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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

RESUMO

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esquizofrenia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Demografia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
3.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 269-273, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented time for the management of colorectal cancer, with uncertainty as to cancer-specific risks and the circumventing of gold standard oncological strategies. Our study aimed to acquire a snapshot of the practice of multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and variability in response to rapidly emerging guidelines. METHODS: The survey was disseminated to 150 colorectal cancer MDTs across England and Wales taken from the National Bowel Cancer Audit data set between 15 April and 30 June 2020 for completion by colorectal surgeons. RESULTS: Sixty-seven MDTs responded to the survey. Fifty-seven centres reported that they continued to perform colorectal cancer resections during the initial lockdown period. Fifty centres (74.6%) introduced routine preoperative COVID-19 testing and 50 (74.6%) employed full personal protective equipment for elective cases. Laparoscopic resections were continued by 25 centres (42.1%), whereas 28 (48.3%) changed to an open approach. Forty-nine (79.0%) centres reported experiencing patient-led surgical cancellations in 0-25% of their listings. If surgery was delayed significantly then 24 centres (38.7%) employed alternative neoadjuvant therapy, with short-course radiotherapy being their preferred adjunct of choice for rectal cancer. Just over 50% of the MDTs stated that they were uncomfortable or very uncomfortable with their management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates variability in the MDT management of colorectal cancer during the initial COVID-19 lockdown, incorporating adaptive patient behaviour and initially limited data on oncological safety profiles leading to challenging decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Retais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
4.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461

RESUMO

Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Políticas , Saúde Pública
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 225-231, Agosto 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371502

RESUMO

Introducción. Se ha postulado que el aislamiento social debido a la pandemia de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) aumentaría la incidencia de abuso sexual infantojuvenil (ASIJ). Objetivo. Comparar la incidencia y las características de las consultas realizadas en Ginecología en relación con ASIJ antes y durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y comparativo entre las situaciones de sospecha de ASIJ ocurridas durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en relación con las del mismo período del año previo en un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad. Resultados. Se consignaron 122 consultas por sospecha de ASIJ, 78 en el período previo a la pandemia y 44 en la pandemia. El motivo de consulta al hospital más frecuente, en ambos grupos, fue el relato de ASIJ y, al Servicio de Ginecología en particular, la evaluación de genitales externos. La mayor parte presentó un examen físico normal. Se observó una mayor prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en el grupo de pandemia. Se realizaron más internaciones y denuncias para protección de víctimas en dicho grupo. Se registró que el agresor era conocido de la víctima en casi el 90 % de las víctimas de ambos grupos. Conclusiones. Durante la pandemia se evidenció una disminución en el número total de consultas a Ginecología, de modo que aquellas por sospecha de ASIJ representaron un mayor porcentaje. Sin embargo, las características en relación con la presencia de lesiones graves, infecciones de transmisión sexual o embarazo no se vieron modificadas


Introduction. It has been suggested that the social isolation due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may increase the incidence of child and adolescent sexual abuse (CASA). Objective. To compare the incidence and characteristics of medical consultations made to the Department of Gynecology due to CASA before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. Descriptive, observational, and comparative study about suspected CASA events occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to those occurred in the previous year at a tertiary care children's hospital. Results. One hundred and twenty-two medical consultations due to suspected CASA were recorded; 78 before and 44 during the pandemic. In both groups, the most common reason for consultation at the hospital was an account of CASA and, at the Department of Gynecology in particular, the external genitalia examination. Most subjects had a normal physical examination. There was a higher prevalence of STI in the pandemic group. In addition, there were also more hospitalizations and police reports for victims protection in this group. The abuser was known to the victim in almost 90% of cases in both groups. Conclusions. During the pandemic, the total number of medical consultations to the Department of Gynecology decreased so the percentage of those due to suspected CASA was higher. However, the presence of severe lesions, STIs or pregnancy did not change


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Adolescente , Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Pandemias , Ginecologia , Hospitais Pediátricos
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 264-268, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372367

RESUMO

Introducción. Durante el 2020, la circulación de otros virus respiratorios fue inferior a lo acostumbrado. Es probable que, almodificarse las medidas de mitigación para la infección por el coronavirus 2019, dicha prevalencia haya aumentado en 2021. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de virus respiratorioshabituales en pacientes de 0 a 5 años asistidos en Departamento de Urgencias de un hospital pediátrico de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Métodos. Estudio transversal con 348 pacientes que consultaronpor sospecha de enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019(COVID-19), en quienes se descartó dicha enfermedad y se realizó la pesquisa sistemática de virus respiratorios habitualesResultados. En el 40 % de los pacientes se identificó el virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR), un virus respiratorio habitual. La edad menor de 2 años se mostró como predictor independiente de VSR (razón de momios [OR]: 4,15; intervalos de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 2,46-6,99). Conclusión. En la población estudiada, 40 % de los pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19 en quienes se descartó infección por SARS-CoV-2 presentaban infección por VSR.


Introduction. During 2020, circulation of other respiratory viruses was lower than usual. Most likely, as mitigation measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were modified, their prevalence in 2021 may have increased. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of common respiratory viruses among patients aged 0­5 years seen at the Emergency Department of a children's hospital in the City of Buenos Aires. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 348 patients consulting for suspected COVID-19 in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was ruled out and routine screening for common respiratory viruses was performed. Results. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory virus, was identified in 40% of patients. Age younger than 2 years was an independent predictor of RSV (odds ratio [OR]: 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46­6.99). Conclusion. In the study population, 40% of patients suspected of COVID-19 in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was ruled out had RSV infection.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vírus , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e063935, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of messenger RNA (mRNA) booster doses during the period of Delta and Omicron variant dominance. DESIGN: We conducted a matched test-negative case-control study to estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of three and two doses of mRNA vaccines against infection (regardless of symptoms) and against COVID-19-related hospitalisation and death. SETTING: Veterans Health Administration. PARTICIPANTS: We used electronic health record data from 114 640 veterans who had a SARS-CoV-2 test during November 2021-January 2022. Patients were largely 65 years or older (52%), male (88%) and non-Hispanic white (59%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First positive result for a SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test. RESULTS: Against infection, booster doses had higher estimated VE (64%, 95% CI 63 to 65) than two-dose vaccination (12%, 95% CI 10 to 15) during the Omicron period. For the Delta period, the VE against infection was 90% (95% CI 88 to 92) among boosted vaccinees, higher than the VE among two-dose vaccinees (54%, 95% CI 50 to 57). Against hospitalisation, booster dose VE was 89% (95% CI 88 to 91) during Omicron and 94% (95% CI 90 to 96) during Delta; two-dose VE was 63% (95% CI 58 to 67) during Omicron and 75% (95% CI 69 to 80) during Delta. Against death, the VE with a booster dose was 94% (95% CI 90 to 96) during Omicron and 96% (95% CI 87 to 99) during Delta. CONCLUSIONS: Among an older, mostly male, population with comorbidities, we found that an mRNA vaccine booster was highly effective against infection, hospitalisation and death. Although the effectiveness of booster vaccination against infection was moderately higher against Delta than against the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant, effectiveness against severe disease and death was similarly high against both variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Veteranos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas de mRNA
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e059111, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identifying patients with a possible SARS-CoV-2 infection in the emergency department (ED) is challenging. Symptoms differ, incidence rates vary and test capacity may be limited. As PCR-testing all ED patients is neither feasible nor effective in most centres, a rapid, objective, low-cost early warning score to triage ED patients for a possible infection is developed. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: The study included patients presenting to the ED with venous blood sampling from July 2019 to July 2020 (n=10 417, 279 SARS-CoV-2-positive). The temporal validation cohort covered the period from July 2020 to October 2021 (n=14 080, 1093 SARS-CoV-2-positive). The external validation cohort consisted of patients presenting to the ED of three hospitals in the Netherlands (n=12 061, 652 SARS-CoV-2-positive). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was one or more positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results within 1 day prior to or 1 week after ED presentation. RESULTS: The resulting 'CoLab-score' consists of 10 routine laboratory measurements and age. The score showed good discriminative ability (AUC: 0.930, 95% CI 0.909 to 0.945). The lowest CoLab-score had high sensitivity for COVID-19 (0.984, 95% CI 0.970 to 0.991; specificity: 0.411, 95% CI 0.285 to 0.520). Conversely, the highest score had high specificity (0.978, 95% CI 0.973 to 0.983; sensitivity: 0.608, 95% CI 0.522 to 0.685). The results were confirmed in temporal and external validation. CONCLUSIONS: The CoLab-score is based on routine laboratory measurements and is available within 1 hour after presentation. Depending on the prevalence, COVID-19 may be safely ruled out in over one-third of ED presentations. Highly suspect cases can be identified regardless of presenting symptoms. The CoLab-score is continuous, in contrast to the binary outcome of lateral flow testing, and can guide PCR testing and triage ED patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Escore de Alerta Precoce , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e062388, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increased exposure to digital devices as part of online classes increases susceptibility to visual impairments, particularly among school students taught using e-learning strategies. This study aimed to identify the impact of remote learning during the COVID-19 lockdown on children's visual health. DESIGN: Systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases from the year 2020 onwards. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies, case series and case reports, published in English, Spanish or French, that approached the effects of remote learning during the COVID-19 lockdown on visual health in neurotypical children. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We included a total of 21 articles with previous quality assessments using the Joanna Briggs checklist. Risk of bias assessment was applied using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for before-and-after studies with no control group; the tool developed by Hoy et al to assess cross-sectional studies; the Murad et al tool to evaluate the methodological quality of case reports and case series; and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. RESULTS: All but one study reported a deleterious impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on visual health in children. Overall, the most frequently identified ocular effects were refractive errors, accommodation disturbances and visual symptoms such as dry eye and asthenopia. CONCLUSIONS: Increased dependence on digital devices for online classes has either induced or exacerbated visual disturbances, such as rapid progression of myopia, dry eye and visual fatigue symptoms, and vergence and accommodation disturbances, in children who engaged in remote learning during the COVID-19 lockdown. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022307107.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e059477, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there have been plausible suggestions about the need to augment vitamin D intake by supplementation in order to prevent SARS-CoV2 infection and reduce mortality. Some groups have advocated supplementation for all adults, but governmental agencies have advocated targeted supplementation. We sought to explore the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on both vitamin D status and on the dose of new-to-market vitamin D supplements. SETTING: University hospital, Dublin, Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: Laboratory-based samples of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) (n=100 505). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes: comparing yearly average 25OHD prior to the pandemic (April 2019 to March 2020) with during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 2021) and comparing the dose of new-to-market vitamin D supplements between 2017 and 2021 (n=2689). SECONDARY OUTCOME: comparing prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D excess during the two time periods. RESULTS: The average yearly serum 25OHD measurement increased by 2.8 nmol/L (61.4, 95% CI 61.5 to 61.7 vs 58.6, 95% CI 58.4 to 58.9, p<0.001), which was almost threefold higher than two similar trend analyses that we conducted between 1993 and 2016. There was a lower prevalence of low 25OHD and a higher prevalence of high 25OHD. The dose of new-to-market vitamin D supplements was higher in the years 2020-2021 compared with the years 2017-2019 (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We showed significant increases in serum 25OHD and in the dose of new-to-market vitamin D supplements. The frequency of low vitamin D status reduced indicating benefit, but the frequency of vitamin D excess increased indicating risk of harm. Rather than a blanket recommendation about vitamin D supplementation for all adults, we recommend a targeted approach of supplementation within current governmental guidelines to at-risk groups and cautioning consumers about adverse effects of high dose supplements on the market.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1481, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the protocol for a longitudinal cohort study, "Project SafeSchools" (PSS), which focuses on measuring the effects of COVID-19 and the return to in-person learning on Diné (Navajo) and White Mountain Apache (Apache) youth, parents, and educators. The early surges of the COVID-19 pandemic led to the closure of most reservation and border town schools serving Diné and Apache communities. This study aims to: (1) understand the barriers and facilitators to school re-opening and in-person school attendance from the perspective of multiple stakeholders in Diné and Apache communities; and (2) evaluate the educational, social, emotional, physical, and mental health impacts of returning to in-person learning for caregivers and youth ages 4-16 who reside or work on the Diné Nation and the White Mountain Apache Tribal lands. METHODS: We aim to recruit up to N = 200 primary caregivers of Diné and Apache youth ages 4-16 and up to N = 120 school personnel. In addition, up to n = 120 of these primary caregivers and their children, ages 11-16, will be selected to participate in qualitative interviews to learn more about the effects of the pandemic on their health and wellbeing. Data from caregiver and school personnel participants will be collected in three waves via self-report surveys that measure COVID-19 related behaviors and attitudes, mental health, educational attitudes, and cultural practices and beliefs for both themselves and their child (caregiver participants only). We hypothesize that an individual's engagement with a variety of cultural activities during school closures and as school re-opened will have a protective effect on adult and youth mental health as they return to in-person learning. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will inform the development or implementation of preventative interventions that may help Diné and Apache youth and their families recover from the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and positively impact their health and wellness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 917732, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928479

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (CoronaVac and BBIBP-CorV) in China using existing international clinical trials and real-world evidence. Methods: Through a search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI, studies investigating the effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were identified, and a meta-analysis was undertaken to synthesize the vaccine efficacy and effectiveness data. Moreover, a decision-analytic model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of inactivated vaccines for combating the COVID-19 pandemic in the Chinese context from a societal perspective. Results of the meta-analysis, along with cost data from official websites and works of literature were used to populate the model. Sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the model results. Results: A total of 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis. In comparison to no immunization, the effectiveness of inactivated vaccine against COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, ICU admission and death were 65.18% (95% CI 62.62, 67.75), 79.10% (95% CI 71.69, 86.51), 90.46% (95% CI 89.42, 91.50), and 86.69% (95% CI 85.68, 87.70); and the efficacy against COVID-19 infection and hospitalization were 70.56% (95% CI 57.87, 83.24) and 100% (95% CI 61.72, 100). Inactivated vaccine vaccination prevented more infections, hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths with lower total costs, thus was cost-saving from a societal perspective in China. Base-case analysis results were robust in the one-way sensitivity analysis, and the percentage of ICU admission or death and direct medical cost ranked the top influential factors in our models. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, vaccination had a 100% probability of being cost-effective. Conclusion: Inactivated vaccine is effective in preventing COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, ICU admission and avoiding COVID-19 related death, and COVID-19 vaccination program is cost-saving from societal perspective in China.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Análise Custo-Benefício , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/uso terapêutico
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 871567, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928486

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads rapidly, causing outbreaks that grow exponentially within a short period before interventions are sought and effectively implemented. Testing is part of the first line of defense against Corona Virus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19), playing a critical role in the early identification and isolation of cases to slow transmission, provision of targeted care to those affected, and protection of health system operations. Laboratory tests for COVID-19 based on nucleic acid amplification techniques were rapidly developed in the early days of the pandemic, but such tests typically require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure and skilled staff. In March 2020, Zimbabwe confirmed its first case of COVID-19; this was followed by an increase in infection rates as the pandemic spread across the country, thus increasing the demand for testing. One national laboratory was set to test all the country's COVID-19 suspect cases, building pressure on human and financial resources. Staff burnout and longer turnaround times of more than 48 h were experienced, and results were released late for clinical relevance. Leveraging on existing PCR testing platforms, including GeneXpert machines, eased the pressure for a short period before facing the stockout of SARs-CoV-2 cartridges for a long time, leading to work overload at a few testing sites contributing to long turnaround times. On September 11, WHO released the interim guidance to use antigen rapid diagnostic test as a diagnostic tool. The Zimbabwe laboratory pillar quickly adopted it and made plans for its implementation. The National Microbiology Reference Laboratory verified the two emergency-listed kits, the Panbio Abbott and the Standard Q, Biosensor, and they met the WHO minimum performance of ≥97% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity. Decentralizing diagnostic testing leveraging existing human resources became a game-changer in improving COVID-19 containment measures. Task shifting through training on Antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT) commenced, and testing was decentralized to all the ten provinces, from 1 central testing laboratory to more than 1,000 testing centers. WhatsApp platforms made it easier for data to be reported from remote areas. Result turnaround times were improved to the same day, and accessibility to testing was enhanced.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1500, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In view of experts' warnings about the potential negative mental health consequences of the sudden nationwide lockdowns implemented in many countries to limit the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, we sought to study the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events related to this unprecedented lockdown in the French general population. METHODS: This longitudinal study among adults (aged =18) consisted of two surveys: the first during the last days of the lockdown and the second a month later. We estimated PTSD incidence with the PCL-5 and ran multiple Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with PTSD. RESULTS: Among the 1736 participants, 30.1% reported at least one traumatic event. PTSD incidence was 17.5% (95% confidence interval CI = 15.7-19.3). It was higher in participants who reported multiple traumatic events, who had high COVID-19-related media use, who had general anxiety disorder (GAD-7) during the lockdown, and who had GAD, depression (PHQ-9), or sleep problems 1 month later. In addition, 43.1% of people with PTSD reported suicidal thoughts. CONCLUSIONS: These results should help clinicians to target people who are at high risk of developing PTSD after a pandemic-related lockdown and could benefit from preventive measures. Collaboration between the media and mental health professionals could be envisioned to inform the population about care resources. Follow-up recommendations should also be disseminated to general practitioners to facilitate PTSD screening and ensure that they are aware of the appropriate management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1492, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of the world's population experienced social, economic, and mental health challenges, including considerable changes in everyday life, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, these challenges varied in intensity depending upon occupation type and working environment. In this context, this study helps shed light on the effects of occupation type on depression through the mediation of changes in daily life and anxiety as perceived by individual workers through their experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In total, 68,207 adults (aged 19-65 years) working in the "office" or "service" sectors were analyzed based on the raw data extracted from the 2020 National Community Health Survey conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Data analysis was performed using PROCESS Macro (Model 6) for SPSS 25 to examine how depression is affected by occupation type through a dual mediation of the changes in daily life and anxiety caused by COVID-19 as perceived by individual workers during the pandemic. RESULTS: First, service workers perceived COVID-19-related changes in daily life more acutely than the office workers. Second, service workers felt more COVID-19-related anxiety than office workers, whereby the higher the level of COVID-19-related changes in daily life perceived by the workers, the higher the level of their COVID-19-related anxiety. Finally, service workers' perceived COVID-19-related changes in daily life more acutely than office workers, which had a positive effect on the level of COVID-19-related anxiety, ultimately increasing depression. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the impact of a special disaster situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, on the perceived changes in daily life and anxiety varies depending on occupation type, which suggests that different occupations have different effects on mental health outcomes. This highlights the need to develop various customized services and policies to promote mental health according to the type of occupation, considering the working environment and work characteristics of those vulnerable to COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Ocupações , Pandemias , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1495, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the UK government enforcing lockdown restrictions to control virus transmission. Such restrictions present opportunities and barriers for physical activity and healthy eating. Emerging research suggests that in the early stages of the pandemic, physical activity levels decreased, consumption of unhealthy foods increased, while levels of mental distress increased. Our aims were to understand patterns of diet, physical activity, and mental health during the first lockdown, how these had changed twelve-months later, and the factors associated with change. METHODS: An online survey was conducted with UK adults (N = 636; 78% female) during the first national lockdown (May-June 2020). The survey collected information on demographics, physical activity, diet, mental health, and how participants perceived lifestyle behaviours had changed from before the pandemic. Participants who provided contact details were invited to complete a twelve-month follow-up survey (May-June 2021), 160 adults completed the survey at both time-points. Descriptive statistics, T-tests and McNemar Chi Square statistics were used to assess patterns of diet, physical activity, and mental health at baseline and change in behaviours between baseline and follow-up. Linear regression models were conducted to explore prospective associations between demographic and psycho-social variables at baseline with change in healthy eating habit, anxiety, and wellbeing respectively. RESULTS: Between baseline and follow-up, healthy eating habit strength, and the importance of and confidence in eating healthily reduced. Self-rated health (positively) and confidence in eating healthily (negatively) were associated with change in healthy eating habit. There were no differences between baseline and follow-up for depression or physical activity. Mean anxiety score reduced, and wellbeing increased, from baseline to follow-up. Living with children aged 12-17 (compared to living alone) was associated with an increase in anxiety, while perceiving mental health to have worsened during the first lockdown (compared to staying the same) was associated with reduced anxiety and an increase in mental wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: While healthy eating habits worsened in the 12 months since the onset of the pandemic, anxiety and mental wellbeing improved. However, anxiety may have increased for parents of secondary school aged children.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(8): 1493-1500, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the physical activity (PA) level in patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and compare PA level during the pandemic in 2020 with the year 2019. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of PA activity in individuals implanted with a CIED enrolled in the BIOTRONIK CERTITUDE Registry. Mean daily and weekly PA from January to August 2020 was compared with 2019. RESULTS: A total of 21,660 individuals met eligibility criteria, with mean age of 72.6±11.6 years, and 12,411 (57.3)% were males. A significant decline in daily PA was noted following the pandemic declaration in 2020, with a maximum mean reduction of -24.5±36.3 minutes (P<.0001) observed in April 2020 compared with 2019. PA in 2020 increased from April to May (120.6±67.4 to 129.2±70.9 min/d). PA was lower for all months in 2020 compared with 2019. The decrease in PA was observed in all prespecified groups based on age, sex, type of device, and region of the country. CONCLUSION: After the declaration of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, a significant decline in daily PA was observed in individuals with a CIED. Future investigation to establish the impact of this reduction on short and long-term cardiovascular outcomes is required.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Eletrônica , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 148, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation previously reported as a novel finding in South African patients with the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of Long COVID/PASC. A Long COVID/PASC Registry was subsequently established as an online platform where patients can report Long COVID/PASC symptoms and previous comorbidities. METHODS: In this study, we report on the comorbidities and persistent symptoms, using data obtained from 845 South African Long COVID/PASC patients. By using a previously published scoring system for fibrin amyloid microclots and platelet pathology, we also analysed blood samples from 80 patients, and report the presence of significant fibrin amyloid microclots and platelet pathology in all cases. RESULTS: Hypertension, high cholesterol levels (dyslipidaemia), cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were found to be the most important comorbidities. The gender balance (70% female) and the most commonly reported Long COVID/PASC symptoms (fatigue, brain fog, loss of concentration and forgetfulness, shortness of breath, as well as joint and muscle pains) were comparable to those reported elsewhere. These findings confirmed that our sample was not atypical. Microclot and platelet pathologies were associated with Long COVID/PASC symptoms that persisted after the recovery from acute COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin amyloid microclots that block capillaries and inhibit the transport of O2 to tissues, accompanied by platelet hyperactivation, provide a ready explanation for the symptoms of Long COVID/PASC. Removal and reversal of these underlying endotheliopathies provide an important treatment option that urgently warrants controlled clinical studies to determine efficacy in patients with a diversity of comorbidities impacting on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity. We suggest that our platelet and clotting grading system provides a simple and cost-effective diagnostic method for early detection of Long COVID/PASC as a major determinant of effective treatment, including those focusing on reducing clot burden and platelet hyperactivation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Amiloide , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fibrina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
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