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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4015, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230477

RESUMO

Sex and gender differences impact the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality. Furthermore, sex differences influence the frequency and severity of pharmacological side effects. A large number of clinical trials to develop new therapeutic approaches and vaccines for COVID-19 are ongoing. We investigated the inclusion of sex and/or gender in COVID-19 studies on ClinicalTrials.gov, collecting data for the period January 1, 2020 to January 26, 2021. Here, we show that of the 4,420 registered SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 studies, 935 (21.2%) address sex/gender solely in the context of recruitment, 237 (5.4%) plan sex-matched or representative samples or emphasized sex/gender reporting, and only 178 (4%) explicitly report a plan to include sex/gender as an analytical variable. Just eight (17.8%) of the 45 COVID-19 related clinical trials published in scientific journals until December 15, 2020 report sex-disaggregated results or subgroup analyses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
2.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender and nonbinary people are disproportionately affected by structural barriers to quality healthcare, mental health challenges, and economic hardship. This study examined the impact of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis and subsequent control measures on gender-affirming care, mental health, and economic stability among transgender and nonbinary people in multiple countries. METHODS: We collected multi-national, cross-sectional data from 964 transgender and nonbinary adult users of the Hornet and Her apps from April to August 2020 to characterize changes in gender-affirming care, mental health, and economic stability as a result of COVID-19. We conducted Poisson regression models to assess if access to gender-affirming care and ability to live according to one's gender were related to depressive symptoms, anxiety, and changes in suicidal ideation. RESULTS: Individuals resided in 76 countries, including Turkey (27.4%, n = 264) and Thailand (20.6%, n = 205). A majority were nonbinary (66.8%, n = 644) or transfeminine (29.4%, n = 283). Due to COVID-19, 55.0% (n = 320/582) reported reduced access to gender-affirming resources, and 38.0% (n = 327/860) reported reduced time lived according to their gender. About half screened positive for depression (50.4%,442/877) and anxiety (45.8%, n = 392/856). One in six (17.0%, n = 112/659) expected losses of health insurance, and 77.0% (n = 724/940) expected income reductions. The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and increased suicidal ideation were 1.63 (95% CI: 1.36-1.97), 1.61 (95% CI: 1.31-1.97), and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.07-2.82) times higher for individuals whose access to gender-affirming resources was reduced versus not. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 crisis is associated with reduced access to gender-affirming resources and the ability of transgender and nonbinary people to live according to their gender worldwide. These reductions may drive the increased depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation reported in this sample. To improve health of transgender and nonbinary communities, increased access to gender-affirming resources should be prioritized through policies (e.g., digital prescriptions), flexible interventions (e.g., telehealth), and support for existing transgender health initiatives.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental/economia , SARS-CoV-2 , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual/economia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 35(4): 443-448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243845

RESUMO

Critical appraisal of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) determines rigor, quality, and whether the findings are applicable to the populations served in clinical practices. The authors conducted a rigorous analysis using the RCT Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Checklist for the two RCTs Pfizer (New York, NY) and Moderna (Cambridge, MA) conducted and the reporting of these RCTs using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials checklist. The goals for this analysis were twofold: (1) enable health care providers to understand the methods and outcomes of these RCTs, and (2) enable health care providers and community leaders to become champions for the vaccines to reduce vaccine hesitancy among all populations. The analysis is presented using each of the 11 questions on the CASP tool while comparing the methodology and results for each vaccine. Most CASP tool items were positive or yes for both the Pfizer and Moderna RCTs. Items that were not scored as yes are discussed. The analysis outcomes revealed that both RCTs were rigorously conducted and provide an assurance to all health care providers and the public of the safety and efficacy of both vaccines to impact the astounding morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 disease. The authors believed that the analysis was an essential component of the distribution process to develop plans and communication strategies to reduce potential vaccine hesitancy and resistance.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(29)2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253617

RESUMO

We study US sick leave use and unaddressed sick leave needs in the midst of the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS COV 2) pandemic based on a representative survey. More than half of all US employees are unaware of the new emergency sick leave options provided by the federal Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA). Awareness and take-up rates are significantly higher among Asian Americans and lower among the foreign-born. About 8 million employees used emergency sick leave in the first 6 to 8 mo. Nevertheless, the share of employees who needed but could not take paid sick leave tripled in the pandemic; unaddressed sick leave needs total 15 million employees per month and are 69% higher among women. Our findings show that access to paid sick leave significantly reduces unaddressed sick leave needs. We conclude that given the fragmented US sick leave landscape, to address the strong increase in unaddressed sick leave needs during the pandemic, federal FFCRA response was not adequate.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Conscientização , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS Med ; 18(7): e1003693, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the availability of multiple Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and the predicted shortages in supply for the near future, it is necessary to allocate vaccines in a manner that minimizes severe outcomes, particularly deaths. To date, vaccination strategies in the United States have focused on individual characteristics such as age and occupation. Here, we assess the utility of population-level health and socioeconomic indicators as additional criteria for geographical allocation of vaccines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: County-level estimates of 14 indicators associated with COVID-19 mortality were extracted from public data sources. Effect estimates of the individual indicators were calculated with univariate models. Presence of spatial autocorrelation was established using Moran's I statistic. Spatial simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation in response and predictors were used to assess (i) the proportion of variance in county-level COVID-19 mortality that can explained by identified health/socioeconomic indicators (R2); and (ii) effect estimates of each predictor. Adjusting for case rates, the selected indicators individually explain 24%-29% of the variability in mortality. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and proportion of population residing in nursing homes have the highest R2. Mortality is estimated to increase by 43 per thousand residents (95% CI: 37-49; p < 0.001) with a 1% increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and by 39 deaths per thousand (95% CI: 34-44; p < 0.001) with 1% increase in population living in nursing homes. SAR models using multiple health/socioeconomic indicators explain 43% of the variability in COVID-19 mortality in US counties, adjusting for case rates. R2 was found to be not sensitive to the choice of SAR model form. Study limitations include the use of mortality rates that are not age standardized, a spatial adjacency matrix that does not capture human flows among counties, and insufficient accounting for interaction among predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Significant spatial autocorrelation exists in COVID-19 mortality in the US, and population health/socioeconomic indicators account for a considerable variability in county-level mortality. In the context of vaccine rollout in the US and globally, national and subnational estimates of burden of disease could inform optimal geographical allocation of vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255772

RESUMO

In a compartmental epidemic model, the initial exponential phase reflects a fixed interaction between an infectious agent and a susceptible population in steady state, so it determines the basic reproduction number R0 on its own. After the exponential phase, dynamic complexities like societal responses muddy the practical interpretation of many estimated parameters. The computer program ARRP, already available from sequence alignment applications, automatically estimated the end of the exponential phase in COVID-19 and extracted the exponential growth rate r for 160 countries. By positing a gamma-distributed generation time, the exponential growth method then yielded R0 estimates for COVID-19 in 160 countries. The use of ARRP ensured that the R0 estimates were largely freed from any dependency outside the exponential phase. The Prem matrices quantify rates of effective contact for infectious disease. Without using any age-stratified COVID-19 data, but under strong assumptions about the homogeneity of susceptibility, infectiousness, etc., across different age-groups, the Prem contact matrices also yielded theoretical R0 estimates for COVID-19 in 152 countries, generally in quantitative conflict with the R0 estimates derived from the exponential growth method. An exploratory analysis manipulating only the Prem contact matrices reduced the conflict, suggesting that age-groups under 20 years did not promote the initial exponential growth of COVID-19 as much as other age-groups. The analysis therefore supports tentatively and tardily, but independently of age-stratified COVID-19 data, the low priority given to vaccinating younger age groups. It also supports the judicious reopening of schools. The exploratory analysis also supports the possibility of suspecting differences in epidemic spread among different age-groups, even before substantial amounts of age-stratified data become available.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255781

RESUMO

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Cultura , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Quarentena/psicologia , Espanha
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(7): e1009120, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237051

RESUMO

Widespread school closures occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. Because closures are costly and damaging, many jurisdictions have since reopened schools with control measures in place. Early evidence indicated that schools were low risk and children were unlikely to be very infectious, but it is becoming clear that children and youth can acquire and transmit COVID-19 in school settings and that transmission clusters and outbreaks can be large. We describe the contrasting literature on school transmission, and argue that the apparent discrepancy can be reconciled by heterogeneity, or "overdispersion" in transmission, with many exposures yielding little to no risk of onward transmission, but some unfortunate exposures causing sizeable onward transmission. In addition, respiratory viral loads are as high in children and youth as in adults, pre- and asymptomatic transmission occur, and the possibility of aerosol transmission has been established. We use a stochastic individual-based model to find the implications of these combined observations for cluster sizes and control measures. We consider both individual and environment/activity contributions to the transmission rate, as both are known to contribute to variability in transmission. We find that even small heterogeneities in these contributions result in highly variable transmission cluster sizes in the classroom setting, with clusters ranging from 1 to 20 individuals in a class of 25. None of the mitigation protocols we modeled, initiated by a positive test in a symptomatic individual, are able to prevent large transmission clusters unless the transmission rate is low (in which case large clusters do not occur in any case). Among the measures we modeled, only rapid universal monitoring (for example by regular, onsite, pooled testing) accomplished this prevention. We suggest approaches and the rationale for mitigating these larger clusters, even if they are expected to be rare.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 97, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the comparison of COVID-19 pandemic responses and related factors in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) countries. We aimed at evaluating the association of daily new COVID-19 cases with socio-economic and demographic factors, health vulnerability, resources, and policy response in BRICS countries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on the COVID-19 pandemic and other indicators of BRICS countries from February 26, 2020 to April 30, 2021. We compared COVID-19 epidemic in BRICS countries and analyzed related factors by log-linear Generalized Additive Model (GAM) models. RESULTS: In BRICS countries, India had the highest totally of confirmed cases with 18.76 million, followed by Brazil (14.45 million), Russia (4.81 million), and South Africa (1.58 million), while China (0.10 million) had the lowest figure. South Africa had the lowest rate of administered vaccine doses (0.18 million) among BRICS countries as of April 30, 2021. In the GAM model, a 1 unit increase in population density and policy stringency index was associated with a 5.17% and 1.95% growth in daily new COVID-19 cases (P < 0.001), respectively. Exposure-response curves for the effects of policy stringency index on daily new cases showed that there was a rapid surge in number of daily new COVID-19 cases when the index ranged from 0 to 45. The number of infections climbed slowly when the index ranged from 46 to 80, and decreased when the index was above 80 (P < 0.001). In addition, daily new COVID-19 cases (all P < 0.001) were also correlated with life expectancy at birth (-1.61%), extreme poverty (8.95%), human development index (-0.05%), GDP per capita (-0.18%), diabetes prevalence (0.66%), proportion of population aged 60 and above (2.23%), hospital beds per thousand people (-0.08%), proportion of people with access to improved drinking water (-7.40%), prevalence of open defecation (0.69%), and annual tourist/visitor arrivals (0.003%), after controlling other confounders. Different lag structures showed similar results in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Strong policy response is crucial to control the pandemic, such as effective containment and case management. Our findings also highlighted the importance of reducing socio-economic inequalities and strengthening the resilience of health systems to better respond to public health emergencies globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Políticas , Pobreza , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
14.
Respirology ; 26(8): 745-767, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240518

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing and many drugs have been studied in clinical trials. From a pathophysiological perspective, anti-viral drugs may be more effective in the early stage while immunomodulators may be more effective in severe patients in later stages of infection. While drugs such as lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have proved to be ineffective in randomized controlled trials, corticosteroids, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, remdesivir, tocilizumab and baricitinib have been reported to benefit certain groups of patients with COVID-19. In this review, we will present the key clinical evidence and progress in promising COVID-19 therapeutics, as well as summarize the experience and lessons learned from the development of the current therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos
15.
CMAJ Open ; 9(3): E718-E727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As in other jurisdictions, the demographics of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 changed in Quebec over the course of the first COVID-19 pandemic wave, and affected those living in residential care facilities (RCFs) disproportionately. We evaluated the association between clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, comparing those did or did not live in RCFs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of all consecutive adults (≥ 18 yr) admitted to the Jewish General Hospital in Montréal with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from Mar. 4 to June 30, 2020, with in-hospital follow-up until Aug. 6, 2020. We collected patient demographics, comorbidities and outcomes (i.e., admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation and death) from medical and laboratory records and compared patients who did or did not live in public and private RCFs. We evaluated factors associated with the risk of in-hospital death with a Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: In total, 656 patients were hospitalized between March and June 2020, including 303 patients who lived in RCFs and 353 patients who did not. The mean age was 72.9 (standard deviation 18.3) years (range 21 to 106 yr); 349 (53.2%) were female and 118 (18.0%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. The overall mortality rate was 23.8% (156/656), but was higher among patients living in RCFs (36.6% [111/303]) compared with those not living in RCFs (12.7% [45/353]). Increased risk of death was associated with age 80 years and older (hazard ratio [HR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-4.24), male sex (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25-2.41), the presence of 4 or more comorbidities (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.18-3.42) and living in an RCF (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.09-2.39). INTERPRETATION: During the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Montréal, more than one-third of RCF residents hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection died during hospitalization. Policies and practices that prevent future outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this setting must be implemented to prevent high mortality in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Moradias Assistidas/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Moradias Assistidas/tendências , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(6): 38, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259961

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing knowledge of the pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the complex interaction between host and viral factors have allowed clinicians to stratify the severity of COVID-19 infection. Epidemiological data has also helped to model viral carriage and infectivity. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the pathophysiology of COVID-19, the mechanisms of action of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the correlation with the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors have emerged as a key player in the mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2. Their distribution throughout the body has been shown to impact the organ-specific manifestations of COVID-19. The immune-evasive and subsequently immunoregulative properties of SARS-CoV-2 are also shown to be implicated in disease proliferation and progression. Information gleaned from the virological properties of SARS-CoV-2 is consistent with and reflects the clinical behavior of the COVID-19 infection. Further study of specific clinical phenotypes and severity classes of COVID-19 may assist in the development of targeted therapeutics to halt progression of disease from mild to moderate-severe. As the understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanism of action of SARS-CoV-2 continues to grow, it is our hope that better and more effective treatment options continue to emerge.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Especificidade de Órgãos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Internalização do Vírus
17.
BMJ ; 374: n1592, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between learning disability and risk of hospital admission and death from covid-19 in England among adults and children. DESIGN: Population based cohort study on behalf of NHS England using the OpenSAFELY platform. SETTING: Patient level data were obtained for more than 17 million people registered with a general practice in England that uses TPP software. Electronic health records were linked with death data from the Office for National Statistics and hospital admission data from NHS Secondary Uses Service. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (aged 16-105 years) and children (<16 years) from two cohorts: wave 1 (registered with a TPP practice as of 1 March 2020 and followed until 31 August 2020); and wave 2 (registered 1 September 2020 and followed until 8 February 2021). The main exposure group consisted of people on a general practice learning disability register; a subgroup was defined as those having profound or severe learning disability. People with Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy were identified (whether or not they were on the learning disability register). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Covid-19 related hospital admission and covid-19 related death. Non-covid-19 deaths were also explored. RESULTS: For wave 1, 14 312 023 adults aged ≥16 years were included, and 90 307 (0.63%) were on the learning disability register. Among adults on the register, 538 (0.6%) had a covid-19 related hospital admission; there were 222 (0.25%) covid-19 related deaths and 602 (0.7%) non-covid deaths. Among adults not on the register, 29 781 (0.2%) had a covid-19 related hospital admission; there were 13 737 (0.1%) covid-19 related deaths and 69 837 (0.5%) non-covid deaths. Wave 1 hazard ratios for adults on the learning disability register (adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and geographical location) were 5.3 (95% confidence interval 4.9 to 5.8) for covid-19 related hospital admission and 8.2 (7.2 to 9.4) for covid-19 related death. Wave 2 produced similar estimates. Associations were stronger among those classified as having severe to profound learning disability, and among those in residential care. For both waves, Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy were associated with increased hazards for both events; Down's syndrome to a greater extent. Hazard ratios for non-covid deaths followed similar patterns with weaker associations. Similar patterns of increased relative risk were seen for children, but covid-19 related deaths and hospital admissions were rare, reflecting low event rates among children. CONCLUSIONS: People with learning disability have markedly increased risks of hospital admission and death from covid-19, over and above the risks observed for non-covid causes of death. Prompt access to covid-19 testing and healthcare is warranted for this vulnerable group, and prioritisation for covid-19 vaccination and other targeted preventive measures should be considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoas com Deficiência , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117049, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279648

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the contentious immigration environment and disproportionate rates of COVID-19 infection among Latinx individuals in the US, immigrants' concerns about engaging in COVID-19-related testing, treatment, and contact tracing have been largely unexplored. Objective: To examine the proportions of Latinx immigrants who endorse statements about the potential negative immigration ramifications of seeking and using COVID-19-related testing and treatment services and engaging in contact tracing. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional survey study, 25 COVID-19-related items were incorporated into the online Spanish-language survey of an ongoing study. Data were collected between July 15 and October 9, 2020, in Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; and Phoenix, Arizona. A nonrandom sample of 379 adult, Spanish-speaking, noncitizen Latinx immigrants (with either documented or undocumented immigration status) were sent surveys. Of those, 336 individuals (88.7% participation rate) returned surveys, and 43 individuals did not. An additional 213 individuals were screened but ineligible. Descriptive statistics were computed, and mean comparisons and bivariate correlations between sociodemographic variables, indices of immigration risk, and COVID-19-related survey items were conducted. Main Outcomes and Measures: Items elicited agreement or disagreement with statements about immigrants' access to COVID-19-related testing and treatment services and the potential immigration ramifications of using these services. Willingness to identify an undocumented person during contact tracing was also assessed. Results: A total of 336 Latinx immigrants completed surveys. The mean (SD) age of participants was 39.7 (8.9) years; 210 participants (62.5%) identified as female, and 216 participants (64.3%) had undocumented immigration status. In total, 89 participants (26.5%) agreed that hospital emergency departments were the only source of COVID-19 testing or treatment for uninsured immigrants, and 106 participants (31.6%) agreed that using public testing and health care services for COVID-19 could jeopardize one's immigration prospects. A total of 96 participants (28.6%) and 114 participants (33.9%), respectively, would not identify an undocumented household member or coworker during contact tracing. Reluctance to identify an undocumented household member or coworker was associated with having had deportation experiences (r = -0.17; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.27; P = .003) but not with the number of years lived in the US (r = 0.07; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.17; P = .15) or immigration status (r = 0.03; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.13; P = .56). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional survey study, a substantial number of immigrants endorsed statements about immigrants' restricted access to COVID-19-related testing and treatment services and the potential negative immigration ramifications of using these services. These results suggest that programs for COVID-19-related testing, contact tracing, and vaccine administration that are designed to allay immigration concerns are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Arizona/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Chicago/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
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