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2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 2028-2034, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212608

RESUMO

To analyze the feeding habits and trophic level of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum), Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinesis), grass shrimp (Penaeus monodon), and clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), and the food web structure in marine aquaculture pond, we measured the δ13C and δ15N values of the four species and different feed from May to September in 2017. The average proportional contribution of different feed to the four species were analyzed using the IsoSource linear mixture model. The results showed that zooplankton was the main food source to jellyfish, Engraulis japonicus was the main food source to the two shrimp species, and the phytoplankton, benthic diatoms and dejecta of the two shrimp species were the main food source to the clam. The trophic level of the clam ranged from 2.64 to 2.95, with a mean value of 2.84. The trophic level of jellyfish ranged from 2.78 to 3.27, with a mean value of 3.06. the grass shrimp ranged from 3.03 to 3.54, with a mean value of 3.25. The trophic level of Chinese shrimp ranged from 3.76 to 4.40, with a mean value of 3.95. Results of comprehensive analysis showed that the clam was the primary consumer, jellyfish was the secondary consumer, and shrimps were the predators. Jellyfish filtered the dejecta of the two kinds of prawns and improved water quality of the polyculture pond to a certain extent.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Lagoas , Animais , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Frutos do Mar , Zooplâncton
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 2035-2044, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212609

RESUMO

Engraulis japonicus, an important fishery resource, is a key species in ecosystem trophodynamics studies. In this study, we examined stomach content of E. japonicusby stable isotope analyses, with samples collected from the East China Sea in 2008-2009 and 2020. The aim of this study was to demonstrate their diet composition, diel and ontogenetic changes in feeding habits and trophic level. Results of the stomach content analysis showed that E. japonicus mainly fed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish. The main prey species were Euphausia pacifica [index of relative importance (IRI)=87.6%; frequency(F)=57.6%], Paracalanus parvus (IRI=3.2%, F=15.3%), and Themisto gracilipes (IRI=2.1%, F=13.1%). Results of the stable isotope analysis showed that Copepoda were the main food source of E. japonicus, followed by Euphausiacea, and the contribution rate of Amphipoda was the least, which was less than 1%. There was significant diel change in diet composition. Feeding intensity was higher in the daytime than at night, with the highest in the dusk and the lowest at midnight. Ontogenetic change in feeding habit occurred when fork length reached 90 mm, over which the fish fed both zooplankton and small fishes. The δ13C of E. japonicus was between -21.66‰ and -18.14‰, with an average of (-19.92±0.86)‰. The δ15N of E. japonicus ranged from 4.07‰ to 10.78‰, with an average of (8.14±2.48)‰. Both δ13C and δ15N values were positively correlated with fork length. Trophic level of the fish was 3.4 with stomach content analysis and 2.7 with stable isotope analysis. The results would provide important reference for understanding nutritional status of pelagic small fish, and offer some basic data to establish ecopath model.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
4.
Mar Environ Res ; 169: 105402, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246890

RESUMO

Coastal vegetated habitats maintain highly diverse communities, where the contribution of macrophyte production is significant for macroinvertebrate primary consumers. In the brackish-waters of the Baltic Sea, the taxonomical diversity of different macrophytes includes both marine and limnic species. To study the basal food-web differences of two key vegetated habitat types, either dominated by a perennial brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus) or by angiosperm plants, 13C and 15N compositions of different primary producers and macroinvertebrate consumers were examined, and their diets were estimated by Bayesian mixing models. Carbon isotope diversity of primary producers was high especially in the hard-bottom Fucus-dominated habitats, which was also reflected in a larger consumer isotope niche. However, consumer isotope niche among sites was similar within the same habitat type. Our models indicated that the perennial macrophyte dietary median contribution was about 25% for deposit feeders and omnivores in both habitat types, while epigrazers preferred filamentous algae (30-60%). The niche positions of the abundant clams L. balthica, M. arenaria and C. glaucum differed between the two habitats, but they showed only small (<10% units) differences in their macrophyte dietary contributions. The isotopic compositions of the dominating primary producer assemblage reflected significantly in the isotope niche structure of the associated primary consumers.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Países Bálticos , Teorema de Bayes , Isótopos de Carbono
5.
Biol Lett ; 17(7): 20210286, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256584

RESUMO

Food-hoarding behaviour is widespread in the animal kingdom and enables predictable access to food resources in unpredictable environments. Within species, consistent variation among individuals in food-hoarding behaviours may indicate the existence of individual strategies, as it likely captures intrinsic differences in how individuals cope with risks (e.g. starvation, pilferage). Using 17 years of data, we estimated the long-term repeatability of 10 food-hoarding behaviours in a population of Eurasian pygmy owls (Glaucidium passerinum), a small avian predator subject to high temporal fluctuations in its main prey abundance. We found low repeatability in the proportion of shrews and the average prey mass stored for both sexes, while females were moderately repeatable in the mass and the number of prey items stored. These two pairs of behaviours were tightly correlated among individuals and might represent two different sets of individual strategies to buffer against starvation risks.


Assuntos
Colecionismo , Estrigiformes , Animais , Feminino , Alimentos , Cadeia Alimentar , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246180, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190762

RESUMO

In fisheries, the phenomenon known as fishing down food webs is supposed to be a consequence of overfishing, which would be reflected in a reduction in the trophic level of landings. In such scenarios, the resilience of carnivorous, top predator species is particularly affected, making these resources the first to be depleted. The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, exemplifies a predator resource historically targeted by artisanal fisheries on the Brazilian coast. The present work analyzes landings in three periods within a 50-year timescale on the Parana coast, Southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate whether historical production has supposedly declined. Simultaneously, the diet was analyzed to confirm carnivorous habits and evaluate the trophic level in this region. Surprisingly, the results show that from the 1970's to 2019 Serra Spanish mackerel production grew relatively to other resources, as well as in individual values. The trophic level was calculated as 4.238, similar to other Scomberomorus species, consisting of a case where landings increase over time, despite the high trophic level and large body size of the resource. The results agree with a recent global assessment that has demystified a necessary correlation between high trophic level and overexploitation, but possible factors acting on the present findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Perciformes , Animais , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cadeia Alimentar
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112354, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116335

RESUMO

Hydropower generation, a renewable source of electricity, has been linked to elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in impoundments and aquatic biota. This study investigates the impact of water level fluctuations (WLF) on MeHg concentrations in water, sediment, and fish. Using a set of controlled microcosm experiments emulating the drawdown/refill dynamics and subsequent sediment exposure to air experienced in reservoirs, we demonstrate that less frequent WLFs, and/or increased exposure of sediment to air, can lead to elevated MeHg concentrations in sediment, and total mercury (THg) and MeHg concentrations in water. In examining the effects of WLF frequency (two-day, weekly, and monthly), the monthly treatment displayed the highest THg and MeHg water levels, while the weekly treatment was characterized by the highest MeHg levels in the sediment. Our work supports emerging evidence that longer duration between WLF creates a larger surface area of sediment exposed to air leading to conditions conducive to higher MeHg concentrations in sediments and water. In contrast, THg, MeHg, and fatty acid trends in fish were largely inconclusive characterized by similar among-treatment effects and minimal temporal variability over the course of our experiment. This result could partly be attributed to overall low mercury levels and simple "worm-forage fish" food web in our experiment. To elucidate the broader impacts of water fluctuations on aquatic chemistry and biota, other factors (e.g., longer WLF cycles, dissolved organic matter, temperature, more complex food webs) which modulate both methylation rates and food web dynamics must be considered.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Água/química
8.
Ecol Lett ; 24(8): 1539-1555, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120390

RESUMO

Changes in temperature affect consumer-resource interactions, which underpin the functioning of ecosystems. However, existing studies report contrasting predictions regarding the impacts of warming on biological rates and community dynamics. To improve prediction accuracy and comparability, we develop an approach that combines sensitivity analysis and aggregate parameters. The former determines which biological parameters impact the community most strongly. The use of aggregate parameters (i.e., maximal energetic efficiency, ρ, and interaction strength, κ), that combine multiple biological parameters, increases explanatory power and reduces the complexity of theoretical analyses. We illustrate the approach using empirically derived thermal dependence curves of biological rates and applying it to consumer-resource biomass ratio and community stability. Based on our analyses, we generate four predictions: (1) resource growth rate regulates biomass distributions at mild temperatures, (2) interaction strength alone determines the thermal boundaries of the community, (3) warming destabilises dynamics at low and mild temperatures only and (4) interactions strength must decrease faster than maximal energetic efficiency for warming to stabilise dynamics. We argue for the potential benefits of directly working with the aggregate parameters to increase the accuracy of predictions on warming impacts on food webs and promote cross-system comparisons.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Biomassa , Temperatura
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3918, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168127

RESUMO

Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, understanding how different components of land use drive biodiversity loss requires the investigation of multiple trophic levels across spatial scales. Using data from 150 agricultural grasslands in central Europe, we assess the influence of multiple components of local- and landscape-level land use on more than 4,000 above- and belowground taxa, spanning 20 trophic groups. Plot-level land-use intensity is strongly and negatively associated with aboveground trophic groups, but positively or not associated with belowground trophic groups. Meanwhile, both above- and belowground trophic groups respond to landscape-level land use, but to different drivers: aboveground diversity of grasslands is promoted by diverse surrounding land-cover, while belowground diversity is positively related to a high permanent forest cover in the surrounding landscape. These results highlight a role of landscape-level land use in shaping belowground communities, and suggest that revised agroecosystem management strategies are needed to conserve whole-ecosystem biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Cadeia Alimentar , Florestas , Pradaria , Herbivoria , Insetos
10.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130470, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134398

RESUMO

Methylmercury concentrations vary widely across geographic space and among habitat types, with marine and aquatic-feeding organisms typically exhibiting higher mercury concentrations than terrestrial-feeding organisms. However, there are few model organisms to directly compare mercury concentrations as a result of foraging in marine, estuarine, or terrestrial food webs. The ecological impacts of differential foraging may be especially important for generalist species that exhibit high plasticity in foraging habitats, locations, or diet. Here, we investigate whether foraging habitat, sex, or fidelity to a foraging area impact blood mercury concentrations in western gulls (Larus occidentalis) from three colonies on the US west coast. Cluster analyses showed that nearly 70% of western gulls foraged primarily in ocean or coastal habitats, whereas the remaining gulls foraged in terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Gulls that foraged in ocean or coastal habitats for half or more of their foraging locations had 55% higher mercury concentrations than gulls that forage in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Ocean-foraging gulls also had lower fidelity to a specific foraging area than freshwater and terrestrial-foraging gulls, but fidelity and sex were unrelated to gull blood mercury concentrations in all models. These findings support existing research that has described elevated mercury levels in species using aquatic habitats. Our analyses also demonstrate that gulls can be used to detect differences in contaminant exposure over broad geographic scales and across coarse habitat types, a factor that may influence gull health and persistence of other populations that forage across the land-sea gradient.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Mercúrio , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar
11.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063344

RESUMO

Safety and quality are key issues for the food industry. Consequently, there is growing demand to preserve the food chain and products against substances toxic, harmful to human health, such as contaminants, allergens, toxins, or pathogens. For this reason, it is mandatory to develop highly sensitive, reliable, rapid, and cost-effective sensing systems/devices, such as electrochemical sensors/biosensors. Generally, conventional techniques are limited by long analyses, expensive and complex procedures, and skilled personnel. Therefore, developing performant electrochemical biosensors can significantly support the screening of food chains and products. Here, we report some of the recent developments in this area and analyze the contributions produced by electrochemical biosensors in food screening and their challenges.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Antibacterianos/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Toxinas Biológicas/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147077, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088125

RESUMO

Animal-based food supply chains lead to significant environmental impacts, which can be influenced by production systems, distribution networks and consumption patterns. To develop strategy aimed at reducing the environmental impact of animal-based food supply chains, the common environmental hotspots among different types of food, the role of transport logistics and the consequence of end market need to be better understood. Life cycle assessment was adopted to model three types of animal-based food chains (beef, butter and salmon), with specific technologies, high spatial-resolution logistics and typical consumption patterns for three markets: local, regional (intra-European) and international. The results confirmed that the farm production stage usually had the greatest environmental impact, except when air transport was used for distribution. Potentially, the role of end market also can significantly influence the environmental impacts. To understand more, three improvement options were examined in detail with regard to hotspots for climate change: novel feed ingredients (farm production stage), sustainable aviation fuel (transport and logistics stage) and reduction of wasted food (consumption and end of life stage). Significant reduction was achieved in the salmon system by sustainable aviation fuel (64%) and novel feed (15%). Minimizing food waste drove the greatest reduction in the beef supply chain (23%) and the international butter supply chain can reduce 50% of GHG mission by adopting sustainable aviation fuel. Combined interventions could reduce GHG emission of animal-based food supply chains by 15% to 82%, depending on market, transport and food waste behaviour. The results show that eco-efficiency information of animal-based foods should include the full supply chain. The effective mitigation strategy to achieve the greatest reduction should not only consider the impacts on-farm, but also detail of the downstream impacts, such as food distribution network and consumption patterns.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Bovinos , Mudança Climática , Cadeia Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8829-8838, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142818

RESUMO

Marine lipophilic phycotoxins (MLPs) are produced by toxigenic microalgae and cause foodborne illnesses. However, there is little information on the trophic transfer potential of MLPs in marine food webs. In this study, various food web components including 17 species of mollusks, crustaceans, and fishes were collected for an analysis of 17 representative MLPs, including azaspiracids (AZAs), brevetoxins (BTXs), gymnodimine (GYM), spirolides (SPXs), okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), yessotoxins (YTXs), and ciguatoxins (CTXs). Among the 17 target MLPs, 12, namely, AZAs1-3, BTX3, GYM, SPX1, OA, DTXs1-2, PTX2, YTX, and the YTX derivative homoYTX, were detected, and the total MLP concentrations ranged from 0.316 to 20.3 ng g-1 wet weight (ww). The mean total MLP concentrations generally decreased as follows: mollusks (8.54 ng g-1, ww) > crustaceans (1.38 ng g-1, ww) > fishes (0.914 ng g-1, ww). OA, DTXs, and YTXs were the predominant MLPs accumulated in the studied biota. Trophic dilution of the total MLPs was observed with a trophic magnification factor of 0.109. The studied MLPs might not pose health risks to residents who consume contaminated seafood; however, their potential risks to the ecosystem can be a cause for concern.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ácido Okadáico/análise
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(12): 7900-7909, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029071

RESUMO

Emergent aquatic insects are important food subsidies to riparian food webs but can also transfer waterborne contaminants to the terrestrial environment. This study aimed to quantitatively assess this biodriven transfer for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Aquatic insect larvae, emergent aquatic insects, terrestrial consumers, sediment, and water were collected from a contaminated lake and stream and an uncontaminated pond, and analyzed for PFAS and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Top predators in this study were spiders, which showed the highest average ∑24PFAS concentration of 1400 ± 80 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) at the lake and 630 ng g-1 dw at the stream. The transfer of PFAS from the lake to the riparian zone, via deposition of emergent aquatic insects, was 280 ng ∑24PFAS m-2 d-1 in 2017 and only 23 ng ∑24PFAS m-2 d-1 in 2018. Because of higher production of emergent aquatic insects, the lake had higher PFAS transfer and higher concentrations in terrestrial consumers compared to the stream, despite the stream having higher PFAS concentration in water and aquatic insect larvae. Our results indicate that biodriven transfer of PFAS from the aquatic systems and subsequent uptake in terrestrial food webs depend more on emergence amounts, i.e., aquatic prey availability, rather than on PFAS concentrations in water and aquatic prey.


Assuntos
Insetos , Aranhas , Animais , Carbono , Cadeia Alimentar , Rios
16.
Environ Res ; 199: 111332, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004168

RESUMO

In this study we investigated the independent and synergistic effects of lithium (Li, 0.08 mM) contamination and the rising seawater temperature (21 °C; control- 15 °C) on survival and trophic interactions (foraging behaviour, success, search time, carrion preference, feeding time, and tissue consumption-the dry weight basis) of the opportunistic intertidal scavenger Tritia neritea. Trophic interactions were assessed in a two-choice test using a Y-maze design using the same amount of two carrion species (Solen marginatus and Mytilus galloprovincialis) given to all snails simultaneously. Lithium pollution and synergestic warming have the effect of reducing the survival rate of T. neritea, triggering potential global change scenarios. The foraging behaviour of T. neritea under Li-contaminated conditions was characterised by a decrease in the snail's effectiveness in finding a carrion. Lithium changes the feeding behaviour as well as increasing the time it takes for snails to reach their food. T. neritea did not show preference for any of the carrion species offered in controls, but a shift in feeding behaviour towards more energetic carrion under Li contamination which may indicate a strategy to compensate for the greater energy expenditure necessary to survive. There were no differences in feeding time at the different treatments and regardless of the treatment tested T. neritea consumed more mussels tissue probably due to its greater palatability. Results showing foraging modifications in an intertidal scavenger mollusc in global change scenarios indicate potential changes in complex trophic interactions of marine food webs.


Assuntos
Lítio , Mytilus , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Água do Mar , Caramujos
17.
Oecologia ; 196(2): 441-453, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009471

RESUMO

As the environment is getting warmer and species are redistributed, consumers can be forced to adjust their interactions with available prey, and this could have cascading effects within food webs. To better understand the capacity for foraging flexibility, our study aimed to determine the diet variability of an ectotherm omnivore inhabiting kelp forests, the sea urchin Echinus esculentus, along its entire latitudinal distribution in the northeast Atlantic. Using a combination of gut content and stable isotope analyses, we determined the diet and trophic position of sea urchins at sites in Portugal (42° N), France (49° N), southern Norway (63° N), and northern Norway (70° N), and related these results to the local abundance and distribution of putative food items. With mean estimated trophic levels ranging from 2.4 to 4.6, omnivory and diet varied substantially within and between sites but not across latitudes. Diet composition generally reflected prey availability within epiphyte or understorey assemblages, with local affinities demonstrating that the sea urchin adjusts its foraging to match the small-scale distribution of food items. A net "preference" for epiphytic food sources was found in northern Norway, where understorey food was limited compared to other regions. We conclude that diet change may occur in response to food source redistribution at multiple spatial scales (microhabitats, sites, regions). Across these scales, the way that key consumers alter their foraging in response to food availability can have important implication for food web dynamics and ecosystem functions along current and future environmental gradients.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , França , Noruega , Ouriços-do-Mar
18.
Environ Res ; 199: 111347, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019893

RESUMO

Antidepressants may influence the food web and alter the nitrogen cycle through top-down forces. However, the effect of antidepressants on the key nitrogen-using species in the benthic microbial food web remains unclear, particularly the resulting changes in the nitrogen transformation process within the microecosystems. Therefore, in this study, we employed DNA stable-isotope probing to detect nitrogen-converting organisms at various trophic levels and quantify the nitrogen transformation process for the first time. The input of sertraline greatly increased nitrogen-transforming microorganisms and promoted more species to participate in the nitrogen transformation process. 100 µg/L sertraline was observed to stimulate the predation of bacteria via protozoa and metazoan, increasing the total nitrogen flow flux through the microbial food web to 31.50%, 1.32 times that of the natural condition. The results confirm that at sertraline concentrations close to the lowest observable effect concentration in the meiobenthos (100 µg/L), key components in the microbial food web were largely interfered and exerted a long-term interference on the nutrient cycle in the river sediment ecosystem. These findings confirm that sertraline has negative effects on river ecosystems from the perspective of microbial food webs and open a new line of inquiry into assessing ecological risks of antidepressants.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , DNA , Isótopos , Nitrogênio , Sertralina
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1950): 20210558, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975473

RESUMO

Predators affect prey through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects (NCEs), and prey typically face threats from multiple simultaneous predators. While different predators have a variety of NCEs on prey, little is known regarding effects of simultaneous multiple predators on demographic habitat selection. Demographic habitat selection is unique among NCEs, especially in discrete habitat patches; decisions directly affect both distribution and abundance of species across habitat patches, rather than simply abundance and performance within patches. Our goal was to determine strength of avoidance responses to multiple species/species combinations of predatory fish, and responses to predator richness. We assessed responses of ovipositing grey treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) to three predatory fish species and substitutive combination of species. In single-species treatments, treefrogs avoided only one species, Notemigonus crysoleucas. All two-species combinations, and the three-species combination, were avoided, including the Fundulus chrysotus × Noturus phaeus combination, of which neither were avoided alone. This suggests emergent properties of multiple predators, with potential interactive effects among cues themselves or in the perception of cues by treefrogs. Our results indicate effects of multiple predators are not predictable based on individual effects, and illustrate the importance and complexity of effects of demographic habitat selection on distribution and abundance.


Assuntos
Oviposição , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Anuros , Ecossistema , Feminino , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2796, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990610

RESUMO

The Triassic (252-201 Ma) marks a major punctuation in Earth history, when ecosystems rebuilt themselves following the devastating Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Herbivory evolved independently several times as ecosystems comprising diverse assemblages of therapsids, parareptiles and archosauromorphs rose and fell, leading to a world dominated by dinosaurs. It was assumed that dinosaurs prevailed either through long-term competitive replacement of the incumbent clades or rapidly and opportunistically following one or more extinction events. Here we use functional morphology and ecology to explore herbivore morphospace through the Triassic and Early Jurassic. We identify five main herbivore guilds (ingestion generalists, prehension specialists, durophagous specialists, shearing pulpers, and heavy oral processors), and find that herbivore clades generally avoided competition by almost exclusively occupying different guilds. Major ecosystem remodelling was triggered multiple times by external environmental challenges, and previously dominant herbivores were marginalised by newly emerging forms. Dinosaur dominance was a mix of opportunity following disaster, combined with competitive advantage in their new world.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Animais , Biodiversidade , Análise por Conglomerados , Dieta , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/fisiologia , Extinção Biológica , Cadeia Alimentar , Fósseis , História Antiga , Filogenia
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