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1.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116219, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401204

RESUMO

Seven perfluorinated and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs), namely perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoro-1,10-decanedicarboxylic acid (PFDDA), were evaluated in urine and hair samples from children (age: 4-6 years, N = 53), airborne particles sampled at 17 kindergartens, and tap water and bottled water samples. All samples were collected in Hong Kong. The analytical results suggested widespread PFAS contamination. All target PFASs were detected in at least 32% of urine samples, with geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 2.97 ng/L, and in 100% of drinking water samples at GM concentrations of 0.18-21.1 ng/L. Although PFOS and PFDDA were not detected in hair or air samples, the other target PFASs were detected in 48-70% of hair samples (GM concentrations: 2.40-233 pg/g) and 100% of air samples (GM concentrations: 14.8-536.7 pg/m3). In summary, the highest PFAS concentrations were detected in airborne particles measured in kindergartens. PFOA was the major PFAS detected in hair, urine, and drinking water samples, while PFOA, PFDA, and PFHpA were dominant in airborne particles. Although a significant difference in PFAS concentrations in hair samples was observed between boys and girls (p < .05), no significant sex-related difference in urinary PFAS or paired PFAS (hair/urine) concentrations was observed.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Cabelo/química , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111719, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396050

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to high levels of arsenic has been documented to induce skin and liver damage, affecting hundreds of millions of people. While arsenic-induced skin and liver damage and trace element alterations have been studied, their correlations and risks have not been explained. Based on the above premise, this study included a total of 172 subjects from a coal-burning arsenic poisoning area. The levels of 18 trace elements in hair and six liver function indices in serum were detected, and the associations between and risks of trace elements related to skin and liver damage were analyzed. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and areas under the curve (AUC) were used to analyze the diagnostic values of certain trace elements for arsenic-induced skin and liver damage. The results found that a decrease in Se was a risk factor for arsenic-induced skin and liver damage (OR = 8.33 and 1.92, respectively). Furthermore, increases in Al and V were risk factors for arsenic-induced skin damage (OR = 1.05) and liver damage (OR = 13.16), respectively. In addition, the results found that Se and Al possessed certain diagnostic values for arsenic-induced skin damage (AUC = 0.93, 0.80), that Se possessed a diagnostic value for liver damage (AUC = 0.93), and that the combination of Se and Al increased the diagnostic value for skin damage (AUC = 0.96). This study provides an important research basis for further understanding the reasons for arsenic-induced skin and liver damage, for screening and identifying candidate diagnostic biomarkers, and for improving prevention and control strategies for arsenism.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico/etiologia , Arsênico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Oligoelementos/análise , Adulto , Intoxicação por Arsênico/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127800, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750592

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the mineral profile of hair samples of free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in remnants of the Atlantic Forest located in the Northeast of Brazil, and to evaluate the effects of origin, gender and age of the animals on their mineral accumulation in hair. Twenty hair samples from animals of different areas, genders and ages were prepared using microwave-assisted digestion, employing 5 mL of HNO3 and 2.5 mL of H2SO4 for 100 mg of sample. Digestion efficiency was assessed by residual carbon content. The digested samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed considering the composition data of 11 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, and Na). The digestion method applied was efficient and the most abundant elements with their respective concentration ranges in mg kg-1 were Al (396-2746), Ca (36-3420), Fe (476-51180), K (115-4843), and Na (72-473). ANOVA and PCA differentiated among the capybaras regarding age (adults) and origin (A3), both associated with higher concentrations of Al, Cd, Fe, and K. Although a higher metal bioaccumulation was observed in adult animals, it is important to highlight that this result could have been affected by diet and physiological parameters. The results suggest that A3 was the most anthropized remnant area due to agricultural and urban influences. Multi-elemental determination in hair can be used as a non-invasive method to assess heavy metal contamination in capybaras.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Roedores/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Cabelo/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Micro-Ondas , Minerais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127807, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763577

RESUMO

Human hair has been identified as a non-invasive alternative matrix for assessing the human exposure to specific organic contaminants. In the present study, a solvent-saving analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 3 hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), 12 phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), and 4 emerging PFRs (ePFRs) has been developed and validated for the first time. Hair sample preparation protocols include precleaning with Milli-Q water, digestion with HNO3/H2O2 (1:1, v/v), liquid-liquid extraction with hexane:dichloromethane (4:1, v/v), and fractionation and cleanup on a Florisil cartridge. The method was validated by using two levels of spiked hair samples of 3 replicates for each spiking group. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.12-22.4 ng/g for all analytes, average values of accuracies were ranging between 88 and 115%, 82-117%, 81-128%, and 81-95% for PBDEs, HBCDDs, PFRs, and ePFRs, respectively; and precision was also acceptable (RSD < 20%) for all analytes. Eventually, this method was applied to measure the levels of the targeted analytes in hair samples of e-waste dismantling workers (n = 14) from Qingyuan, South China. Median values ranged between 3.00 and 18.1 ng/g for PBDEs, 0.84-4.04 ng/g for HBCDDs, 2.13-131 ng/g PFRs, and 1.49-29.4 ng/g for ePFRs, respectively. PFRs/ePFRs constitute the major compounds in human hair samples, implying the wide use of PFRs/ePFRs as replacements of PBDEs and HBCDDs, as well the potential high human exposure risks of PFRs/ePFRs. Overall, this work will allow to a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to multiple groups of FRs using hair as a non-invasive bioindicator.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cabelo/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Fósforo/análise
5.
Gene ; 765: 145133, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898606

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD), caused by expansion of CAG repeats in the 1st exon of the HTT gene, is a disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. HD symptoms include chorea, behavioral disturbances and cognitive decline. Although it is described as a neurodegenerative disease, due to expression of HTT in all types of cells, peripheral symptoms also occur. R6/1 and R6/2 mouse lines, which demonstrate many different phenotypical disturbances, are among the most commonly used HD animal models. Nevertheless, in this report, we underlined, for the first time, a previously undescribed R6/1 and R6/2 feature, hair dysmorphology. We observed changes in the general view of pelage, as well as specific changes in the shape of hair, assessed under electron microscope (deep cavity and hilly hair surface or concave and convex areas on the long hair axis with an appearance of the hair as flat). Hair diameter was significantly increased in both HD mouse models relative to control animals. Moreover, loosened contact between the scales and loosened scale texture were observed in R6/1 and R6/2. Thus, this study highlighted that the hair morphology might be a useful, noninvasive and simple marker of a widely used HD mouse models, R6/1 and R6/2 lines, particularly in testing effects of potential therapeutics or disease progression.


Assuntos
Pelo Animal/química , Pelo Animal/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cabelo/química , Cabelo/metabolismo , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Fenótipo
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): 669-676, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112256

RESUMO

Context: Obesity and cardiometabolic diseases are associated with higher long-term glucocorticoid levels, measured as scalp hair cortisol (HairF) and cortisone (HairE). Cardiometabolic diseases have also been associated with copeptin, a stable surrogate marker for the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) system. Since AVP is, together with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) an important regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis), we hypothesize that AVP contributes to chronic hypercortisolism in obesity. Objective: To investigate whether copeptin levels are associated with Higher HairF and HairE levels in obesity. Design: A cross-sectional study in 51 adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Methods: Associations and interactions between copeptin, HairF, HairE, and cardiometabolic parameters were cross-sectionally analyzed. Results: Copeptin was strongly associated with BMI and waist circumference (WC) (rho = 0.364 and 0.530, P = 0.008 and <0.001, respectively), also after correction for confounders. There were no associations between copeptin and HairF or HairE on a continuous or dichotomized scale, despite correction for confounders. Conclusion: In patients with obesity, AVP seems not a major contributor to the frequently observed high cortisol levels. Other factors which stimulate the HPA axis or affect cortisol synthesis or breakdown may be more important than the influence of AVP on long-term glucocorticoid levels in obesity.


Assuntos
Cortisona/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Arginina Vasopressina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo
8.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 354-370, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025049

RESUMO

Heavy metals threaten communities near biodiversity hotspots, as their protein sources come from the environment. This study assessed Hg, Cd, and Se concentrations in fish, as well as the magnitude of exposure and hematological conditions of adult citizens from Puerto Nariño (Colombian Amazon). Among fish samples, greater Hg concentrations were found in higher trophic level species, including Rhaphiodon vulpinus (880 ± 130 ng/g) and Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (920 ± 87 ng/g). These species presented the highest hazard quotients and lowest Se:Hg molar ratios among those studied, showing their consumption represents a health risk to consumers. Moreover, some samples of Mylossoma duriventre and Prochilodus magdalenae had Cd levels greater than the regulated limit (100 ng/g). The average total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in human hair and blood were 5.31 µg/g and 13.7 µg/L, respectively. All hair samples exceeded the 1.0 µg/g threshold set by the USEPA, whereas 93% of the volunteers had T-Hg blood levels greater than 5 µg/L, suggesting elevated exposure. The mean Cd level was 3.1 µg/L, with 21% of samples surpassing 5 µg/L, value at which mitigating actions should be taken. Eighty-four percent of participants presented Se deficiencies (<100 µg/L). There was a significant association between fish consumption and T-Hg in hair (ρ = 0.323; p = 0.032) and blood (ρ = 0.381; p = 0.011). In this last matrix, Se correlated with Cd content, whereas lymphocytes were inversely linked to Hg concentrations. The results of this study show that there is  extensive exposure to Hg in fish, the consumption of which may promote detrimental impacts on hematology parameters within the community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Adulto , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Colômbia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
9.
J Cosmet Sci ; 71(3): 117-131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022208

RESUMO

The internal ultrafine structure of human hair was explored with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cross sections of hair were prepared by a proprietary technique that provided a smooth surface for effective imaging in contact-mode AFM. Investigations of virgin hair revealed structural details of cortical and cuticle cells consistent with previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, in addition to the identification of a boundary region surrounding macrofibrils of the cortex. The effects of bleaching and solvent extraction on the internal structure of hair were also investigated. In the cuticle cell, bleaching causes the most damage to the endocuticle and cell membrane complex, evident by erosion of these components. Similarly, bleaching results in crevices, cracks, and asperities in the cortex of hair. In addition, the cortical cell membrane complex appears compromised along with either lipid or protein structures at the outer boundaries of macrofibrils. In delipidated hair, most structural components of the fiber appear intact with the exception of an overall swollen nature of the various morphological components.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Força Atômica , Cabelo , Humanos , Lipídeos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
10.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(12): 2185-2194, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918600

RESUMO

The principal focus of this study was to describe how the coat characteristics could affect the heat exchanges in animals managed in a hot environment. The Morada Nova ewes were monitored once a month, during 10 consecutive months, in three commercial flocks. Initially, an analysis was performed to measure the differences regarding the coat color in the thermoregulation mechanisms. The animals were grouped into 4 different groups according to coat tonality, as follows: dark red animals (group 1, N = 23), intermediate red color (group 2, N = 27), light red animals (group 3, N = 30), and white-coated animals (group 4, N = 30). The data were collected from 1100 to 1400 h, after the animals were exposed to 30 min of direct sunlight. The cluster analysis was performed considering the hair structural characteristics such as coat thickness (CT, cm), hair length (HL, mm), hair diameter (HD, m), and number of hairs (NH, hairs per unit area), after that these clusters were compared in relation to thermoregulatory mechanisms that include rectal temperature (RT, °C), respiratory rate (RR, breaths min-1), cutaneous evaporation (CE, °C), and respiratory evaporation (RE, W m-2). The groups were characterized and compared using mean and standard deviation, and the differences between the clusters were compared using the Tukey test with a 5% probability of error. In relation to coat color, no differences were found in groups 1, 2, and 3 regarding the activation of the thermoregulation mechanisms. The most different was observed in the totally white coat that presented different thermoregulatory responses as the highest sweating rate. White-coated animals showed a non-pigmented epidermis, and the hair structure is responsible to promote skin protection as necessary, such as a dense coat (1242.7 hair cm-2), long hair (14.2 mm), and thicker coat (7.38 mm). In red-coated animals, the hair structure favored heat loss to the environment, such as short hairs, less thick coat, and less hairs per square centimeter. All evaluated animals showed the rectal temperature within the reference limits for the ovine species, regardless of the coat color. In the analysis of clusters related to the physical structure of hair, it was possible to observe that the animals with thick hair, short hair, and less dense coat tended to have a higher capacity to eliminate heat through their respiratory rate and showed less intense heat loss by cutaneous evaporation. We verified that coat color presents a direct influence on the hair structure and the activation of mechanisms related to thermoregulation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Termotolerância , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Cabelo , Temperatura Alta , Ovinos
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 798-805, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909074

RESUMO

In 1963, selenosis occurred in Yutangba Village, Enshi City, China. Subsequently, local residents migrated to a new area of Yutangba to avoid high selenium (Se) exposure. In this study, 19 soil samples, 43 food samples, 60 hair samples and 58 plasma samples from local residents were randomly collected in New Yutangba Village. The mean total Se concentrations in cultivated soil samples were 1753.6 ± 742.8 µg/kg (n = 14). The estimated daily Se intake in New Yutangba Village decreased to 63.2 ± 39.8 µg/day, slightly higher than the recommended dietary Se intake for adults in China (60 µg/day). The mean Se concentrations in hair and plasma samples were 549.7 ± 165.2 µg/kg (n = 60) and 98.4 ± 32.1 µg/L (n = 58), respectively. The result indicated that appropriate activities, such as relocation, consuming a mixture of local foods and market foods containing low Se concentration, could effectively reduce the risk of high Se exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cabelo/química , Selênio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adulto , China , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Selênio/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/sangue
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907872

RESUMO

COVID-19 has challenged all medical professionals to optimise non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) as a means of limiting intubation. We present a case of a middle-aged man with a voluminous beard for religious reasons who developed progressive hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 infection which became refractory to NIV. After gaining permission to trim the patient's facial hair by engaging with the patient, his family and religious leaders, his mask fit objectively improved, his hypoxaemia markedly improved and an unnecessary intubation was avoided. Trimming of facial hair should be considered in all patients on NIV who might have any limitations with mask fit and seal that would hamper ventilation, including patients who have facial hair for religious reasons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cabelo , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Religião e Medicina , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Traqueostomia
13.
J Anal Toxicol ; 44(7): 637-650, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754738

RESUMO

The endogenous presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) complicates the interpretation of results in cases where an exogenous dosing is suspected. Due to GHB's rapid metabolism and clearance following exogenous doses, hair has become a preferential matrix for confirmation of GHB exposure in drug-facilitated crimes. However, unlike blood and urine where an agreed-upon cut-off concentration for differentiation between endogenous and exogenous GHB has been made, there has been no consensus on a cut-off concentration for hair. This is due in part to the wide inter- and intra-individual variation that has been observed in endogenous GHB hair studies. A large (>50) population study of 214 donors was conducted to better understand these variations and to evaluate whether a cut-off concentration could be established for endogenous GHB in human hair. As seen in our previous study, the inter-individual variation was large, with concentrations ranging from <0.40 to 5.47 ng/mg. This range made an absolute cut-off concentration recommendation inappropriate, so an alternative approach for GHB discrimination was investigated utilizing the intra-individual variation. Male donors appeared to have greater intra-individual variation than female donors, yet it was noted that segment-to-segment variation along the length of hair had minimal change between individual donor's adjacent segments. Overall, 97.1% of the adjacent segment differences were within ±0.5 ng/mg. Therefore, instead of a recommended cut-off concentration, it appears that using adjacent segment concentration differences could be a strategy to assist in differentiating endogenous from single exogenous GHB exposure. In the absence of controlled dosing data, previously published segmented results from controlled and suspected dosing donors are examined using the adjacent segmental difference approach and the results compared to currently used ratio-based calculations.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Hidroxibutiratos/análise , Feminino , Toxicologia Forense , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20044-20051, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747534

RESUMO

Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in hair sampled from 65 communities across the central and intermountain regions of the United States and more intensively throughout 29 ZIP codes in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, revealed a dietary divergence related to socioeconomic status as measured by cost of living, household income, and adjusted gross income. Corn-fed, animal-derived proteins were more common in the diets of lower socioeconomic status populations than were plant-derived proteins, with individual estimates of animal-derived protein diets as high as 75%; United States towns and cities averaged 57%. Similar patterns were seen across the socioeconomic status spectrum in the Salt Lake Valley. It is likely that corn-fed animal proteins were associated with concentrated animal-feeding operations, a common practice for industrial animal production in the United States today. Given recent studies highlighting the negative impacts of animal-derived proteins in our diets, hair carbon isotope ratios could provide an approach for scaling assessments of animal-sourced foods and health risks in communities across the United States.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/economia , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Cabelo/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/economia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Cabelo/metabolismo , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Classe Social , Estados Unidos , Utah
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752015

RESUMO

Malaria has been for millennia one of the best known and most destructive diseases affecting humans. Its high impact has aroused great interest for the development of new effective and reliable diagnostic techniques. Recently it has been recently published that hairs from mammal hosts are able to capture, hold and finally remove foreign DNA sequences of Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to check if Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) DNA remains stable in blood samples deposited in Whatman paper after suffering different transport and storage conditions, and to compare the sensitivity of these results with those offered by thick a smear and Rapid Diagnostic Test, and besides to examine whether P. falciparum DNA would be detected and quantified by Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) from hairs of people with different types of malaria. P. falciparum Histidine Repeat Protein II (pHRP-II) antigen detection and P. falciparum DNA were detected in 18 of 19 dry blood samples adhered to Whatman paper (94.74%), besides, Plasmodium DNA was also detected in seven out of 19 hair samples analyzed (36.84%), remaining stable until analysis for several months under the exposure to different environmental conditions. Although the sensitivity of PCR for the diagnosis of malaria in hair samples is not as high as blood analysis, the study of Plasmodium DNA presence in blood and hair could constitute a complementary tool with numerous advantages in sample collection, transport and storage. We suggest that the method could be also applied to medical, forensic and paleo-parasitological diagnosis, not only for malaria but also for searching many other pathogens in hair samples.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Plasmodium falciparum , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Cabelo/parasitologia , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/genética , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776947

RESUMO

Studying the isotope variability in fast-growing human tissues (e.g., hair, nails) is a powerful tool to investigate human nutrition. However, interpreting the controls of this isotopic variability at the population scale is often challenging as multiple factors can superimpose on the isotopic signals of a current population. Here, we analyse carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotopes in hair from 590 Canadian resident volunteers along with demographics, dietary and geographic information about each participant. We use a series of machine-learning regressions to demonstrate that the isotopic values in Canadian residents' hair are not only influenced by dietary choices but by geographic controls. First, we show that isotopic values in Canadian residents' hair have a limited range of variability consistent with the homogenization of Canadian dietary habits (as in other industrialized countries). As expected, some of the isotopic variability within the population correlates with recorded individual dietary choices. More interestingly, some regional spatial patterns emerge from carbon and sulphur isotope variations. The high carbon isotope composition of the hair of eastern Canadians relative to that of western Canadians correlates with the dominance of corn in the eastern Canadian food-industry. The gradient of sulphur isotope composition in Canadian hair from coast to inland regions correlates with the increasing soil pH and decreasing deposition of marine-derived sulphate aerosols in local food systems. We conclude that part of the isotopic variability found in the hair of Canadian residents reflects the isotopic signature associated with specific environmental conditions and agricultural practices of regional food systems transmitted to humans through the high consumption rate of intra-provincial food in Canada. Our study also underscores the strong potential of sulphur isotopes as tracers of human and food provenance.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Cabelo/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise , Adulto , Canadá , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 38, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated heavy metal exposure could increase the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, there are limited data regarding the relationship between cobalt exposure and CHD occurrence in offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between cobalt exposure in mothers and the risk of CHDs in offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to explore the association between cobalt exposure and occurrence of congenital heart defect (CHD), a case-control study with 490 controls and 399 cases with CHDs in China were developed. The concentrations of cobalt in hair of pregnant woman and fetal placental tissue were measured and processed by a logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between cobalt exposure and risk of CHDs. RESULTS: The median concentration of hair cobalt in the control and case group was 0.023 ng/mg and 0.033 ng/mg (aOR, 1.837; 95% CI, 1.468-2.299; P < 0.001), respectively. And the median (5-95% range) fetal placental cobalt concentrations were 19.350 ng/g and 42.500 ng/g (aOR, 2.924; 95% CI, 2.211-3.868; P < 0.001) in the control and case groups, respectively. Significant differences in the middle level of cobalt in hair were found in the different CHD subtypes, including septal defects, conotruncal defects, right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (P < 0.001). Dramatically, different cobalt concentrations in fetal placental tissue were found in all subtypes of cases with CHDs (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The finding suggested that the occurrence of CHDs may be associated with cobalt exposure.


Assuntos
Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Cabelo/química , Cardiopatias Congênitas/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta/química , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736376

RESUMO

Although most felids have an exclusive carnivore diet, the presence of plant matter in scat has been reported among various species. This indicates that there may be an adaptive significance to the conservation of plant-eating behavior in felid evolution. Some studies have hypothesized that felids consume plants for self-medication or as a source of nutrition. In addition, it is thought that plant intake helps them to excrete hairballs, however, no scientific work has confirmed these effects. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between plant intake and hair evacuation in felid species. We selected snow leopards (Panthera uncia) as the study species because they have longer and denser hair than other felids. The behavior of 11 captive snow leopards was observed and scat samples from eight of them and two other captive individuals were analyzed. Snow leopards evacuate hair possibly by vomiting and excreting in scats. The frequency of plant-eating and vomiting and the amount of hair and plant in scat were evaluated. We found that the frequency of vomiting was much lower than the frequency of plant-eating. In addition, there was no significant relationship between the amount of plant matter contained in scats and the amount of hair in scats. Contrary to the common assumption, our results indicate that plant intake has little effect on hair evacuation in felid species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Alimentar , Felidae , Cabelo , Plantas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Vômito
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21384, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a complex malformative disease caused by the teratogenic effect of alcohol consumed during pregnancy. Mothers are frequently reluctant to admit alcohol consumption during pregnancy. During infancy and particularly during neonatal period, differential diagnosis is difficult. PATIENT CONCERNS: This case is represented by an Italian neonate boy small for gestational age, born by caesarean section at a gestational age of 37 weeks + 6 days by neglect and single-parent pregnancy. On physical examination, he presented particular facial features: microcephaly, epicanthal folds, flat midface, low nasal bridge, indistinct philtrum, and thin upper lip; moreover, examination revealed a macro-penis and recurvation without evidence of glans. DIAGNOSIS: Echocardiogram showed an inter-ventricular defect of medium-muscular type and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres with hypoplasia of the left cerebral hemisphere, dilatation of the left ventricle, cerebrospinal fluid cavity, and porencephaly. INTERVENTIONS: We investigated the ethylglucuronide (EtG) concentration in the neonate's hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and we detected EtG in the infant's hair (normal value, 30 pg/mg), demonstrating prenatal alcohol exposure. OUTCOMES: In this neonate, EtG measure in hairs permitted the diagnosis of FASD, so allowing to exclude genetic diseases associated with similar clinical findings. After this result the mother admitted that she drunk alcohol during pregnancy (she declared 3 glasses of wine every day). At the age of 6 months, the child showed a moderate neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSION: This case shows that FAD should be considered in neonates with rare neurological diseases as porencephaly. In neonates and infants born to a mother who did not report alcohol use, EtG measure in hairs can significantly improve diagnosis of FASD, so allowing to exclude genetic diseases associated with similar clinical findings.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Porencefalia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Glucuronatos/análise , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Porencefalia/complicações , Gravidez
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1073, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylmercury contamination of the environment represents a substantial environmental health concern. Human exposure to methylmercury occurs primarily through consumption of fish and marine mammals. Heavily exposed subgroups include sport or subsistence fishers residing in Arctic communities. We aimed to estimate the association of fish/whale consumption patterns of Canadian Arctic subsistence fishers with the internal dose of methylmercury as measured in hair. METHODS: This research was conducted within ongoing community projects led by the CANHelp Working Group in Aklavik and Fort McPherson, Northwest Territories and Old Crow, Yukon. We interviewed each participant using a fish-focused food-frequency questionnaire during September-November 2016 and collected hair samples concurrently. Methylmercury was measured in the full-length of each hair sample using gas chromatography inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression estimated beta-coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effect of fish/whale consumption on hair-methylmercury concentrations. RESULTS: Among 101 participants who provided hair samples and diet data, the mean number of fish/whale species eaten was 3.5 (SD:1.9). The mean hair-methylmercury concentration was 0.60 µg/g (SD:0.47). Fish/whale consumption was positively associated with hair-methylmercury concentration, after adjusting for sex, hair length and use of permanent hair treatments. Hair-methylmercury concentrations among participants who consumed the most fish/whale in each season ranged from 0.30-0.50 µg/g higher than those who consumed < 1 meal/week. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of Canadian Arctic subsistence fishers, hair-methylmercury concentration increased with fish/whale consumption, but the maximum concentrations were below Health Canada's 6.0 µg/g threshold for safe exposure.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cabelo/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Territórios do Noroeste , Estações do Ano , Baleias , Yukon
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