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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

RESUMO

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Rios , Caraciformes , Estações do Ano , Lagos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246180, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278550

RESUMO

Abstract In fisheries, the phenomenon known as fishing down food webs is supposed to be a consequence of overfishing, which would be reflected in a reduction in the trophic level of landings. In such scenarios, the resilience of carnivorous, top predator species is particularly affected, making these resources the first to be depleted. The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, exemplifies a predator resource historically targeted by artisanal fisheries on the Brazilian coast. The present work analyzes landings in three periods within a 50-year timescale on the Parana coast, Southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate whether historical production has supposedly declined. Simultaneously, the diet was analyzed to confirm carnivorous habits and evaluate the trophic level in this region. Surprisingly, the results show that from the 1970's to 2019 Serra Spanish mackerel production grew relatively to other resources, as well as in individual values. The trophic level was calculated as 4.238, similar to other Scomberomorus species, consisting of a case where landings increase over time, despite the high trophic level and large body size of the resource. The results agree with a recent global assessment that has demystified a necessary correlation between high trophic level and overexploitation, but possible factors acting on the present findings are discussed.


Resumo Na pesca, o fenômeno fishing down food webs, ou 'pescando teias tróficas abaixo', expressa a redução do nível trófico na composição das capturas, e tem origem tradicionalmente atribuída à sobrepesca. Sob intenso extrativismo, a resiliência das espécies carnívoras, predadoras de topo, é particularmente afetada, sendo seus estoques os primeiros a entrarem em depleção. A cavala, ou serra, ou sororoca, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, é exemplo de recurso predador historicamente alvo da pesca artesanal, de pequena escala, na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho analisa os valores de desembarque do recurso em três períodos ao longo de 50 anos na costa paranaense, sul do Brasil, com objetivo de avaliar se sua produção tem efetivamente diminuído. Ainda, estuda-se a dieta da espécie na região, para confirmar seus hábitos carnívoros e avaliar o nível trófico na região. Os resultados mostram que, surpreendentemente, dos anos 1970 para 2019 a produção de S. brasiliensis tem aumentado em valores absolutos, bem como relativamente à de outros recursos, em que pese o nível trófico 4,238, similar a outras espécies do gênero. Constata-se que a pesca da cavala na região de estudo constitui um caso de aumento nos desembarques a despeito de elevado nível trófico e grande tamanho corpóreo. Os resultados concordam com recente levantamento em nível mundial, que nega existir correlação necessária entre sobrepesca e nível trófico alto, mas fatores que podem explicar os resultados do presente trabalho são discutidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Pesqueiros , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cadeia Alimentar
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129690, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104924

RESUMO

The trophodynamics of toxic trace metals is significant for assessing the threat of toxic trace metals to the aquatic ecosystem and human safety. However, due to the difficulty of accurately calculating the trophic positions of freshwater aquatic organisms in the food web, the comprehensive process of trophodynamics of toxic trace metals in freshwater ecosystems was still rarely known. By integrating the compound-specific nitrogen stable isotopic analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AAs) and the Bayesian stable isotope mixing model (SIMM) as a novel approach, the present study investigated the trophodynamics of five toxic trace metals (Zn, As, Cr, Cu, and Hg) in the food web of the YangZong Lake, a plateau freshwater lake that was once heavily polluted by arsenic in Yunnan Province, China. The results revealed that Hg tended to be efficiently biomagnified in the food web with a trophic magnification factor of 1.75; As, Cr, and Cu were biodiluted significantly, while Zn showed no biomagnification or biodilution trends. The dietary health risk assessment indicated the potential health risk of toxic trace metals for the local residents of long-term fish consumption. The present work highlights the accuracy and reliability of the novel CSIA-AAS+SIMM approach in the calculation of the trophic positions of freshwater organisms.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Teorema de Bayes , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 198(13-15): 1125-1130, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083768

RESUMO

Tritium is released into the ocean from nuclear facilities located at coastal areas. In addition, tritiated water is decided to be released into the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Although released tritium concentration would be strictly controlled, impact of tritium on the marine products is major concern for the public. In this study, deuterium transfers from seawater into seaweed (ulva) and abalone were measured. In addition, organically bound deuterium (OBD) transfer from ulva into abalone was measured. OBD concentrations in ulva were saturated in 2 weeks and those in abalone were saturated in 6 months. Ulva and abalone were exposed to seawater containing 0.2% (mol-D/mol-H) deuterium. Maximum OBD concentrations in ulva were ~0.1% (mol-D/mol-H) and those in abalone muscle were ~0.035% (mol-D/mol-H). Numerical deuterium transfer model was constructed. Obtained numerical model well represented the OBD-enriched ulva feeding experiment.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Deutério/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Japão , Água do Mar/análise , Trítio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
5.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(9): 1736-1739, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065143

RESUMO

Research Highlight: Li, X., Liu, T., Li, H., Geisen, S., Hu, F., & Liu, M. (2022). Management effects on soil nematode abundance differ among functional groups and land-use types at a global scale. Journal of Animal Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13744. Despite the well-documented decline of aboveground species abundances as a result of land-use intensification, there has been little attention on the effects of human activities on belowground species abundances. Li et al. analyse nematode data, the most abundant animal on the planet, from across the globe to determine whether their abundances vary between managed and unmanaged habitats. The authors show that, unlike aboveground biodiversity, nematode abundance is higher in managed than unmanaged primary and secondary habitats. Furthermore, responses to land management vary between trophic groups and they do not appear to follow the general hypothesis that higher trophic levels are more vulnerable to human activity than those further down the food chain, except in urban habitats. Finally, Li et al. show that the relationships between environmental predictors and species abundance were weakened (and sometimes reversed) in managed habitats. Together, their results reveal how land-use management is impacting the trophic composition of soil nematode communities and their relationships with the environment, which has implications for ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Solo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Nematoides/fisiologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113852, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068768

RESUMO

Contamination of agro-ecosystems with heavy metals can affect the development and reproduction of insect natural enemies. This study reports a detailed Tandem Mass Tag based quantitative proteomic analysis of underlying mechanisms responsible for stress response of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri against heavy metals (cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)) transported across a multi-trophic food chain. A total of 6639 proteins were detected under Cd as well as Pb stress. In Pb versus the control cluster, 69 proteins (28 up-regulated and 41 down-regulated) were differentially expressed whereas 268 proteins were differentially expressed under Cd versus the control cluster, having 198 proteins up-regulated and 70 down-regulated proteins. The analysis of differentially expressed proteins showed that 27 proteins overlapped in both clusters representing the core proteome to Pb and Cd stress. The bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that these proteins were mapped to 57 and 99 pathways in Pb versus control and Cd versus control clusters, respectively. The functional classification by COG, GO and KEGG databases showed significant changes in protein expression by C. montrouzieri under Pb and Cd stress. The heavy metal stress (Pb and Cd) induced significant changes in expression of proteins like hexokinase (HK), succinyl-CoA, trypsin like proteins, cysteine proteases, cell division cycle proteins, and yellow gene proteins. The results provide detailed information on the protein expression levels of C. montrouzieri and will serve as basic information for future proteomic studies on heavy metal responses of insect predators within a multi-trophic food chain.


Assuntos
Besouros , Metais Pesados , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Besouros/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Insetos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Proteômica
7.
J Math Biol ; 85(4): 38, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129551

RESUMO

Identifying early warning signs of sudden population changes and mechanisms leading to regime shifts are highly desirable in population biology. In this paper, a two-trophic ecosystem comprising of two species of predators, competing for their common prey, with explicit interference competition is considered. With proper rescaling, the model is portrayed as a singularly perturbed system with fast prey dynamics and slow dynamics of the predators. In a parameter regime near singular Hopf bifurcation, chaotic mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs), featuring concatenation of small and large amplitude oscillations are observed as long-lasting transients before the system approaches its asymptotic state. To analyze the dynamical cause that initiates a large amplitude oscillation in an MMO orbit, the model is reduced to a suitable normal form near the singular-Hopf point. The normal form possesses a separatrix surface that separates two different types of oscillations. A large amplitude oscillation is initiated if a trajectory moves from the "inner" to the "outer side" of this surface. A set of conditions on the normal form variables are obtained to determine whether a trajectory would exhibit another cycle of MMO dynamics before experiencing a regime shift (i.e. approaching its asymptotic state). These conditions serve as early warning signs for a sudden population shift as well as detect the onset of a regime shift in this ecological model.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional
8.
Elife ; 112022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069772

RESUMO

Dietary lipids (DLs), particularly sterols and fatty acids, are precursors for endogenous lipids that, unusually for macronutrients, shape cellular and organismal function long after ingestion. These functions - cell membrane structure, intracellular signalling, and hormonal activity - vary with the identity of DLs, and scale up to influence health, survival, and reproductive fitness, thereby affecting evolutionary change. Our Ecological Lipidology approach integrates biochemical mechanisms and molecular cell biology into evolution and nutritional ecology. It exposes our need to understand environmental impacts on lipidomes, the lipid specificity of cell functions, and predicts the evolution of lipid-based diet choices. Broad interdisciplinary implications of Ecological Lipidology include food web alterations, species responses to environmental change, as well as sex differences and lifestyle impacts on human nutrition, and opportunities for DL-based therapies.


Assuntos
Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006196

RESUMO

To begin to understand the impact of food chain dynamics on ciguatera risk, we used published data to model the transfer of ciguatoxins across four trophic levels of a marine food chain in Platypus Bay, Australia. The data to support this first attempt to conceptualize the scale of each trophic transfer step was limited, resulting in broad estimates. The hypothetical scenario we explored generated a low-toxicity 10 kg Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) with a flesh concentration of 0.1 µg/kg of Pacific-ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1, also known as CTX1B) from 19.5-78.1 µg of P-CTX-1 equivalents (eq.) that enter the marine food chain from a population of 12-49 million benthic dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus sp.) producing 1.6 × 10-12 g/cell of the P-CTX-1 precursor, P-CTX-4B. This number of Gambierdiscus could be epiphytic on 22-88 kg of the benthic macroalgae (Cladophora) that carpets the bottom of much of Platypus Bay, with the toxin transferred to an estimated 40,000-160,000 alpheid shrimps in the second trophic level. This large number of shrimps appears unrealistic, but toxic shrimps would likely be consumed by a school of small, blotched javelin fish (Pomadasys maculatus) at the third trophic level, reducing the number of shrimps consumed by each fish. The Spanish mackerel would accumulate a flesh concentration of 0.1 µg/kg P-CTX-1 eq. by preying upon the school of blotched javelin and consuming 3.6-14.4 µg of P-CTX-1 eq. However, published data indicate this burden of toxin could be accumulated by a 10 kg Spanish mackerel from as few as one to three blotched javelin fish, suggesting that much greater amounts of toxin than modelled here must at certain times be produced and transferred through Platypus Bay food chains. This modelling highlights the need for better quantitative estimates of ciguatoxin production, biotransformation, and depuration through marine food chains to improve our understanding and management of ciguatera risk.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas , Dinoflagelados , Perciformes , Animais , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Ciguatoxinas/metabolismo , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Perciformes/metabolismo
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 113977, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973245

RESUMO

Here we assessed the subsurface ultraphytoplanktonic (< 10 µm) community along a North-South round-trip Mediterranean transect as part of a MERITE-HIPPOCAMPE cruise campaign in April-May 2019. Temperature, salinity, and nutrient concentrations in subsurface waters (2-5 m depth) were also measured along the transect. The subsurface ultraphytoplankton community structure was resolved with a spatial resolution of few kilometers and temporal resolution of 30-min intervals using automated pulse shape recording flow cytometry. The subsurface waters were clustered into seven areas based on temperature and salinity characteristics. Synechococcus were by far the most abundant group in all prospected zones, and nanoeukaryotes were the main biomass component, representing up to 51 % of ultraphytoplanktonic carbon biomass. Apparent net primary productivity (NPP) followed a decreasing gradient along the transect from north to south and was mostly sustained by Synechococcus in all zones. These findings are likely to have implications in terms of the trophic transfer of contaminants in planktonic food webs, as they highlight the potential role of nanoplankton in contaminants bioaccumulation processes and the potential role of Synechococcus in a likely transfer via grazing activities.


Assuntos
Água do Mar , Synechococcus , Biomassa , Cadeia Alimentar , Plâncton , Água do Mar/química
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(16): 11440-11448, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921287

RESUMO

We investigated trophic dynamics of Hg in the polluted Baltic Archipelago Sea using established trophic magnification (TMFs) and biomagnification factors (BMFs) on a comprehensive set of bird, fish, and invertebrate species. As different ecological and ecophysiological species traits may affect trophic dynamics, we explored the effect of food chain (benthic, pelagic, benthopelagic) and thermoregulatory strategy on trophic total Hg (THg) dynamics, using different approaches to accommodate benthopelagic species and normalize for trophic position (TP). We observed TMFs and most BMFs greater than 1, indicating overall THg biomagnification. We found significantly higher pelagic TMFs (3.58-4.02) compared to benthic ones (2.11-2.34) when the homeotherm bird species were excluded from models, but not when included. This difference between the benthic and pelagic TMFs remained regardless of how the TP of benthopelagic species was modeled, or whether TMFs were normalized for TP or not. TP-corrected BMFs showed a larger range (0.44-508) compared to BMFs representing predator-prey concentration ratios (0.05-82.2). Overall, the present study shows the importance of including and evaluating the effect of ecological and ecophysiological traits when investigating trophic contaminant dynamics.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(10): 10252-10274, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031993

RESUMO

Biological invasions have been paid more attention since invasive species may cause certain threats to local ecosystems. When biological control is adopted, selecting control species for effect better becomes the focus of latest studies. A food web system, with one native species, one invasive species as predator, and one introduced control species preying on both native and invasive species, is established based on pair approximation, in which the spatial landscape of biological invasion and control is concerned, and the local and global dispersal strategies of invasive species, in addition to the predation preferences of control species for native and invasive species, are considered. The influence of the initial density and initial spatial structures of the control species is investigated and the effects of control species releasing time are analyzed. Generally, the earlier the species introduction, the better the control effect, especially for invasive species dispersing globally. Interestingly, too low control species predation preference for native species can lead to unsuccessful introduction, while too much predation preference will have a weak control effect. The larger the control species predatory preference for invasive species is, the more conducive it is to biological control. The extinction of the invasive species is closely related to the initial density and concentration of the control species. This study gives some insights on selecting control species, its appropriate releasing time, and the density and spatial aggregation of it. Some real-life examples are elaborated on, which provides references for biological invasion control.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Espécies Introduzidas
13.
Science ; 377(6609): 1008-1011, 2022 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007038

RESUMO

Food webs influence ecosystem diversity and functioning. Contemporary defaunation has reduced food web complexity, but simplification caused by past defaunation is difficult to reconstruct given the sparse paleorecord of predator-prey interactions. We identified changes to terrestrial mammal food webs globally over the past ~130,000 years using extinct and extant mammal traits, geographic ranges, observed predator-prey interactions, and deep learning models. Food webs underwent steep regional declines in complexity through loss of food web links after the arrival and expansion of human populations. We estimate that defaunation has caused a 53% decline in food web links globally. Although extinctions explain much of this effect, range losses for extant species degraded food webs to a similar extent, highlighting the potential for food web restoration via extant species recovery.


Assuntos
Efeitos Antropogênicos , Extinção Biológica , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Mamíferos , Comportamento Predatório
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14668, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038623

RESUMO

Random matrix theory has been applied to food web stability for decades, implying elliptical eigenvalue spectra and that large food webs should be unstable. Here we allow feasible food webs to self-assemble within an evolutionary process, using simple Lotka-Volterra equations and several elementary interaction types. We show that, as complex food webs evolve under [Formula: see text] invasion attempts, the community matrix spectra become bi-modal, rather than falling onto elliptical geometries. Our results raise questions as to the applicability of random matrix theory to the analysis of food web steady states.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Evolução Biológica , Cadeia Alimentar
15.
J Math Biol ; 85(3): 20, 2022 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960362

RESUMO

Although ecological networks are typically constructed based on a single type of interaction, e.g. trophic interactions in a food web, a more complete picture of ecosystem composition and functioning arises from merging networks of multiple interaction types. In this work, we consider tripartite networks constructed by merging two bipartite networks, one mutualistic and one antagonistic. Taking the interactions within each sub-network to be distributed randomly, we consider the stability of the dynamics of the network based on the spectrum of its community matrix. In the asymptotic limit of a large number of species, we show that the spectrum undergoes an eigenvalue phase transition, which leads to an abrupt destabilisation of the network as the ratio of mutualists to antagonists is increased. We also derive results that show how this transition is manifest in networks of finite size, as well as when disorder is introduced in the segregation of the two interaction types. Our random-matrix results will serve as a baseline for understanding the behaviour of merged networks with more realistic structures and/or more detailed dynamics.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Simbiose
16.
Ecol Lett ; 25(9): 2048-2061, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925978

RESUMO

A narrative in ecology is that prey modify traits to reduce predation risk, and the trait modification has costs large enough to cause ensuing demographic, trophic and ecosystem consequences, with implications for conservation, management and agriculture. But ecology has a long history of emphasising that quantifying the importance of an ecological process ultimately requires evidence linking a process to unmanipulated field patterns. We suspected that such process-linked-to-pattern (PLP) studies were poorly represented in the predation risk literature, which conflicts with the confidence often given to the importance of risk effects. We reviewed 29 years of the ecological literature which revealed that there are well over 4000 articles on risk effects. Of those, 349 studies examined risk effects on prey fitness measures or abundance (i.e., non-consumptive effects) of which only 26 were PLP studies, while 275 studies examined effects on other interacting species (i.e., trait-mediated indirect effects) of which only 35 were PLP studies. PLP studies were narrowly focused taxonomically and included only three that examined unmanipulated patterns of prey abundance. Before concluding a widespread and influential role of predation-risk effects, more attention must be given to linking the process of risk effects to unmanipulated patterns observed across diverse ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13948, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977970

RESUMO

Food webs studies are intrinsically complex and time-consuming. Network data about trophic interaction across different large locations and ecosystems are scarce in comparison with general ecological data, especially if we consider terrestrial habitats. Here we present a complex network strategy to ease the gathering of the information by simplifying the collection of data with a taxonomic key. We test how well the topology of three different food webs retain their structure at the resolution of the nodes across distinct levels of simplification, and we estimate how community detection could be impacted by this strategy. The first level of simplification retains most of the general topological indices; betweenness and trophic levels seem to be consistent and robust even at the higher levels of simplification. This result suggests that generalisation and standardisation, as a good practice in food webs science, could benefit the community, both increasing the amount of open data available and the comparison among them, thus providing support especially for scientists that are new in this field and for exploratory analysis.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14069, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982210

RESUMO

Domestic dogs are the most abundant carnivore globally and have demonstrable negative impacts to wildlife; yet, little evidence regarding their functional roles in natural food webs exists. Adding dogs to food webs may result in a net loss (via suppression of naturally occurring species), net gain (via mesopredator release), or no change (via functional replacement) to ecosystem function. Scavenging is a pivotal function in ecosystems, particularly those that are energetically supported by carrion. Dogs also scavenge on animal carcasses, but whether scavenging by dogs influences the structural and functional properties of food webs remains unclear. Here we used camera traps baited with carrion to test the effect of dogs on the composition and diversity of the vertebrate scavenger guild, as well as carrion detection and consumption rates. We conducted this work in sandy beach ecosystems, which rely on the import of marine organic matter (i.e. stranding of dead marine animals). Diversity of the scavenger community was similar on beaches without dogs. Dogs increased the time it took for carcasses to be detected and decreased the proportion of carrion consumed. This 'dog suppression effect' on scavenging was stronger for nocturnal mammalian scavengers, presumably being driven by indirect trait-mediated effects, which raises further questions about the broader ecological consequences of domestic dogs in natural systems.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Cães , Ecossistema , Peixes , Vertebrados
19.
J Environ Manage ; 319: 115488, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982549

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Ecological Risk Assessments (ERAs) are important tools for supporting evidence-based decision making. However, most ERA frameworks rarely consider complex ecological feedbacks, which limit their capacity to evaluate risks at community and ecosystem levels of organisation. METHOD: We used qualitative mathematical modelling to add additional perspectives to previously conducted ERAs for the rehabilitation of the Ranger uranium mine (Northern Territory, Australia) and support an assessment of the cumulative risks from the mine site. Using expert elicitation workshops, separate qualitative models and scenarios were developed for aquatic and terrestrial systems. The models developed in the workshops were used to construct Bayes Nets that predicted whole-of-ecosystem outcomes after components were perturbed. RESULTS: The terrestrial model considered the effect of fire and weeds on established native vegetation that will be important for the successful rehabilitation of Ranger. It predicted that a combined intervention that suppresses both weeds and fire intensity gave similar response predictions as for weed control alone, except for lower levels of certainty to tall grasses and fire intensity in models with immature trees or tall grasses. However, this had ambiguous predictions for short grasses and forbs, and tall grasses in models representing mature vegetation. The aquatic model considered the effects of magnesium (Mg), a key solute in current and predicted mine runoff and groundwater egress, which is known to adversely affect many aquatic species. The aquatic models provided support that attached algae and phytoplankton assemblages are the key trophic base for food webs. It predicted that shifts in phytoplankton abundance arising from increase in Mg to receiving waters, may result in cascading effects through the food-chain. CONCLUSION: The qualitative modelling approach was flexible and capable of modelling both gradual (i.e. decadal) processes in the mine-site restoration and the comparatively more rapid (seasonal) processes of the aquatic ecosystem. The modelling also provides a useful decision tool for identifying important ecosystem sub-systems for further research efforts.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urânio , Teorema de Bayes , Cadeia Alimentar , Medição de Risco , Urânio/análise
20.
Am Nat ; 200(3): 303-315, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977788

RESUMO

AbstractSpecies interaction networks are subject to natural and anthropogenic disturbances that lead to their disassembly, while natural regeneration or restoration efforts facilitate their reassembly. Previous models for assembling ecological networks did not include stochasticity at the level of population dynamics (e.g., demographic noise, environmental noise) and focused mainly on food webs. Here, we present a model for the assembly of mutualistic bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, and examine the influence of demographic noise on the trajectory of species and strategy diversity, that is, the range of present strategies from specialism to generalism. We find that assembled communities show at intermediate assembly stages a maximum of species diversity and of average generalization. Our model thus provides a mechanism for nonlinear, hump-shaped diversity trajectories at intermediate succession, consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Long-term coexistence of specialists and generalists emerges only in the presence of demographic noise and is due to a persistent species turnover. These findings highlight the importance of stochasticity for maintaining long-term diversity.


Assuntos
Especialização , Simbiose , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Plantas , Dinâmica Populacional
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