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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6716-6724, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573586

RESUMO

Wildfires in Australia have attracted extensive attention in recent years, especially for the devastating 2019-2020 fire season. Remote forcing, such as those from tropical oceans, plays an important role in driving the abnormal weather conditions associated with wildfires. However, whether high latitude climate change can impact Australian fires is largely unclear. In this study, we reveal a robust relationship between Antarctic sea ice concentration (SIC), primarily over the Amundsen Sea region, with Australian springtime fire activity, by using reanalysis data sets, AMIP simulation results, and a state-of-the-art climate model simulation. Specifically, a diminished Amundsen SIC leads to the formation of a high-pressure system above Australia as a result of the eastward propagation of Rossby waves. Meanwhile, two strengthened meridional cells originating from the tropic and polar regions also enhance subsiding airflow in Australia, resulting in prolonged arid and high-temperature conditions. This mechanism explains about 28% of the variability of Australian fire weather and contributed more than 40% to the 2019 extreme burning event, especially in the eastern hotspots. These findings contribute to our understanding of polar-low latitude climate teleconnection and have important implications for projecting Australian fires as well as the global environment.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Austrália , Camada de Gelo , Oceanos e Mares
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8192, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589522

RESUMO

In Fram Strait, we combined underway-sampling using the remote-controlled Automated Filtration System for Marine Microbes (AUTOFIM) with CTD-sampling for eDNA analyses, and with high-resolution optical measurements in an unprecedented approach to determine variability in plankton composition in response to physical forcing in a sub-mesoscale filament. We determined plankton composition and biomass near the surface with a horizontal resolution of ~ 2 km, and addressed vertical variability at five selected sites. Inside and near the filament, plankton composition was tightly linked to the hydrological dynamics related to the presence of sea ice. The comprehensive data set indicates that sea-ice melt related stratification near the surface inside the sub-mesoscale filament resulted in increased sequence abundances of sea ice-associated diatoms and zooplankton near the surface. In analogy to the physical data set, the underway eDNA data, complemented with highly sampled phytoplankton pigment data suggest a corridor of 7 km along the filament with enhanced photosynthetic biomass and sequence abundances of sea-ice associated plankton. Thus, based on our data we extrapolated an area of 350 km2 in Fram Strait with enhanced plankton abundances, possibly leading to enhanced POC export in an area that is around a magnitude larger than the visible streak of sea-ice.


Assuntos
Plâncton , Zooplâncton , Animais , Biomassa , Plâncton/genética , Zooplâncton/genética , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton/genética , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612701

RESUMO

The amyloid cascade hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease is still alive, although heavily challenged. Effective anti-amyloid immunotherapy would confirm the hypothesis' claim that the protein amyloid-beta is the cause of the disease. Two antibodies, aducanumab and lecanemab, have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, while a third, donanemab, is under review. The main argument for the FDA approvals is a presumed therapy-induced removal of cerebral amyloid deposits. Lecanemab and donanemab are also thought to cause some statistical delay in the determination of cognitive decline. However, clinical efficacy that is less than with conventional treatment, selection of amyloid-positive trial patients with non-specific amyloid-PET imaging, and uncertain therapy-induced removal of cerebral amyloids in clinical trials cast doubt on this anti-Alzheimer's antibody therapy and hence on the amyloid hypothesis, calling for a more thorough investigation of the negative impact of this type of therapy on the brain.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Camada de Gelo , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas , Radioimunoterapia
5.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(4): e16617, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558266

RESUMO

Sunlight penetrates the ice surfaces of glaciers and ice sheets, forming a water-bearing porous ice matrix known as the weathering crust. This crust is home to a significant microbial community. Despite the potential implications of microbial processes in the weathering crust for glacial melting, biogeochemical cycles, and downstream ecosystems, there have been few explorations of its microbial communities. In our study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics of a Svalbard glacier surface catchment to characterise the microbial communities within the weathering crust, their origins and destinies, and the functional potential of the weathering crust metagenome. Our findings reveal that the bacterial community in the weathering crust is distinct from those in upstream and downstream habitats. However, it comprises two separate micro-habitats, each with different taxa and functional categories. The interstitial porewater is dominated by Polaromonas, influenced by the transfer of snowmelt, and exported via meltwater channels. In contrast, the ice matrix is dominated by Hymenobacter, and its metagenome exhibits a diverse range of functional adaptations. Given that the global weathering crust area and the subsequent release of microbes from it are strongly responsive to climate projections for the rest of the century, our results underscore the pressing need to integrate the microbiome of the weathering crust with other communities and processes in glacial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Microbiota , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias/genética , Regiões Árticas
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(11): e2303366121, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437536

RESUMO

Phytoplankton and sea ice algae are traditionally considered to be the main primary producers in the Arctic Ocean. In this Perspective, we explore the importance of benthic primary producers (BPPs) encompassing microalgae, macroalgae, and seagrasses, which represent a poorly quantified source of Arctic marine primary production. Despite scarce observations, models predict that BPPs are widespread, colonizing ~3 million km2 of the extensive Arctic coastal and shelf seas. Using a synthesis of published data and a novel model, we estimate that BPPs currently contribute ~77 Tg C y-1 of primary production to the Arctic, equivalent to ~20 to 35% of annual phytoplankton production. Macroalgae contribute ~43 Tg C y-1, seagrasses contribute ~23 Tg C y-1, and microalgae-dominated shelf habitats contribute ~11 to 16 Tg C y-1. Since 2003, the Arctic seafloor area exposed to sunlight has increased by ~47,000 km2 y-1, expanding the realm of BPPs in a warming Arctic. Increased macrophyte abundance and productivity is expected along Arctic coastlines with continued ocean warming and sea ice loss. However, microalgal benthic primary production has increased in only a few shelf regions despite substantial sea ice loss over the past 20 y, as higher solar irradiance in the ice-free ocean is counterbalanced by reduced water transparency. This suggests complex impacts of climate change on Arctic light availability and marine primary production. Despite significant knowledge gaps on Arctic BPPs, their widespread presence and obvious contribution to coastal and shelf ecosystem production call for further investigation and for their inclusion in Arctic ecosystem models and carbon budgets.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Alga Marinha , Ecossistema , Orçamentos , Carbono , Mudança Climática , Camada de Gelo , Fitoplâncton
7.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 3712024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521984

RESUMO

Mountain glaciers are frequently assessed for their hydrological connectivity from glaciers to proglacial lakes. Ecological process on glacier surfaces and downstream ecosystems have often been investigated separately, but few studies have focused on the connectivity between the different glacial habitats. Therefore, it remains a limited understanding of bacterial community assembly across different habitats along the glacier hydrological continuum. In this study, we sampled along a glacial catchment from supraglacial snow, cryoconite holes, supraglacial runoff, ice-marginal moraine and proglacial lake on the Tibetan Plateau. The bacterial communities in these habitats were analyzed using high-throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine the bacterial composition and assembly. Our results showed that each habitat hosted unique bacterial communities, with higher bacterial α-diversity in transitional habitats (e.g. runoff and ice-marginal moraine). Null model analysis indicated that deterministic processes predominantly shaped bacterial assembly in snow, cryoconite holes and lake, while stochastic process dominantly governed bacterial community in transitional habitats. Collectively, our findings suggest that local environment play a critical role in filtering bacterial community composition within glacier habitats. This study enhances our understanding of microbial assembly process in glacier environments and provides valuable insights into the factors governing bacterial community compositions across different habitats along the glacial hydrological continuum.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagos , Lagos/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tibet , Bactérias/genética , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia
8.
Zootaxa ; 5415(4): 561-569, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480182

RESUMO

Illustrated morphological description with a study of DNA barcoding and biology of adult male, pupa and larva of Smittia solominae sp. nov., living on the ice surface of glaciers at an altitude of about 3000 m above sea level in the Elbrus region of the North Caucasus is given. DNA barcoding provided support that the new species unique within genus Smittia. The average interspecific distances between S. solominae sp. nov. and other Smittia from BOLD above 12% that correspond to species level.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Dípteros , Masculino , Animais , Chironomidae/genética , Camada de Gelo , Larva , Pupa , Altitude
9.
Nature ; 626(7998): 319-326, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326596

RESUMO

Late Pleistocene ice-age climates are routinely characterized as having imposed moisture stress on low- to mid-latitude ecosystems1-5. This idea is largely based on fossil pollen evidence for widespread, low-biomass glacial vegetation, interpreted as indicating climatic dryness6. However, woody plant growth is inhibited under low atmospheric CO2 (refs. 7,8), so understanding glacial environments requires the development of new palaeoclimate indicators that are independent of vegetation9. Here we show that, contrary to expectations, during the past 350 kyr, peaks in southern Australian climatic moisture availability were largely confined to glacial periods, including the Last Glacial Maximum, whereas warm interglacials were relatively dry. By measuring the timing of speleothem growth in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics, which today has a predominantly negative annual moisture balance, we developed a record of climatic moisture availability that is independent of vegetation and extends through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Our results demonstrate that a cool-moist response is consistent across the austral subtropics and, in part, may result from reduced evaporation under cool glacial temperatures. Insofar as cold glacial environments in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics have been portrayed as uniformly arid3,10,11, our findings suggest that their characterization as evolutionary or physiological obstacles to movement and expansion of animal, plant and, potentially, human populations10 should be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Umidade , Camada de Gelo , Animais , Humanos , Migração Animal , Austrália , Temperatura Baixa , Clima Desértico , História Antiga , Plantas , Pólen , Volatilização
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 947, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351211

RESUMO

Declining Arctic sea ice is increasing polar bear land use. Polar bears on land are thought to minimize activity to conserve energy. Here, we measure the daily energy expenditure (DEE), diet, behavior, movement, and body composition changes of 20 different polar bears on land over 19-23 days from August to September (2019-2022) in Manitoba, Canada. Polar bears on land exhibited a 5.2-fold range in DEE and 19-fold range in activity, from hibernation-like DEEs to levels approaching active bears on the sea ice, including three individuals that made energetically demanding swims totaling 54-175 km. Bears consumed berries, vegetation, birds, bones, antlers, seal, and beluga. Beyond compensating for elevated DEE, there was little benefit from terrestrial foraging toward prolonging the predicted time to starvation, as 19 of 20 bears lost mass (0.4-1.7 kg•day-1). Although polar bears on land exhibit remarkable behavioral plasticity, our findings reinforce the risk of starvation, particularly in subadults, with forecasted increases in the onshore period.


Assuntos
Inanição , Ursidae , Humanos , Animais , Mudança Climática , Canadá , Dieta , Camada de Gelo , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema
11.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 38(6): e9704, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356092

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The efficiency of selected ion monitoring (SIM) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analyses for the quantification of three mono-, di- and tri-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes (IP25 , IPSO25 and HBI III, respectively), often used as proxies for the occurrence of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice or the adjacent open waters, was compared. METHODS: Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/SIM and GC/MS/MS/SRM analyses were carried out on dilute solutions made from purified standards of these three HBIs, and then on hydrocarbon fractions of several sediment and sea ice sample extracts. More efficient and specific SRM transitions were selected after collision-induced dissociation of each precursor ion at different collision energies. RESULTS: SRM analysis avoided any overestimation of IP25 resulting from the contribution of the coeluting 13 C mass isotopomer of IPSO25 (M+ ˙ + 2) to the SIM target ion. In contrast, SRM analysis is less reliable for IPSO25 quantification in cases where several regio-isomers are present, likely due to intense double bond migrations following electron impact. In the case of HBI III, SRM analysis constitutes a potentially suitable alternative to SIM analysis, especially in terms of improving limit of detection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the intense migrations of HBI double bonds under electron ionization, the selected SRM transitions should be more suitable than SIM target ions for IP25 and HBI III quantification in complex hydrocarbon fractions of natural samples. However, the advantage is less evident for IPSO25 due to the presence of numerous regio-isomers.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Terpenos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Terpenos/análise , Alcenos/análise , Camada de Gelo , Biomarcadores/análise
12.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(2): e16590, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356117

RESUMO

Ecological studies are aligned along a realism-precision continuum ranging from field observations to controlled lab experiments that each have their own strengths and limitations. Ecological insight may be most robust when combining approaches. In field observations along a successional gradient, we found correlations between plant species composition and soil bacterial communities, while bacterial Shannon diversity was unrelated to vegetation characteristics. To add a causal understanding of the processes of bacterial community assembly, we designed lab experiments to specifically test the influence of plant composition on bacterial communities. Using soil and seeds from our field site, we added different combinations of surface-sterilised seeds to homogenised soil samples in microcosms and analysed bacterial communities 4 months later. Our results confirmed the field observations suggesting that experimental plant community composition shaped bacterial community composition, while Shannon diversity was unaffected. These results reflect intimate plant-bacteria interactions that are important drivers of plant health and community assembly. While this study provided insights into the role of plants underlying the assembly of bacterial communities, we did not experimentally manipulate other drivers of community assembly such as abiotic factors. Therefore, we recommend multi-factorial laboratory experiments to quantify the relative importance of different factors contributing to microbial composition.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Microbiologia do Solo , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Plantas , Solo/química
13.
Environ Int ; 184: 108482, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324929

RESUMO

Glacier ice, cryoconite, and glacier-fed streams are interconnected features that have important implications for the dynamics and distribution of abiotic and biotic materials. However, the presence and behavior of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) within these glacial environments remained largely unexplored. Addressing this gap, we hypothesized that ARGs are widely distributed and exhibit distinct yet interconnected patterns of diversity and dynamics in these glacial environments. Here, we investigated ARGs in a mountain glacier in Central Asia. A total of 944 ARGs, spanning 22 antibiotic classes, were identified, with 633 ARGs shared across all three environments. Cryoconite exhibited the highest ARG richness, followed by ice, while stream biofilm displayed the lowest value. Exploring ARG profiles, we observed a consistent pattern in terms of antibiotic class and resistance mechanism across all three environments. Beta-lactam resistance genes exhibited the highest diversity, followed by multidrug, glycopeptide, and MLS. The predominant mechanisms were antibiotic inactivation, antibiotic efflux, and target alteration. The most prevalent ARG is cls, followed by mdfA, ropB, fabI, and macB. The similarity in ARG profiles between surface ice and cryoconite samples was more pronounced than their resemblance to stream biofilm samples. The variations of ARG profiles between any pair of environments were largely contributed by turnover component. Further insights into microbial interactions revealed 2328 significant associations between 80 OTUs and 356 ARGs, indicating complex relationships. Certain OTUs, including those from the genera Polaromonas, Ferruginibacter, Hymenobacter, Phormidesmis, Novosphingobium, and Polymorphobacter, were speculated as potential hosts for a variety of ARGs. Our findings underscore the intricate dynamics of antibiotic resistance in glacial ecosystems, emphasizing the need for a holistic understanding of ARG distribution, diversity, and associations across diverse environmental compartments. This research contributes valuable insights into the potential ecological implications of antibiotic resistance dissemination in cold environments, particularly as influenced by increasing climate change.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Ecossistema , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Camada de Gelo , Rios , Genes Bacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Ásia
14.
Science ; 383(6682): eadn9607, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301002

RESUMO

How far can a polar bear swim? The answer to that one question could have altered the course of the global warming movement and tempered current public distrust in scienceand scientists. As is the case for many large, fierce mammals, many aspects of the basic biology that dictate what polar bears (Ursus maritimus) need to survive in a changing world remain a mystery. We don't know the limitations of the bear's thermoregulatory or swimming capabilities in Arctic waters. Nor do we know whether a terrestrial diet of berries and scavenging is able to sustain a mother bear throughout pregnancy and cub rearing should the continued deterioration of sea ice force them to remain on land. At a time when understanding animal capacities and resiliency in the face of human perturbation is crucial to species survival, science has been unable to keep pace with emerging environmental threats.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Extinção Biológica , Aquecimento Global , Ursidae , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo
15.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 100(3)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305149

RESUMO

Himalayan glaciers are receding at an exceptional rate, perturbing the local biome and ecosystem processes. Understanding the microbial ecology of an exclusively microbe-driven biome provides insights into their contributions to the ecosystem functioning through biogeochemical fluxes. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities and their functional potential in the retreating East Rathong Glacier (ERG) of Sikkim Himalaya. Amplicon-based taxonomic classification revealed the dominance of the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, and candidate Patescibacteria in the glacial sites. Further, eight good-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of Proteobacteria, Patescibacteria, Acidobacteriota, and Choloflexota retrieved from the metagenomes elucidated the microbial contributions to nutrient cycling. The ERG MAGs showed aerobic respiration as a primary metabolic feature, accompanied by carbon fixation and complex carbon degradation potentials. Pathways for nitrogen metabolism, chiefly dissimilatory nitrate reduction and denitrification, and a complete sulphur oxidation enzyme complex for sulphur metabolism were identified in the MAGs. We observed that DNA repair and oxidative stress response genes complemented with osmotic and periplasmic stress and protein chaperones were vital for adaptation against the intense radiation and stress conditions of the extreme Himalayan niche. Current findings elucidate the microbiome and associated functional potentials of a vulnerable glacier, emphasizing their significant ecological roles in a changing glacial ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiota , Camada de Gelo , Metagenômica , Bactérias , Metagenoma , Proteobactérias/genética , Enxofre/metabolismo
16.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366077

RESUMO

The rediscovery of diatom blooms embedded within and beneath the Lake Erie ice cover (2007-2012) ignited interest in psychrophilic adaptations and winter limnology. Subsequent studies determined the vital role ice plays in winter diatom ecophysiology as diatoms partition to the underside of ice, thereby fixing their location within the photic zone. Yet, climate change has led to widespread ice decline across the Great Lakes, with Lake Erie presenting a nearly "ice-free" state in several recent winters. It has been hypothesized that the resultant turbid, isothermal water column induces light limitation amongst winter diatoms and thus serves as a competitive disadvantage. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a physiochemical and metatranscriptomic survey that spanned spatial, temporal, and climatic gradients of the winter Lake Erie water column (2019-2020). Our results suggest that ice-free conditions decreased planktonic diatom bloom magnitude and altered diatom community composition. Diatoms increased their expression of various photosynthetic genes and iron transporters, which suggests that the diatoms are attempting to increase their quantity of photosystems and light-harvesting components (a well-defined indicator of light limitation). We identified two gene families which serve to increase diatom fitness in the turbid ice-free water column: proton-pumping rhodopsins (a potential second means of light-driven energy acquisition) and fasciclins (a means to "raft" together to increase buoyancy and co-locate to the surface to optimize light acquisition). With large-scale climatic changes already underway, our observations provide insight into how diatoms respond to the dynamic ice conditions of today and shed light on how they will fare in a climatically altered tomorrow.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Diatomáceas/genética , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Lagos , Água
17.
Environ Pollut ; 346: 123498, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342433

RESUMO

Heavy metals present a substantial threat to both the environment and human health. Considering the delicate ecological equilibrium of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its heightened susceptibility to anthropogenic impacts, scholarly attention has progressively turned toward the examination of heavy metal pollution within the plateau's environment. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of various heavy metals (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Cd, Pb, and Sb), utilizing topsoil samples collected from the TP during the period of 2018-2021. Additionally, snow and cryoconite samples obtained from TP glaciers during the same timeframe were also subjected to analysis. The results indicate elevated concentrations of total heavy metals in the eastern and western TP (328.7 µg/g), as opposed to the central and southern TP (145.7 µg/g). Most heavy metals exhibit a consistent spatial distribution pattern. High Enrichment Factors (EFs) and Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) values for As and Cd suggest their enrichment in TP topsoil. Receptor modeling identified three primary sources of heavy metals within the topsoil: industrial sources (42.3%), inherent natural sources within the surface soil (20.6%), and vehicular emissions (14.2%). Substantial differences in heavy metal concentrations and spatial distribution were observed between the topsoil and the glacial snow-cryoconite matrix. The prominent presence of Sb in the snow-cryoconite matrix, in contrast to its low abundance in the topsoil, indicates distinct source influences of long-range transported materials between the two environments. Our inference suggests that the influence of heavy metals from distant pollutants undergo mixing and dilution in the topsoil due to the presence of local indigenous heavy metals, although such influence is notably observed on the glacier surface of the TP. Consequently, this underscores the significant impact of long-range transported sources on heavy metals, surpassing the influence of local TP soils, to the alpine glaciers and even other atmospheric sediments in Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Tibet , Camada de Gelo , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Medição de Risco
18.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 3712024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366911

RESUMO

Methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) play an important role in mitigating methane emissions in various ecological environments, including cold regions. However, the response of methanotrophs in these cold environments to extreme temperatures above the in-situ temperature has not been thoroughly explored. Therefore, this study collected soil samples from Longxiazailongba (LXZ) and Qiangyong (QY) glacier forelands and incubated them with 13CH4 at 35°C under different soil water conditions. The active methanotroph populations were identified using DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and high throughput sequencing techniques. The results showed that the methane oxidation potential in LXZ and QY glacier foreland soils was significantly enhanced at an unusually high temperature of 35°C during microcosm incubations, where abundant substrate (methane and oxygen) was provided. Moreover, the influence of soil water conditions on this potential was observed. Interestingly, Methylocystis, a type II and mesophilic methanotroph, was detected in the unincubated in-situ soil samples and became the active and dominant methanotroph in methane oxidation at 35°C. This suggests that Methylocystis can survive at low temperatures for a prolonged period and thrive under suitable growth conditions. Furthermore, the presence of mesophilic methanotrophs in cold habitats could have potential implications for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in warming glacial environments.


Assuntos
Methylocystaceae , Solo , Methylocystaceae/genética , Temperatura , Camada de Gelo , Temperatura Baixa , Metano , Água , DNA
19.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 100(3)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378869

RESUMO

Different types of inlet water are expected to affect microbial communities of lake ecosystems due to changing environmental conditions and the dispersal of species. However, knowledge of the effects of changes in environmental conditions and export of microbial assemblages on lake ecosystems is limited, especially for glacier-fed lakes. Here, we collected water samples from the surface water of a glacier-fed lake and its two fed streams on the Tibetan Plateau to investigate the importance of glacial and non-glacial streams as sources of diversity for lake bacterial communities. Results showed that the glacial stream was an important source of microorganisms in the studied lake, contributing 45.53% to the total bacterial community in the lake water, while only 19.14% of bacterial community in the lake water was seeded by the non-glacial stream. Bacterial communities were significantly different between the glacier-fed lake and its two fed streams. pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, water temperature and total nitrogen had a significant effect on bacterial spatial turnover, and together explained 36.2% of the variation of bacterial distribution among habitats. Moreover, bacterial co-occurrence associations tended to be stronger in the lake water than in stream habitats. Collectively, this study may provide an important reference for assessing the contributions of different inlet water sources to glacier-fed lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Microbiota , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Tibet , Água
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 254, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342848

RESUMO

Changes in glacier area, glacial lakes, debris cover, and geomorphological features such as debris fans have a significant impact on glacial dynamics. Therefore, precise and timely observation and tracking of glacier surface changes is a necessity. The availability of high spatial resolution remote sensing images has made it viable to analyse the glacier surface changes at a local level. However, with an increase in spatial resolution, the spectral variability increases, giving rise to additional challenges (such as false changes and misregistration) in the change detection process. These challenges can preferably be dealt with using an object-based change detection (OBCD) approach rather than the conventional pixel-based change detection approach. Therefore, this study has proposed an OBCD methodology using high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images to detect changes in glacier features. Variability in glacier features has been further analysed by associating it with important climate variables, that is, air temperature and precipitation. As a case study, the changes in Gangotri Glacier (Uttarakhand Himalayas in India) features have been studied using high-spatial-resolution WorldView-2 and Linear Imaging Self-Scanning System (LISS)-4 images for a 3-year period 2011-2014. The spectral correspondences between glacier surface and non-glacier surface have been handled by considering brightness temperature and slope as ancillary data to improvise their distinction. A change detection accuracy of ~ 84% has been obtained using the OBCD approach. Results further show that the variations in glacier features are in congruence with the climatic observations.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Camada de Gelo , Temperatura , Lagos , Índia , Mudança Climática
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