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1.
Food Chem ; 400: 134041, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087480

RESUMO

Traditional meat freshness evaluation methods are cumbersome and time consuming. In this study, the freshness of goat and duck meat at -1, 4, 10, and 25 °C was monitored by the fluorescent film sensor, and the content of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and biogenic amines (BAs) of the samples was also determined using traditional methods. Correlation and partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses were performed between sensor response intensity (RI) and freshness indices. The results showed that the RI, TVB-N, and BAs contents of goat and duck meat at a subcutaneous sampling depth of 0-1 cm were highly correlated. Moreover, the regression coefficients (R2) of the PLS model of TVB-N were all higher than 0.8. Notably, the R2 of duck meat at 25 °C in the PLS model was 1. This study accurately predicted TVB-N values in livestock and poultry meats by the fluorescent film sensor for the first time, which is real-time, and rapid, with great potential for meat freshness evaluation in future production.


Assuntos
Gado , Nitrogênio , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas , Corantes , Cabras , Carne/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Aves Domésticas
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cannabis , Morus , Encéfalo , Cabras , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Cabras , Ovinos , Prevalência , Fezes
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Paquistão , Cabras , Animais Selvagens
5.
J Proteomics ; 270: 104753, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241023

RESUMO

Goat meat, as a superior product including low lipids, low cholesterol contents and high-quality proteins, becomes the superior food for the national market. With the increasing demand for goat meat, the production, sensory quality and physicochemical properties of goat meat are also widely observed. Following significant discoveries on the mechanism determining goat meat quality, further research on complex and interactive factors leading to changes of goat meat quality is increasingly based on data-driven "omics" methods, such as lipidomics, which can rapidly identify and quantify >1000 lipid species at same time facilitating comprehensive analyses of lipids in tissues. Molecular mechanism and biomarkers indicating the changes of goat meat quality, authentication, meat analogue, nutrition and health by lipidomics are feasible. According to the analysis results of the classes and of different biomarkers lipids of goat meat quality, the main processes involved the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, associations with lipids and proteins, lipid oxidation, lipid hydrolysis, lipid degradation, lipid deposition and lipid denaturation, which have been translated into advanced technologies for identifying the goat meat adulteration and faux meat rapidly and accurately. SIGNIFICANCE: In this review, the research of lipidomics technology, past applications, recent findings and common on the recent advances of lipidomics in the quality assessment of mutton products by lipidomics with MS approaches have been summarized. The information reported in review can serve as a reference to characterize the lipids found in mutton, clarify the application of lipidomics to the field of mutton products and provide new perspectives in producing superior quality mutton products.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Cabras/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Lipídeos , Biomarcadores/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 403: 134403, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191419

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to explore the use of Fourier-transform infrared (FITR) spectroscopy on 458 goat milk samples for predicting cheese-making traits, and to test the effect of the farm variability on their prediction accuracy. Calibration equations were developed using a Bayesian approach with three different scenarios: i) a random cross-validation (CV) [80% calibration (CAL); 20% validation (VAL) set], ii) a stratified CV [(SCV), 13 farms used as CAL, and the remaining one as VAL set], and iii) a SCV where 20% of the goats randomly selected from the VAL farm were included in the CAL set (SCV80). The best prediction performance was obtained for cheese yield solids, justifying for its practical application at population level. Overall results were similar to or outperformed those reported for bovine milk. Our results suggest considering specific procedures for calibration development to propose reliable tools applicable along the dairy goat chain.


Assuntos
Queijo , Humanos , Animais , Queijo/análise , Leite/química , Teorema de Bayes , Cabras , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106772, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368185

RESUMO

Herein, we examined the effect of the type of housing (individual vs group housing) of anestrus female goats on plasma cortisol concentrations and socio-sexual behaviors during first contact with photo-stimulated male goats and determined the impact on sexual and reproductive responses after 15 d of contact with photo-stimulated males. Therefore, after weaning, 10 females each were individually and group-housed, respectively. Ten bucks were rendered sexually active by exposure to artificially long days (16 h of light and 8 h of darkness per day) for 2.5 mo. During the naturally increasing photoperiod, 15-mo-old females were exposed and maintained with males. On day 0, during the first contact with males, individually- and group-housed females exhibited similar plasma cortisol concentrations (22.6 vs 27.4 ng/mL, respectively). Likewise, socio-sexual behaviors did not differ between examined groups on day 0. Moreover, the interval from first contact with males to the first estrus, short and normal ovulatory cycles, ovulation, fertility, and prolificacy rates were similar between differently housed females. Furthermore, mounting attempts did not differ between males in contact with either female group. In conclusion, individually- and group-housed anestrus females displayed elevated and similar plasma cortisol concentrations during first contact with photo-stimulated males and similar socio-sexual behaviors and reproductive responses when exposed to photo-stimulated males.


Assuntos
Cabras , Habitação , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Hidrocortisona , Reprodução , Anestro
8.
Theriogenology ; 195: 31-39, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279698

RESUMO

Lyophilisation is an alternative method for sperm preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of freeze-thawing (F/T) and freeze-drying (F/D) on the quality of epididymal goat sperm. Sperm from each region of the epididymis (caput, corpus and cauda) were collected and evaluated for the expression of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ), protamine 1 (PRM1), transition protein 1 (TNP1) and 2 (TNP2). The effects of F/T and F/D on sperm quality in terms of PLC-ζ expression, chromatin stability (Chromomycin A3; CMA3) and DNA integrity were examined. The fertilising ability after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was also tested. Fresh sperm existed PLC-ζ, PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2, irrespective of the regions of the epididymis. However, different patterns of PLC-ζ expression were found. Although PRM1, TNP1, TNP2 were still expressed after F/T or F/D, only F/T could preserve the presence of PLC-ζ. For fresh sperm, caput epididymal sperm had the lowest evidence of chromatin stability when compared to sperm harvested from other regions of the epididymis. The F/T and F/D further increased the numbers of CMA3-positive sperm (P < 0.001). In all cases, no CMA3 staining was observed in caudal epididymal sperm. The caudal epididymal sperm had significantly greater proportions of sperm with intact DNA compared with caput and corpus epididymal sperm, especially when F/T and F/D were performed. The fertilisation rates of F/D sperm tended to decrease when compared with F/T sperm (4.2 ± 3.2 vs. 13.6 ± 9.0, P = 0.08). It is concluded that the sperm recovered from the caudal epididymis is suitable for freezing and lyophilisation. However, poor fertilisation rates of F/D sperm were coincidently observed, with a deficit demonstration of PLC-ζ.


Assuntos
Epididimo , Cabras , Masculino , Animais , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Cromatina/metabolismo
9.
Theriogenology ; 195: 103-114, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332369

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a common cause of male infertility. Sertoli cells are one of the target cells of oxidative injury, which leads to impaired testicular function. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is critical in Sertoli cell function. However, the role of FSH in the response of goat Sertoli cells to H2O2-induced oxidative stress has not been studied yet. To investigate this response, we established an oxidative stress model using goat Sertoli cells. FSH pretreatment significantly enhanced the decreased cell viability (p < 0.05) caused by oxidative injury and inhibited autophagic flux. FSH significantly increased p62 mRNA and protein levels (p < 0.01). Further investigations revealed that FSH also increased the expression level and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in Sertoli cells (p < 0.01), which resulted in increased antioxidant enzyme activity (p < 0.05). In contrast, treatment with siNrf2 and sip62 abolished this protective effect of FSH. These findings suggest that FSH protects Sertoli cells against oxidative stress via the p62-Nrf2 pathway, and that p62 accumulation maintains persistent activation of Nrf2. Thus, p62 and Nrf2 are required for FSH-mediated protective role in H2O2-induced Sertoli cell injury. The findings reveal new mechanisms by which FSH protects against oxidative injury in goat Sertoli cells.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Células de Sertoli , Masculino , Animais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Cabras , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Autofagia , Antioxidantes
10.
Theriogenology ; 195: 187-191, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335722

RESUMO

In most female mammals, a common drawback to multiple ovulation embryo transfer programs is the variability in the superovulatory response to the multidose pFSH treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify embryo donor goats based on their response to superovulation before the performance of a high-cost hormonal treatment, as we have previously done in sheep. To this end, we evaluated the number of ovulations obtained in response to the administration of a one-shot eCG treatment and related it with the subsequent ovarian response to a multiple-dose pFSH treatment in 33 goats of the Criolla-Neuquina breed. Goats received a one-shot eCG treatment of 800 IU at the end of a 17-day progestational treatment; 9 days later, started a second 17-day progestational treatment and then received a multiple-dose pFSH treatment on days 15-17 (116 mg pFSH, in six decreasing doses). The number of corpora lutea (CL) per goat was recorded laparoscopically after both hormonal treatments. On day 8 after the second pessary removal, embryos were surgically recovered and classified by quality. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the number of CL obtained in response to the eCG and pFSH treatments (r = 0.41; y = 0.8352x + 6.9906; P < 0.05), although of limited value to select high ovulatory responding goats, due to its low correlation value. Then, goats were grouped into high and low ovulatory responders to the eCG (High ≥9; Low <9 CL) and pFSH treatments (High ≥13; Low <13 CL). After the eCG and pFSH treatments, 60% of the goats maintained their classification as high or low superovulatory responders (expressed as recurrence rate). Significant differences were found in the number of CL (18.2 ± 1.3 vs 9.9 ± 1.3), number of embryos + oocytes (13.5 ± 1.7 vs 7.6 ± 1.7), number of embryos (10.8 ± 1.4 vs 5.1 ± 1.4) and number of Grade 1 and Grade 2 embryos (8.8 ± 1.4 vs 4.3 ± 1.4) between high and low superovulatory responder goats (P < 0.05), while no differences were observed in the number of oocytes and in the recovery of embryos + oocytes, embryos, Grade 1 and Grade 2 embryos and fertilization rates (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the recurrence rate in ovarian response between the one-shot eCG treatment and the multiple-dose pFSH treatment would confirm the existence of an "individual or intrinsic factor" of the donor goat that would respond as a high or low ovulatory responder to superovulatory treatments.


Assuntos
Cabras , Superovulação , Feminino , Ovinos , Animais , Corpo Lúteo , Ovário , Oócitos
11.
Parasitol Int ; 92: 102662, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067931

RESUMO

Two 3-month-old goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and C. hircus coreanae) died after ataxia. In both goats, white nodules 3 mm in diameter were scattered from the duodenum to the ileum and well-raised white nodules 2-3 mm-diameter in the mucosa of the small intestine. Histopathologically, numerous mucosal polyps with coccidial oocysts were observed in the small intestine and several schizonts, macrogametocytes, microgametocytes, and macrogametes were observed in mucosal polyps in the jejunum. Based on fecal flotation tests, the oocysts morphologically resembled those of Eimeria christenseni and E. sundarbanensis; however, their sizes were different. The 18S rRNA gene and COI were phylogenetically analyzed for the molecular identification and characterization of Eimeria sp. Based on 18S rRNA gene similarity, the isolates formed an independent cluster within the related goat Eimeria clade, and the closest species were E. christenseni C2_42, E. hirci C2_99, and E. arloingi C2_119. Furthermore, these were also distinguished from other related goat Eimeria spp. in the phylogenetic tree based on the COI gene. Considering all histopathological, morphological, and phylogenetic analyses, the current study was diagnosed as fatal coccidiosis due to heavy infection with an unrecorded Eimeria species. Thus, we report in this study with caution regarding coccidiosis caused by an unrecorded Eimeria.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Eimeria/genética , Filogenia , Cabras , Coccidiose/veterinária , Oocistos , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
12.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109010, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279809

RESUMO

Over the years, the handling of goats (loading, transport, unloading, time spent in lairage) prior to slaughter as well as the slaughter process (stunning, and bleeding) has largely applied to other livestock which impairs the wellbeing of goats as well as their products due to the difference in behavior among species. Numerous factors (feeding management, production systems, environmental conditions, and physiological status of the animals) predispose goats to pre-slaughter stress, resulting in increased stress responses during the transport, lairage, and slaughter process that influence the meat quality attributes. Goats are more susceptible to pre-slaughter stress relative to other ruminants. In this review, stress factors relating to goats, indicators as well as management, were elucidated which will assist producers in making informed decisions on minimizing goat stress for the betterment of the meat quality and goat industry as a whole.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Cabras , Animais , Carne/análise , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134646, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283317

RESUMO

Freezing and thawing are widely used in dairy processing to ensure the continuous supply of raw milk. In virtue of this, the influences of freeze-thaw cycles on physicochemical stability and in vitro digestibility of goat milk were evaluated. Experimental results showed that repeated freeze-thaw cycles led to the increase of acidity and medium-short chain free fatty acids of goat milk, and the significant decrease of fat and apparent viscosity. Furthermore, the degree of protein oxidation was enhanced, and the secondary structure changed to random coil. The particle size distribution and microstructure all showed the aggregation of goat milk droplets, resulting in the decrease of physical stability. Nevertheless, repeated freeze-thaw cycles could enhance the simulated in vitro digestibility and antioxidant capacity of digested products. These results are helpful to evaluate the quality characteristics of raw goat milk and provide theoretical reference for the industrial production of goat milk products.


Assuntos
Cabras , Leite , Animais , Congelamento
14.
Zool Res ; 44(1): 20-29, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257823

RESUMO

Understanding how evolutionary pressures related to climate change have shaped the current genetic background of domestic animals is a fundamental pursuit of biology. Here, we generated whole-genome sequencing data from native goat populations in Iraq and Pakistan. Combined with previously published data on modern, ancient (Late Neolithic to Medieval periods), and wild Capra species worldwide, we explored the genetic population structure, ancestry components, and signatures of natural positive selection in native goat populations in Southwest Asia (SWA). Results revealed that the genetic structure of SWA goats was deeply influenced by gene flow from the eastern Mediterranean during the Chalcolithic period, which may reflect adaptation to gradual warming and aridity in the region. Furthermore, comparative genomic analysis revealed adaptive introgression of the KITLG locus from the Nubian ibex ( C. nubiana) into African and SWA goats. The frequency of the selected allele at this locus was significantly higher among goat populations located near northeastern Africa. These results provide new insights into the genetic composition and history of goat populations in the SWA region.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Cabras , Animais , Cabras/genética , Genômica , Alelos , Paquistão
15.
Food Chem ; 402: 134261, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137390

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to analyse the effects of heating on digestion of skimmed goat milk proteins. Most previous goat milk digestion studies evaluated the digestion only based on the supernatant. In this study, digestion of skimmed goat milk was studied in both supernatant and gastric clot. The results indicated that, compared to mild temperature heated samples (≤75 °C), samples heated at ≥80 °C showed more extensive gastric clot formation with a higher protein digestion rate, but also resulted in a larger amount of undigested whey proteins due to its severe aggregation. For the peptidome, ß-casein was the major source of bioactive peptides. The samples heated at 65 °C showed higher bioactive peptide abundances, whereas at temperatures higher than 75 °C, it was reduced due to cleavage into smaller peptides. Overall, this study showed that different heating temperatures induced different whey protein denaturation degrees, which affected their digestion in skimmed goat milk..


Assuntos
Caseínas , Cabras , Animais , Cabras/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Caseínas/metabolismo , Calefação , Proteólise , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Digestão , Proteínas do Leite/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 402: 134299, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152557

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize mixtures of goat milk proteins and Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) extracts (aqueous, AE and polysaccharides, PE). The mixtures showed stable particles with ζ-potential more negative than -41.1 mV. The addition of AMB extracts to goat milk did not result in a significant particle size change, whereas their addition to heated goat milk significantly increased mean particle diameter (from 194 nm to 225 nm). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that ABM extracts provoked changes in the secondary structure of goat milk proteins and interactions between polysaccharides and milk proteins predominantly via hydrogen and/or glycoside bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The milk protein profiles revealed proteolytic activity in mixtures with AE resulting in the formation of five new polypeptides. The different microstructures of mixtures with AE and PE were found by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A schematic representation of possible milk proteins-ABM extracts interactions has been given.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Proteínas do Leite , Animais , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Cabras , Agaricus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Hidrogênio , Glicosídeos
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 376, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335175

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for the feed efficiency traits in Barbari goats. The data records of 9332 progenies born to 413 sires and 2580 dams were collected with respect to the average daily weight gain (ADG), i.e., ADG1 (birth to weaning), ADG2 (weaning to 6 months), ADG3 (6 to 12 months), as well as derived trait Kleiber ratio (KR), i.e., KR1 (ADG1/3MW0.75), KR2 (ADG2/6MW0.75), and KR3 (ADG3/12MW0.75). The data were corrected for fixed covariates like period of kidding, the season of birth, sex, type of birth, and parity. Univariate and multivariate animal models with an average information function of restricted maximum likelihood (REML) were used to estimate genetic factors for these traits. The best model was evaluated based on the likelihood ratio test. The direct heritability estimates were 0.21 ± 0.03, 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.22 ± 0.04, 0.16 ± 0.04, and 0.26 ± 0.04 for ADG1, ADG2, ADG3, KR1, KR2, and KR3, respectively. However, they were inflated due to high and negative estimates of covariance between direct animal and maternal genetic effects. Moderate estimates of heritability augur the scope for improvement for feed efficiency traits. The maternal genetic effects (m2) significantly contributed to 3-12% of the total phenotypic variance. The realized heritability of mass selection, which takes into account direct and maternal genetic variance together, shows a low to moderate estimate of genetic variance for ADG and KR. The genetic correlation ranged from - 0.48 ± 0.11 (ADG1-KR3) to 0.95 ± 0.00 (ADG1-KR1), phenotypic correlation ranged from - 0.28 ± 0.01 (ADG2-KR3) to 0.94 ± 0.01 (ADG1-KR1), maternal genetic correlation ranged from - 0.22 (KR2-KR3) to 0.96 (ADG1-KR1) and - 0.69 (ADG1-KR3) to 0.95 (ADG1-KR1) for the maternal permanent environment, respectively. Kids can be indirectly chosen for higher feed efficiency since ADG and their associated KR have substantial genetic correlations. It is suggested that the KR should be used as a selection criterion for Barbari goats for improving feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Cabras , Aumento de Peso , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Cabras/genética , Aumento de Peso/genética , Fenótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Desmame , Peso Corporal/genética
18.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13780, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345758

RESUMO

Although ozone shows antimicrobial activity against mastitis-causing pathogens in ruminants, its anti-inflammatory effect on mammary glands remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of ozonized glycerin (OG) on experimentally induced inflammation in the mammary glands of six Shiba and two Tokara lactating goats. We infused 1 µg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into all udders on day -1. On day 0, post LPS infusion, OG (ozone group), and glycerin (control group) were infused into the right and left sides of the udders, respectively. Milk samples were collected once daily from days -1 to 7. The somatic cell count and lactoperoxidase (LPO) activity, along with the interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-8, IL-10, lactoferrin, and sodium ion concentrations in milk were measured. IL-8, IL-10, and lactoferrin levels after LPS infusion in the ozone group were significantly lower than those in the control group, and the LPO activity tended to be lower than that observed in the control group. This study showed that OG has anti-inflammatory potential against LPS-induced inflammation in the mammary glands.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Ozônio , Feminino , Animais , Cabras , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-10 , Lactação , Glicerol , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Interleucina-8 , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Leite , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Cabras/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Korean J Parasitol ; 60(5): 367-370, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320115

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection caused by liver flukes. Although several cases have been reported in Korea, phylogenetic analysis of isolates is lacking. In this study, a 66-year-old woman with right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain was diagnosed as fascioliasis involving abdominal muscle by imaging study. She received praziquantel treatment, but symptoms were not improved. Lateral movement of the abscess lesion was followed. Trematode parasite was surgically removed from the patient's rectus abdominis muscle. The fluke was identified as Fasciola hepatica based on sequence analysis of 18S rDNA. To determine the phylogenetic position of this Fasciola strain (named Korean Fasciola 1; KF1), the cox1 gene (273 bp) was analyzed and compared with the genes of 17 F. hepatica strains isolated from cows, sheep, goats, and humans from various countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that KF1 was closely related with the isolates from China goat.


Assuntos
Fasciola hepatica , Fasciola , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Ovinos , Bovinos , Animais , Idoso , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Filogenia , Fasciola/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 391, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414743

RESUMO

The milk quality and characteristics of the local Gharbi sheep and autochthonous goat population were studied and compared to those of the local Maghrebi camel. Milk samples from 378 lactating animals raised in the Tunisian oasis region were obtained and processed for various physicochemical compositions (pH, density, acidity, dry matter, fat, protein, lactose, casein, ash, and casein-protein ratio), mineral concentrations (Ca, P, Na, and K), and bacteriological properties (total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliform count (TCC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), sulfite-reducing Clostridium (CSR), yeast and molds (Y/M), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella) using standard methods. Milk from sheep breeds had a higher average of all physical parameters (pH, density, and dornic acidity) than milk from goat species. The sheep population produced milk with a similar pH to the camel population, but with a higher density and acidity content. The pH and acidity were higher in Neggas than in goat species, while density was similar in both. For chemical composition, the results showed significant heterogeneity in milk content across all species. Except for the casein-protein ratio, which favors goat species, the analysis indicates that sheep species were superior to populations of goats and camels in all chemical compositions. The present results showed considerable variation in the mineral content of milk from different species. The levels of calcium and phosphorus are higher in sheep than in goat and camel milk. Compared to small ruminants, milk from camels is the richest in Na and K. Additionally, more calcium is present in the milk of camels than that of goats. Goat milk, the lowest in Ca and Na, contains more P than camel milk and more K than sheep's milk on average. The poorest microbial quality was that of camel milk for all bacterial counts. Based on TMAB, TCC, and E. coli counts, the microbiological quality of goat milk was higher than that of ovine milk, while ovine milk had better quality based on LAB, Y/M, and S. aureus values. For Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, there were no significant variations between the species studied. Results showed that all milk samples studied were completely free of two dangerous pathogens, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridium. The bacteriological quality of small ruminant's milk was acceptable and met the regulatory limits set by Tunisian dairy legislation. Regarding camel milk, the microbial analysis revealed poor quality that exceeds standard criteria.


Assuntos
Camelus , Lactobacillales , Feminino , Ovinos , Animais , Leite/química , Caseínas , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Cálcio/análise , Tunísia , Lactação , Cabras , Sulfitos/análise
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