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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578883

RESUMO

Erroneous conclusions may result from normalization of urine cadmium and N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase concentrations ([Cd]u and [NAG]u) to the urine creatinine concentration ([cr]u). In theory, the sources of these errors are nullified by normalization of excretion rates (ECd and ENAG) to creatinine clearance (Ccr). We hypothesized that this alternate approach would clarify the contribution of Cd-induced tubular injury to nephron loss. We studied 931 Thai subjects with a wide range of environmental Cd exposure. For x = Cd or NAG, Ex/Ecr and Ex/Ccr were calculated as [x]u/[cr]u and [x]u[cr]p/[cr]u, respectively. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Epidemiology Collaboration (eGFR), and CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for CKD were higher for log(ECd/Ccr) and log(ENAG/Ccr) than for log(ECd/Ecr) and log(ENAG/Ecr). Doubling of ECd/Ccr and ENAG/Ccr increased POR by 132% and 168%; doubling of ECd/Ecr and ENAG/Ecr increased POR by 64% and 54%. As log(ECd/Ccr) rose, associations of eGFR with log(ECd/Ccr) and log(ENAG/Ccr) became stronger, while associations of eGFR with log(ECd/Ecr) and log(ENAG/Ecr) became insignificant. In univariate regressions of eGFR on each of these logarithmic variables, R2 was consistently higher with normalization to Ccr. Our tabular and graphic analyses uniformly indicate that normalization to Ccr clarified relationships of ECd and ENAG to eGFR.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Creatinina/urina , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Acetilglucosaminidase/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cádmio/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Int ; 150: 106428, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571817

RESUMO

Cadmium exposure has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Cigarette smoking is a key source of cadmium exposure and thus a potential confounder in observational studies of environmental cadmium and cardiovascular disease that include tobacco smokers. We leveraged up to 20 years of follow-up in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among people who never smoked. Between 1993 and 1997, 19,394 never-smoking participants (ages 50-64 years) were enrolled and provided a urine sample. From this sample, we randomly selected a subcohort of 600 males and 600 females. We identified 809 AMI cases occurring between baseline and the end of 2015 using the Danish National Patient Registry. We quantified cadmium, creatinine, and osmolality in baseline urine samples. Using an unweighted case-cohort approach, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for AMI in Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time axis. Participants had relatively low concentrations of urinary cadmium, as expected for never smokers (median = 0.20; 25th, 75th = 0.13, 0.32 µg cadmium/g creatinine). We did not find strong evidence to support an association between higher urinary cadmium and AMI when comparing the highest versus lowest quartile (aHR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.86 - 1.56) and per IQR increment in cadmium concentration (aHR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.93 - 1.12). Results were not materially different across strata defined by sex. Results were generally similar using creatinine or osmolality to account for differences in urine dilution. While cadmium exposure has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, we did not find strong evidence that urinary cadmium at relatively low-levels is associated with AMI among people who have never smoked.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Infarto do Miocárdio , Neoplasias , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fumantes
3.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116717, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640655

RESUMO

Genetic effects are suspected to influence cadmium internal dose. Our objective was to assess genetic determinants of urine cadmium in American Indian adults participating in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Urine cadmium levels and genotyped short tandem repeat (STR) markers were available on 1936 SHFS participants. We investigated heritability, including gene-by-sex and smoking interactions, and STR-based quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage, using a variance-component decomposition approach, which incorporates the genetic information contained in the pedigrees. We also used available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Illumina's Metabochip and custom panel to assess whether promising QTLs associated regions could be attributed to SNPs annotated to specific genes. Median urine cadmium levels were 0.44 µg/g creatinine. The heritability of urine cadmium concentrations was 28%, with no evidence of gene-by-sex or -smoking interaction. We found strong statistical evidence for a genetic locus at chromosome 16 determining urine cadmium concentrations (Logarithm of odds score [LOD] = 3.8). Among the top 20 associated SNPs in this locus, 17 were annotated to ABCC1 (p-values from 0.0002 to 0.02), and attenuated the maximum linkage peak by a ∼40%. Suggestive QTL signals (LOD>1.9) in chromosomes 2, 6, 11, 14, and 19, showed associated SNPs in the genes NDUFA10, PDE10A, PLEKHA7, BAZ1A and CHAF1A, respectively. Our findings support that urinary cadmium levels are heritable and influenced by a QTL on chromosome 16, which was explained by genetic variation in ABCC1. Studies with extended sets of genome-wide markers are needed to confirm these findings and to identify additional metabolism and toxicity pathways for cadmium.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Cádmio/urina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(12): 127009, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic and cadmium are known cardiovascular toxicants that pose disproportionate risk to rural communities where environmental exposures are high. American Indians have high vascular risk, which may be attributable in part to these exposures. OBJECTIVE: We examined urine metal concentrations in association with magnetic resonance imaging findings of vascular brain injury or cerebral atrophy in adult American Indians. METHODS: We measured arsenic and cadmium in American Indian participants from the Strong Heart Study (1989-1991) and evaluated these associations with later (2010-2013) measures of infarct, hemorrhage, white matter hyperintensity (WMH) grade, brain and hippocampal volume, and sulcal and ventricle atrophy using nested multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Among participants with available data (N=687), the median urine arsenic:creatinine ratio was 7.54µg/g [interquartile range (IQR): 4.90-11.93] and the cadmium:creatinine ratio was 0.96µg/g (IQR: 0.61-1.51). Median time between metal measurement and brain imaging was 21 y (range: 18-25 y). Statistical models detected significant associations between arsenic and higher burden of WMH [grade increase=0.014 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.028) per 10% increase in arsenic]; and between cadmium and presence of lacunar infarcts [relative risk (RR)=1.024 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.045) per 10% increase in cadmium]. DISCUSSION: This population-based cohort of American Indian elders had measured values of urine arsenic and cadmium several times higher than previous population- and clinic-based studies in the United States and Mexico, and comparable values with European industrial workers. Our findings of associations for arsenic and cadmium exposures with vascular brain injury are consistent with established literature. Environmental toxicant accumulation is modifiable; public health policy may benefit from focusing on reductions in environmental metals. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6930.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Creatinina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111039, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) exposure has been linked to atherosclerosis. Co-exposure of these two heavy metals often occurs in humans. Recent evidence has indicated a crucial role of DNA methylation in atherosclerosis, while Pb or Cd exposure has also been shown to alter DNA methylation. However, it is still unknown whether DNA methylation plays a role in the pathological mechanism of these two heavy metals in atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We enrolled 738 participants (12-30 years) to investigate the association among concentrations of urine Pb or Cd, the 5mdC/dG value (a global DNA methylation marker) and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). When each heavy metal was modeled separately, the results showed urine Pb and Cd concentrations were positively associated with the 5mdC/dG value and CIMT, respectively. When the two heavy metals were analyzed in the same model, urinary Pb concentrations were positively associated with the 5mdC/dG value and CIMT, while urinary Cd concentrations were only positively associated with the CIMT. When Pb and Cd are simultaneously considered in the same logistic regression model, the odds ratios (OR) of thicker CIMT (greater than 75th percentile) with one unit increase in ln-Pb level was 1.67 (95% C.I. = 1.17-2.46, P = 0.005) when levels of 5mdC/dG were above 50th percentile, which is higher than 5mdC/dG bellow the 50th percentile (OR = 1.50 (95% C.I. = 0.96-2.35), P = 0.076). In structural equation model (SEM), Pb or Cd levels are directly associated with CIMT. Moreover, Pb or Cd had an indirect association with CIMT through the 5mdC/dG. When we considered Pb and Cd together, Pb levels had a direct association with CIMT and an indirect association with CIMT through the 5mdC/dG value, while Cd only had a direct association with CIMT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings imply that Pb and Cd exposure might be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, and global DNA methylation might mediate Pb-associated subclinical atherosclerosis in this young population. Future effort is necessary to elucidate the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cádmio/urina , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Metilação de DNA , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Chumbo/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Chemosphere ; 258: 126940, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540546

RESUMO

Exposures to heavy metals play a role in the etiopathogenesis of diabetes. Epidemiological studies investigating a potential sex-specific linkage between manganese (Mn) exposures and glucose homeostasis are rare. We comprehensively estimated the associations of blood and urinary Mn levels with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among 1417 adults in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2016. We further examined the potential heterogeneities by sex and joint-effects of multiple metal exposures by the Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR). Among women, we found positive linear relationships between urinary Mn with FPG (Poverall = 0.003, Pnonlinear = 0.817) and HbA1c (Poverall = 0.023, Pnonlinear = 0.854). Among men, J-shaped relationships were observed between blood Mn with HOMA-IR (Pnonlinear = 0.042) and insulin (Pnonlinear = 0.014). For eGFR, positive linear relationships were obserned among women for blood Mn (Pnonlinear = 0.549) and among both men and women for urinary Mn levels. The joint-effects of urinary Mn with molybdenum (Mo) on FPG and HbA1c, urinary Mn with cadmium (Cd) and cesium (Cs) on eGFR, and blood Mn with Cd and lead (Pb) on eGFR were detected. In summary, blood and urinary Mn levels were independently associated with glucose levels, insulin resistance and kidney function with potential sex-dependent heterogeneities. These findings emphasize the probable role of Mn in the regulation of glucose metabolism and kidney function, and confirm the need for more studies on sex-specific risk of diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Resistência à Insulina , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cádmio/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal, which is widespread in the environment and has been hypothesized to be a metalloestrogen and a breast cancer risk factor. Mammographic density (MD) reflects the composition of the breast and was proposed to be used as a surrogate marker for breast cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate association between cadmium concentration in urine and mammographic density. METHODS: A cross-sectional study included 517 women aged 40-60 years who underwent screening mammography in Lódz, Poland. Data were collected through personal interviews and anthropometric measurements. Spot morning urine samples were obtained. The examination of the breasts included both craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views. Raw data ("for processing") generated by the digital mammography system were analysed using Volpara Imaging Software, The volumetric breast density(%) and fibrograndular tissue volume(cm3) were determined. Cadmium concentration in urine was analysed using the standard ICP-MS method. RESULTS: After adjusting for key confounders including age, BMI, family breast cancer, mammographic device, season of the year of mammography, and age at menarche, an inverse association of Cd and volumetric breast density was found, which was attenuated after further adjustment for smoking. Associations of Cd with dense volume were null. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Cd is not positively associated with breast density, a strong marker of breast cancer risk, when examined in a cross-sectional fashion.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Cádmio/urina , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Software
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149559

RESUMO

Chronic cadmium exposure and its effect on cardiovascular-related markers were explored in the cross-sectional study of U.S. adults using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data. Cardiovascular-related markers, such as LDL cholesterol mg/dL (LDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol mg/dL (non-HDL-C), triglycerides mg/dL (TG), c-reactive protein mg/dL (CRP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase U/L (GGT) were explored in relation to urine cadmium level µg/L (UCL). The variables and their relation to UCL µg/L were explored both as continuous and categorical variables using linear and logistic regression models and basic descriptive statistics. Geometric Mean values of the markers of interest were statistically significantly more elevated in middle-aged adults (45-65 years) as compared to younger adults (18-44 years). In linear regression analysis, CRP mg/dL, LDL-C mg/dL, non-HDL-C mg/dL, and GGT U/L levels were significantly associated with UCLs mg/dL after adjusting for confounding variables. In binary logistic regression models, young and middle-aged adults chronically exposed to cadmium were significantly more likely to have elevated CRP mg/dL levels. This study suggests that chronic exposure to cadmium alters cardiovascular-related markers in middle-aged adults more so than younger adults, which calls for early public health intervention to limit cadmium exposure in the U.S.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Cádmio/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Environ Res ; 183: 109224, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a developmental toxicant that is released into the environment during industrial processes. Previous animal studies suggest that Cd may impact the onset of puberty. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether Cd exposure, measured as urinary Cd concentration, was associated with ages at menarche and pubertal development. METHODS: A cohort of 211 girls, ages 10-13 years at baseline, was followed for up to two years. Girls completed an interview and self-assessment of Tanner stages of breast development and pubic hair growth. They were followed monthly until menarche. Urinary Cd concentrations were measured in overnight urine specimens. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between urinary Cd and age at menarche and cumulative logit regression was used to evaluate the associations between urinary Cd and breast development and pubic hair growth. RESULTS: The baseline geometric mean creatinine-adjusted Cd concentration was 0.22 µg/g creatinine (geometric standard deviation = 1.6) and decreased with increasing age (p-trend = 0.04). Cd levels were higher among Asian than White girls or girls of other/mixed race/ethnicity (p = 0.04). In multivariable analyses, girls with urinary Cd ≥ 0.4 µg/L were less likely to have attained menarche than girls with urinary Cd < 0.2 µg/L (hazard ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.78). Urinary Cd was negatively associated with pubic hair growth (p-trend = 0.01) but not with breast development (p-trend = 0.72) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a higher Cd body burden may delay some aspects of pubertal development among girls.


Assuntos
Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio , Menarca , Puberdade , Adolescente , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Maturidade Sexual
10.
Environ Int ; 137: 105527, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have observed that cadmium (Cd) exposure of pregnant women was associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the potential mechanism still remains unclear. In addition, various animal studies have suggested that Cd exposure could affect fatty acids (FAs) metabolism, but data on humans are scant. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a nested case-control study to investigate the associations of urinary Cd concentrations with levels of circulating FAs and risk of GDM in pregnant women, and further to examine the role of FAs in mediating the relationship between Cd exposure and risk of GDM. METHODS: A total of 305 GDM cases were matched to 305 controls on pregnant women's age (±2 years) and infant's gender from a birth cohort study conducted in Wuhan, China. Urinary Cd concentrations and levels of plasma FAs between 10 and 16 gestational weeks were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Conditional logistic regressions models were used to estimate the associations of Cd concentrations and levels of FAs with the risk of GDM. Multiple linear regression models were applied to estimate the associations between Cd concentrations and levels of FAs. Mediation analysis was used to assess the mediating role of FAs in the association of Cd with the risk of GDM. RESULTS: Urinary concentrations of Cd in cases (median: 0.69 µg/L) were significantly higher than controls (median: 0.59 µg/L, P < 0.05). Cd concentrations were positively associated with the risk of GDM (Ptrend = 0.003). Compared to the first tertile of Cd, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of GDM risk were 2.08 (1.29, 3.36) for the second tertile and 2.09 (1.32, 3.33) for the third tertile. Cd concentrations were positively correlated with levels of eicosadienoic acid and arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio, but negatively correlated with levels of stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, total odd-chain saturated fatty acids, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs ratio. We did not observe evidence that the association of Cd exposure and risk of GDM was mediated through FAs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed the association of higher Cd exposure with increased risk of GDM in pregnant women, and provided forceful epidemiological evidence for the relation of Cd concentrations and levels of FAs.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Diabetes Gestacional , Ácidos Graxos , Cádmio/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 200, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107644

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize exposures to metals using biological samples collected on socioeconomically disadvantaged black pregnant women. We obtained 131 anonymous urine samples provided by black pregnant women visiting a Medicaid-serving prenatal clinic in Houston, TX, from March 27, 2017 to April 11, 2017. We analyzed urine samples for 15 metals including cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) and for creatinine and cotinine. We found that median concentrations of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and aluminum (Al) among black pregnant women in this study were 1.5 to 3 times higher than levels reported among a cohort of well-educated non-Hispanic white pregnancy planners. We also observed elevated levels of urinary Cd and antimony (Sb) as compared with those reported for a nationally representative sample of adult women in the USA. Based on the results of an exploratory factor analysis, potential sources of metal exposures in this population may arise in home environments or be due to diet, industrial and natural sources, or traffic.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Gestantes , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Metais Pesados/urina , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Texas
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 137: 111130, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945394

RESUMO

Usually health risk related to food contaminants is assessed based on consumption data collected on a few days. Consequently, this approach considers neither the evolution of exposures over time nor the potential accumulation of the substance. The aim of the present study was to develop a method to assess lifetime dietary risk due to cadmium exposure. Three methods were compared, respectively based on age, dietary pattern and sociodemographic characteristics. Additionally, exposure trajectories were converted into cadmium body burden trajectories using a PBTK-TD model ultimately predicting the occurrence of renal effects. It was shown that dietary exposures to cadmium, as well as exceedances of health based guidance values, greatly vary with age and individual profiles. The developed methods allowed identifying parameters affecting dietary exposure to cadmium and distinguishing at-risk subpopulations. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that it is necessary to consider individual changes through life and kinetic of the substance to assess risk properly.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Toxicocinética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113361, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668955

RESUMO

Data (N = 10336) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2003-2016 for US adults aged ≥ 20 years were analyzed to evaluate the concentrations of blood and urine cadmium across the various stages of glomerular function. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was defined to be glomerular function stage 1 (GF-1), eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 defined as GF-2, eGFR between 45 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 as GF-3A, and eGFR between 15 and 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 as GF-3B/4. Regression models stratified by GF-stages were fitted to estimate associations between the observed levels of blood and urine cadmium across stages of GF. Based on the results of stratified modes, there were consistent increases in adjusted geometric means (AGMSM) for both blood and urine cadmium from GF-1 to GF-3A although increases were not uniform from one GF stage to another. For the total population, AGMSM for blood and urine cadmium were GF-1 (0.47, 0.24), GF-2 (0.60, 0.37), GF-3A (0.72, 0.45), and GF-3B/4 (0.73, 0.45) µg/L. respectively. Although females had higher AGMSMs than males for both blood and urine cadmium, the difference in blood cadmium narrowed as kidney function deteriorated. Smokers had the steepest increases in AGMSMs for blood and urine cadmium across the stages of glomerular function and smoker-nonsmoker differences for blood cadmium narrowed as kidney function deteriorated but smoker-nonsmoker differences for urine cadmium widened as kidney function deteriorated. The important physiologic messages are that both blood and urine cadmium cease to increase from GF-3A to GF-3B/4, suggesting a new steady state based on renal failure. And, the narrowed difference in blood cadmium in smokers vs. nonsmokers suggests why this happens. Incremental exposures to cadmium are offset by excretion as renal failure progresses.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiologia , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/urina , Adulto , Cádmio/toxicidade , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 194(1): 58-65, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134451

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of chronic kidney diseases. However, this association has not been reported in populations exposed to cadmium. In the present study, we examined the association between alcohol consumption and renal tubular dysfunction in populations living in cadmium-polluted areas. A total of 446 subjects (170 men and 276 women) were finally included in our analysis. The urinary cadmium (UCd) and cadmium in blood (BCd) were determined as the exposure biomarkers. Urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and ß2-microgloblin (UBMG) were measured as renal indicators. Alcohol drinking patterns were obtained from a questionnaire and divided into four categories: non-drinking, light drinking (< 3 drinks/week), moderate drinking (3-7 drinks/week), and heavy drinking (> 7 drinks /week). If UNAG was the indicator of renal dysfunction, the prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction was decreased in subjects with alcohol consumption both in men (χ2 = 8.5, p < 0.01) and women (χ2 = 8.3, p < 0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of subjects with light and moderate alcohol drinking was 0.31 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1-0.99) and 0.30 (95%CI, 0.1-0.96), respectively, compared with those of non-drinkers after adjusting with the confounders in men. Similar results were observed in women with light drinking (OR = 0.33, 95%CI, 0.15-0.70). Similar trends were observed in those subjects with high BCd (> 3.0 µg/L) or UCd (> 5.0 µg/g creatinine). Our data show that alcohol consumption is inversely associated with cadmium-induced renal tubular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 194(1): 84-88, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123925

RESUMO

The study investigated the effects of low cadmium (Cd) burden on the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in occupational workers. The study population consisted of 98 nickel-cadmium battery workers. Levels of urine cadmium, urinary creatinine (Cr), and data on the adverse respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of the participants were measured and collected respectively. The urinary cadmium level in cadmium-exposed workers (n = 53) was within the normal range but greater than 2.4 times than those of the control group (n = 45). Compared with the control group, the cadmium-exposed workers had higher prevalence of all subjective respiratory symptoms studied in the study. The prevalence of cough (30%), phlegm (23%), and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (79%) in the exposure group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the prevalence of cough (11%), phlegm (7%), and URTI (31%) in the control group respectively. There was no significant difference between the Cd-exposed workers and control group in pulmonary function test. Our findings suggested that adverse subjective respiratory symptoms were increased and pulmonary function were unchanged in low Cd burden workers. Unchanged pulmonary function may be related to age, exposure duration, and distribution of Cd in tissue. These workers need to continue being monitored in longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos Respiratórios/patologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
16.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878194

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal associated with increased mortality, but the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on the association between Cd and mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association of urinary Cd to Zn intake ratio (Cd/Zn ratio) and mortality risk. In total, 15642 US adults in NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 were followed until 2011 (15-year mean follow-up). Of the 5367 total deaths, 1194 were attributed to cancer and 1677 were attributed to CVD. After adjustment for potential confounders, positive associations were observed between urinary Cd and all-cause mortality (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.14-1.68) and cancer mortality (HR: 1.54; CI: 1.05-2.27). Urinary Cd was positively associated with cancer mortality among the lowest Zn consumers, and the association diminished among the highest Zn consumers. Positive relationships were observed between the Cd/Zn ratio and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.54; CI: 1.23-1.93), cancer mortality (HR: 1.65; CI: 1.11-2.47) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.49; CI: 1.18-1.88). In conclusion, these findings indicate that Zn intake may modify the association between Cd and mortality. Furthermore, the Cd/Zn ratio, which was positively associated with mortality from all causes, cancer, and CVD, may be an important predictor of mortality.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Zinco/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36434-36440, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724128

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the secondary biological treatment plant effluent administration on the kidneys, urinary bladder, and testis of Wistar rats in relation to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation, since such an effluent is used for irrigation of edible plants. Male Wistar rats, randomly assigned into 5 groups, were treated with domestic sewage effluent (DSE) for 24 months. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the DSE, rats' tissues, and urine were estimated by means of atomic spectroscopy. Lead was rapidly accumulated in high amounts in rats' kidney and to a lesser extent in the testis whereas Cd concentration was raised in all tissues examined. Deposition of Cd and Pd in the kidney of the rats resulted in profound damage over time. The results showed that long-term administration to DSE as drinking water exposes living organisms to urogenital stress related to heavy metal concentration and pH of the effluent.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Água Potável/química , Chumbo/toxicidade , Sistema Urogenital/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Cádmio/urina , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Esgotos/química , Sistema Urogenital/metabolismo , Sistema Urogenital/patologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
18.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113325, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614327

RESUMO

Associations between single metal and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels have been reported in previous studies. However, the association between multi-metals exposure and FBG level are little known. To assess the joints of arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) co-exposure on FBG levels, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) statistical method was used to estimate the potential joint associations between As, Ni, Cd, Se, and Zn co-exposure and FBG levels among 1478 community-based Chinese adults from two counties, Shimen (n = 696) and Huayuan (n = 782), with different exposure profiles in Hunan province of China. The metals levels were measured in spot urine (As, Ni, and Cd) and plasma (Se and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, respectively. The exposure levels of all the five metals were significantly higher in Shimen area (median: As = 57.76 µg/L, Cd = 2.75 µg/L, Ni = 2.73 µg/L, Se = 112.67 µg/L, Zn = 905.68 µg/L) than those in Huayuan area (As = 41.14 µg/L, Cd = 2.22 µg/L, Ni = 1.88 µg/L, Se = 65.59 µg/L, Zn = 819.18 µg/L). The BKMR analyses showed a significantly positive over-all effect of the five metals on FBG levels when metals concentrations were all above the 50th percentile while a statistically negative over-all effect when metals concentrations were all under the 50th percentile in Shimen area. However, a totally opposite over-all effect of the mixture of the five metals on FBG levels was found in Huayuan area. BKMR also revealed a non-linear exposure-effect of Zn on FBG levels in Huayuan area. In addition, interaction effects of As and Se on FBG level were observed. The relationship between single or combined metals exposure and FBG was different against different exposure profiles. Potential interaction effects of As and Se on FBG levels may exist.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/urina , Níquel/urina , Selênio/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113341, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610512

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that is widely distributed in the environment. However, the mechanisms linking Cd exposure and type 2 diabetes risks are not completely elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of C-reactive protein (CRP) on the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk. We determined urinary Cd and plasma CRP concentrations among 3,140 adults from Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort. Dose-response relationships between urinary Cd, plasma CRP, and type 2 diabetes were explored using multivariate logistic regression and linear mixed regression models. Mediation analysis was performed to investigate the role of plasma CRP in the associations between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk. With adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios (ORs) of type 2 diabetes showed an upward trend when urinary Cd concentration gradually increased (P trend <0.01). Significantly positive dose-response relationships were observed between urinary Cd and plasma CRP, as well as between plasma CRP and type 2 diabetes risk. Compared to those when both Cd and CRP levels were low, the adjusted ORs (95%CI) of type 2 diabetes was the highest [2.053(1.395-3.020)] in individuals with high levels of urinary Cd and plasma CRP. Mediation analysis estimated that plasma CRP mediated 4.01% of the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk [mediating effect: OR (95%CI) = 1.019(1.002-1.057)]. Individuals with high levels of urinary Cd and plasma CRP had a much higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Plasma CRP may serve as a mediator in the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk, providing clues for further study on the biological pathway for type 2 diabetes related to Cd exposure.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Cádmio/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Adulto , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
20.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt A): 108733, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium may contribute to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and glucose intolerance during pregnancy. METHODS: We examined 917 women enrolled from 2009 to 2017 in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Lifestyle, diet, demographic factors and pregnancy outcomes were collected by questionnaire and medical record review. Cadmium concentrations were measured in urine samples collected at 24-28 weeks gestation. Women were classified as normal (n = 815), glucose intolerant (n = 86), or GDM (n = 16) based on clinical data (i.e., glucose challenge test, oral glucose challenge test). We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders, using multinomial logistic regression to examine disease severity (normal, glucose intolerant, GDM) and logistic regression to examine the combined outcome of gestational hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Little to no association was observed for glucose intolerance (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 0.85-1.45) or GDM (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.51-1.44) with a doubling of urinary cadmium as compared to normal women. The combined outcome of gestational hyperglycemia yielded similar results (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.84-1.35). However, when stratified by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), there was a slight association with the combined outcome in normal weight women (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.88-1.98) and no association in the overweight or obese women. This positive association remained in restricted analyses of only women with no exposure to smoking during pregnancy and those who had never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: Cadmium exposure was suggestively associated with increased risk of gestational hyperglycemia among women not already at increased risk of GDM due to being overweight or obese; however, associations of cadmium with gestational hyperglycemia were not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , New Hampshire/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
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