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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110957, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888620

RESUMO

Due to growing commercial interest as a fishing resource and its intermediate position in the marine trophic chains as both prey and predator, cephalopods can play an important role in mercury (Hg) transfer along the marine food webs, since they can bioaccumulate this metal in its tissues. Our study aims to analyze Hg accumulation in Loligo forbesi caught in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal) quantifying Hg in different tissues (mantle and stomach), as well in the squid stomach content, in order to evaluate the efficiency of Hg transfer from prey to predator. Hg data from the tissues was used to estimate the weekly tolerable Hg intake due to squid consumption. Overall data indicate that Hg measured in the stomach tissue (0.1 ± 0.01 µg g-1) was significantly higher than Hg levels found in the mantle (0.04 ± 0.001 µg g-1) and stomach contents (0.01 ± 0.001 µg g-1). BMF (bioaccumulation factor) was >1 for all the samples, indicating a biomagnification process from prey to predator. Hg concentration in the mantle tissue was correlated with mantle size; although females present higher Hg levels than males, the difference was found to be not related to gender but rather to the fact that females had larger bodies. Finally, considering the Hg concentration found in the mantle and the permitted Hg levels, it is advisable to consume up to 1050-1890g of squid per week, according to the regulatory agencies. Thus, our results indicate that, since these doses are respected, consumption of squids from the Azorean waters do not pose a risk to humans.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Loligo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Portugal , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 647, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948923

RESUMO

The energy transfer in the aquatic food chain is an important way for mercury (Hg) to enter other trophic levels. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Hg concentrations in plankton upstream and downstream of the Samuel Hydroelectric Reservoir, Rondônia, Brazil. Phytoplankton and zooplankton samples were collected with 20-µm and 68-µm nylon nets. An aliquot was removed for taxonomic analysis and another for total mercury determination, performed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water physical-chemical parameters were also measured. The Hg concentrations in total plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton samples) obtained at the three sampling upstream stations showed the same behavior, with the highest values registered in June 2005 (232 µg kg-1, 118 µg kg-1, 128 µg kg-1). The lowest values at stations J1 and M1 were recorded in November 2005 (4 µg kg-1 and 22 µg kg-1, respectively), while the lowest values at stations M4 and M8 were recorded in October 2005 (22 µg kg-1 and 5 µg kg-1, respectively). The Hg results found in the plankton in this study corroborate the results of other recent studies in the same region. The statistical analyses revealed that Hg concentrations in plankton do not explain the distribution of these organisms at the four sampling stations of Samuel Reservoir. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Plâncton
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105595, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911330

RESUMO

In order to understand the potential impacts of nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) after reaching the aquatic environment, this research evaluated the toxicity of Ni NWs with different lengths (≤ 1.1, ≤11 and ≤ 80 µm) for several floating, planktonic and nektonic freshwater organisms. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized by electrodeposition using anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The toxicity of the NWs was assessed using a battery of aquatic species representative of key functions at the ecosystem level: the bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri, the algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, the macrophyte Lemna minor, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the zebrafish Danio rerio. Results indicated that for the concentrations tested (up to 2.5 mg L-1) the synthesized Ni NWs showed low toxicity. And although no lethal toxicity was observed for D. magna, at a sublethal level the feeding activity of the freshwater cladoceran was severely affected after exposure to Ni NWs. These findings showed that NWs can be accumulated in the gut of D. magna, even during a short exposure (24 h) directly impairing Daphnia nutrition and eventually populations growth. Consequently, this can also contribute to trophic transfer of NWs along the food chain. According to our results the toxicity of Ni NW may be mainly attributed to physical effects rather than chemical effects of Ni ions, considering that the concentrations of Ni NWs tested in this study were well below the toxicity thresholds reported in the literature for Ni ions and for Ni NMs.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanofios/toxicidade , Níquel/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Aliivibrio fischeri , Animais , Clorofíceas , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Água Doce , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
4.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106321, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892897

RESUMO

Although biomagnification of radiocesium (137Cs) has been reported in food webs, most previous research has been limited to select trophic linkages. Few studies have included a comprehensive survey of fauna associated with aquatic, semi-aquatic, and terrestrial habitats within a single study framework. The objectives of this study were to advance our understanding of the dynamics of 137Cs accumulation within food webs by quantifying 137Cs activity across a wide range of biota found within a contaminated canal, as well as test the hypothesis that life-stage and body size influence 137Cs bioaccumulation in select herpetofauna. With extensive sampling across multiple taxa collected from a contaminated canal system and associated floodplain on the Savannah River Site, we assessed 137Cs activity and stable nitrogen isotopes for both aquatic organisms that were restricted to the contaminated effluent canal, and semi-aquatic organisms able to move freely between the contaminated canal and the adjacent uncontaminated terrestrial habitat. We found 137Cs activity to be highly variable among species, with evidence for and against biomagnification in semi-aquatic and aquatic organisms, respectively. Furthermore, 137Cs activity decreased with life stage and body size in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), despite post-metamorphic bullfrogs having a more carnivorous diet compared to tadpoles, while cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) retained similar 137Cs activity regardless of their age and size. Although evidence of biomagnification has been observed in some contaminated systems, results of our study suggest the extent to which 137Cs biomagnifies within food webs is context-dependent and likely influenced by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors. Further, our data indicate sampling of a broad suite of species and environmental attributes are needed to elucidate the fate and dynamics of anthropogenic pollutants within contaminated ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Animais , Biota , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Rios , Estados Unidos
5.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105051, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907717

RESUMO

In order to detect the possible regulatory effect of non-native C. gigas on the native O. edulis, under aquaculture conditions, feeding interactions between them were investigated in a highly productive environment of Lim Bay (Adriatic Sea). The present study uses a multi-methodological approach, including stomach content, DNA barcoding and stable isotope analysis to elucidate the feeding ecology of two oyster species. The research confirmed a high overlap throughout the year in the feeding traits among native and non-native oyster species. Competition for food was not the only relationship that exists between the investigated species as the presence of O. edulis larvae in C. gigas stomach content was confirmed by DNA analysis. Findings are not in favour of introducing C. gigas to commercial aquaculture in any new areas in the Adriatic Sea and support the need to improve the existing O. edulis aquaculture and conserve its wild stocks.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Crassostrea , Comportamento Alimentar , Ostrea , Animais , Ecologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Larva
6.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104981, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907719

RESUMO

Canopy-forming macroalgae recently experienced a worldwide decline. This is relevant, because canopies sustain complex food webs in temperate coasts. We assessed the die-back of the canopy-forming alga Fucus serratus in N Spain, at its warm distributional range boundary, and its effects on associated assemblages. We combined long-term descriptive surveys with canopy-removal experiments. Results showed that rapid shifts to turf-forming communities were mostly the direct consequence of the canopy loss, rather than a concurrent process directly triggered by climate change. The switch alters the whole food web, as the prominent role of F.serratus and other cold-temperate intertidal fucoids is not being replaced by functionally equivalent species. Canopy loss caused a rapid biotic homogenization at regional scale which is spreading towards the west, from the edge to the central part of the former distributional range of F.serratus in N Spain. The most obvious effect is the ecological and functional impoverishment of the coastal system.


Assuntos
Fucus , Alga Marinha , Cadeia Alimentar , Plantas , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201268, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873207

RESUMO

Microplastics are recognized as an emerging contaminant worldwide. Although microplastics have been shown to strongly affect organisms in aquatic environments, less is known about whether and how microplastics can affect different taxa within a soil community, and it is unclear whether these effects can cascade through soil food webs. By conducting a microplastic manipulation experiment, i.e. adding low-density polyethylene fragments in the field, we found that microplastic addition significantly affected the composition and abundance of microarthropod and nematode communities. Contrary to soil fauna, we found only small effects of microplastics on the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities. Nevertheless, structural equation modelling revealed that the effects of microplastics strongly cascade through the soil food webs, leading to the modification of microbial functioning with further potential consequences on soil carbon and nutrient cycling. Our results highlight that taking into account the effects of microplastics at different trophic levels is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the ecological impacts of microplastic pollution on soil functioning.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Microplásticos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Cadeia Alimentar , Solo
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201500, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900320

RESUMO

Marine ecosystems are generally expected to have bottom-heavy trophic structure (more plants than animals) due to size-based constraints arising from increased metabolic requirements and inefficient energy transfer. However, size-based (allometric) approaches are often limited to confined trophic-level windows where energy transfer is predicted by size alone and are constrained to a balance between bottom-up and top-down control at steady state. In real food webs, energy flow is more complex and imbalances in top-down and bottom-up processes can also shape trophic structure. We expand the size-based theory to account for complex food webs and show that moderate levels of food web connectance allow for inverted trophic structure more often than predicted, especially in marine ecosystems. Trophic structure inversion occurs due to the incorporation of complex energy pathways and top-down effects on ecosystems. Our results suggest that marine ecosystems should be top-heavy, and observed bottom-heavy trophic structure may be a result of human defaunation of the ocean that has been more extreme than presently recognized.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Biomassa , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Estado Nutricional , Comportamento Predatório
9.
Oecologia ; 194(1-2): 177-191, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940775

RESUMO

Body size, trophic position (TP), and trophic niche width are important elements of food webs; however, there is still debate regarding their interrelationships. Most studies have tested these correlations using datasets restricted to carnivores and bivariate models that disregard potential indirect effects of other factors, their interactions, and phylogeny. We analyzed relationships among TP, consumer size, maximum food item size, food item size variation (a proxy for trophic niche width), and two other traits (gut length and mouth width) using confirmatory path analysis of an extensive dataset for freshwater fishes that encompass both carnivorous and non-carnivorous species. Consumer size was associated with maximum food size, food size variation, mouth width, and gut length, all of which mediated indirect relationships between body size and TP. Mouth gape was associated with maximum food size, and consumers that fed on larger food items had higher TP. Consumers with relatively long guts generally fed on small and homogeneous food items near the base of the food web. Models were consistent whether or not accounting for phylogeny, but varied according to trophic guilds. However, the body size of both carnivorous and non-carnivorous was not directly associated with TP. Therefore, the incorporation of functional traits and their intermediate pathways is critical for understanding size-based trophic relationships of animals that encompass diverse feeding strategies. Our results caution approaches that rely on body size as a surrogate for TP, especially in systems where plants and detritus are consumed directly by a significant number of animals, such as in most freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Carnivoridade , Peixes , Comportamento Predatório
10.
Oecologia ; 194(1-2): 251-265, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964292

RESUMO

Understanding how biological communities respond to climate change is a major challenge in ecology. The response of ectotherms to changes in temperature depends not only on their species-specific thermal tolerances but also on temperature-mediated interactions across different trophic levels. Warming is predicted to reinforce trophic cascades in linear aquatic food chains, but little is known about how warming might affect the lower trophic levels of food webs involving extensive fish omnivory, a common scenario in subtropical and tropical waterbodies. In this study, a mesocosm warming experiment was conducted involving a pelagic food chain (fish-zooplankton-phytoplankton) topped by the omnivorous bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson)]. We found that temperature elevation significantly enhanced the growth of fish and suppressed zooplankton, including both metazooplankton and ciliates, while abundances of phytoplankton, despite disruption of temporal dynamics, did not increase correspondingly-likely due to fish predation. Our results suggest that trophic cascades are less unlikely to be reinforced by warming in food chains involving significant omnivory. Moreover, we found that warming advanced the spring abundance peak of phytoplankton abundance and that of the parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus quadridentatus; whereas, it had no effect on the only sexually reproducing copepod, Mesocyclops leuckarti, presumably due to its prolonged life history. Our study also confirmed that warming may lead to a phenological mismatch between some predators and their prey because of the distinct life histories among taxa, with potentially severe consequences for resource flow in the food chain, at least in the short term.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Plâncton , Animais , Biomassa , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110937, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800220

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria have been considered a major global threat because of their widespread ability to proliferate and contaminate inland and marine waters with toxic metabolites. For this reason, to avoid risks to humans and environmental health, regulatory legislation and guidelines have been established based on extensive toxicological data. However, most of what is known in this field come from works on microcystin (MC) variants, which effects were almost exclusively tested in metazoan models. In this work, we used acute end-point toxicological assays and high-resolution hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization source (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) analyses to evaluate the deleterious impact of aqueous extracts prepared from cultures of cyanobacteria and environmental bloom biomasses over a non-metazoan model organism, the cosmopolitan fresh/brackish water unicellular microeukaryote, Paramecium caudatum (Ciliophora). Our data suggest that all extracts produced time-dependent effects on P. caudatum survival, irrespective of their metabolite profile; and that this ciliate is more sensitive to extracts containing microginins than to extracts with only MCs, stressing that more toxicological investigations should be performed on the environmental impact of neglected cyanotoxins. Further, our data provide evidence that P. caudatum may be more sensitive to cyanotoxins than vertebrates, indicating that guidelines values, set on metazoans are likely to be inaccurate to protect organisms from basal food web positions. Thus, we highly recommend the widespread use of microeukaryotes, such as ciliates in environmental risk assessment frameworks for the establishment of more reliable cyanotoxin monitoring guideline values.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paramecium caudatum/fisiologia , Animais , Biomassa , Cilióforos , Cadeia Alimentar , Água Doce/microbiologia , Humanos , Microcistinas
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140271, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783856

RESUMO

Dietary exposure is a major cause of pesticide bioaccumulation in herbivores. However, various types of natural conditions affect the structure of the complicated herbivores' diets, making it difficult to assess their exposure to pesticides. In this study, to evaluate the role of pesticides in the terrestrial food web, a dynamic hybrid dietary model was developed for North American white-tailed deer (or whitetails), which integrates different plant types and the digestibility of deer's foods. Moreover, an equivalent season approach was introduced to generalize the pesticide intake rate geographically. The results indicate that the soil-to-whitetail (meat) bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in summer are significantly higher than those of other seasonal periods, owing to the high food availability and digestibility. Pesticides with low octanol/water partition coefficients have a high computed soil-to-plant BAF, but a low plant-to-whitetail (meat) BAF, because the transpiration process dominates the bioaccumulation process in plants. Lipid absorption plays a more important role in herbivores and lowers the biomagnification ratio (a smaller amount of pesticides flows to the next level of the food chain). According to the equivalent season approach, geographic locations with warmer climates facilitate pesticide bioaccumulation at a higher level of the terrestrial food web.


Assuntos
Cervos , Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750052

RESUMO

We propose a process graph (P-graph) approach to develop ecosystem networks from knowledge of the properties of the component species. Originally developed as a process engineering tool for designing industrial plants, the P-graph framework has key advantages over conventional ecological network analysis techniques based on input-output models. A P-graph is a bipartite graph consisting of two types of nodes, which we propose to represent components of an ecosystem. Compartments within ecosystems (e.g., organism species) are represented by one class of nodes, while the roles or functions that they play relative to other compartments are represented by a second class of nodes. This bipartite graph representation enables a powerful, unambiguous representation of relationships among ecosystem compartments, which can come in tangible (e.g., mass flow in predation) or intangible form (e.g., symbiosis). For example, within a P-graph, the distinct roles of bees as pollinators for some plants and as prey for some animals can be explicitly represented, which would not otherwise be possible using conventional ecological network analysis. After a discussion of the mapping of ecosystems into P-graph, we also discuss how this framework can be used to guide understanding of complex networks that exist in nature. Two component algorithms of P-graph, namely maximal structure generation (MSG) and solution structure generation (SSG), are shown to be particularly useful for ecological network analysis. These algorithms enable candidate ecosystem networks to be deduced based on current scientific knowledge on the individual ecosystem components. This method can be used to determine the (a) effects of loss of specific ecosystem compartments due to extinction, (b) potential efficacy of ecosystem reconstruction efforts, and (c) maximum sustainable exploitation of human ecosystem services by humans. We illustrate the use of P-graph for the analysis of ecosystem compartment loss using a small-scale stylized case study, and further propose a new criticality index that can be easily derived from SSG results.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Algoritmos , Animais , Gráficos por Computador , Heurística Computacional , Cadeia Alimentar , Heurística , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia de Sistemas , Teoria de Sistemas
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780731

RESUMO

As aquatic invasive species (AIS) proliferate worldwide, a better understanding of their roles in invaded habitats is needed to inform management and introduction prevention strategies and priorities. Metabarcoding of stomach content DNA (scDNA) shows considerable promise in such regard. We thus metabarcoded scDNA from two non-native fish species (alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax)), and three native ones (bloater (Coregonus hoyi), ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus)). Fishes (N = 376) were sampled in spring 2009 and 2010 from 73-128 m depths at three Lake Michigan sites. Four mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) primer sets designed to target five potential AIS prey, and a universal aquatic invertebrate CO1 primer set targeting both native and AIS prey were used. Quality controlled prey amplicons were matched to three AIS prey: Bythotrephes longimanus (mean percent frequency occurrence, all samples = 7%), Cercopagis pengoi (5%), and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (11%). Neither invasive prey Dreissena polymorpha nor Hemimysis anomala were detected. Native prey Leptodiaptomus sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Mysis diluviana were relatively common in scDNA (respective mean percent occurrences, all samples: 48%, 25%, 42%). Analysis of variation in prey occurrences for sample site, predator species, sample year, sample depth, and predator total length (TL) indicated site and predator species were most important. However, B. longimanus occurrence in scDNA depended upon predator TL, perhaps indicative of its unique defensive spine limiting susceptibility to predation until fishes exceed species-specific gape-based limitations. Our analysis of native and invasive prey species indicated possible indirect AIS impacts such as native predators switching their diet due to AIS-driven losses of preferred native prey. Metabarcoding demonstrated that AIS are integrated components of the offshore Lake Michigan food web, with both native and non-native predators, and both invasive and native prey are affecting species interactions across multiple trophic levels.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Peixes/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares , Espécies Introduzidas , Invertebrados/genética , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Lagos , Michigan , Comportamento Predatório , Wisconsin
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111432, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753215

RESUMO

This paper presents the research landscape on microplastics and nanoplastics (M/NPs) in global food webs based on a bibliometric analysis of 330 publications published in 2009-2019 extracted from Web of Science. The publications increased tremendously since 2013. Marine Pollution Bulletin is one of the top productive journals for this topic. The publication landscape related to M/NPs in global food webs, as interdisciplinary research, is highly dependent on the funding availability. The high productivities of England, China, USA and European countries are attributed to the funding from the agencies at regional or national levels. Keyword analysis reveals the shift of research hotspots from investigations on M/NPs absorbed by various organisms in the ecosystems to studies on the trophic transfer of M/NPs and sorbed contaminants in the food webs and their associated adverse impacts. Funding agencies play important roles in leading the future development of this topic.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Plásticos , Bibliometria , China , Ecossistema , Inglaterra , Europa (Continente) , Microplásticos
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3832, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737315

RESUMO

Tropical ectotherms are hypothesized to be vulnerable to environmental changes, but cascading effects of organismal tolerances on the assembly and functioning of reef fish communities are largely unknown. Here, we examine differences in organismal traits, assemblage structure, and productivity of cryptobenthic reef fishes between the world's hottest, most extreme coral reefs in the southern Arabian Gulf and the nearby, but more environmentally benign, Gulf of Oman. We show that assemblages in the Arabian Gulf are half as diverse and less than 25% as abundant as in the Gulf of Oman, despite comparable benthic composition and live coral cover. This pattern appears to be driven by energetic deficiencies caused by responses to environmental extremes and distinct prey resource availability rather than absolute thermal tolerances. As a consequence, production, transfer, and replenishment of biomass through cryptobenthic fish assemblages is greatly reduced on Earth's hottest coral reefs. Extreme environmental conditions, as predicted for the end of the 21st century, could thus disrupt the community structure and productivity of a critical functional group, independent of live coral loss.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Biomassa , Recifes de Corais , Planeta Terra , Ecossistema , Peixes/classificação , Cadeia Alimentar , Temperatura Alta , Oriente Médio , Oceanos e Mares
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735596

RESUMO

The pollution of the natural environment, especially the world's oceans, with conventional plastic is of major concern. Biodegradable plastics are an emerging market bringing along potential chances and risks. The fate of these materials in the environment and their possible effects on organisms and ecosystems has rarely been studied systematically and is not well understood. For the marine environment, reliable field test methods and standards for assessing and certifying biodegradation to bridge laboratory respirometric data are lacking. In this work we present newly developed field tests to assess the performance of (biodegradable) plastics under natural marine conditions. These methods were successfully applied and validated in three coastal habitats (eulittoral, benthic and pelagic) and two climate zones (Mediterranean Sea and tropical Southeast Asia). Additionally, a stand-alone mesocosm test system which integrated all three habitats in one technical system at 400-L scale independent from running seawater is presented as a methodological bridge. Films of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer (PHA) and low density polyethylene (LD-PE) were used to validate the tests. While LD-PE remained intact, PHA disintegrated to a varying degree depending on the habitat and the climate zone. Together with the existing laboratory standard test methods, the field and mesocosm test systems presented in this work provide a 3-tier testing scheme for the reliable assessment of the biodegradation of (biodegradable) plastic in the marine environment. This toolset of tests can be adapted to other aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Plásticos/química , Plásticos/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111032, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745774

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Np-TiO2) have become the common component of sunscreen cosmetic products. Np-TiO2 can affect especially aquatic ecosystems health, including aquatic organisms such as fish. It is therefore necessary to acquire a better understanding of the effect of Np-TiO2 on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated the biological effects of Np-TiO2 on Danio rerio, such as survival rate and weight change and, in particular, the Ti content or retention in the intestine and liver, as well as the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes. In addition, the structure of the intestine, kidney, and liver was investigated through histological analysis. Ninety zebrafish were used, randomly divided into three treatment-groups: a control group (fed with food without adding Np-TiO2) and two groups of fish fed with food containing Np-TiO2 exposed for 7 and 14 days. The amount of Ti in the liver and intestine was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry coupled to a graphite furnace (GFAAS). Morphological analysis and enzyme catalase and superoxide dismutase assays were likewise performed. Ti was detected in all fish even in control group; probably Ti must have been introduced during production by the fish food industry. Structural changes were detected in fish fed with Np-TiO2 as vacuolization and disruption of the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells that covered the intestinal villi. Although kidney morphology appeared intact, the lumen of the proximal tubule was enlarged, and the cells of the distal tubule were vacuolated. No morphological changes in the liver were detected; however, superoxide dismutase activity decreased, suggesting that liver changes occurred at the molecular level. Thus, Np-TiO2 causes morphological changes in the intestine, kidney, and liver of zebrafish and biochemical changes in the liver exposed for 7 and 14 days. Although not highly lethal, Np-TiO2 in the food chain can interfere with the morphophysiology of aquatic organisms. Neither mortalities nor body weight losses were recorded among fish in all groups over the duration of the experiment.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Bioacumulação , Catalase , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Protetores Solares/química , Titânio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140564, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758814

RESUMO

Mercury concentrations in freshwater food webs are governed by complex biogeochemical and ecological interactions that spatially vary and are often mediated by climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska (ACP) is a heterogeneous, lake-rich landscape where variability in mercury accumulation is poorly understood. Earlier research indicated that the level of catchment influence on lakes varied spatially on the ACP, and affected mercury accumulation in lake sediments. This work sought to determine drivers of spatial variation in mercury accumulation in lake food webs on the ACP. Three lakes that were a priori identified as "high catchment influence" (Reindeer Camp region) and three lakes that were a priori identified as "low catchment influence" (Atqasuk region) were sampled, and variability in water chemistry, food web ecology, and mercury accumulation was investigated. Among-lake differences in ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) length-adjusted methylmercury concentrations were significantly explained by sulphate concentration in lake water, a tracer of catchment runoff input. This effect was mediated by fish growth, which had no pattern between regions. Together, lake water sulphate concentration and fish age-at-size (proxy for growth) accounted for nearly all of the among-lake variability in length-adjusted methylmercury concentrations in stickleback (R2adj = 0.94, p < 0.01). The percentage of total mercury as methylmercury (a proxy for net Hg methylation) was higher in sediments of more autochthonous, "low catchment influence" lakes (p < 0.05), and in the periphyton of more allochthonous, "high catchment influence" lakes (p < 0.05). The results indicate that dominant sources of primary production (littoral macrophyte/biofilm vs. pelagic phytoplankton) and food web structure (detrital vs. grazing) are regulated by catchment characteristics on the ACP, and that this ultimately influences the amount of methylmercury in the aquatic food web. These results have important implications for predicting future mercury concentrations in fish in lakes where fish growth rates and catchment inputs may change in response to a changing climate.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Smegmamorpha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alaska , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos , Sulfatos
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