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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 38, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated heavy metal exposure could increase the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, there are limited data regarding the relationship between cobalt exposure and CHD occurrence in offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between cobalt exposure in mothers and the risk of CHDs in offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to explore the association between cobalt exposure and occurrence of congenital heart defect (CHD), a case-control study with 490 controls and 399 cases with CHDs in China were developed. The concentrations of cobalt in hair of pregnant woman and fetal placental tissue were measured and processed by a logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between cobalt exposure and risk of CHDs. RESULTS: The median concentration of hair cobalt in the control and case group was 0.023 ng/mg and 0.033 ng/mg (aOR, 1.837; 95% CI, 1.468-2.299; P < 0.001), respectively. And the median (5-95% range) fetal placental cobalt concentrations were 19.350 ng/g and 42.500 ng/g (aOR, 2.924; 95% CI, 2.211-3.868; P < 0.001) in the control and case groups, respectively. Significant differences in the middle level of cobalt in hair were found in the different CHD subtypes, including septal defects, conotruncal defects, right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (P < 0.001). Dramatically, different cobalt concentrations in fetal placental tissue were found in all subtypes of cases with CHDs (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The finding suggested that the occurrence of CHDs may be associated with cobalt exposure.


Assuntos
Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Cabelo/química , Cardiopatias Congênitas/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta/química , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776947

RESUMO

Studying the isotope variability in fast-growing human tissues (e.g., hair, nails) is a powerful tool to investigate human nutrition. However, interpreting the controls of this isotopic variability at the population scale is often challenging as multiple factors can superimpose on the isotopic signals of a current population. Here, we analyse carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotopes in hair from 590 Canadian resident volunteers along with demographics, dietary and geographic information about each participant. We use a series of machine-learning regressions to demonstrate that the isotopic values in Canadian residents' hair are not only influenced by dietary choices but by geographic controls. First, we show that isotopic values in Canadian residents' hair have a limited range of variability consistent with the homogenization of Canadian dietary habits (as in other industrialized countries). As expected, some of the isotopic variability within the population correlates with recorded individual dietary choices. More interestingly, some regional spatial patterns emerge from carbon and sulphur isotope variations. The high carbon isotope composition of the hair of eastern Canadians relative to that of western Canadians correlates with the dominance of corn in the eastern Canadian food-industry. The gradient of sulphur isotope composition in Canadian hair from coast to inland regions correlates with the increasing soil pH and decreasing deposition of marine-derived sulphate aerosols in local food systems. We conclude that part of the isotopic variability found in the hair of Canadian residents reflects the isotopic signature associated with specific environmental conditions and agricultural practices of regional food systems transmitted to humans through the high consumption rate of intra-provincial food in Canada. Our study also underscores the strong potential of sulphur isotopes as tracers of human and food provenance.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Cabelo/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise , Adulto , Canadá , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21384, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a complex malformative disease caused by the teratogenic effect of alcohol consumed during pregnancy. Mothers are frequently reluctant to admit alcohol consumption during pregnancy. During infancy and particularly during neonatal period, differential diagnosis is difficult. PATIENT CONCERNS: This case is represented by an Italian neonate boy small for gestational age, born by caesarean section at a gestational age of 37 weeks + 6 days by neglect and single-parent pregnancy. On physical examination, he presented particular facial features: microcephaly, epicanthal folds, flat midface, low nasal bridge, indistinct philtrum, and thin upper lip; moreover, examination revealed a macro-penis and recurvation without evidence of glans. DIAGNOSIS: Echocardiogram showed an inter-ventricular defect of medium-muscular type and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres with hypoplasia of the left cerebral hemisphere, dilatation of the left ventricle, cerebrospinal fluid cavity, and porencephaly. INTERVENTIONS: We investigated the ethylglucuronide (EtG) concentration in the neonate's hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and we detected EtG in the infant's hair (normal value, 30 pg/mg), demonstrating prenatal alcohol exposure. OUTCOMES: In this neonate, EtG measure in hairs permitted the diagnosis of FASD, so allowing to exclude genetic diseases associated with similar clinical findings. After this result the mother admitted that she drunk alcohol during pregnancy (she declared 3 glasses of wine every day). At the age of 6 months, the child showed a moderate neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSION: This case shows that FAD should be considered in neonates with rare neurological diseases as porencephaly. In neonates and infants born to a mother who did not report alcohol use, EtG measure in hairs can significantly improve diagnosis of FASD, so allowing to exclude genetic diseases associated with similar clinical findings.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Porencefalia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Glucuronatos/análise , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Porencefalia/complicações , Gravidez
4.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 409-415, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition that disproportionately affects children and is associated with reduced quality of life. Zinc deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD because zinc plays a role in epidermal barrier integrity and the immune system. Systematic review evidence suggests that low zinc is associated with AD, but limitations of included studies support further investigation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate hair zinc concentrations in children with AD v. healthy controls in a low- to middle-income country setting. METHODS: One hundred and five children aged 1 - 12 yea-rs participated in a frequency-matched for age case-control study. The outcome variable, AD, was confirmed by a clinician and corroborated using the UK Working Party criteria. The primary predictor, long-term average zinc concentration, was determined by measuring hair zinc using inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Baseline demographic characteristics, anthropometry and measures of socioeconomic status were included in our logistic regression analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed where interaction terms suggested effect modification. RESULTS: Using data from the overall sample, population median hair zinc was not significantly different between children with AD and healthy controls. However, subgroup analysis suggested a clinically and statistically significant difference in median zinc between children with AD (175.35 µg/g) and healthy controls (206.4 µg/g) in the older age group (5 - 12 years) (p=0.01). In this age group, multivariable logistic regression analysis also found significantly decreased hair zinc concentrations in AD (odds ratio 0.83; 95% confidence interval 0.66 - 0.96; p=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: The inverse association between zinc status and AD in children aged 5 - 12 years in our setting is consistent with the international literature. The clinical importance of decreased zinc levels in AD is not yet known. Further investigation into relevant underlying mechanisms seems warranted given the global reach of AD, its effect on quality of life, and the low cost of potential zinc-based interventions.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Cabelo/química , Zinco/análise , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(4): 358-369, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631088

RESUMO

Stable isotope data from durable, sequentially grown tissues (e.g. hair, claw, and baleen) is commonly used for modelling dietary niche breadth. The use of tissues grown over multiple months to years, however, has the potential to complicate isotopic niche breadth modelling, as time-averaged stable isotope signals from whole tissues may obscure information available from chronologically resolved stable isotope signals in serially sectioned tissues. We determined if whole samples of brown bear guard hair produced different isotopic niche breadth estimates than those produced from subsampled, serially sectioned samples of the same tissue from the same set of individuals. We sampled guard hair from brown bears (Ursus arctos) in four regions of Alaska with disparate biogeographies and dietary resource availability. Whole hair and serially sectioned hair samples were used to produce paired isotopic dietary niche breadth estimates for each region in the SIBER Bayesian model framework in R. Isotopic data from serially sectioned hair consistently produced larger estimates of isotopic dietary niche breadth than isotope data from whole hair samples. Serial sampling captures finer-scale changes in diet and when cumulatively used to estimate isotopic niche breadth, the serially sampled isotope data more fully captures dietary variability and true isotopic niche breadth.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta , Cabelo/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ursidae/metabolismo , Alaska , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cadeia Alimentar , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cabelo/metabolismo , Ursidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127232, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540539

RESUMO

Humans are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, mainly through the consumption of marine fish. Several studies showed that high MeHg exposure can lead to neurological damage. This is particularly relevant for pregnant women, because MeHg exposure negatively impacts foetal development. Populations living near the sea are generally at increased exposure risk due to higher consumption of fish and seafood. Here, we present the first study of MeHg exposure levels of the population living at the French Riviera, using mercury (Hg) concentrations in hair as a proxy for MeHg exposure. We found that older people that consume more fish presented the highest hair Hg concentrations. Compared to other Mediterranean bordering countries and other European countries, the southern France population is among those with high MeHg exposure (median for women of childbearing age is 0.56 µg g-1). A global implementation of the Minamata Convention is necessary to lower MeHg exposure of the population.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bioacumulação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Peixes/metabolismo , França , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Gravidez , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510502

RESUMO

Drug resistant-tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a growing public health threat, and assessment of therapeutic drug levels may have important clinical benefits. Plasma drug levels are the current gold standard assessment, but require phlebotomy and a cold chain, and capture only very recent adherence. Our method uses hair, a matrix that is easily collected and reflective of long-term adherence, to test for 11 anti-TB medications. Previous work by our group shows that antiretroviral drug levels in hair are associated with HIV outcomes. Our method for DR-TB drugs uses 2 mg of hair (3 cm proximal to the root), which is pulverized and extracted in methanol. Samples are analyzed with a single LC-MS/MS method, quantifying 11 drugs in a 16 min run. Lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) for the 11 drugs range from 0.01 ng/mg to 1 ng/mg. Drug presence is confirmed by comparing ratios of two mass spectrometry transitions. Samples are quantified using the area ratio of the drug to the deuterated, 15N-, or 13C-labeled drug isotopologue. We used a calibration curve ranging from 0.001-100 ng/mg. Application of the method to a convenience sample of hair samples collected from DR-TB patients on directly observed therapy (DOT) indicated drug levels in hair within the linear dynamic range of nine of the eleven drugs (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, linezolid, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clofazimine, bedaquiline, pretomanid). No patient was on prothionamide, and the measured levels for ethionamide were close to its LLOQ (with further work instead examining the suitability of ethionamide's metabolite for monitoring exposure). In summary, we describe the development of a multi-analyte panel for DR-TB drugs in hair as a technique for therapeutic drug monitoring during drug-resistant TB treatment.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cabelo/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Calibragem , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/sangue
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110870, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593806

RESUMO

Wanshan is a city in southwest China that has several inactive mercury (Hg) mines. The local population are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) due to the consumption of Hg contaminated rice. The relationship between Hg exposure and the cognitive functions of local children is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between hair Hg concentrations and the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 314 children aged 8-10 years, recruited from three local primary schools in Wanshan area in 2018 and 2019. IQ was evaluated using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The average THg concentration in children's hair samples was 1.53 µg g-1 (range: 0.21-12.6 µg g-1), and 65.6% exceeded the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value of 1 µg g-1. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that children with hair Hg ≥ 1 µg g-1 were 1.58 times more likely to have an IQ score <80, which is the clinical cut-off for borderline intellectual disability (R2 = 0.20, p = 0.03). Increasing of 1 µg g-1 hair Hg resulted in 1 point of IQ loss in Wanshan children, which was.much higher than that via fish consumption. The economical cost due to Hg exposure was estimated to be $69.8 million (9.43% of total GDP) in the Wanshan area in 2018.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/análise , Oryza , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Peixes , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Mineração
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Person and environment-related childhood adverse events have been demonstrated to increase the risk of impaired mental health in later life differently for boys and girls. Altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning has been suggested as a key mechanism underlying this association. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are both output hormones of the HPA-axis. DHEA may have a protective function against long-term exposure to increased levels of cortisol, but has been little investigated in relation to childhood adversity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the associations between person-, and environment-related childhood adversity and levels of cortisol, DHEA and cortisol/DHEA ratio in adolescent boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 215 Dutch adolescents participated in the study and filled out the 27-item Adverse Life Events Questionnaire for the assessment of childhood adversity, which was split up in separate scores for person-related and environment-related events. Cortisol and DHEA concentrations and cortisol/DHEA ratio were determined in proximal 3 cm long hair segments. Additionally, saliva samples were collected immediately and 30 minutes after waking up, at noon and at 8 pm. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test associations between childhood adversity and cortisol and DHEA concentrations, for boys and girls separately, with age, BMI and pubertal development as covariates. RESULTS: Data were available for 74 boys and 116 girls with a mean age of 15.7 years (SD = 2.0). Higher levels of person-related childhood adversity were associated with higher hair DHEA levels in girls and with higher hair cortisol levels in boys. A trend towards a significant association was observed between higher levels of environment-related childhood adversity and higher DHEA levels in boys. Neither person- nor environment related childhood adversity was associated with cortisol/DHEA ratio. A trend was observed for environment-related childhood adversity and lower daily cortisol output in boys. CONCLUSION: We found differential associations between childhood adversity and cortisol and DHEA levels in girls and boys, for respectively person-related and environment-related childhood adversity. Our findings suggest that different types of childhood adversity are not only linked to levels of cortisol, but also to DHEA concentrations, in a sex-specific manner, with possible future implications for mental health.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Adolescente , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461179, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540057

RESUMO

The simultaneous determination of a large number of steroids (a.k.a. steroid profile) is a powerful tool that provides useful information about the status of steroid hormones. Steroid profile evaluated in matrices such as urine, saliva and plasma provide one-off moment information about the hormonal status and is highly affected by different factors such as circadian rhythm or apprehension to needles. In contrast, the determination of the steroid profile in hair would provide information about the chronic status of the steroid hormones. The objective of the current research was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology for the determination of 11 steroids in hair, including 6 hormones and 5 metabolites. We have optimized different parts of the analytical procedure such as (i) hair shredding, (ii) hair amount, (iii) extraction from hair, (iv) extraction time, (v) required extractions and (vi) analytes preconcentration. MS parameters such as the inclusion of ESI- transitions were also evaluated. The optimization of these parameters was found to be critical to achieve the required sensitivity for the determination of steroids in hair. The method was validated with appropriate linearity in the endogenous range, intra- and inter-assay accuracies and matrix effect between 80% and 120% and intra- and inter-assay precisions below 20% for all analytes. Most of the analytes showed to be stable up to 10 months at room temperature. The suitability of the method was evaluated by obtaining the endogenous concentration range of steroids in 30 healthy volunteers. Results agreed with the scarce data previously reported for some steroids. For others, endogenous concentration ranges in hair were reported for the first time. Additionally, the method was used to compare intraindividual levels of steroids in beard and hair. Results revealed that with the exception of testosterone, beard is a suitable alternative to the hair determination of the steroid profile. In summary, the present strategy to evaluate the steroid profile in hair may be a useful tool with a high potential for a wide range of clinical purposes.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cabelo/química , Esteroides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Hormônios/análise , Hormônios/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349221

RESUMO

Our objective was to examine the feasibility of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) as a biomarker to predict clinical pregnancy outcomes and investigate its potential associations with perceived anxiety, resilience, and depressive symptoms. A total of 43 participants were assessed using HCC, the state trait anxiety inventory (STAI), resilience scale (RS), and the depression subscale of the symptom checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R). Participants were approached at their second consultation with the reproductive endocrinologist (T1), before scheduling their IVF cycle, and then 12 weeks after (T2), at their post-transfer visit with the study coordinators, before the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) pregnancy test. The logistic regression model revealed that HCC at T2 predicted 46% of a positive pregnancy test [R2 = 0.46, (ß = 0.11, p < 0.05)]. Pregnant women had higher levels of resilience at T2 (M = 149.29; SD = 17.56) when compared with non-pregnant women at T2 (M = 119.96; SD = 21.71). Significant differences were found between both groups in depression at T2 (t = 3.13, p = 0.01) and resilience at T2 (t = -4.89, p = 0.01). HCC might be a promising biomarker to calculate the probability of pregnancy in women using assisted reproductive technologies (ART).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Cabelo/química , Hidrocortisona , Complicações na Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 326: 109111, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413347

RESUMO

Human scalp hair is a biological matrix that can trap chemical vapours from explosives (TNT), drugs (THC) and chemical weapons (yperite). The external contamination of human's hair following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent was simulated by model compounds: triethyl phosphate (TEP) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). In this work were exposed strands of hair to vapours of TEP and DFP (3 and 7 ppmv) to model sorption kinetics. Sorption isotherms were also investigated at several contamination levels (80-3000 mg min.m-3). OP nerve agent simulants were extracted from hair by soaking in DCM. Raw extracts were analysed in GC-MS/MS to quantify each simulant content in hair. Results were fitted by applying isotherm or kinetic equations. The best model was found to be bimodal first-order, suggesting the co-existence of two different mechanisms of sorption. The best equation to describe OP vapours incorporation on hair was Freundlich model. Thus hair can be used as a passive sensor able to trap chemical G-agents and can also offer valuable information regarding both individual contamination and proof of exposure to chemical weapons.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Cabelo/química , Couro Cabeludo/química , Humanos , Isoflurofato/química , Gás de Mostarda/química , Agentes Neurotóxicos/química , Organofosfatos/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233712, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469972

RESUMO

Trace elements in hair originate from intake (e.g., diet, inhalation, skin absorption), are transported in the bloodstream, and then incorporated during hair formation. However, the trace element abundance and isotopic compositions may be altered by post-eruption environmental processes. Such alterations must be addressed to obtain a meaningful interpretation of hair analysis for biomonitoring. In this study, we used strontium (Sr) isotopic analysis together with sorption kinetics of ionic Sr to quantify the rate and extent of replacement of endogenous Sr in hair by exogenous Sr from ambient water. We found that with only 10 minutes of exposure at room temperature (22°C), more than 30% of original endogenous Sr in hair was replaced with exogenous Sr from the solution. After 16 days of exposure to the solution, more than 90% of endogenous Sr was replaced, with a warmer temperature (60°C) accelerating the exchange substantially. We also found that acid leaching of exposed hair did not remove or isolate the exogenous Sr; therefore, neither the original endogenous nor the exogenous 87Sr/86Sr signal could be separated. Nonetheless, these findings illustrated that the quantitative correlation between the fraction of exogenous Sr and the soaking time, if established, could be used to estimate the length of water contact time for hair in forensic studies. Even if such time since initial contact cannot be established, the combination of acid leaching and 87Sr/86Sr analysis of hair samples may still be valuable in provenance studies to identify recent changes in the exogenous Sr pool, including movements or changes in water source.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Cabelo/química , Temperatura Alta , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Água/análise , Humanos
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(22): 27541-27562, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418107

RESUMO

Mining in Colombia affects 488,672 ha (298,391 in coal mining and 190,281 in gold mining). However, Colombia has insufficient studies on mining and its repercussions, which limits estimates of mining impacts on ecosystems and the human population. Due to the rise of mining activities in Colombia, the negative impacts generated by coal and Hg will also continue to increase. This review analyzes national information levels on coal and Hg in island/coastal/marine as well as freshwater ecosystems and human groups using fishery resources as a framework. This is because fish are the main source of animal protein in marine coastal-island and mainland communities. Here, 15 of 32 Colombian departments have records on total mercury (THg) in water, sediments, fish, and human communities. Around 205 ton/year of mercury is discharged into the ecosystem. In human hair for example (15.3 to 50.15 µg/g), mercury exceeds the international maximum levels allowed (ILA) and the national standard (5.0 µg/g). Mercury levels in freshwater fish show 3.3 µg/g of THg and levels in marine and coastal-island fish are 1.2 µg/g THg exceeding the ILA (0.5 µg/g) standard for fish that will be consumed. Carnivorous species have a THg between 0.04 and 2.55 µg/g suggesting bioaccumulation and magnification of heavy metals. These findings were then compared with available international information.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Carvão Mineral , Colômbia , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Ilhas
15.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(1): 40-43, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mercury dental amalgam restorations are an important source of chronic exposure to mercury in the whole population and special attention should be paid not only to occupational exposure to mercury during the preparation and administration of amalgam. The authors' report is an up-to-date contribution to the health risk assessment of mercury use in dentistry, namely occupational exposure to mercury in dentists working with dental amalgam and exposure to mercury in persons treated with amalgam dental restorations. METHODS: Determination of total mercury in samples of biological material (urine, hair) was performed during 2017 and 2018 in 50 persons by the AAS method using the mercury vapour generation technique at 254.6 nm. RESULTS: Current dental exposures based on the most recent findings do not exceed acceptable risk levels and are below the biological limit of mercury in urine valid for occupationally exposed persons (100 µg.g-1 of creatinine), namely median value was 1.48 (min. < limit of detection (LOD), max. 17.14) µg.g-1 of creatinine (40 persons), total mercury content in hair of dental personnel expressed as median value was 0.340 (min. 0.060, max.1.628) µg.g-1. In controls (10 persons) was total mercury content in urine expressed as median value 0.36 (min. < LOD, max. 2.74) µg.g-1 of creatinine, in hair was median value 0.224 (min. 0.059, max. 0.453) µg.g-1. CONCLUSIONS: Authors support opinion that amalgam fillings in the oral cavity are a permanent source of mercury for the body itself.


Assuntos
Amálgama Dentário/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Mercúrio/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Medição de Risco
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224437

RESUMO

Recently, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was determined in "Kawa Trendy Drink" which was labeled as a functional beverage containing gamma-aminobutyric acid and quickly became popular in various club in China. GHB has a strong sedative effect and is often used as a date rape drug and euphoriant in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. However, it is believed that same beverages themselves contain natural GHB. Whether GHB contained in seized beverages was added or exists in themselves resulted in complicated interpretation of the nature of cases. The detection window of GHB in blood (5 h) and urine (<12 h) was narrow, make documentation of GHB exposure difficult, while hair can extend the detection time of GHB from several hours to several days/months. Thus, a sensitive detection method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and GC-MS/MS for GHB in beverages and hair had been established. Under the optimum extraction conditions, acceptable linear relationship was achieved in the range of 1.5-500 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9986 for spiked water samples and in the range of 0.03-10 ng/mg with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9979 for spiked melanin samples. The LOD (S/N = 3) was estimated to be 0.5 ng/mL and 0.01 ng/mg, respectively. A recovery of 70.6-88.5% were obtained for spiked samples. The mean relative error (MRE) was within ±6.5% and the relative standard error (RSD) was less than 4.9%. The combination of DLLME with GC-MS/MS offers an alternative analytical approach for the sensitive detection of GHB in real beverages sold in Chinese markets and in hair of Chinese population for forensic purposes. The proposed methods had the advantages of shorter extraction time and were suitable for simultaneous pretreatment of samples in batches. To our knowledge, this is the first report to present GHB in beverages and human hair using DLLME.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Cabelo/química , Oxibato de Sódio/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138365, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320869

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of isotopic signatures in the form of isoscape is a valuable tool to map their spatial heterogeneity in various environmental settings. However, only limited information about δ18O and δ2H in water across South Korea is available and to our knowledge no study so far has tried to examine the isotopic heterogeneity of tap water and human scalp hair in South Korea. Here, we present the first national scale analyses of stream water, groundwater, tap water, and human scalp hair isoscapes for South Korea. Stream water, groundwater, tap water, and human scalp hair samples were collected from across South Korea. These samples were analyzed for δ18O and δ2H, and the isotopic data were then used to generate interpolated δ18O and δ2H isoscapes for South Korea. The results of linear regression analyses showed strong and significant relationships between δ18Ohair and δ18Owater (R2 = 0.83, P < 0.002) and between δ2Hhair and δ2Hwater (R2 = 0.74, P < 0.006), primarily reflecting a close co-relationship between water and hair. The slopes of linear regressions for δ18O (Δδ18Ohair/Δδ18Owater) and δ2H (Δδ2Hhair/Δδ2Hwater) suggested that approximately 27% of hydrogen and 36% of oxygen in hair keratin were derived from the local drinking water. Interpolated δ18O and δ2H isotope maps of stream water, groundwater, and tap water samples collected from across South Korea showed similar spatial patterns of isotope variability. These samples showed a clear latitudinal gradient with high isotopic values in the south which progressively decrease toward the north. The same trends were observed in hair isoscapes as well, and had gradients matching the isotopic pattern of water samples. The strong relationship between water and human hair, and the consistent spatial pattern between them suggest that hair isotope signatures in South Korea can be used in provenance- and forensic-related activities.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/análise , Oxigênio , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Isótopos , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , República da Coreia
18.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(10): 3157-3170, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193807

RESUMO

Human hair is considered as a potential biowaste worldwide, and improper disposal of hair can create multiple environmental problems. Due to unique characteristic features, human waste hair can be efficiently utilized for versatile applications, from agricultural industries to fashion industries. There is a huge business of human hair in many multinational countries and also in some rural areas of India. The continuous demand of such keratinous waste for human need in turn is producing residual waste at an alarming rate that causes environmental degradation. Therefore, our study aims to investigate the possible impacts of waste hair reprocessing activity on environmental health in rural India, citing examples from Radhapur village. Physico-chemical parameters of pond water and soil from the dumpsite were assessed. Along with this, elemental profile of waste hair, pond water and soil was estimated. To assess the deterioration of water quality, zooplankton diversity was also measured. Water quality index showed that the studied ponds are unsuitable for drinking purpose and aquaculture. The Shannon index further indicated comparatively lower diversity of zooplankton community in the studied ponds. Due to the presence of total organic carbon and available N-P-K, the soil can sustain the growth and survival of plants; however, the risk of toxic metal accumulation may be persisted. Hence, to enhance the utilization of waste hair in a large scale, a policy framework is extremely required that will incorporate environmental and social well-being and provide necessary support towards sustainable development. Future study needs to be carried out to eliminate the toxic elements from the water and soil using some phytoremediation strategies.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cabelo/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Tanques/química , Solo/química , Zooplâncton/fisiologia , Animais , Barbearia , Biodiversidade , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Índia , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Zooplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(3): 259-271, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170664

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe the postnatal exposure to Hg and to evaluate its association with neuropsychological development among preschool children. The study population are 4-5 years old children (n = 1252) participant in the Spanish INMA Project. Total Hg was measured in cord blood and in hair samples taken at 4 years of age (2008-2012). Neuropsychological development was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Information on covariates and possible confounders was obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Generalized additive and linear regression models were built in order to assess the relationship between MSCA scores and Hg exposure. We also evaluated the magnitude of the possible bias generated from measurement error in seafood intake estimate from questionnaire and Hg determination. The geometric mean of hair Hg was 0.98 µg/g [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94, 1.03]. In the regression analysis, the association between Hg and the MSCA scores was positive for all the scales and statistically significant for the verbal (ß = 0.89; 95%CI 0.38, 1.39), memory (ß = 0.42; 95%CI 0.09, 0.76) and general cognitive scales (ß = 1.35; 95%CI 0.45, 2.25). However, these associations were clearly attenuated when we adjusted by the children's fish intake variables or when took into account theoretical scenarios of low precision in fish intake and Hg measurements. Hg levels in this Spanish population were high in comparison with other European countries; however, we did not observe adverse effects on child neuropsychological development associated with this postnatal exposure to Hg.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Alimentos Marinhos , Espanha
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110405, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163773

RESUMO

The association between environmental pollution and risk of influenza-like illness (ILI) among general population has been reported. However, the relationships between the individual pollutants and ILI risk are still under discussion. Our study aimed to explore the associations of the typical environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s with ILI risk among women population. We carried out a cross-sectional study and included a total of 396 housewives in Shanxi Province, China. The information on their general characteristics and ILI frequency was collected by questionnaire. We collected their hair samples and analyzed the concentrations of PAHs and various metal(loid)s. The results indicated that only acenaphthylene concentration of the nine detected PAH congeners in the hair was significantly associated with ILI risk with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.38 - 0.91). Among the concerned 4 toxic metal(loid)s and 15 rare earth elements, only the hair concentration of arsenic had a positive dose-response relationship with ILI risk. In addition, we found that there were negative dose-response associations of the three essential trace elements (i.e. chromium, cobalt, and nickel), and four essential alkaline earth elements (i.e. magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium) with ILI risk. It was concluded that the environmental exposure to certain compounds of housewives may contribute to their ILI development.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Cabelo/química , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Acenaftenos/análise , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Razão de Chances , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto Jovem
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