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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149872, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461480

RESUMO

In many high altitude river basins, the hydro-climatic regimes and the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation are little known, complicating efforts to quantify current and future water availability. Scarce, or non-existent, gauged observations at high altitudes coupled with complex weather systems and orographic effects further prevent a realistic and comprehensive assessment of precipitation. Quantifying the contribution from seasonal snow and glacier melt to the river runoff for a high altitude, melt dependent region is especially difficult. Global scale precipitation products, in combination with precipitation-runoff modelling may provide insights to the hydro-climatic regimes for such data scarce regions. In this study two global precipitation products; the high resolution (0.1°â€¯× 0.1°), newly developed ERA5-Land, and a coarser resolution (0.55°â€¯× 0.55°) JRA-55, are used to simulate snow/glacier melts and runoff for the Gilgit Basin, a sub-basin of the Indus. A hydrological precipitation-runoff model, the Distance Distribution Dynamics (DDD), requires minimum input data and was developed for snow dominated catchments. The mean of total annual precipitation from 1995 to 2010 data was estimated at 888 mm and 951 mm by ERA5-Land and JRA-55, respectively. The daily runoff simulation obtained a Kling Gupta efficiency (KGE) of 0.78 and 0.72 with ERA5-Land and JRA-55 based simulations, respectively. The simulated snow cover area (SCA) was validated using MODIS SCA and the results are quite promising on daily, monthly and annual scales. Our result showed an overall contribution to the river flow as about 26% from rainfall, 37-38% from snow melt, 31% from glacier melt and 5% from soil moisture. These melt simulations are in good agreement with the overall hydro-climatic regimes and seasonality of the area. The proxy energy balance approach in the DDD model, used to estimate snow melt and evapotranspiration, showed robust behaviour and potential for being employed in data poor basins.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Neve , Hidrologia , Camada de Gelo , Rios
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150442, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563910

RESUMO

Glacial lakes in the Himalayas are widely distributed. Since 1900, more than 100 glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have originated in the region, causing approximately 7000 deaths and considerable economic losses. Identifying potentially dangerous glacial lakes (PDGLs) is considered the first step in assessing GLOF risks. In this study, a more thorough inventory of PDGLs was presented that included numerous small-sized glacial lakes (<0.1 km2) that were generally neglected in the Himalayas for decades. Moreover, the PDGL evaluation system was improved in response to several deficiencies, such as the selection of assessment factors, which are sometimes arbitrary without a solid scientific basis. We designed an optimality experiment to select the best combination of assessment factors from 57 factors to identify PDGLs. Based on the experiments on both drained and non-drained glacial lakes in the Sunkoshi Basin, eastern Himalayas, five assessment factors were determined to be the best combination: the mean slope of the parent glacier, the potential for mass movement into the lake, the mean slope of moraine dams, the watershed area, and the lake perimeter, corresponding to the GLOF triggers for ice avalanches, rockfalls and landslides, dam instability, heavy precipitation or other liquid inflows, and lake characteristics, respectively. We then applied the best combination of assessment factors to the 1650 glacial lakes with an area greater than 0.02 km2 in the Himalayas. We identified 207 glacial lakes as very high-hazard and 345 as high-hazard. It is noteworthy that in various GLOF susceptibility evaluation scenarios with different assessment factors, weighting schemes, and classification approaches, similar results for glacial lakes with high outburst potential have been obtained. The results provided here can be used as benchmark data to assess the GLOF risks for local communities.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Lagos , Inundações
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149889, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482131

RESUMO

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a global warming hotspot, however, the warming status at high elevation (>5000 m) is poorly understood due to very sparse observations. Here we analyze spatial patterns in TP warming rates based on a novel near-surface air temperature dataset of 1980-2014 recently developed by ingesting high-elevation observations and downscaled reanalysis datasets. We show that the high snow cover persistence at high elevation reduces strengthening of positive feedbacks responsible for elevation dependent warming at low-middle elevations, leading to reversed altitudinal patterns of TP warming above and below 5000 m. An important negative feedback is induced by the presence of snow and glaciers at elevations above 5000 m, due to their "buffering" effects by consuming or reflecting energy that would be used for warming in the absence of snow or ice. A further decrease in snow cover and glacier extent at high elevations may thus amplify the warming on the TP.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Neve , Camada de Gelo , Temperatura , Tibet
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150002, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482143

RESUMO

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) produced by marine algae represents the largest natural emission of sulfur to the atmosphere. The oxidation of DMS is a key process affecting new particle formation that contributes to the radiative forcing of the Earth. In this study, atmospheric DMS and its major oxidation products (methanesulfonic acid, MSA; non-sea-salt sulfate, nss-SO42-) and particle size distributions were measured at King Sejong station located in the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral spring-summer period in 2018-2020. The observatory was surrounded by open ocean and first-year and multi-year sea ice. Importantly, oceanic emissions and atmospheric oxidation of DMS showed distinct differences depending on source regions. A high mixing ratio of atmospheric DMS was observed when air masses were influenced by the open ocean and first-year sea ice due to the abundance of DMS producers such as pelagic phaeocystis and ice algae. However, the concentrations of MSA and nss-SO42- were distinctively increased for air masses originating from first-year sea ice as compared to those originating from the open ocean and multi-year sea ice, suggesting additional influences from the source regions of atmospheric oxidants. Heterogeneous chemical processes that actively occur over first-year sea ice tend to accelerate the release of bromine monoxide (BrO), which is the most efficient DMS oxidant in Antarctica. Model-estimates for surface BrO confirmed that high BrO mixing ratios were closely associated with first-year sea ice, thus enhancing DMS oxidation. Consequently, the concentration of newly formed particles originated from first-year sea ice, which was a strong source area for both DMS and BrO was greater than from open ocean (high DMS but low BrO). These results indicate that first-year sea ice plays an important yet overlooked role in DMS-induced new particle formation in polar environments, where warming-induced sea ice changes are pronounced.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Água do Mar , Regiões Antárticas , Sulfetos/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150334, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818791

RESUMO

Microplastic (MPs) contamination is ubiquitous in most terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Recently MPs have been reported at high altitudes which indicates that air masses can transport and deposit MPs in the surface snow of high mountain ecosystems, however, whether MPs typification and abundance can be influenced by direction and origin of air masses still remains an open question. Here we present the first report of MPs above 5000 m a.s.l from surface snow of a glacier in the tropical Andes. We collected surface snow along an elevational gradient, from 5000 to 5400 m a.s.l., in the Antisana Glacier, in the northern Andes cordillera of Ecuador to analyze MPs abundance and polymeric identification with the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and also to hypothesized the possible MPs sources in this remote area by comparing the oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic ratio composition of the snow samples and by analyzing the wind direction. We observed an average of 131 ± 24 MPs L-1 in our samples. Fibers corresponded to 70% of all MP shapes; FTIR results showed that MPs composition mainly included polyurethane, polyethylene, polyamide, polyester, and high-density polyethylene in surface snow. There were no statistically significant differences of MPs abundance among sampled elevations, and the isotopic ratio composition did not differ among locations. Our results suggest that MP that accumulated in the glacier may be transported from the east, across the Amazonia, by the prevalent eastward air flow. The absence of industrial cities at least 2000 km further east from Antisana, indicates that the remote Andean glaciers could constitute important depositional zones for long-distance transported contaminants.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Camada de Gelo , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 761, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719750

RESUMO

The Upper Indus Basin has a large concentration of glaciers and mainly fed by snow and glacier melt. These melt runoffs are the primary driver of discharge and significantly contribute to Indus flows. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) up to the Besham Quila site. This study focuses on quantifying runoff's contribution from different sources, including snow and glacier melt, and evaluates model performance in the glacierized Himalayan basin. The model was calibrated (1981-2000) and validated (2001-2007) daily and monthly using 27 years of measured discharge data at the Besham Quila station. A statistical indicator shows a "good" relationship between simulated and observed discharge on a daily and "very good" on a monthly timestamp. In this study, the annual contribution from snow/ice melt in the basin was quantified and found to be 51% of the total runoff. Apart from this, around 30% of water comes from direct runoff generated through liquid precipitation and 3.8% from groundwater. The remaining (~15%) is contributed by interflows sourced from the rainfall and snow/ice melt. The basin receives 61% contribution from snow and glacier melt during monsoon (July-Sept) and 38% during summer (April-June) seasons, while negligible in other seasons. A decreasing trend is observed in modelled total runoff and melt runoff of about 1.11 × 109 m3 a-1 and 0.73 × 109 m3 a-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Neve , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios
7.
Am Nat ; 198(5): 590-609, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648394

RESUMO

AbstractAnimals, fungi, and algae with complex multicellular bodies all evolved independently from unicellular ancestors. The early history of these major eukaryotic multicellular clades, if not their origins, co-occur with an extreme phase of global glaciations known as the Snowball Earth. Here, I propose that the long-term loss of low-viscosity environments due to several rounds global glaciation drove the multiple origins of complex multicellularity in eukaryotes and the subsequent radiation of complex multicellular groups into previously unoccupied niches. In this scenario, life adapts to Snowball Earth oceans by evolving large size and faster speeds through multicellularity, which acts to compensate for high-viscosity seawater and achieve fluid flow at sufficient levels to satisfy metabolic needs. Warm, low-viscosity seawater returned with the melting of the Snowball glaciers, and with it, by virtue of large and fast multicellular bodies, new ways of life were unveiled.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Água do Mar , Aclimatação , Fungos , Viscosidade
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 724, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648070

RESUMO

Global environmental changes not only contribute to the modification of global pollution transport pathways but can also alter contaminant fate within the Arctic. Recent reports underline the importance of secondary sources of pollution, e.g. melting glaciers, thawing permafrost or increased riverine run-off. This article reviews reports on the European Arctic-we concentrate on the Svalbard region-and environmental contamination by inorganic pollutants (heavy metals and artificial radionuclides), including their transport pathways, their fate in the Arctic environment and the concentrations of individual elements in the ecosystem. This review presents in detail the secondary contaminant sources and tries to identify knowledge gaps, as well as indicate needs for further research. Concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in Svalbard have been studied, in various environmental elements since the beginning of the twentieth century. In the last 5 years, the highest concentrations of Cd (13 mg kg-1) and As (28 mg kg-1) were recorded for organic-rich soils, while levels of Pb (99 mg kg-1), Hg (1 mg kg-1), Zn (496 mg kg-1) and Cu (688 mg kg-1) were recorded for marine sediments. Increased heavy metal concentrations were also recorded in some flora and fauna species. For radionuclides in the last 5 years, the highest concentrations of 137Cs (4500 Bq kg-1), 238Pu (2 Bq kg-1) and 239 + 240Pu (43 Bq kg-1) were recorded for cryoconites, and the highest concentration of 241Am (570 Bq kg-1) was recorded in surface sediments. However, no contamination of flora and fauna with radionuclides was observed.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Metais Pesados , Regiões Árticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Camada de Gelo , Metais Pesados/análise , Svalbard
9.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(11): 1759-1770, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610635

RESUMO

Plastic debris accumulates in the Arctic by way of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. High concentrations of microplastics (1 µm to 5 mm) have been measured, and nanoplastics (<1 µm) are expected to be abundant as well. However, little is known about the mobility of micro- and nanoplastics at the seawater/ice interface. This study investigates the fate of micro- and nanoplastics during sea-ice formation. A novel experimental approach simulates the growth of sea ice by progressively freezing a saline solution. After different durations of freezing, the concentrations of NaCl, natural organic matter, microplastics, and nanoplastics were measured in the ice and liquid. Micro- and nanoplastic distribution coefficients between saltwater and ice were determined, reflecting their behavior during congelation sea-ice growth. The results show that microplastics are retained in ice while nanoplastics are expulsed from it. Furthermore, natural organic matter plays a crucial role in stabilizing nanoplastics at this interface. These results raise new questions concerning the impact of micro- and nanoplastics in fragile polar environments and the analytical strategy to detect them.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Congelamento , Camada de Gelo , Água do Mar
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 726, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655335

RESUMO

The present study provides the first multi-year (2015-2020) random observation of black carbon (BC) aerosols from pristine localities along the Gangotri Glacier Valley in the north-western Indian Himalaya. Due to the harsh climatic conditions and inaccessible terrain, hardly any BC observation is available from glaciated Himalaya. To investigate the background concentration of BC in the high Himalaya, random measurements are conducted at five locations at variable microclimates with different anthropogenic influences along a 24-km-long Gangotri Glacier Valley trek, viz. Gangotri (~ 3200 m amsl), Chirbasa (~ 3600 m amsl), Bhojbasa (~ 3800 m amsl), Gaumukh (~ 4000 m amsl), and Tapovan (~ 4400 m amsl). A relatively high concentration of BC (up to 2.23 ± 0.57 µg m-3) was recorded at Gangotri which is a famous Indian pilgrimage centre which remains highly crowded during the peak tourist season, i.e. May-June and Oct-Nov every year. Surprisingly, we also recorded high BC (up to 1.27 ± 0.57 µg m-3) at Tapovan, which is a high altitude meadow surrounded by high ice-snow peaks, viz. Bhagirathi Peak (6856 m amsl), Shivling (6543 m amsl), and Meru Parvat (6660 m amsl). The HYSPLIT cluster trajectory and CALIPSO data images suggest that besides local anthropogenic activities, polluted air mass-produced due to burning of forest and agriculture biomass and fossil fuels, etc. transported from Indo Gangetic Basin might be playing a potential role in ambient BC concentration in the study area. The present preliminary investigations of BC in the Gangotri Glacier Valley open new vision and possibilities for further extensive ground-based observation of aerosol air pollutants in Himalayan glacier valley systems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Camada de Gelo , Projetos Piloto
12.
Ambio ; 50(11): 1991-2008, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519957

RESUMO

We present climate-dependent changes in the high-mountain forest ecotone, old-growth forests, alpine phytocenoses, and deglaciated forelands in the Aktru glacial basin (Altai Republic, Russia). A number of independent sources (variations in upper treeline altitude, dendrochronological data, analysis of lacustrine sediments and botanical and geographical studies linked with the dynamics of glacial-dammed lakes in the Chuya and Kurai intermountain depressions) suggest Holocene temperatures reached about 4 °C higher than today. Unlike the European Alps, glaciers in the continental Altai Mountains disappeared before forming again. Also, the upper altitudinal limit of mountain forests during the Holocene was greater than in the European Alps. The high variability of mountain ecosystems in southern Siberia suggests their potential instability in a currently changing climate. However, periglacial successions associated with the strong continental climate and glacier retreat represent an area of increasing biodiversity and plant cover. The historical and current sensitivity of the continental mountains to climate variations which exceeds that of the European Alps requires greater understanding, environmental protection, and increased social responsibility for the consequences of anthropogenic contributions to climate change: the isolated Altai areas contribute little to climate changes, but are greatly affected by them.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Florestas , Federação Russa
13.
Ambio ; 50(11): 2104-2127, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586591

RESUMO

A recent multidisciplinary compilation of studies on changes in the Siberian environment details how climate is changing faster than most places on Earth with exceptional warming in the north and increased aridity in the south. Impacts of these changes are rapid permafrost thaw and melt of glaciers, increased flooding, extreme weather events leading to sudden changes in biodiversity, increased forest fires, more insect pest outbreaks, and increased emissions of CO2 and methane. These trends interact with sociological changes leading to land-use change, globalisation of diets, impaired health of Arctic Peoples, and challenges for transport. Local mitigation and adaptation measures are likely to be limited by a range of public perceptions of climate change that vary according to personal background. However, Siberia has the possibility through land surface feedbacks to amplify or suppress climate change impacts at potentially global levels. Based on the diverse studies presented in this Ambio Special Issue, we suggest ways forward for more sustainable environmental research and management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pergelissolo , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Camada de Gelo , Sibéria
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1958): 20211741, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493082

RESUMO

Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is predicted to reduce both genetic diversity and gene flow in ice-dependent species, with potentially negative consequences for their long-term viability. Here, we tested for the population-genetic impacts of reduced sea ice cover on the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sampled across two decades (1995-2016) from the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, an area that is affected by rapid sea ice loss in the Arctic Barents Sea. We analysed genetic variation at 22 microsatellite loci for 626 polar bears from four sampling areas within the archipelago. Our results revealed a 3-10% loss of genetic diversity across the study period, accompanied by a near 200% increase in genetic differentiation across regions. These effects may best be explained by a decrease in gene flow caused by habitat fragmentation owing to the loss of sea ice coverage, resulting in increased inbreeding of local polar bears within the focal sampling areas in the Svalbard Archipelago. This study illustrates the importance of genetic monitoring for developing adaptive management strategies for polar bears and other ice-dependent species.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Ursidae , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Ursidae/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0253768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499651

RESUMO

The Labyrinth in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is characterized by large bedrock channels emerging from beneath the margin of Wright Upper Glacier. To study the morphodynamics of large subglacial channels cut into bedrock, we develop herein a numerical model based on the classical theory of subglacial channels and recent results on bedrock abrasion by saltating bed load. Model results show that bedrock abrasion in subglacial channels with pressurized flow reaches a maximum at an intermediate distance up-ice from the glacier snout for a wide range of sediment grain sizes and sediment loads. Close to the snout, the velocity is too low and the sediment particles cannot be mobilized. Far from the snout, the flow accelerates and sediment is transported in suspension, thus limiting particle impacts at the channel bottom and reducing abrasion. This non-monotonic relationship between subglacial flow and bedrock abrasion produces concave up bottom profiles in subglacial channels and potential cross-section constrictions after channel confluences. Both landforms are present in the bedrock channels of the Labyrinth. We therefore conclude that these geomorphic features are a possible signature of bedrock abrasion, rather than glacial scour, and reflect the complex interplay between transport rate, sediment load, and transport capacity in subglacial channels.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Camada de Gelo , Modelos Teóricos , Erosão do Solo
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(23): 6181-6191, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582605

RESUMO

Polar seafloor ecosystems are changing rapidly and dramatically, challenging previously held paradigms of extreme dynamical stability. Warming-related declines in polar sea ice are expected to alter fluxes of phytoplankton and under-ice algae to the seafloor. Yet, how changes in food flux cascade through to seafloor communities and functions remains unclear. We leveraged natural spatial and temporal gradients in summertime sea ice extent to better understand the trajectories and implications of climate-related change in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. McMurdo Sound was expected to be one of the last coastal marine environments on Earth to be affected by planetary warming, but the situation may be changing. Comparing satellite observations of selected coastal sites in McMurdo Sound between 2010-2017 and 2002-2009 revealed more ice-free days per year, and shorter distances to open water during the warmest months each year, in the more recent period. Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) and Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) climate indices peaked concurrently between 2014 and 2017 when sea ice breakouts in McMurdo Sound were most spatially and temporally extensive. Increases in sediment chlorophyll a and phaeophytin content (indicating increased deposition of detrital algal food material) were recorded during 2014-2017 at three coastal study sites in McMurdo Sound following the major sea ice breakouts. Soft-sediment seafloor ecosystem metabolism (measured in benthic incubation chambers as dissolved oxygen and inorganic nutrient fluxes) was correlated with sediment algal pigment concentration. Epifaunal invertebrate density, particularly opportunistic sessile suspension feeders, and infaunal community composition also shifted with increased food supply. The ecological characteristics and functions measured at the food-poor sites shifted towards those observed at richer sites at a surprisingly fast pace. These results indicate the sensitivity of the benthos and shed light on Antarctic marine trophic cascades and trajectories of response of iconic high-latitude seafloor habitats to a warming climate.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Regiões Antárticas , Clorofila A , Clima
18.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118124, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571465

RESUMO

Black carbon transport from the Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile, up to the adjacent Andes Cordillera and its glaciers is of major concern. Its deposition accelerates the melting of the snowpack, which could lead to stress on water supply in addition to climate feedback. A proposed pathway for this transport is the channelling through the network of canyons that connect the urban basin to the elevated summits, as suggested by modelling studies, although no observations have validated this hypothesis so far. In this work, atmospheric measurements from a dedicated field campaign conducted in winter 2015, under severe urban pollution conditions, in Santiago and the Maipo canyon, southeast of Santiago, are analysed. Wind (speed and direction) and particulate matter concentrations measured at the surface and along vertical profiles, demonstrate intrusions of thick layers (up to 600 m above ground) of urban black carbon deep into the canyon on several occasions. Transport of PM down-valley occurs mostly through shallow layers at the surface except in connection with deep valley intrusions, when a secondary layer in altitude with return flow (down-valley) at night is observed. The transported particulate matter is mostly from the vicinity of the entrance to the canyon and uncorrelated to concentrations observed in downtown Santiago. Reanalyses data show that for 10% of the wintertime days, deep intrusions into the Maipo canyon are prevented by easterly winds advecting air pollutants away from the Andes. Also, in 23% of the cases, intrusions proceed towards a secondary north-eastward branch of the Maipo canyon, leaving 67% of the cases with favourable conditions for deep penetrations into the main Maipo canyon. Reanalyses show that the wind directions associated to the 33% anomalous cases are related to thick cloud cover and/or the development of coastal lows.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Camada de Gelo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono , Chile , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Vento
19.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(23): 6252-6262, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491603

RESUMO

The impacts of climate change in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are not uniform and ice-obligate species with dissimilar life-history characteristics will likely respond differently to their changing ecosystems. We use a unique data set of Weddell Leptonychotes weddellii and crabeater seals' (CESs) Lobodon carcinophaga breeding season distribution in the Weddell Sea, determined from satellite imagery. We contrast the theoretical climate impacts on both ice-obligate predators who differ in life-history characteristics: CESs are highly specialized Antarctic krill Euphausia superba predators and breed in the seasonal pack ice; Weddell seals (WESs) are generalist predators and breed on comparatively stable fast ice. We used presence-absence data and a suite of remotely sensed environmental variables to build habitat models. Each of the environmental predictors is multiplied by a 'climate change score' based on known responses to climate change to create a 'change importance product'. Results show CESs are more sensitive to climate change than WESs. Crabeater seals prefer to breed close to krill, and the compounding effects of changing sea ice concentrations and sea surface temperatures, the proximity to krill and abundance of stable breeding ice, can influence their post-breeding foraging success and ultimately their future breeding success. But in contrast to the Ross Sea, here WESs prefer to breed closer to larger colonies of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). This suggests that the Weddell Sea may currently be prey-abundant, allowing the only two air-breathing Antarctic silverfish predators (Pleuragramma antarctica) (WESs and emperor penguins) to breed closer to each other. This is the first basin-scale, region-specific comparison of breeding season habitat in these two key Antarctic predators based on real-world data to compare climate change responses. This work shows that broad-brush, basin-scale approaches to understanding species-specific responses to climate change are not always appropriate, and regional models are needed-especially when designing marine protected areas.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Focas Verdadeiras , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo
20.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(10)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549265

RESUMO

Community assembly is a result of dispersal, abiotic and biotic characteristics of the habitat as well as stochasticity. A direct comparison between the assembly of microbial and 'macrobial' organisms is hampered by the sampling of these communities in different studies, at different sites or on different scales. In a glacier forefield in the Austrian Alps, we recorded the soil and plant microbiome (bacteria and fungi) and plants that occurred in the same landscape and in close proximity in the same plots. We tested five predictions deduced from assembly processes and revealed deviating patterns of assembly in these community types. In short, microbes appeared to be less dispersal limited than plants and soil microbes, and plants strongly responded to abiotic factors whereas the leaf microbiome was plant species specific and well buffered from environmental conditions. The observed differences in community assembly processes may be attributed to the organisms' dispersal abilities, the exposure of the habitats to airborne propagules and habitat characteristics. The finding that assembly is conditional to the characteristics of the organisms, the habitat and the spatial scale under consideration is thus central for our understanding about the establishment and the maintenance of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Biodiversidade , Camada de Gelo , Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
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