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3.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 24(2): 229-234, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828250

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the variables that influenced a sample of Omani mothers' support for mandatory COVID-19 vaccines for children. The vaccination against COVID-19 averted millions of fatalities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, a considerable number of parents and caregivers opposed mandating COVID-19 vaccines for children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at several healthcare facilities in Oman using a structured questionnaire between February and March 2022. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 700 Omani mothers (response rate = 73.4%) who had children aged 5-11 years old were included. The median age of the mothers was 38 ± 5.19 years. The results of multivariable logistic regression were generally consistent with those of the univariable analysis except for age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-1.93; P = 0.86) and income (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.58-2.03; P = 0.79). Mothers who were vaccine hesitant (OR = 9.82, 95% CI: 5.27-18.28; P <0.001), tested positive for COVID-19 (OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.80-5.86; P <0.001) and had one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines (OR = 5.41, 95% CI: 2.92-10.03; P <0.001) were more likely to refuse mandating COVID-19 vaccines for children 5-11 years old. Conclusion: Mothers who were vaccine hesitant, tested positive for COVID-19 and had one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines were more likely to oppose mandatory COVID-19 vaccines for young children. The findings should aid public health authorities in designing future childhood vaccine literacy programmes with specific attention to some subgroups in Oman to help reduce opposition to vaccines in future pandemics among mothers.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Mães , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Omã/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hesitação Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 117, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828421

RESUMO

On January 30, 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 a global health emergency. Children were affected in less severe forms. Niger had implemented measures in a context where children were a source of contamination. The aim was to determine the factors associated with COVID-19 in children in Niger from February to August 2020 through an analysis of the national database. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study including all COVID-19 suspects in the database. We used Excel and Epi Info 7.2.4. software for data extraction and analysis. Frequencies and proportions were calculated, and in a logistic regression, we estimated the ORs of association with their 95% confidence intervals, the factors associated with COVID-19 at the threshold of p<0.05. Of 572 notified cases of suspected COVID-19 in children aged 0-15, 11.36% were positive. The median age of infected children was 10 years [IQR: 5- 13 years]. The male/female sex ratio was 2.1. Children aged 11 to 15 accounted for 49.2%, 61.5% lived in Niamey, 4.6% had comorbidities. The notion of travel was 12.3% and 40% had a notion of contact, 24.4% had a fever, 23.2% had a cough, 18% were hospitalized, and a case-fatality rate of 1.5%. In etiological analysis, the factors associated with COVID-19 were sex ORa=0.51 [0.28-0.93] p=0.028, presence of symptoms ORa=2.29 [1.23-4.25] p=0.008 and notion of contact ORa=0.32 [0.13-0.77] p=0.011. Exposed children were sensitive to COVID-19, and all age groups were affected, with a predominance of males. We recommend barrier measures adapted to young people, and early detection and management of infected children.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Adolescente , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco , Bases de Dados Factuais
5.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 672-691, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828588

RESUMO

This study explores the association between health system changes over the last decade and women's preventive care utilization in Illinois. A cross-sectional analysis using Illinois Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2012-2020 among women aged 21-75 (n=21,258) examined well-woman visit (WWV) receipt and breast and cervical cancer screening overall and over several time periods. There was an increase in the prevalence of receiving a WWV for Illinois women overall from 2012-2020. However, the overall adjusted prevalence difference was only significant for the 2020 versus 2015-2019 comparison and not for 2015-2019 versus 2012-2014. The COVID-19 pandemic was not associated with a decrease in the prevalence of mammogram use but was manifest for cervical cancer screening, particularly for Black women. Finally, those reporting having a WWV in the past year had a significantly higher prevalence of being up to date with screening compared with those not reporting a WWV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Humanos , Feminino , Illinois/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia
6.
Ter Arkh ; 96(5): 523-530, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829815

RESUMO

Patients with rheumatic diseases infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are difficult to manage not only due to the presence of risk factors for the development and rapid progression of liver cirrhosis, but also due to the likelihood of reactivation of this infection. Despite the successes achieved in the fight against HBV, the virus cannot be completely defeated due to the presence of hidden forms of the disease, escaping the field of vision of a rheumatologist and an infectionist. Based on the results of the analysis of current publications, the paper presents the rationale for a complete immunological screening of patients with rheumatic diseases when prescribing antirheumatic therapy. The issues of the role of COVID-19 in the exacerbation of chronic viral hepatitis B, antiviral prevention and monitoring are discussed, the classification of antirheumatic drugs according to the risk of HBV reactivation is presented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatite B Crônica , Doenças Reumáticas , Ativação Viral , Humanos , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Antirreumáticos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Addict Nurs ; 35(2): 107-113, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing professionals are vitally involved in the cascade of care for opioid use disorders (OUDs). The global spread of COVID-19 has had complex effects on public health aspects of major diseases, including OUDs. There are limited data on the major ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the functions of nursing professionals in the care of OUDs. METHOD: This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and examined published data for trends in OUD care during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on nursing functions. The National Library of Medicine PubMed database and the EMBASE database were examined for peer-reviewed studies with primary data published between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2021. REVIEW FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Rapid changes were observed in numerous aspects of OUDs during the early pandemic stage, as well as its care by nursing and other health professionals. These changes include increased overdoses (primarily from synthetic opioids such as fentanyl) and emergency department visits. These trends varied considerably across U.S. jurisdictions, underscoring the importance of region-specific examinations for public health policy and intervention. Out of necessity, healthcare systems and nursing professionals adapted to the challenges of OUD care in the pandemic. These adaptations included increases in telehealth services, increases in take-home doses of methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone, and expansion of layperson training in the use of naloxone for overdose reversal. It is likely that some of these adaptations will result in long-term changes in standards of care practices for OUDs by nursing professionals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , COVID-19/enfermagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/enfermagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(6): 768-775, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830152

RESUMO

The absence of a comprehensive national playbook for developing and deploying testing has hindered the United States' ability to rapidly suppress recent biological emergencies (for example, the COVID-19 pandemic and outbreaks of mpox). We describe here the Testing Playbook for Biological Emergencies, a national testing playbook we developed. It includes a set of decisions and actions for US officials to take at specific times during infectious disease emergencies to implement testing rapidly and to ensure that available testing meets clinical and public health needs. Although the United States had multiple plans at the federal level for responding to pandemic threats, US leaders were unable to quickly and efficiently operationalize those plans to deploy different types of tests during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-21, and again during the US mpox outbreak in 2022. The playbook fills a critical gap by providing the necessary specific and adaptable guidance for decision makers to meet this need.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Emergências , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
9.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(6): 791-797, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830148

RESUMO

A narrative has taken hold that public health has failed the US. We argue instead that the US has chronically failed public health, and nowhere have these failures been more apparent than in rural regions. Decades of underinvestment in rural communities, health care, and public health institutions left rural America uniquely vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. Rural communities outpaced urban ones in deaths, and many rural institutions and communities sustained significant impacts. At the same time, the pandemic prompted creative actions to meet urgent health and social needs, and it illuminated opportunities to address long-standing rural challenges. This article draws on our cross-disciplinary expertise in public health and medical anthropology, as well as our research on COVID-19 and rural health equity in northern New England. In this Commentary, we articulate five principles to inform research, practice, and policy efforts in rural America. We contend that advancing rural health equity beyond the pandemic requires understanding the forces that generate rural disparities and designing policies and practices that account for rural disadvantage.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equidade em Saúde , Saúde da População Rural , População Rural , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Estados Unidos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Saúde Pública , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
10.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(6): 831-839, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830157

RESUMO

Over the course of the past two decades, attrition within the US governmental public health workforce has passed concerning and become dire. The practice sector has struggled to recruit and retain new talent, despite the infusion of considerable federal investment in workforce expansion initiatives. In 2020, Emory University's Rollins School of Public Health partnered with the Georgia Department of Public Health to establish the Rollins Epidemiology Fellowship Program. Initially created to recruit and place early-career master of public health-level epidemiologists into Georgia's public health system for COVID-19 pandemic response, the two-year service-learning program has evolved into an effective and replicable model of direct academic involvement in strengthening the governmental public health workforce. Here we describe the program's structure and early results, spotlighting it for consideration by the federal government and other jurisdictions interested in directly engaging academia in efforts to revitalize the public health workforce.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Georgia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia/educação , Saúde Pública , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Recursos Humanos
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(6): 750-758, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830167

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and other ongoing public health challenges have highlighted deficiencies in the US public health system. The United States is in a unique moment that calls for a transformation that builds on Public Health 3.0 and its focus on social determinants of health and partnerships with diverse sectors while also acknowledging how the pandemic altered the landscape for public health. Based on relevant literature, our experience, and interviews with public health leaders, we describe seven areas of focus within three broad categories to support transformational change. Contextual areas of focus include increasing accountability and addressing politicization and polarization. Topical areas of focus highlight prioritizing climate change and sharpening the focus on equity. Technical areas of focus include advancing data sciences, building the workforce, and enhancing communication capacity. A transformed public health system will depend highly on leadership, funding incentives, and both bottom-up and top-down approaches. A broad effort is needed by public health agencies, governments, and academia to accelerate the transition to a next phase for public health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Pandemias , Liderança , SARS-CoV-2 , Política
12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(6): 805-812, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830164

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated a need to strengthen the US public health system by shifting toward much greater community engagement and leadership. In November and December 2023, we conducted separate online surveys of community-based organizations and large metropolitan health departments to identify barriers and opportunities for building a public health system with strong community partnerships. Identified barriers included mistrust, siloed health departments with structural challenges in funding community-based organizations, and insufficient shared decision making. The surveys helped inform our six policy recommendations: establish state and local community councils to formalize the roles of community-based organizations in public health decision making; dedicate funding to these organizations; offer funding that is not limited to a specific disease or condition; simplify procurement and reporting processes directed to community-based organizations; create a training and technical assistance program for these organizations; and increase public health worker diversity, including sustainable funding for community health workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Participação da Comunidade , Liderança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração
13.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 811-824, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822461

RESUMO

Wastewater surveillance has been a tool for public health officials throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Universities established pandemic response committees to facilitate safe learning for students, faculty, and staff. These committees met to analyze both wastewater and clinical data to propose mitigation strategies to limit the spread of COVID-19. This paper reviews the initial efforts of utilizing campus data inclusive of wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations, clinical case data from university response teams, and mitigation strategies from Grand Valley State University in West Michigan (population 21,648 students) and Oakland University in East Michigan (population 18,552 students) from November 2020 to April 2022. Wastewater positivity rates for both universities ranged from 32.8 to 46.8%. Peak viral signals for both universities directly corresponded to variant points of entry within the campus populations from 2021 to 2022. It was found that the organization of clinical case data and variability of wastewater testing data were large barriers for both universities to effectively understand disease dynamics within the university population. We review the initial efforts of onboarding wastewater surveillance and provide direction for structuring ongoing surveillance workflows and future epidemic response strategies based on those that led to reduced viral signals in campus wastewater.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias , Universidades , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Águas Residuárias/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Michigan/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública
14.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 23(2): 127-138, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822508

RESUMO

The tragic COVID-19 pandemic affected many children worldwide. Among the factors that may influence the course of viral infections including COVID-19, it is still uncertain whether atopy has a protective or predisposing role. The study aims to address the knowledge gap by investigating the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 among atopic children in Kerman, in 2022. A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study on children with a history of atopy was performed in Kerman Medical University. Demographic information, type of atopy (including allergic rhinitis, Hyper-Reactive Airway Disease (HRAD) or asthma, eczema, urticaria, anaphylaxis, and food allergy), history of COVID-19 infection, and disease severity were recorded. A total of 1007 children and adolescents, (boys: 56.4%, girls: 43.6%, age:5.61±2.64 years) were included in the study. History of COVID-19 infection was positive in 53.5%, with 75.9% of the cases exhibiting mild disease severity. The frequency of atopies was HRAD or asthma (67.2%), allergic rhinitis (42.6%), and food allergy (27.4%). The frequency of COVID-19 cases was significantly higher among patients with HRAD or asthma, whereas it was significantly lower among those with food allergies, anaphylaxis, and eczema. Among atopic individuals, COVID-19 severity was significantly lower in those with allergic rhinitis, while the opposite trend was observed among food-allergic individuals. This study sheds light on the relationship between atopy and COVID-19 among pediatric patients. It seems specific types of atopies may influence the risk and severity of COVID-19 infection differently. A better understanding of these associations can inform clinical management and preventive measures for vulnerable pediatric populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Criança , Prevalência , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Psychiatry ; 181(6): 474-475, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822587
16.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 33(3): 277-291, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823803

RESUMO

Recognition of the high prevalence of children's mental health conditions and challenges to accessing needed care faced by children and their families have been long-standing concerns, emerging well before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Global data examining the prevalence of at least one mental health and/or substance-use disorder for 2516 million people aged 5 to 24 years in 2019 found that at least 293 million people were affected by at least one mental health disorder and 31 million affected by a substance-use disorder.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem , Pré-Escolar
18.
19.
Med J Aust ; 220(10): 495, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824452
20.
Bull World Health Organ ; 102(6): 376-377, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828060
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