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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(2): e1011675, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330086

RESUMO

Ecosystems are commonly organized into trophic levels-organisms that occupy the same level in a food chain (e.g., plants, herbivores, carnivores). A fundamental question in theoretical ecology is how the interplay between trophic structure, diversity, and competition shapes the properties of ecosystems. To address this problem, we analyze a generalized Consumer Resource Model with three trophic levels using the zero-temperature cavity method and numerical simulations. We derive the corresponding mean-field cavity equations and show that intra-trophic diversity gives rise to an effective "emergent competition" term between species within a trophic level due to feedbacks mediated by other trophic levels. This emergent competition gives rise to a crossover from a regime of top-down control (populations are limited by predators) to a regime of bottom-up control (populations are limited by primary producers) and is captured by a simple order parameter related to the ratio of surviving species in different trophic levels. We show that our theoretical results agree with empirical observations, suggesting that the theoretical approach outlined here can be used to understand complex ecosystems with multiple trophic levels.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e16827, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406272

RESUMO

Yellowstone National Park thermal features regularly discharge various heavy metals and metalloids. These metals are taken up by microorganisms that often form mats in thermal springs. These microbial mats also serve as food sources for invertebrate assemblages. To examine how heavy metals move through insect food webs associated with hot springs, two sites were selected for this study. Dragon-Beowulf Hot Springs, acid-sulfate chloride springs, have a pH of 2.9, water temperatures above 70 °C, and populations of thermophilic bacterial, archaeal, and algal mats. Rabbit Creek Hot Springs, alkaline springs, have a pH of up to 9, some water temperatures in excess of 60 °C, and are populated with thermophilic and phototrophic bacterial mats. Mats in both hydrothermal systems form the trophic base and support active metal transfer to terrestrial food chains. In both types of springs, invertebrates bioaccumulated heavy metals including chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, tin and lead, and the metalloids arsenic, selenium, and antimony resulting from consuming the algal and bacterial mat biomass. At least two orders of magnitude increase in concentrations were observed in the ephydrid shore fly Paracoenia turbida, as compared to the mats for all metals except antimony, mercury, and lead. The highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of 729 was observed for chromium. At the other end of the food web, the invertebrate apex predator, Cicindelidia haemorrhagica, had at least a 10-fold BAF for all metals at some location-year combinations, except with antimony. Of other taxa, high BAFs were observed with zinc for Nebria sp. (2180) and for Salda littoralis (1080). This accumulation, occurring between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels at both springs, is biomagnified through the trophic web. These observations suggest trace metals enter the geothermal food web through the microbial mat community and are then transferred through the food chain. Also, while bioaccumulation of arsenic is uncommon, we observed five instances of increases near or exceeding 10-fold: Odontomyia sp. larvae (13.6), P. turbida (34.8), C. haemorrhagica (9.7), Rhagovelia distincta (16.3), and Ambrysus mormon (42.8).


Assuntos
Arsênio , Dípteros , Fontes Termais , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Animais , Coelhos , Cadeia Alimentar , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Antimônio , Parques Recreativos , Bactérias , Insetos , Invertebrados , Cromo , Água
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116040, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306817

RESUMO

Insecticides are an indispensable and important tool for agricultural production. However, the inappropriate application of insecticides can cause damage to the food chain and ecosystem. Orius similis is an important predatory and natural enemy of Frankliniella occidentalis. Imidacloprid is widely used to control pests, but will inevitably exert adverse effects on O. similis. In order to determine the effect of different imidacloprid treatments on the ability of O. similis to prey on the 2nd-instar nymphs of F. occidentalis, we determined the toxicity and predation of imidacloprid on different stages of O. similis under contact and ingestion treatments. In addition, we used the Holling disc equation to evaluate the ability of O. similis to search and exhibit predatory activity following contact and ingestion treatments. Analysis showed that the highest LC10 and LC20 values for imidacloprid contact and ingestion toxicity treatment were 17.06 mg/L and 23.74 mg/L, respectively. Both imidacloprid treatments led toa reduction in the predatory of O. similis on prey. The functional responses of the 3rd to 5th instar nymphs, along with female and male O. similis adults to the 2nd-instar nymphs of F. occidentalis were consistent with the Holling type II response following contact and ingestion with imidacloprid. However, following imidacloprid treatment, the handing time (Th) of O. similis with single F. occidentalis was prolonged and the instantaneous attack rate (a) was reduced after imidacloprid treatment. The predatory capacity (a/Th) of female O. similis adults when treated with the LC10 concentration of imidacloprid by ingestion was 52.85; this was lower than that of the LC10 concentration of imidacloprid in the contact treatment (57.67). The extent of predation of O. similis on the 2nd-instar nymphs of F. occidentalis was positively correlated with prey density, although the search effect was negatively correlated with prey density. The most extensive search effect was exhibited by adult O. similis females. Simulations with the Hessell-Varley interference model showed that an increase in the number of O. similis would reduce search efficiency regardless of whether they were treated with imidacloprid or not. Thus, O. similis, especially female adults, exhibited strong potential for controlling the 2nd-instar nymphs of F. occidentalis. The toxicity of ingestion following treatment with the same concentration of imidacloprid in O. similis was greater than that of contact treatment. When using O. similis to control F. occidentalis in the field, we should increase the number of female adults released, and prolong the interval between imidacloprid treatment and O. similis exposure. This strategy will improve the control ability of O. similis, coordinate both chemical and biological control, reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, and improve the efficiency of agricultural production.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Ninfa
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1304, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347008

RESUMO

Ecosystem regime shifts can have severe ecological and economic consequences, making it a top priority to understand how to make systems more resilient. Theory predicts that spatial connectivity and the local environment interact to shape resilience, but empirical studies are scarce. Here, we use >7000 fish samplings from the Baltic Sea coast to test this prediction in an ongoing, spatially propagating shift in dominance from predatory fish to an opportunistic mesopredator, with cascading effects throughout the food web. After controlling for the influence of other drivers (including increasing mesopredator densities), we find that predatory fish habitat connectivity increases resilience to the shift, but only when densities of fish-eating top predators (seals, cormorants) are low. Resilience also increases with temperature, likely through boosted predatory fish growth and recruitment. These findings confirm theoretical predictions that spatial connectivity and the local environment can together shape resilience to regime shifts.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Focas Verdadeiras , Animais , Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Cadeia Alimentar , Peixes
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232749, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320605

RESUMO

Ecological communities can be stable over multiple generations, or rapidly shift into structurally and functionally different configurations. In kelp forest ecosystems, overgrazing by sea urchins can abruptly shift forests into alternative states that are void of macroalgae and primarily dominated by actively grazing sea urchins. Beginning in 2014, a sea urchin outbreak along the central coast of California resulted in a patchy mosaic of remnant forests interspersed with sea urchin barrens. In this study, we used a 14-year subtidal monitoring dataset of invertebrates, algae, and fishes to explore changes in community structure associated with the loss of forests. We found that the spatial mosaic of barrens and forests resulted in a region-wide shift in community structure. However, the magnitude of kelp forest loss and taxonomic-level consequences were spatially heterogeneous. Taxonomic diversity declined across the region, but there were no declines in richness for any group, suggesting compositional redistribution. Baseline ecological and environmental conditions, and sea urchin behaviour, explained the persistence of forests through multiple stressors. These results indicate that spatial heterogeneity in preexisting ecological and environmental conditions can explain patterns of community change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Kelp , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Florestas , Invertebrados , Ouriços-do-Mar
6.
Math Biosci Eng ; 21(1): 1-33, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303411

RESUMO

Within the framework of a food web, the foraging behavior of meso-carnivorous species is influenced by fear responses elicited by higher trophic level species, consequently diminishing the fecundity of these species. In this study, we investigate a three-species food chain model comprising of prey, an intermediate predator, and a top predator. We assume that both the birth rate and intraspecies competition of prey are impacted by fear induced by the intermediate predator. Additionally, the foraging behavior of the intermediate predator is constrained due to the presence of the top predator. It is essential to note that the top predators exhibit a generalist feeding behavior, encompassing food sources beyond the intermediate predators. The study systematically determines all feasible equilibria of the proposed model and conducts a comprehensive stability analysis of these equilibria. The investigation reveals that the system undergoes Hopf bifurcation concerning various model parameters. Notably, when other food sources significantly contribute to the growth of the top predators, the system exhibits stable behavior around the interior equilibrium. Our findings indicate that the dynamic influence of fear plays a robust role in stabilizing the system. Furthermore, a cascading effect within the system, stemming from the fear instigated by top predators, is observed and analyzed. Overall, this research sheds light on the intricate dynamics of fear-induced responses in shaping the stability and behavior of multi-species food web systems, highlighting the profound cascading effects triggered by fear mechanisms in the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Medo
7.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(2): e17167, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348640

RESUMO

Land use intensification favours particular trophic groups which can induce architectural changes in food webs. These changes can impact ecosystem functions, services, stability and resilience. However, the imprint of land management intensity on food-web architecture has rarely been characterized across large spatial extent and various land uses. We investigated the influence of land management intensity on six facets of food-web architecture, namely apex and basal species proportions, connectance, omnivory, trophic chain lengths and compartmentalization, for 67,051 European terrestrial vertebrate communities. We also assessed the dependency of this influence of intensification on land use and climate. In addition to more commonly considered climatic factors, the architecture of food webs was notably influenced by land use and management intensity. Intensification tended to strongly lower the proportion of apex predators consistently across contexts. In general, intensification also tended to lower proportions of basal species, favoured mesopredators, decreased food webs compartmentalization whereas it increased their connectance. However, the response of food webs to intensification was different for some contexts. Intensification sharply decreased connectance in Mediterranean and Alpine settlements, and it increased basal tetrapod proportions and compartmentalization in Mediterranean forest and Atlantic croplands. Besides, intensive urbanization especially favoured longer trophic chains and lower omnivory. By favouring mesopredators in most contexts, intensification could undermine basal tetrapods, the cascading effects of which need to be assessed. Our results support the importance of protecting top predators where possible and raise questions about the long-term stability of food webs in the face of human-induced pressures.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Humanos , Vertebrados/fisiologia , Florestas , Clima
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232361, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351802

RESUMO

Reports of fading vole and lemming population cycles and persisting low populations in some parts of the Arctic have raised concerns about the spread of these fundamental changes to tundra food web dynamics. By compiling 24 unique time series of lemming population fluctuations across the circumpolar region, we show that virtually all populations displayed alternating periods of cyclic/non-cyclic fluctuations over the past four decades. Cyclic patterns were detected 55% of the time (n = 649 years pooled across sites) with a median periodicity of 3.7 years, and non-cyclic periods were not more frequent in recent years. Overall, there was an indication for a negative effect of warm spells occurring during the snow onset period of the preceding year on lemming abundance. However, winter duration or early winter climatic conditions did not differ on average between cyclic and non-cyclic periods. Analysis of the time series shows that there is presently no Arctic-wide collapse of lemming cycles, even though cycles have been sporadic at most sites during the last decades. Although non-stationary dynamics appears a common feature of lemming populations also in the past, continued warming in early winter may decrease the frequency of periodic irruptions with negative consequences for tundra ecosystems.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Ecossistema , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Cadeia Alimentar , Regiões Árticas
9.
Mar Environ Res ; 195: 106382, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309039

RESUMO

Many oceanic areas are still in need of baseline information on their structure and functioning. This is particularly important due to the ever-increasing impacts of global changes, which have led to the decline of marine life, and top predators in particular. The study of the structure and functioning of food webs can help understand the consequences of the disappearance of this group in marine ecosystems. Here, we develop a mass-balanced model for the marine Exclusive Economic Zone of the archipelago of Madeira, with emphasis on the role of marine megafauna in this ecosystem. A total of 50 functional groups were defined, representing coastal and open ocean areas, and epipelagic and deep-sea levels. The total biomass of the Madeira system was calculated at 52.68 t km-2, with lower trophic level organisms comprising 89.9 % of its biomass. Marine megafauna, namely pelagic sharks and coastal birds had the highest impacts across other trophic levels and were classified as keystone species, together with monk seals. The food web was characterized by a linear-like food chain, with a large proportion of specialized organisms, including dolphins, shearwaters, and large pelagic fish. The low mean trophic level of the system was 2.03, much lower than that of fisheries (4.3) targeting mainly tunas and Black scabbardfish. Considering the importance of marine megafauna in this food web and the threats they are facing; monitoring studies of key species in the region should be a priority. This study can now be used to build a needed ecosystem-based fisheries management and integrate conservation measures to declining species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Oceanos e Mares , Biomassa , Peixes , Pesqueiros , Aves
10.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120155, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308987

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a major organic sulfide in aquatic ecosystems and an infochemical that is considered as a key predictor of changes in energy and material fluxes and stocks. It is largely unknown how DMS changes and affects the food webs and material cycles in eutrophicated freshwater. In this study, field monitoring and literature surveys were conducted to analyze the effects of eutrophication on DMS concentrations. Daphnia-zebrafish microcosms were then used to investigate the effects of DMS concentrations on carbon transfer. The results demonstrated that the concentration of DMS was increased by eutrophication related indicators (chlorophyll and phosphorus). Eutrophication driven DMS altered carbon transfer in the freshwater food chain. Low concentrations (0.1-1 nM) of DMS promoted the predation of daphnia by zebrafish compared to the 0.01 nM DMS, which further stimulated the total carbon transfer from daphnia to zebrafish and altered the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) distribution in water. High concentrations (10-100 nM) of DMS did not alter zebrafish predation on daphnia and carbon transfer. DOC excreted by zebrafish altered carbon emission potential, and DMS in water showed a unimodal relationship with the carbon emission potential, peaking at 0.40 nM DMS. Keeping the DMS in water at 1.82 nM may maintain a lower carbon emission potential. These results improved the understanding of the effects of eutrophication on DMS, demonstrated the ecological role of DMS on freshwater fish and the carbon cycle, estimated the effects of DMS on the carbon emission potential of fish, and offered new insights into the management of eutrophication.


Assuntos
Carbono , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixe-Zebra , Água Doce , Sulfetos , Eutrofização , Água
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3955, 2024 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368496

RESUMO

Enhancing ocean productivity by artificial upwelling is evaluated as a nature-based solution for food security and climate change mitigation. Fish production is intended through diatom-based plankton food webs as these are assumed to be short and efficient. However, our findings from mesocosm experiments on artificial upwelling in the oligotrophic ocean disagree with this classical food web model. Here, diatoms did not reduce trophic length and instead impaired the transfer of primary production to crustacean grazers and small pelagic fish. The diatom-driven decrease in trophic efficiency was likely mediated by changes in nutritional value for the copepod grazers. Whilst diatoms benefitted the availability of essential fatty acids, they also caused unfavorable elemental compositions via high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios (i.e. low protein content) to which the grazers were unable to adapt. This nutritional imbalance for grazers was most pronounced in systems optimized for CO2 uptake through carbon-to-nitrogen ratios well beyond Redfield. A simultaneous enhancement of fisheries production and carbon sequestration via artificial upwelling may thus be difficult to achieve given their opposing stoichiometric constraints. Our study suggest that food quality can be more critical than quantity to maximize food web productivity during shorter-term fertilization of the oligotrophic ocean.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Ecossistema
12.
Environ Int ; 184: 108468, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340403

RESUMO

The man-made sea dike has disrupted the natural link between riverine and marine ecosystems and caused eutrophication within the aquatic ecosystem. The eutrophic water discharge has also raised concerns. As a representative tidal flat with the longest dike in the world, Saemangeum has experienced the problem of eutrophication. To elucidate the discharge water effects on the benthic food web dynamics, a four-year round sampling was conducted in/outside of the Saemangeum sea dike. Stable isotope analysis was applied to benthos (a total of 54 species) and their potential diets. Water discharge tripled in period II (2021-2022) compared to the period I (2019-2020). However, there were no significant impact changes in food web structure between the two periods due to improved lake water quality in period II. A positive correlation of nutrient concentration between the inner and outer areas of the dike revealed a direct effect of the water discharge on the outer tidal flat. The water discharge altered the spatial environmental conditions and the food web structure of the outer tidal flat. High TN concentrations stimulated the biomass of microphytobenthos (MPB) near the water gates, which in turn increased MPB consumption by benthos, demonstrating the in/direct impacts of water discharge on the food web. Furthermore, filter feeders exhibited a more sensitive response to spatial organic matter distribution compared to deposit feeders in diet utilization. Overall, our novel findings on food web dynamics in a representative tidal flat with artificial structures emphasize the necessity of continuous monitoring to ensure the sustainability of coastal ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Biomassa , Qualidade da Água , Água Doce
13.
Science ; 383(6684): 777-782, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359116

RESUMO

Macroecological scaling patterns, such as between prey and predator biomass, are fundamental to our understanding of the rules of biological organization and ecosystem functioning. Although these scaling patterns are ubiquitous, how they arise is poorly understood. To explain these patterns, we used an eco-evolutionary predator-prey model parameterized using data for phytoplankton and zooplankton. We show that allometric scaling relationships at lower levels of biological organization, such as body-size scaling of nutrient uptake and predation, give rise to scaling relationships at the food web and ecosystem levels. Our predicted macroecological scaling exponents agree well with observed values across ecosystems. Our findings explicitly connect scaling relationships at different levels of biological organization to ecological and evolutionary mechanisms, yielding testable hypotheses for how observed macroecological patterns emerge.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton , Animais , Biomassa
14.
Geobiology ; 22(1): e12585, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385603

RESUMO

The nitrogen isotopic composition (15 N/14 N ratio, or δ15 N) of enameloid-bound organic matter (δ15 NEB ) in shark teeth was recently developed to investigate the biogeochemistry and trophic structures (i.e., food webs) of the ancient ocean. Using δ15 NEB , we present the first nitrogen isotopic evidence for trophic differences between shark taxa from a single fossil locality. We analyze the teeth of four taxa (Meristodonoides, Ptychodus, Scapanorhynchus, and Squalicorax) from the Late Cretaceous (83-84 Ma) Trussells Creek site in Alabama, USA, and compare the N isotopic findings with predictions from tooth morphology, the traditional method for inferring shark paleo-diets. Our δ15 NEB data indicate two distinct trophic groups, with averages separated by 6.1 ± 2.1‰. The lower group consists of Meristodonoides and Ptychodus, and the higher group consists of Scapanorhynchus and Squalicorax (i.e., lamniforms). This δ15 NEB difference indicates a 1.5 ± 0.5 trophic-level separation between the two groups, a finding that is in line with paleontological predictions of a higher trophic level for these lamniforms over Meristodonoides and Ptychodus. However, the δ15 NEB of Meristodonoides is lower than suggested by tooth morphology, although consistent with mechanical tests suggesting that higher trophic-level bony fishes were not a major component of their diet. Further, δ15 NEB indicates that the two sampled lamniform taxa fed at similar trophic levels despite their different inferred tooth functions. These two findings suggest that tooth morphology alone may not always be a sufficient indicator of dietary niche. The large trophic separation revealed by the δ15 NEB offset leaves open the possibility that higher trophic-level lamniforms, such as those measured here, preyed upon smaller, lower trophic-level sharks like Meristodonoides.


Assuntos
Tubarões , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Tubarões/anatomia & histologia , Golfo do México , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170729, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325445

RESUMO

Decades of overfishing have greatly altered the community structure in the East China Sea (ECS). The decrease of top predators in the food web has weakened the control exerted from higher trophic levels. As a result, the biomass of benthic crustaceans, representing the third trophic level, has increased. This has probably led to a restriction of the second trophic level, diminishing its ability to control primary producer biomass. Consequently, the ecological pyramid of trophic levels in the ECS has been altered, reducing the top-down control on the first trophic level. This has made algal blooms more susceptible to occur under nutrient loads, temperate temperatures, and light availability. The reduced abundance of the fourth trophic levels has caused a larger portion of primary productivity to sink directly to the benthic community, bypassing the food web. This influx of sinking organic matter has resulted in organic enrichment in the bottom waters, impacting the biomass and diversity of benthic organisms. Furthermore, it has intensified anthropogenic carbon storage in the sediment. Subsequently, intense decomposition processes occur, leading to the development of anoxia and even hypoxia. The seasonal hypoxia off the Changjiang Estuary can be attributed to the combined influence of top-down control and bottom-up control related to nutrient loading, and terrestrial inputs. In order to mitigate extreme hypoxia events, it is necessary to implement comprehensive fisheries policies that prioritize the maintenance of a healthy and functional ecosystem. This approach should go beyond relying solely on watershed management strategies to regulate riverine inputs. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Decades of overfishing changed the food web in the East China Sea and weaken the resistance of ecosystem to hypoxia. Commercial fishing on top predators decreases the fourth trophic level while relatively increases the third trophic represented by crab and shrimp, which enhances grazing on the zooplankton. The decrease of the second trophic level fails to control the biomass of phytoplankton, thus more primary productivities directly sink to the benthic community and cause organic enrichment. The elevated flux of organic matters to the bottom waters causes the thrive of the carbs and shrimps, as well as more remineralization processes and eventually low oxygen level. Unlike the bottom-up perspective of hypoxia mechanism off the Changjiang Estuary, which is from the nutrient load, phytoplankton bloom, quick sink, effective decomposition and eventually hypoxia, the top-down control focuses on the changes of ecosystem structure and thus derived hindered energy transfer, changed community structure, enhanced carbon sink, elevated remineralization and ultimately hypoxia. These two mechanisms combine with each other and control the seasonal hypoxia off the Changjiang Estuary and even other coastal regions around the world.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Pesqueiros , Cadeia Alimentar , Biomassa , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Hipóxia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170719, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331297

RESUMO

In the context of global environmental change, this study presents a novel approach to evaluating microplastic (MP) fluxes and probabilities of pollution within marine food webs. A topological model was built to understand the dynamics of MP pollution in the Mediterranean food webs. The analysis involves two approaches: the first approach includes centrality measures to understand the key role of species in the transmission of trophic effects regarding MPs, and the second approach incorporates MP data by developing the Interaction Pollution Indices (IPIs) at multiple levels to identify species being sources and receptors of MP pollution in the new concept of a plastic-food web. The trophic network consisted of 356 nodes representing not only species, but also aggregations in higher taxa, for a total of 3517 interactions, with 108 species having information on MP frequency of occurrence (FO). The mean probability of dietary MP transference was 0.087 %, and the maximum was 18 %. Species such as the rose shrimp A. antennatus, the catshark S. canicula, the sole S. solea, the sardine S. pilchardus, the Norway lobster N. norvegicus, and the forkbeard P. phycis were found to be significant sources of pollution and played crucial roles in the transmission of effects within the network. By incorporating the IPIs, a deeper understanding of the pollution dynamics at multiple levels was gained, highlighting the value of combining feeding and MP pollution data to develop effective management and conservation strategies. The application of the IPIs holds immense potential for studying bioaccumulation and biomagnification through MP pollutant transferences in marine ecosystems. Its flexibility in incorporating different types of information and units enables its transversal application throughout the field of ecology. This research provides a crucial step towards developing effective tools for MP pollution mitigation strategies and the preservation of marine ecosystems integrity.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Microplásticos/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Plásticos/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1521, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374248

RESUMO

Some animal species shift their activity towards increased nocturnality in disturbed habitats to avoid predominantly diurnal humans. This may alter diel overlap among species, a precondition to most predation and competition interactions that structure food webs. Here, using camera trap data from 10 tropical forest landscapes, we find that hyperdiverse Southeast Asian wildlife communities shift their peak activity from early mornings in intact habitats towards dawn and dusk in disturbed habitats (increased crepuscularity). Our results indicate that anthropogenic disturbances drive opposing behavioural adaptations based on rarity, size and feeding guild, with more nocturnality among the 59 rarer specialists' species, more diurnality for medium-sized generalists, and less diurnality for larger hunted species. Species turnover also played a role in underpinning community- and guild-level responses, with disturbances associated with markedly more detections of diurnal generalists and their medium-sized diurnal predators. However, overlap among predator-prey or competitor guilds does not vary with disturbance, suggesting that net species interactions may be conserved.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Sudeste Asiático
18.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(3): 98, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393462

RESUMO

Microplastics, which have a diameter of less than 5 mm, are becoming an increasingly prevalent contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to the dramatic increase in plastic production to 390.7 million tonnes in 2021. Among all the plastics produced since 1950, nearly 80% ended up in the environment or landfills and eventually reached the oceans. Currently, 82-358 trillion plastic particles, equivalent to 1.1-4.9 million tonnes by weight, are floating on the ocean's surface. The interactions between microorganisms and microplastics have led to the transportation of other associated pollutants to higher trophic levels of the food chain, where microplastics eventually reach plants, animals, and top predators. This review paper focuses on the interactions and origins of microplastics in diverse environmental compartments that involve terrestrial and aquatic food chains. The present review study also critically discusses the toxicity potential of microplastics in the food chain. This systematic review critically identified 206 publications from 2010 to 2022, specifically reported on microplastic transport and ecotoxicological impact in aquatic and terrestrial food chains. Based on the ScienceDirect database, the total number of studies with "microplastic" as the keyword in their title increased from 75 to 4813 between 2010 and 2022. Furthermore, various contaminants are discussed, including how microplastics act as a vector to reach organisms after ingestion. This review paper would provide useful perspectives in comprehending the possible effects of microplastics and associated contaminants from primary producers to the highest trophic level (i.e. human health).


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Cadeia Alimentar , Plásticos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 300, 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401000

RESUMO

The rupture of the Fundão dam is considered the largest mining failure in history, which had a particularly detrimental impact on fish populations, as the mud from the ore tailings significantly altered the water quality and habitat of Doce River basin. This study aimed to assess the trophic structure of fish communities in areas impacted and not impacted by the dam rupture in the Doce River basin. To evaluate the food web structure, community-wide trophic niche, and trophic positions of fish, stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) were utilized across ten sites (seven impacted and three control). In general, fish appeared to assimilate resources such as invertebrates, algae, and periphyton, although the importance of each resource varied among sites. The site closest to the dam rupture exhibited a more simplified trophic structure compared to the control sites and those nearer the river mouth. In this site, most fish species occupied a similar trophic position. Trophic niches also exhibited the greatest dissimilarity between the site closest to the dam failure and those farther away from it, with an expansion of trophic niche breadth observed with an increase in the distance from the dam rupture. Our study provided valuable insights into the trophic structure of fish communities within the Doce River basin, shedding light on the trophic ecology of the 59 fish species investigated. We also emphasize the importance of our study for future assessments of ore tailings dam failure disasters and evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation measures for Doce River basin recovery.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Rios/química , Cadeia Alimentar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixes
20.
Science ; 383(6681): 433-438, 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271503

RESUMO

Mutualisms often define ecosystems, but they are susceptible to human activities. Combining experiments, animal tracking, and mortality investigations, we show that the invasive big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) makes lions (Panthera leo) less effective at killing their primary prey, plains zebra (Equus quagga). Big-headed ants disrupted the mutualism between native ants (Crematogaster spp.) and the dominant whistling-thorn tree (Vachellia drepanolobium), rendering trees vulnerable to elephant (Loxodonta africana) browsing and resulting in landscapes with higher visibility. Although zebra kills were significantly less likely to occur in higher-visibility, invaded areas, lion numbers did not decline since the onset of the invasion, likely because of prey-switching to African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We show that by controlling biophysical structure across landscapes, a tiny invader reconfigured predator-prey dynamics among iconic species.


Assuntos
Formigas , Equidae , Cadeia Alimentar , Leões , Simbiose , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Elefantes , Búfalos
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