Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30.964
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127689, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763736

RESUMO

Milk oxidases are an integral part of milk immune system, and good indicators for milk thermal history. Current assay methods for milk oxidases are either insensitive, tedious or not cost-effective. In this study, a high-throughput fluorescence assay method for determination of xanthine oxidase (XO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activities in milk samples was developed. The hydrogen peroxide generated by XO catalysed oxidation of hypoxanthine, and PAO catalysed oxidation of spermine, was coupled to horseradish peroxidase conversion of Amplex® Red (1-(3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazin-10-yl)ethanone) to the fluorescent product resorufin. The assay was highly sensitive, with limits of detection of activity in milk being 3 × 10-7 and 7 × 10-7 U/mL for XO and PAO, respectively. Intra-run and inter-run results showed good assay repeatability and reproducibility. The assay was successfully applied to survey the XO and PAO activities in human, bovine, goat and camel milk samples, and it can be readily adapted for measurements of other oxidase activities.


Assuntos
Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Leite/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Camelus , Bovinos , Cabras , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hipoxantina/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Oxazinas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127555, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711268

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of ruminant milk reported in published research papers (n = 65) from January 1995 to March 2020 around the world were analyzed to estimate the overall mean CLA value. The CLA content of ruminant milk samples was grouped according to geographical regions (Europe, South America, North America, Oceania, Asia, and Africa). The total CLA content of milk samples from cows, sheep, goats, yaks, and llama retrieved from the collected data ranged between 0.06 and 2.96% of total fatty acids. There is a wide variation of pooled estimated mean content of CLA in milk among the study regions and were highest in Oceania with 1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16 - 1.49%) of total fatty acids. Though several factors have been reported to influence the CLA content of milk, the effect of the "geographical origin" was only considered in the present manuscript as one of the main factors in this respect.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Leite/química , África , Animais , Ásia , Bovinos , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cabras , América do Norte , Oceania , Ruminantes , Ovinos , América do Sul
3.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(11): 866-871, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent of damage to the skull and brain of cadaveric dairy goat kids caused by a .22-caliber, 16-g pellet fired from a multipump air pistol at various power levels. SAMPLE: Cadavers of 8 male and 7 female dairy goat kids ≤ 5 days old. PROCEDURES: Each cadaver was positioned in sternal recumbency with the head and neck extended on a straw bale. A multipump air pistol was held with the barrel perpendicular to and 2.5 cm from the head at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines that extended from the lateral canthus of each eye to the middle of the contralateral ear base and fired at half (5 pumps; n = 2), intermediate (7 pumps; 2), or full (10 pumps; 11) power. The head and neck were removed from the carcass for CT imaging and gross sectioning to determine the location of the pellet and extent of damage caused to the skull and brain. RESULTS: The pellet successfully penetrated the skull of all 13 heads shot at full or intermediate power and 1 of the 2 heads shot at half power. The pellet did not fragment after entering the skull of any cadaver and penetrated the brainstem (necessary for instantaneous death) in only 7 cadavers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The described technique was insufficient for use as a stand-alone method for euthanizing young dairy goat kids. Modification of the technique warrants further research to determine whether air pistols can be used to effectively euthanize young goat kids.


Assuntos
Eutanásia Animal , Cabras , Cabeça , Animais , Cadáver , Eutanásia Animal/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Crânio
4.
Toxicon ; 188: 134-141, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091389

RESUMO

The prolonged consumption of Ipomoea carnea produces neurologic symptoms in animals and a typical histological lesion, cytoplasmic vacuolization, especially in neurons. The toxic principles of I. carnea are the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines B1, B2, B3 and C1. In this study, primary brain cultures from newborn mouse containing mixed glial cells were utilized. These cells were exposed to Ipomoea extracts containing between 0 and 250 µM swainsonine for 48 h. Morphological changes were investigated through Phase Contrast microscopy and Rosenfeld's staining. The extract induced cytoplasmic vacuolization in astrocytes and microglia in a dose dependent manner, being more evident when cultures were exposed to 250 µM of swainsonine. In addition, acridine orange staining evidenced an increase in the number of lysosomes in both microglia and astrocytes cells. Consistent with this, scanning electron microscopy also showed that both types of cells presented morphological characteristics of cell activation. Ultrastructurally, cells showed vacuoles filled with amorphous material and surrounded by a single membrane and also multilayer membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that swainsonine along with calystegines, are probably responsible for the activation of glial cells due to a possible lysosomal dysfunction and therefore intracellular storage. Our results demonstrate that this in vitro glial cell model is a very good alternative to in vivo studies that require several weeks of animal intoxication to observe similar neurotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Ipomoea , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Alcaloides , Animais , Cabras , Lisossomos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Neuroglia , Nortropanos , Alcaloides de Solanáceas , Swainsonina , Tropanos
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Replicase/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5417-5424, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886591

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, moderately halophilic strain, designated strain L5T, was isolated from wetsalted hides collected from Chengdu, south-west PR China. The cells were motile, facultative aerobic, short rod-shaped and non-endospore-forming. Growth of strain L5T occurred at pH 6-10 (optimum, pH 8), 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and in the presence of 1-17 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 10 %). Results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequences and its genome revealed that strain L5T belonged to the genus Halomonas. Strain L5T was found to be most closely related to the type strains of Halomonas saliphila, Halomonas lactosivorans, Halomonas kenyensis, Halomonas daqingensis and Halomonas desiderata (98.8, 98.6, 98.3, 97.9 and 97.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The draft genome was approximately 4.2 Mb in size with a G+C content of 63.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values among strain L5T and the selected Halomonas species were 83.3-88.9 % (ANIm), 71.1-87.3 % (ANIb) and 20.2-34.6 %, which are below the recommended cutoff values. Major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1 ω7c, C18 : 1 ω7c and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and the predominant ubiquinone was Q-9, with minor ubiquinone Q-8 also present. The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, four unidentified aminophospholipids and three unidentified phospholipids. Based on the mentioned polyphasic taxonomic evidence, strain L5T represents a novel species within the genus Halomonas, for which Halomonas pellis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L5T (=CGMCC 1.17335T=KCTC 72573T).


Assuntos
Cabras/microbiologia , Halomonas/classificação , Filogenia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Halomonas/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio , Ubiquinona/química
7.
Chin J Traumatol ; 23(5): 249-257, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Blast lung injury (BLI) is the most common damage resulted from explosion-derived shock wave in military, terrorism and industrial accidents. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying BLI induced by shock wave are still unclear. METHODS: In this study, a goat BLI model was established by a fuel air explosive power. The key genes involved in were identified. The goats of the experimental group were fixed on the edge of the explosion cloud, while the goats of the control group were 3 km far away from the explosive environment. After successful modeling for 24 h, all the goats were sacrificed and the lung tissue was harvested for histopathological observation and RNA sequencing. Gene ontology (GO) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify the main enriched biological functions of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the consistency of gene expression. RESULTS: Of the sampled goat lungs, 895 genes were identified to be significantly differentially expressed, and they were involved in 52 significantly enriched GO categories. KEGG analysis revealed that DEGs were highly enriched in 26 pathways, such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, antifolate resistance, arachidonic acid metabolism, amoebiasis and bile secretion, JAK-STAT, and IL-17 signaling pathway. Furthermore, 15 key DEGs involved in the biological processes of BLI were confirmed by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA sequencing. CONCLUSION: Gene expression profiling provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of BLI, which will help to set strategy for treating lung injury and preventing secondary lung injury induced by shock wave.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energia/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Traumatismos por Explosões/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cabras , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946490

RESUMO

The genotyping of genetically-modified cells is a crucial step in studies of transgenics and genomic editing with systems such as CRISPR/Cas. The detection of genome editing events can be directly related to the genotyping methodology used, which is influenced by its costs, since many experiments require the analysis of a large number of samples. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of direct lysis methods of genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction for the detection of knockins and knockouts in primary goat cells. Initially, three gDNA extraction protocols (protocol A, heat denaturation/freeze-thaw in water; protocol B, heat denaturation/proteinase K; and protocol C, CellsDirect Kit) were tested using different quantities (1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 cells) and types of goat primary cells (fibroblasts and goat mammary epithelial cells-GMECs) for subsequent validation by PCR amplification of small (GAPDH) and large amplicons (hLF transgene). All protocols were successful in the detection of the small amplicon; however, in GMECs, only protocol B resulted efficient amplification (protocol A-0%, protocol B-93%, protocol C-13.33%, P <0.05). In a proof-of-principle experiment, the TP53 gene was knocked out in GMECs by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion while constructs containing the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (pBC-anti-VEGF) and bacterial L-Asparaginase (pBC-ASNase) transgenes were knocked-in separately in fibroblasts. Detection of successful editing was performed using protocol B and PCR. The integration rates of the pBC-ASNase and pBC-anti-VEGF transgenes were 93.6% and 72%, respectively, as per PCR. The efficiency of biallelic editing in GMECs using CRISPR/Cas9 for the TP53 deletion was 5.4%. Our results suggest that protocol B (heat denaturation/proteinase K) can be used as an inexpensive and quick methodology for detecting genetic modifications in different types of primary goat cells, with efficiency rates consistent with values previously described in the literature when using extraction kits or more complex proteinase K formulations.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Análise Custo-Benefício , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Edição de Genes , Transgenes/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Cabras
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24195-24204, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929012

RESUMO

Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT) is an experimental technique for transfer of germline between donor and recipient males that could be used as a tool for biomedical research, preservation of endangered species, and dissemination of desirable genetics in food animal populations. To fully realize these potentials, recipient males must be devoid of endogenous germline but possess normal testicular architecture and somatic cell function capable of supporting allogeneic donor stem cell engraftment and regeneration of spermatogenesis. Here we show that male mice, pigs, goats, and cattle harboring knockout alleles of the NANOS2 gene generated by CRISPR-Cas9 editing have testes that are germline ablated but otherwise structurally normal. In adult pigs and goats, SSCT with allogeneic donor stem cells led to sustained donor-derived spermatogenesis. With prepubertal mice, allogeneic SSCT resulted in attainment of natural fertility. Collectively, these advancements represent a major step toward realizing the enormous potential of surrogate sires as a tool for dissemination and regeneration of germplasm in all mammalian species.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/transplante , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Espermatogênese , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cabras , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Suínos , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Transplante Homólogo
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(10): 2103-2106, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971617

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate fluid droplet spray generation during phacoemulsification (PE), pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), and fragmatome lensectomy (FL) and assess factors affecting these. Methods: This is an experimental study. PE through 2.2 and 2.8 mm incisions was performed in six goat eyes and four simulator eyes using both continuous and interrupted ultrasound (U/S). PPV and FL were performed in three goat eyes. Generation of visible fluid droplet spray was analyzed from video recordings through the microscope camera and an external digital camera. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) was applied over the incision site during PE and FL. Results: When PE was performed through both incision sizes, there was no visible fluid droplet spray if the phaco tip was centered in the incision, without sleeve compression. When there was phaco tip movement with the phaco sleeve sandwiched between the tip and the incision wall, there was visible fluid droplet spray generation. It was more difficult to induce fluid droplet spray with 2.8 mm incision, and spray was lesser with interrupted U/S. During PPV, there was no droplet spray. During FL, fluid droplet spray was only seen when U/S was delivered with the fragmatome tip close to the sclerotomy. HPMC impeded droplet spray. Conclusion: Fluid droplet generation during PE can be minimized to a large extent by keeping the phaco tip centered within the incision, avoiding sleeve compression. Smaller incision and continuous U/S were more prone to droplet generation. FL should be performed away from sclerotomy. HPMC over incision is recommended.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Líquidos Corporais/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Microbolhas , Facoemulsificação/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vitrectomia/instrumentação , Experimentação Animal , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fotografação , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2561-2587, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876795

RESUMO

Orf virus (ORFV) infects sheep and goat tissues, resulting in severe proliferative lesions. To analyze cellular protein expression in ORFV-infected goat skin fibroblast (GSF) cells, we used two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). The proteomics approach was used along with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detect differentially expressed proteins in ORFV-infected GSF cells and mock-infected GSF cells. A total of 282 differentially expressed proteins were identified. It was found that 222 host proteins were upregulated and 60 were downregulated following viral infection. We confirmed that these proteins were differentially expressed and found that heat shock 70-kDa protein 1B (HSPA1B) was differentially expressed and localized in the cytoplasm. It was also noted that HSPA1B caused inhibition of viral proliferation, in the middle and late stages of viral infection. The differentially expressed proteins were associated with the biological processes of viral binding, cell structure, signal transduction, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/fisiologia , Vírus do Orf/fisiologia , Proteoma/genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida , Fibroblastos/virologia , Cabras , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus do Orf/genética , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 393-396, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and changing patterns of Schistosoma japonicum infections in goats in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City, so as to provide the scientific data for the management of in livestock. METHODS: The S. japonicum infections were detected using a miracidial hatching test (one test for one stool specimen) in goats grazed in settings with snail habitats in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City at spring and autumn of each year from 2004 to 2019, and the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum infections were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 21 836 goat stool samples were detected from 2004 to 2019, and 86 were positive for S. japonicum (0.39% prevalence). The highest prevalence of S. japonicum infections in goats was seen in 2004 (1.25%) and no infections were detected in goats since 2013. S. japonicum-infected goats were identified in marshland-type endemic areas and plain regions with waterway networks, and there was a significant difference in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in goats between these two types of endemic areas (0.50% vs. 0.15%; χ2 = 11.566, P < 0.05). The prevalence of S. japonicum infections was significantly greater in goats at ages of more than 10 months (0.51%) and over 10 months (0.44%) than in other goats (χ2 = 13.088, P < 0.05), and higher prevalence was found in autumn than in spring (0.54% vs. 0.27%; χ2 = 9.597, P < 0.05). In addition, there were 76.74% of S. japonicum-infected goats with intensity of"+++"and"++++". CONCLUSIONS: Although the high prevalence of S. japonicum infections has been effectively controlled in goats in Dantu District, goat remains to be an important source of S. japonicum infections that should be given a high priority for control to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose Japônica , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/veterinária , Caramujos
13.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(8): e202000801, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901678

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of demineralized bone matrix of caprine origin in experimental bone defects of the tibia in New Zealand rabbits. METHODS: Fragments of the tibia diaphysis were collected aseptically from clinically healthy goats. The bones were sectioned into 1 cm fragments and stored at -20°C for subsequent hydrochloric acid (HCL) demineralization. A 70 mg portion of DBMc was used to fill the experimental bone defects. Twenty-four female adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into 2 groups: the MG (matrix group, left tibia) and CG (control group, right tibia). Additionally, they were separated into 4 groups with 6 animals, according to the period of analysis (15, 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively). Using microCT, volumetric parameters were evaluated: bone volume, relationship between bone volume and total volume, bone surface area, relationship between bone surface area and total volume, number of trabeculae, trabecular thickness and trabecular separation. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between groups considering bone volume (BV) and bone:total volume (BV/TV), on 15, 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Control group showed a statistically significant superiority (P < 0.05) considering the mean of the variables bone surface (BS), number of trabeculae (Tb.N) and between bone surface and total volume (BS/TV) at 15 and 90 days. CONCLUSIONS: Caprine demineralized bone matrix was safe and tolerable. No signs of material rejection were seen macroscopically. It is an alternative for the treatment of bone defects when autologous graft is not available or in insufficient quantities.


Assuntos
Transplante Ósseo , Cabras , Transplante Heterólogo , Animais , Matriz Óssea , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Coelhos , Tíbia
14.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 621-639, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948410

RESUMO

Livestock can be exposed to a wide variety of commercial or industrial chemicals that have variable toxicity. Adverse effects can be due to acute or chronic illnesses and deaths or due to contamination of meat or milk intended for human consumption. A diagnosis can be challenging in the absence of a known exposure. It is critical that a complete evaluation be conducted and appropriate samples be collected for possible analysis. Appropriate experts and regulatory agencies should be consulted as soon as possible to avoid potential contaminated animal products reaching consumers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Ambientais/envenenamento , Substâncias Perigosas/envenenamento , Agricultura , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cabras , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Humanos , Indústrias , Gado , Ruminantes , Ovinos
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 380-383, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic variation of Eurytrema pancreaticum isolated from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province. METHODS: The partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome I (pcox1) and ribosomal 18S rRNA genes were amplified using a PCR assay in E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province, and the PCR amplification products were sequenced. Then, the gene sequences were subjected to genetic variation and phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: The sequences of the pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes were 430 bp and 1 857 bp in length in 18 E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province, and there were 14 and 35 variation sites in pcox1 and 18S rRNA gene sequences, with intra-species genetic variations of 0 to 1.4% and 0 to 0.8%, respectively. The sequences of pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes had 99.0% to 99.8% and 99.5% to 99.8% homologies with those from E. pancreaticum Chinese strain recorded in the GenBank database. Consistent phylogenetic analysis results were found based on pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes. The 18 E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City were clustered into a clade with the known E. pancreaticum isolates registered in GenBank, and the clade with these 18 E. pancreaticum isolates was close to the clades with Eurytrema species and far from the clades with other trematodes. CONCLUSIONS: The E. pancreaticum isolates from goats have a low genetic variation in Huaihua City, Hunan Province. Mitochondrial pcox1 and ribosomal 18S rRNA genes may serve as molecular markers for the studies on the genetic variation in goat-derived E. pancreaticum.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Variação Genética , Cabras , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Trematódeos , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101777, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858459

RESUMO

The present study evaluates the postmortem redistribution of ketamine in ocular matrices, such as vitreous humor, aqueous humor, and ocular tissues in an animal model. To understand the redistribution of ketamine and its metabolite (norketamine) in the ocular matrices, an in vivo study was performed in rabbits. The rabbits were divided into two groups: perimortem and postmortem. The postmortem samples were collected at 17 h after the administration of ketamine (40 mg/kg) intravenously. For a better understanding of the metabolism of ketamine in eyes, an ex vivo study was conducted in goat eyes after administration of ketamine intravitreally. The samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and the levels of ketamine and norketamine in these matrices were compared with that of whole blood and plasma. The results of the in vivo study showed a decrease in ketamine levels in whole blood and plasma while an increase in ocular matrices at postmortem. Though, in most cases, this increase/decrease was statistically insignificant. Moreover, there was an increase of norketamine level in ocular matrices. Ex vivo study also shows the presence of norketamine in ocular matrices of goat eyes. The presence of norketamine in goat eyes may be indicative of the metabolism of ketamine in the eyes.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Medicina Legal , Ketamina/metabolismo , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Corpo Vítreo/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Cabras , Injeções Intravenosas , Injeções Intravítreas , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/análogos & derivados , Ketamina/sangue , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Coelhos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 403-407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769274

RESUMO

Background and Aims: To find out the primary stability in maxillofacial implant with two different thread designs. Methods: Two group of implants were selected for the study - Group I maxillofacial implant with V-shape thread, and Group II implant with buttress thread. The drills for placing the implant were made indigenously. Goat skull was selected for placing the implant. Group I, II implant was placed in the goat skull at five different sites to find the primary stability. The primary stability was measured using Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) device. The transducer was screwed to the implant and made to vibrate by magnetic pulse. The vibration was recorded as Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ). Results: The ISQ values of Group I range from 32-46 and Group II range from 57-67. The results were subjected to statistical test and found to be significant at 95% level. Conclusion: The ISQ values for the buttress (Group II) is more than (Group I) which is observed in this study. Hence this study supports the buttress thread as the favourable thread pattern for the craniofacial implant.


Assuntos
Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Implantes Dentários , Animais , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Retenção em Prótese Dentária , Cabras , Osseointegração , Análise de Frequência de Ressonância , Crânio
19.
Toxicon ; 186: 191-197, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783893

RESUMO

The present study describes the spontaneous and experimental poisoning of goats by Festuca argentina in Argentine Patagonia. In April 2017, eight seven-month-old Creole male goats were accidentally introduced into a paddock that contained F. argentina. After four days, two of the goats were found dead and four out of the six remaining goats were clinically affected. Two of the latter had to be later euthanized in extremis. The main clinical signs were progressive nervous signs, starting with moderate muscle tremors, wide-based stance and ataxia. Postmortem examination was performed on the two euthanized goats. Epidermal fragments of F. argentina were found in the rumen samples from the necropsied goats and the fecal samples from the four affected goats. For the experimental poisoning, fresh sheaths of F. argentina collected from the paddock were offered to two goats at 10 g/kg body weight for 3 days. After 24-36 h, both animals exhibited severe muscle tremors, reluctance to move, tetanic convulsions, and opisthotonus. In both the spontaneously and experimentally poisoned goats, gross lesions were similar and consisted of dehydration, petechial hemorrhages in the epicardium and congestion. The main microscopic findings consisted of degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells and torpedoes in the granular layer of the cerebellum. The F. argentina sheaths collected from the pasture were found to contain tremorgenic indole-diterpene alkaloids. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the tremorgenic syndrome observed in the spontaneously poisoned goats was due to poisoning by F. argentina.


Assuntos
Festuca , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Tremor/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Ataxia , Cerebelo , Masculino
20.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e11, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787418

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia infecting domestic animals from three municipalities in uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. A total of 208 blood samples collected from clinically healthy cattle, sheep, goats and dogs from uMkhanyakude district were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, using either genus or species-specific primers to determine the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of various protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia of veterinary importance. A total of 5/109 (4.6%) cattle were PCR-positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, 33/109 (30.3%) for Babesia bovis, 24/109 (22.02%) for Babesia bigemina and 20/109 (18.3%) for Trypanosoma sp., while 3/10 (30%) of sheep were PCR-positive for Theileria ovis and none of the goats were positive for any of the detected pathogens. The co-infection of 4/109 (3.7%) B. bovis and B. bigemina was detected in cattle. Only Ehrlichia canis was detected in dogs with infection rate of 20/48 (41.7%). Sequences of PCR-positive isolates (B. bovis, B. bigemina, E. canis, T. ovis and T. gondii) showed that they were closely related to their relevant species from various countries. These findings have expanded our knowledge about the prevalence and phylogenetic similarity between protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia isolates of South African origin. To date, this is the first study in South Africa to detect T. gondii infections from cattle blood using PCR.


Assuntos
Babesiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Theileriose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/microbiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/microbiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/microbiologia , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/microbiologia , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA