFR of subjects in the polluted area was decreased compared with that in the control area (p < 0.01). The subjects with high BCd/BPb (BCd ≥ 2 µg/L, BPb ≥ 100 µg/L) or high UCd/UPb (UCd ≥ 3 µg/g creatinine, UPb ≥ 10 µg/g creatinine) showed higher UNAG and UALB levels compared with other subgroups (p < 0.01). The probability of having elevated UNAG in subjects with high BCd/BPb was greater than those with low BCd/BPb [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-4.7), low BCd/high BPb (OR =3.1, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6), and high BCd/low BPb (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2). The OR of subjects with low UCd and high UPb, high UCd and low UPb, and high UCd/UPb were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.4-5.7), 3.3 (95% CI: 1.5-7.2), and 7.7 (95% CI: 4.0-14.7), respectively, compared with those with low UCd/UPb. The risk of decrease in eGFR was also higher in subjects with high UCd/UPb than for those with low UCd/UPb (OR = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.8-62.2). Our data demonstrate that Cd and Pb exposure, alone or in combination, are associated with renal impairment. In addition, co-exposure to Pb and Cd propagates the renal tubular dysfunction compared with Cd or Pb exposure alone.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Acetilglucosaminidase/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 1239-1248, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) exposure has adverse health effects in children. Diet contributes to Cd exposure, but dietary components could affect body Cd levels. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between diet and urinary Cd (U-Cd) in children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay, Cd exposure of 5-8 year old children (n = 279 with complete data) was assessed in first morning urine (U-Cd), a marker of long-term exposure, measured by ICP-MS and adjusted for specific gravity. Distribution of U-Cd was (median [5%, 95%]: 0.06 [0.02, 0.17] µg/L); data were natural-log-transformed (ln) for statistical analyses. Serum ferritin (SF), an indicator of iron stores, was measured in fasting samples. Trained nutritionists completed two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls with both child and caregiver present. Measures of iron, zinc, calcium and fiber intake, and the consumption of grains, root vegetables, milk, and foods rich in heme iron (white and read meats) and non-heme iron (legumes, spinach, broccoli, tomatoes, dried fruit) were derived. Multivariable ordinary least squares (OLS) and ordinal regressions were used to examine associations among tertiles of water Cd, SF, diet, and U-Cd. OLS models were further stratified by sex. RESULTS: In covariate-adjusted models, SF was not related to ln-U-Cd. Children in highest tertile of iron and zinc intake had lower ln-U-Cd: (-0.23 [-0.42, -0.03]) and (-0.25 [-0.44, -0.05]), respectively, compared to the reference group. Children consuming higher amounts of foods rich in heme iron had slightly lower ln-U-Cd (-0.17 [-0.36, 0.03]). High grain consumption was related to higher ln-U-Cd (0.25 [0.06, 0.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Diets rich in grains were related to higher urinary Cd levels among children living in the context of low Cd pollution. Higher intake of iron and zinc was related to lower Cd levels. Given that urinary Cd is mainly a marker of long-term exposure, these findings should be further corroborated.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Zinco/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uruguai , Compostos de Zinco/análise
19.
Environ Int ; 124: 441-447, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium exposure has been inconsistently related with hypertension. However, epidemiologic data on the genetic susceptibility to the hypertensive effect of cadmium exposure are limited. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the associations between cadmium exposure and hypertension risk differed by genetic polymorphisms in MMPs genes. METHODS: The present study of 497 hypertension cases and 497 healthy controls was conducted in a Chinese population. Urinary cadmium levels were measured with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Multivariable logistic regression models were analyzed after controlling major confounders. RESULTS: Within the multivariable logistic regression models, compared with the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of urinary cadmium had a 1.33-fold (95% CI: 1.01, 1.93) increased risk of hypertension. Carriers of rs243865 T allele and rs243866 A allele in MMP-2 were suggested to have increased risks of hypertension. The associations of urinary cadmium with hypertension risk were modified by rs14070 (P-value for interaction = 0.022) and rs7201 (P-value for interaction = 0.009) in gene MMP-2. Positively significant trends for increasing odds of hypertension with cadmium levels were observed among the wild types of rs14070 and rs7201, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were positively associated with hypertension risk in a Chinese population, and the associations were modified by polymorphism of rs14070 and rs7201 in gene MMP-2.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Cádmio/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos
20.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 8, 2019 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In health examinations for local inhabitants in cadmium-polluted areas, only healthy people are investigated, suggesting that patients with severe cadmium nephropathy or itai-itai disease may be overlooked. Therefore, we performed hospital-based screening to detect patients with cadmium nephropathy in two core medical institutes in cadmium-polluted areas in Akita prefecture, Japan. METHODS: Subjects for this screening were selected from patients aged 60 years or older with elevated serum creatinine levels and no definite renal diseases. We enrolled 35 subjects from a hospital in Odate city and 22 from a clinic in Kosaka town. Urinary ß2-microglobulin and blood and urinary cadmium levels were measured. RESULTS: The criteria for renal tubular dysfunction and the over-accumulation of cadmium were set as a urinary ß2-microglobulin level higher than 10,000 µg/g cr. and a blood cadmium level higher than 6 µg/L or urinary cadmium level higher than 10 µg/g cr., respectively. Subjects who fulfilled both criteria were diagnosed with cadmium nephropathy. Six out of 57 patients (10.5% of all subjects) had cadmium nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: This hospital-based screening is a very effective strategy for detecting patients with cadmium nephropathy in cadmium-polluted areas, playing a complementary role in health examinations for local inhabitants. REGISTRATION NUMBER: No. 6, date of registration: 6 June, 2010 (Akita Rosai Hospital), and No. 1117, date of registration: 26 December, 2013 (Akita University).


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Cádmio/complicações , Intoxicação por Cádmio/urina , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intoxicação por Cádmio/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão , Nefropatias/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo
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