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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 454, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536113

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of including palm kernel cake (PKC) in high-concentrate diets for feedlot goat kids on nutrient intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, and performance. Thirty-two castrated crossbred Boer × mixed breed goat kids with an average age of 4 months and an initial body weight of 19.65 ± 3.00 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The diets included one of four levels (0, 12, 24, and 36%) of PKC on a total dry matter basis. The PKC inclusion in the diets promoted quadratic effects in the nutrient intakes (P ≤ 0.05). The digestibility of ether extract increased (P = 0.010), whereas the digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates decreased (P = 0.017) with the inclusion of PKC. Palm kernel cake inclusion promoted a quadratic effect on the time spent per episode feeding and decreased the times spent idling and ruminated bolus per day (P ≤ 0.05). The ingested and retained nitrogen decreased with the inclusion of PKC (P ≤ 0.05). The inclusion of PKC in the diets had quadratic effects in the cholesterol concentrations, albumin (A), globulin (G), A:G ratio, and gamma-glutamyltransferase enzyme activity (P ≤ 0.05). The PKC inclusion promoted a quadratic increase in total weight gain (P = 0.026), with the highest value achieved at the inclusion level of 11.68%. The inclusion of up to 12% PKC in high-concentrate diets increases the intake and growth performance without compromising the digestibility of nutrients and feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Digestão , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Nitrogênio
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 455, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537924

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infestations remain a major challenge to the health, productivity and reproductive performance of small ruminants. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effect of vegetation type, season and parity on the burden of GIN in indigenous does that were foraging in grassland and forestland vegetation types. Body condition scores (BCS), packed cell volume (PCV), FAMACHA score and faecal egg counts (FEC) were determined in Xhosa lob-eared does (n = 165) during the cool-dry, hot-wet and post-rainy seasons in both vegetation types. Faecal samples were collected from the rectum and analysed using the modified McMaster technique. There was a significant association between vegetation type and season on the recorded BCS, body weight (BW), FEC, PCV and FAMACHA scores. Xhosa lob-eared does in the forestland had higher (P < 0.05) BCS as compared to those in grassland. Higher FEC (P < 0.05) were observed in Xhosa lob-eared does in the grassland vegetation compared to those in forestland. Body condition scores, FEC and FAMACHA scores were significantly higher in the hot-wet season than cool-dry and post-rainy seasons, while PCV was significantly higher during the cool-dry compared to hot-wet season in forestland. Strongyles and Strongyloides eggs were higher in does grazing in the grassland than those in the forestland during the hot-wet season. Strategies for the effective control of GIN in goats should consider that infestation levels differ with vegetation type, season and parity. Controlling of GIN in goats, therefore, requires an integrated control strategy that should consider the vegetation type that the goats are reared on.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Animais , Fezes , Florestas , Cabras , Pradaria , Estudos Longitudinais , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Óvulo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
3.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101693, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399377

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to verify the presence of small ruminant lentivirus in the amniotic fluid of goats using molecular tests and viral isolation by cocultivation in the amniotic fluid of naturally infected goats. The study analyzed eight goats: seven were small ruminant lentivirus-positive and one was negative. The amniotic fluid was collected from each of the eight animals during cesarean section at 147 days of pregnancy. Cocultivation was undertaken using secondary goat nictitating membrane cell cultures obtained by explant from a small ruminant lentivirus-negative calf followed by trypsinization and sub-cultivation of the cells for 63 days. During this period, five supernatant collections were performed for DNA extraction and subsequent nested polymerase chain reaction. DNA was extracted from the amniotic fluid after 3 h of cellular sedimentation, from which a sample of 600 µL was taken from the sediment and another 600 µL sample from the supernatant. After DNA extraction, nested polymerase chain reaction was performed. Of the eight goats, 62.5 % (05/08) were small ruminant lentivirus-positive, with 43.75 % (07/16) of the total samples positive when considering the two repetitions (supernatant and cell sediment). Moreover, positivity was confirmed by small ruminant lentivirus pro-viral DNA amplification in the cell supernatant throughout the cocultivation period. Small ruminant lentivirus were present in the amniotic fluid samples from the naturally infected goats indicating an intrauterine transmission route. Moreover, this biological fluid can be adopted for the diagnosis of these lentiviruse because it is an important risk factor related to intrauterine transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Líquido Amniótico , Animais , Cesárea/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras , Lentivirus/genética , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Gravidez , Ruminantes , Ovinos
4.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110537, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399514

RESUMO

The production of ovine or caprine milk cheeses with thistle rennet is a common practice in the Mediterranean basin. The aim of the present study was to obtain information on bacteria and yeast communities harboured by Queijo de Azeitão PDO cheese through viable counting and, for the first time, via metataxonomic analysis. Moreover, solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique was applied to characterize Queijo de Azeitão PDO cheese volatile compounds. Nine cheese samples were collected from three different artisan producers located in Portugal. The results of physico-chemical analyses showed significant differences between producers, with mean values ranging from 5.40 ±â€¯0.25 (Producer 1) to 6.00 ±â€¯0.22 (Producer 2). As for TTA, Producer 1 showed the highest mean value attesting at 18.04 ±â€¯6.57 mL of 0.1 M NaOH used to reach pH 8.3. Regarding lactic acid concentration, Producer 1 showed the highest mean value attesting at 0.488 ±â€¯0.106 g 100 g-1, whereas, for acetic acid, no significant differences were evidenced among producers with values comprised between 0.141 ±â€¯0.021 g 100 g-1 and 0.245 ±â€¯0.016 g 100 g-1. No significant differences were observed between overall mean values of the three producers for viable counts of presumptive lactococci, thermophilic cocci, presumptive lactobacilli, thermophilic lactobacilli and total mesophilic aerobes with values in the order of 7-8 log cfu g-1. Moreover, no significant differences were evidenced for viable counts of coagulase-negative cocci, enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. As for eumycetes, cheeses from Producer 1 showed the lowest mean value (2.78 ±â€¯2.42 log cfu g-1) in respect with values detected in cheeses from Producer 2 and 3. Concerning microbiota and mycobiota of the analyzed cheeses, the alpha diversity index did not show any significant difference between the three producers in terms of composition and complexity of the microbial population. A simple composition was apparently shared by the three producers, whose cheese manufactures were dominated by the presence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (37% of the relative frequency in average), Lactococcus lactis (29%), Lacticaseibacillus zeae (4.7%), Lentilactobacillus kefiri (4.4%), Serratia spp. (3.5%), Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (2.7%), and Latilactobacillus sakei (2.5%). The mycobiota composition showed the neat dominance of Yarrowia lipolytica (46.7% of the relative frequency in average), followed by Candida ethanolica (13.6%), Kurtzmaniella zeylanoides (9.4%), Geotrichum candidum (8.8%), Galactomyces geotrichum (8.7%), Kluyveromyces lactis (3.5%), and Geotrichum silvicola (2.7%). The volatile profile analysis allowed 24 different compounds to be identified: 7 acids, 7 esters, 4 alcohols, 3 ketones, 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1 aldehyde. The most represented volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 2-butanone, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid. A positive correlation between Len. kefiri and hexanoic acid and isopentyl isobutyrate was observed (P < 0.05), whereas Y. lipolytica displayed the highest number of positive correlations with 3-methyl-butanal, 2-pentanone and 2-pentanol (P < 0.05). To the authors' knowledge, this is the very first detection of Len. kefiri in a raw ewe's milk cheese coagulated with vegetable rennet.


Assuntos
Queijo , Lactococcus lactis , Microbiota , Yarrowia , Animais , Queijo/análise , Geotrichum , Cabras , Kluyveromyces , Pichia , Portugal , Ovinos
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 430, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363100

RESUMO

This research trial is aimed to study the nutritional qualities and significance of feeding spent marigold flower meal (SMFM) in goats. SMFM and diet containing iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixture with different levels of spent marigold flower meal (0-30%) were studied for in vitro degradation. Depending upon the in vitro results, concentrate mixture containing 15% level of SMFM was selected for in vivo trial. In vivo studies were conducted for a period of 60 days, and 12 local, non-descript, adult male goats (10-14 months age; 31.09 ± 2.91 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to two groups and were fed on ad libitum wheat straw with either conventional (control) or SMFM containing concentrate mixture (treatment). Results of the study showed that there was no variation in body weight of the goats between periods and between groups. DM and OM intake along with their digestibility were similar among the two groups. The digestibility of all other nutrients was comparable between the two groups. Nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance were positive in both the groups without any significant disparity. Moreover, experimental goats did not differ in biochemical parameters, without any significant difference between periods and dietary treatments except AST level which was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in treatment group. So, this study successfully demonstrates that SMFM could be incorporated in the concentrate mixture, up to 15% without any discernable difference in the performance of goats.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Flores , Masculino
6.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 235-239, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374233

RESUMO

Objective: To compare epicardial electrograms between the left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PVs) dynamically at development of persistent atrial fibrillation(AF) in goats PVs. Methods: Ten female goats were instrumented with electrodes at the LA and left side PV. Sustained AF (>24 h) was induced in the goat by rapid intermittent left atrial pacing for(9.5±2.3)days at a pacing interval of 20 ms for 1 s with a maximum output of 6.0 V, followed by a 2-s period without pacing. Characteristics of PVs and LA epicardial electrograms were analyzed in the development of AF. Results: With prolonged stimulation, the duration of AF was prolonged, complex fractionated atrial electrograms(CFAEs) in LA and was increased gradually, PVs had more CFAEs than LA all the time. When induced AF lasted for more than 24 h, CFAEs in PVs became sustained approximately (2.7%±3.6% vs 92.6%±6.4%, at onset of AF vs AF lasted for more than 24 h, P<0.05), and the ratio of CFAEs in PVs was more than that in LA (92.6%±6.4% vs 72.8%±5.3%, P<0.05). Conclusion: The epicardial CFAEs are in specific area, which increase along with electrical remodeling. The epicardial CFAEs may play an important role in the maintenance of AF in this model.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Veias Pulmonares , Animais , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Feminino , Cabras , Átrios do Coração
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10104-10113, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449210

RESUMO

Lipid digestion characteristics in human, bovine, and caprine milk were investigated using an infant in vitro digestion model. Our results suggested that particle size in bovine and caprine milk increased initially and then decreased over time, whereas the particle size in human milk continuously decreased. The lipolysis degree of human milk (86.8%) was higher than that in bovine (80.2%) and caprine (82.7%) milk (P < 0.05). Compared to human milk, bovine and caprine milk released higher unsaturated fatty acids and lower SFAs. In addition, 12 and 84 glyceride species were significantly different between bovine and human milk, during gastrointestinal digestion (P < 0.05). Another 13 and 92 glyceride species were found to be significantly different between caprine and human milk. A total of 30 and 31 lipids were screened as biomarkers to further clarify the differences related to lipid digestion properties of human, bovine, and caprine milk.


Assuntos
Cabras , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Lipídeos , Leite Humano
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361594

RESUMO

Carbon is the crucial source of energy during aerobic composting. There are few studies that explore carbon preservation by inoculation with microbial agents during goat manure composting. Hence, this study inoculated three proportions of microbial agents to investigate the preservation of carbon during goat manure composting. The microbial inoculums were composed of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, and yeast, and the proportions were B1 treatment (1:1:1:1:2), B2 treatment (2:2:1:1:2), and B3 treatment (3:3:1:1:2). The results showed that the contents of total organic carbon were enriched by 12.21%, 4.87%, and 1.90% in B1 treatment, B2 treatment, and B3 treatment, respectively. The total organic carbon contents of B1 treatment, B2 treatment, and B3 treatment were 402.00 ± 2.65, 366.33 ± 1.53, and 378.33 ± 2.08 g/kg, respectively. B1 treatment significantly increased the content of total organic carbon compared with the other two treatments (p < 0.05). Moreover, the ratio of 1:1:1:1:2 significantly reduced the moisture content, pH value, EC value, hemicellulose, and lignin contents (p < 0.05), and significantly increased the GI value and the content of humic acid carbon (p < 0.05). Consequently, the preservation of carbon might be a result not only of the enrichment of the humic acid carbon and the decomposition of hemicellulose and lignin, but also the increased OTU amount and Lactobacillus abundance. This result provided a ratio of microbial agents to preserve the carbon during goat manure aerobic composting.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos , Esterco/microbiologia , Animais , Cabras , Substâncias Húmicas
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9778-9787, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369764

RESUMO

Milk fat is an essential nutrient for infant development. The effects and mechanisms of human, caprine, and bovine milk fat globules (MFGs) on the gut microbiota were investigated in this study. Human MFGs enhance the efficacy of probiotics by inhibiting pathogen function. Akkermansia and Bifidobacterium were identified as the dominant microbiota by human MFGs. Mucin and complement inhibitory proteins in human MFGs were found to inhibit different pathogens. Caprine MFGs directly promoted the colonization of probiotics and the emergence of the biomarker Allobaculum. Mucin 1 in caprine MFGs was primarily responsible for inducing probiotic adhesion. Bovine MFGs increased the abundance of Oscillospira, which reduces the risk of obesity. Due to the enrichment of cell-cell junction proteins and the lack of mucin, the regulation of gut microecology by bovine MFGs was not readily apparent. In short, this study paves the way for the development of functional infant formula.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Probióticos , Animais , Bovinos , Glicolipídeos , Glicoproteínas , Cabras , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas , Leite Humano
10.
Animal ; 15(9): 100333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371471

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of polyphenol intake such as improved nitrogen retention make them interesting feed supplements for ruminants. In contrast, dietary polyphenols may have adverse effects on the bioavailability of nutrients and palatability of the feed which might impair growth performance. The beneficial and adverse effects might differ between different ruminant species as well as between direct intake and intake of polyphenol metabolites via suckling when supplemented to lactating dams. This study investigated the effects of maternal and direct polyphenol supplementation via grape seed extract in sheep and goats on growth, slaughter performance, meat quality and fatty acid profile. The diet of lactating East Friesian Dairy sheep (n = 11) and Saanen goats (n = 9) and of their lambs (n = 16) and kids (n = 13), respectively, was supplemented either with grape seed extract (dams: 7.4% and offspring: 5.6%, P) or without (C). This resulted in four groups per species, namely maternalC/offspringC, maternalC/offspringP, maternalP/offspringC, and maternalP/offspringP. In lambs but not in goats, maternalP increased average daily gain and improved slaughter performance whereas offspringP had no effect. Maternal and offspring diet did not affect physicochemical meat quality in lambs, but direct intake of grape seed extract increased rancid aroma of burger patties. In goat kids, both maternal and offspring diets slightly affected meat colour. While groups of meat fatty acids (FAs) were not affected by diet in both species, maternalP in lambs as well as maternalP and offspringP in goat kids increased the meat n-6 to n-3 FA ratio compared to the respective control groups. In goat kid but not in lamb meat, direct intake of polyphenols affected the proportions of several rumen biohydrogenation intermediates. In conclusion, grape seed extract can be applied in both the maternal and offspring diets in sheep and goats while maintaining or even improving offspring growth performance and carcass quality. Only few species-specific effects of grape seed extract supplementation were observed, and additive effects were scarce. Larger studies are required to confirm the observed species-specific growth response to maternalP during lactation. The underlying reasons for this differential response need to be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Cabras , Polifenóis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Lactação , Carne/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361796

RESUMO

Meat is a rich source of energy that provides high-value animal protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of carbohydrates. Globally, different types of meats are consumed to fulfill nutritional requirements. However, the increasing burden on the livestock industry has triggered the mixing of high-price meat species with low-quality/-price meat. This work aimed to differentiate different meat samples on the basis of metabolites. The metabolic difference between various meat samples was investigated through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis approaches like principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In total, 37 metabolites were identified in the gluteal muscle tissues of cow, goat, donkey and chicken using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. PCA was found unable to completely differentiate between meat types, whereas OPLS-DA showed an apparent separation and successfully differentiated samples from all four types of meat. Lactate, creatine, choline, acetate, leucine, isoleucine, valine, formate, carnitine, glutamate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and α-mannose were found as the major discriminating metabolites between white (chicken) and red meat (chevon, beef and donkey). However, inosine, lactate, uracil, carnosine, format, pyruvate, carnitine, creatine and acetate were found responsible for differentiating chevon, beef and donkey meat. The relative quantification of differentiating metabolites was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Our results showed that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for the identification of novel signatures (potential biomarkers) to characterize meats from different sources and could potentially be used for quality control purposes in order to differentiate different meat types.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Colina/análise , Creatina/análise , Equidae , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manose/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370022

RESUMO

Five keratin-associated protein 6 genes (KRTAP6) have been identified in sheep and variation in some KRTAP6 has been associated with wool fiber diameter-related traits, but none of these homologues have been identified in goats. In this study, we reported the identification of the sheep KRTAP6-5 homologue on goat chromosome 1 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 300 Longdong cashmere goats revealed the existence of 12 variant sequences. Both coding region and 3'UTR of the putative caprine KRTAP6-5 displayed a biggest sequence similarity to ovine KRTAP6-5 gene. This suggested that the gene represents caprine KRTAP6-5 sequences, and these sequences composed 23 genotypes, which was the most polymorphism gene in KRTAPs that have been studied. Among these sequences, 15 nucleotide substitutions and a 24-bp insertion/detection were identified. Variation in goat KRTAP6-5 was associated with variation in mean-fiber diameter, suggesting that KRTAP6-5 is worthy of further study in the context of variation in cashmere traits.


Assuntos
Cabras , Queratinas , Animais , Genótipo , Cabras/genética , Queratinas/genética , Fenótipo , Ovinos/genética , Fibra de Lã
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 425, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338946

RESUMO

Sheep and goats raised extensively are frequently infested by Ixodid ticks that may act as vectors or reservoirs of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR). A study to determine the seroprevalence of SFGR infection in 300 sheep and goats in Plateau State, Nigeria was conducted from September to November, 2018 using the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT). Overall, 85 out of 300 animals (28.3%) were seropositive to SFGR. Relatively higher seroprevalence was recorded in sheep than goats (28.8% vs 28.0%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Furthermore, seropositivity was not affected by age, sex or location of the animals screened in this study. This is the first serological study to report the prevalence of SFGR in sheep and goats using IFAT in this study area. The presence of SFGR antibodies in domestic ruminants is of public health concern considering the close association between farmers and their animals occasioned by the management system practiced in the study area. This finding calls for further studies to evaluate the level of human exposure to this group of pathogen.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Rickettsia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , África Ocidental , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431907

RESUMO

Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães , Cabras , Paquistão
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 406, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287714

RESUMO

Mancozeb is classified as an endocrine disruptor; thus the present study was carried out to investigate the impact of mancozeb on mammalian ovarian functions using in vitro caprine oocyte maturation and granulosa cell culture models. Caprine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and granulosa cells were cultured under standard culture conditions and treated with mancozeb concentrations of 0.3, 3, and 30 µg/ml along with a control for 24 h and assessed. Granulosa cell viability and progesterone concentration in spent culture media after treatments were also assessed. Mancozeb significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the oocytes cumulus expansion and the maturation of caprine oocytes. Marked changes in granulose cell morphology were observed with 30 µg/ml mancozeb and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) cell viability. Interestingly, the same concentrations significantly increased (P < 0.05) the progesterone secretion by the cells. Significant reduction of granulosa cells viability and reduction of cumulus expansion and suppression of metaphase plate formation in oocyte can impair the fertilization ability and developmental potential of the oocytes. High progesterone concentration due to mancozeb treatment may suppress LH surge and suppress ovulation. In conclusion, mancozeb suppresses granulosa cells viability, reduces cumulus expansion, and suppresses metaphase plate formation but induces progesterone secretion from granulosa cells that may inhibit LH surge for ovulation process.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Animais , Feminino , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Cabras , Células da Granulosa , Maneb , Oócitos , Zineb
16.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(6): 554-563, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the classification CAPRA (based on clinical-pathological findings) and minimal residual disease (MRD) (based on biological characteristics) to predict biochemical failure (BF). METHOD AND PATIENTS: The clinical-pathological findings of the prostate biopsy were used to determine the CAPRA score, classifying patients into low, intermediate and high risk. Blood and bone marrow samples to detect circulating prostate cells (CPCs) and micro-metastasis were taken. The samples were classified as positive if ≥1 prostate cell was detected, forming three subgroups; Group A (MRD negative), Group B (micro-metastasis positive, CPC negative) and Group C (CPC positive). Patients were followed-up for 10 yearsor BF. Kaplan-Meier biochemical failure free survival (BFFS) curves, a predictive flexible parameter survival model and mean restricted survival times (MRST) were determined. RESULTS: 347 men participated, BF risk increased with increasing CAPRA score, HR 1.21 intermediate, 1.64 high risk; versus MRD HR 1.91 and 4.43 for Groups Band C. After 10 years the BFFS and MRST were 76%, 50% and 17% and 9, 7 and 5 years respectively for CAPRA versus 94%, 57% and 26% and 10, 9 and 6 years respectively for MRD. The concordance between observed and predicted BFFS was acceptable for CAPRA (Harrell´s C 0.64) and very good (0.92) for MRD. The BFFS curves for MRD were not proportional with time, they were similar for 5 years for Groups A and B, with increasing BFFS in Group B there after.The CAPRA score did not distinguish between Groups A and B, one third of low risk CAPRA patients had CPCs detected. CONCLUSIONS: The MRD classification was superior to CAPRA, differentiating between early and late failure.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasia Residual , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Medição de Risco
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 546, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local breeds retained unique genetic variability important for adaptive potential especially in light of challenges related to climate change. Our first objective was to perform, for the first time, a genome-wide diversity characterization using Illumina GoatSNP50 BeadChip of autochthonous Dreznica goat breed from Slovenia, and five and one local breeds from neighboring Austria and Italy, respectively. For optimal conservation and breeding programs of endangered local breeds, it is important to detect past admixture events and strive for preservation of purebred representatives of each breed with low or without admixture. In the second objective, we hence investigated the effect of inclusion or exclusion of outliers from datasets on genetic diversity and population structure parameters. RESULTS: Distinct genetic origin of the Dreznica goat was demonstrated as having closest nodes to Austrian and Italian breeds. A phylogenetic study of these breeds with other goat breeds having SNP data available in the DRYAD repository positioned them in the alpine, European and global context. Swiss breeds clustered with cosmopolitan alpine breeds and were closer to French and Spanish breeds. On the other hand, the Dreznica goat, Austrian and Italian breeds were closer to Turkish breeds. Datasets where outliers were excluded affected estimates of genetic diversity parameters within the breed and increased the pairwise genetic distances between most of the breeds. Alpine breeds, including Dreznica, Austrian and Italian goats analyzed here, still exhibit relatively high levels of genetic variability, homogeneous genetic structure and strong geographical partitioning. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic diversity analyses revealed that the Slovenian Dreznica goat has a distinct genetic identity and is closely related to the neighboring Austrian and Italian alpine breeds. These results expand our knowledge on phylogeny of goat breeds from easternmost part of the European Alps. The here employed outlier test and datasets optimization approaches provided an objective and statistically powerful tool for removal of admixed outliers. Importance of this test in selecting the representatives of each breed is warranted to obtain more objective diversity parameters and phylogenetic analysis. Such parameters are often the basis of breeding and management programs and are therefore important for preserving genetic variability and uniqueness of local rare breeds.


Assuntos
Cabras , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Cabras/genética , Itália , Filogenia
18.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 628, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To preliminarily evaluate the safety and efficacy of the uncovertebral joint fusion cage in a goat model of cervical spine interbody fusion. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy adult goats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: Group A, goats were implanted with an uncovertebral joint fusion cage combined with a local autograft and Group B, goats were implanted with a non-profile cage filled with a local autograft. The goats were prospectively evaluated for 24 weeks and then were sacrificed for evaluation. X-rays, CT and micro-CT scanning, and undecalcified bone histological analysis were used for the evaluation of fusion. RESULTS: 75.0% (9/12) of the goats in Group A were evaluated as having fusion at 12 weeks, compared to 41.7% (5/12) in Group B. 83.3% (10/12) of the goats in Group A were evaluated as having fusion at 24 weeks compared to 58.3% (7/12) in Group B. The fusion grading scores in Group A were significantly higher than that in Group B both at 12 weeks and 24 weeks (P < 0.05). Micro-CT scanning and undecalcified bone histological analysis showed that new bone formation can be obviously found in the bilateral uncovertebral joint. The bone volume fraction (BV/ TV) in Group A (23.59 ± 4.43%) was significantly higher than Group B (16.16 ± 4.21%), with P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results of this study demonstrated that uncovertebral joint fusion cage is effective for achieving early bone formation and fusion without increase of serious complications.


Assuntos
Fusão Vertebral , Articulação Zigapofisária , Animais , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia , Cabras
19.
J Proteome Res ; 20(8): 4113-4130, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289691

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection causes considerable innate immunosuppression in its host, which promotes viral replication. However, how the host rescues the innate immune response to counteract this immunosuppression during viral replication remains largely unknown. To explore the mechanisms of how a host counteracts PPRV-mediated innate immunosuppression, a high-throughput quantitation proteomic approach (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation in conjunction with LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate the proteome landscape of goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) in response to PPRV infection. Eventually, 497 upregulated proteins and 358 downregulated proteins were identified. Many of the differentially expressed proteins were enriched in immune-related pathways. Blocking the activation of the innate immune response with a specific inhibitor BX795 in GFFs remarkably promoted PPRV replication, suggesting the significant antiviral role of the enriched immune-related pathways. The GO enrichment analysis showed that the host protein FANCL revealed a similar expression pattern to these innate immune-related proteins. In addition, the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks reveals a potential relationship between FANCL and the innate immune pathway. We determined that FANCL inhibited PPRV infection by enhancing type I interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated gene expression. Further investigation determined that FANCL induced type I IFN production by promoting TBK1 phosphorylation, thus impairing PPRV-mediated immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Cabras , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Fosforilação , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 10374-10381, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218919

RESUMO

Temporary cessation of milking is widely used during the dry period of dairy cows. Temporary cessation of milking induces an increase in the somatic cell count (SCC) and level of several inflammatory components of milk, which is believed to be a local adaptation and defense mechanism of the mammary gland. In Japan, temporary cessation of milking combined with antibiotic administration is widely used to treat mastitis. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of the innate immune system during temporary cessation of milking in a goat model by investigating the concentration of several innate immune components in milk during and around the temporary cessation. In experiment 1, 6 goats were subjected to cessation of milking for 3 d in both udder halves, whereas in experiment 2, 6 other goats were subjected to cessation of milking for 3 d only in 1 udder half. In experiment 1, the milk yield was lower on d 5 and 6, whereas the mean SCC was higher on d 5 compared with d 0 before temporary milking cessation. The concentrations of goat DEFB1, S100A7, cathelicidin-2 and 7 (CATHL-2 and 7), IgA, and lactoferrin were increased after temporary cessation of milking. In experiment 2, the milk yield was lower between d 5 and 7, whereas the mean SCC was higher between d 4 and 7 compared with d 0. The concentrations of CATHL-2, IgA, and lactoferrin were increased after temporary cessation of milking only in the udder half subjected to milking cessation. These results suggest that temporary cessation of milking increase the SCC and concentration of several innate immune components in milk without infection, which may contribute to mastitis treatment.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Cabras , Imunidade Inata , Glândulas Mamárias Animais
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