Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.955
Filtrar
1.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 110, 2023 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36945055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A total of 290 mosquito species are recorded in Cambodia among which 43 are known vectors of pathogens. As Cambodia is heavily affected by deforestation, a potential change in the dynamic of vector-borne diseases (VDBs) could occur through alteration of the diversity and density of sylvatic vector mosquitoes and induce an increase in their interactions with humans. Understanding mosquito diversity is therefore critical, providing valuable data for risk assessments concerning the (re)emergence of local VBDs. Consequently, this study mainly aimed to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of sylvatic mosquito populations of Cambodia by determining which factors impact on their relative abundance and presence. METHODS: A study was conducted in 12 sites from four forests in Cambodia. All mosquitoes, collected during the dry and rainy seasons, were morphologically identified. The diversity and relative density of mosquito species in each site were calculated along with the influence of meteorological and geographical factors using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model. RESULTS: A total of 9392 mosquitoes were collected belonging to 13 genera and 85 species. The most represented genera were Culex, accounting for 46% of collected mosquitoes, and Aedes (42%). Besides being the most abundant species, Culex pseudovishnui and Aedes albopictus, which are known vectors of numerous arboviruses, were present in all sites during both dry and rainy seasons. The presence of mosquito species reported to be zoo-anthropophilic feeders was also observed in both forested and urban areas. Finally, this study demonstrated that altitude, temperature and precipitation impacted the abundance of mosquitoes but also influenced species community composition. CONCLUSION: The results indicate an important diversity of mosquitoes in the four forests and an influence of meteorological and geographical factors on their community. Additionally, this work highlights in parallel the abundance of species considered to be of medical importance and therefore underlines the high risk of pathogen emergence/re-emergence in the region.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Culicidae , Humanos , Animais , Camboja , Biodiversidade , Mosquitos Vetores , Florestas
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 83, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36899328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection has been known as a seedbed for TB disease later in life. The interruption from latent TB infection to TB disease can be done through TB preventive treatment (TPT). In Cambodia, only 40.0% of children under five years old who were the household contacts to bacteriologically confirmed TB cases were initiated with TPT in 2021. Scientific studies of context-specific operational challenges in TPT provision and uptake among children are scarce, particularly in high TB-burden countries. This study identified challenges in TPT provision and uptake among children in Cambodia from the perspective of healthcare providers and caregivers. METHODS: Between October and December 2020, we conducted in-depth interviews with four operational district TB supervisors, four clinicians and four nurses in charge of TB in referral hospitals, four nurses in charge of TB in health centers, and 28 caregivers with children currently or previously on TB treatment or TPT, and those who refused TPT for their eligible children. Data were audio recorded along with field notetaking. After verbatim transcription, data analyses were performed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: The mean age of healthcare providers and caregivers were 40.19 years (SD 12.0) and 47.9 years (SD 14.6), respectively. Most healthcare providers (93.8%) were male, and 75.0% of caregivers were female. More than one-fourth of caregivers were grandparents, and 25.0% had no formal education. Identified key barriers to TPT implementation among children included TPT side effects, poor adherence to TPT, poor understanding of TPT among caregivers, TPT risk perception among caregivers, TPT's child-unfriendly formula, TPT supply-chain issues, caregivers' concern about the effectiveness of TPT, being non-parental caregivers, and poor community engagement. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study suggest that the national TB program should provide more TPT training to healthcare providers and strengthen supply chain mechanisms to ensure adequate TPT drug supplies. Improving community awareness of TPT among caregivers should also be intensified. These context-specific interventions will play a crucial role in expanding the TPT program to interrupt the development from latent TB infection to active and ultimately lead to ending TB in the country.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Camboja , Cuidadores , Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(3)2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36921989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cambodia has achieved great success in tuberculosis (TB) control in the past decade. Nevertheless, people with TB are missed by the health systems at different stages of the care pathway. This programme review corroborated the care-seeking behaviours of people with TB and TB services availability and estimated the number of people completing each step of the TB disease and TB preventive treatment (TPT) care cascade. METHODS: Patient pathways and the care cascades for TB disease and TPT were constructed using data from the latest national TB prevalence survey, routine surveillance and programme, the global TB database and published studies. We also randomly selected TB survivors in the 2019 cohort to assess recurrence-free survival 1-year post-treatment. TPT care cascade was constructed for people living with HIV (PLHIV) and household contacts (children <5 years and all ages) of persons with bacteriologically-confirmed TB in 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: Nationally, 54% of those who exhibited TB symptoms sought initial care in the private sector. Overall, 93% and 58% of people with presumptive TB did not access a facility with TB diagnostic and treatment services, respectively, at the first point of care-seeking. Approximately 56% (95% CI 52% to 57%) of the 47 000 (95% CI 31 000 to 68 000) estimated TB cases in 2019 achieved recurrence-free survival. Among the estimated PLHIV in Cambodia, <30% completed TPT. Among children <5 years, 53% (95% CI 29% to 65%) (2019) and 67% (95% CI 36% to 80%) (2020) of those eligible for TPT completed the regimen successfully. In 2019 and 2020, 23% (95% CI 22% to 25%) and 54% (95% CI 50% to 58%) of the estimated household contacts (all ages) eligible for TPT completed the regimen successfully. CONCLUSION: There are significant gaps in care-seeking, coverage and access to TB services and TPT in Cambodia. Action plans to improve TB response have been co-developed with local stakeholders to address the gaps throughout the care cascades.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Criança , Humanos , Camboja/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 321: 115792, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36842307

RESUMO

Over the past decades, many low- and middle-income countries have implemented health financing and system reforms to progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). In the case of Cambodia, out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) remains the main source of current health expenditure after several decades of reform, exposing households to financial risks when accessing healthcare and violating UHC's key tenet of financial protection. We use pre-pandemic data from the nationally representative Cambodia Socio-Economic Surveys of 2009 to 2019 to assess progress in financial protection to evaluate the reforms and obtain internationally comparable estimates. We find that following strong improvements in financial protection between 2009 and 2017, there was a reversal in the trend thereafter. The OOPE budget share rose, and the incidence of catastrophic spending and impoverishment increased in nearly all geographical and socioeconomic strata. For example, 17.7% of households experienced catastrophic health expenditure in 2019 at the threshold of 10% of total household consumption expenditure, and 3.9% of households were pushed into poverty by OOPE. The distribution of all financial protection indicators varied strongly across socioeconomic and geographical strata in all years. Fundamentally, the demonstrated trend reversal may jeopardize Cambodia's ability to progress towards UHC. To improve financial protection in the short term, there is a need to address the burden created by OOPE through targeted interventions to household groups that are most affected. In the medium term, our findings emphasize the importance of expanding health pre-payment schemes to currently uncovered vulnerable groups, specifically the near-poor. The government also needs to consider extending the scope of services covered and the range of providers to include the private sector under these schemes to reduce reliance on OOPE.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Camboja , Atenção à Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Doença Catastrófica
5.
Bull World Health Organ ; 101(2): 140-148, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36733629

RESUMO

Rivers are critical, but often overlooked, parts of food systems. They have multiple functions that support the food security, nutrition, health and livelihoods of the communities surrounding them. However, given current unsustainable food system practices, damming and climate change, the majority of the world's largest rivers are increasingly susceptible to environmental degradation, with negative implications for the communities that rely on them. Here we describe the dynamism and multifaceted nature of rivers as food environments (i.e. the place within food systems where people obtain their food) and their role in securing food security including improved diets and overall health. We also provide a conceptual framework that explain rivers as food environments within the broader food system and describe approaches to characterizing these food environments to better inform our understanding of how they influence food security and nutrition outcomes. Applying this framework to the Mekong River in Cambodia, we describe rivers as multifaceted wild food environments embedded within ecosystems, sociocultural and political environments and sectors of influence. We also explain the ways in which individual factors might influence how communities interact with this food environment. Developing and articulating food-related, ecosystem-specific frameworks and their constructs can guide implementation of policies aimed to improve specific public health or environmental sustainability outcomes. Our conceptual framework incorporates the multiple dimensions of rivers, which will aid future work and public health policy framing to better describe, understand and intervene to ensure protection of rivers' biodiversity and ecosystems as well as food security, health and livelihoods.


Souvent négligés, les cours d'eau jouent pourtant un rôle vital dans les systèmes alimentaires. Ils remplissent de nombreuses fonctions qui contribuent à la sécurité alimentaire, à la nutrition, à la santé et aux moyens de subsistance des communautés avoisinantes. Toutefois, en raison d'un système alimentaire actuel aux pratiques non durables, de la construction de barrages et du changement climatique, la plupart des grands fleuves et rivières du monde sont de plus en plus exposés aux dégradations environnementales, avec des conséquences néfastes pour les communautés qui en dépendent. Dans le présent document, nous évoquons le dynamisme et les multiples facettes des cours d'eau en tant qu'environnements alimentaires (c'est-à-dire l'endroit où les gens se procurent de la nourriture au sein d'un système alimentaire), ainsi que la manière dont ils favorisent la sécurité alimentaire, notamment par le biais d'un régime plus équilibré et d'une meilleure santé en général. Nous fournissons également un cadre conceptuel qui définit les cours d'eau comme environnements alimentaires au sein d'un système plus vaste et décrit les approches caractérisant ces environnements, afin que nous puissions mieux comprendre l'influence qu'ils exercent sur la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition. En appliquant ce cadre au fleuve Mékong, au Cambodge, nous dévoilons les multiples facettes de ces environnements alimentaires naturels variés qui font partie intégrante des écosystèmes, des milieux politiques et socioculturels, mais aussi des sphères d'influence. Nous expliquons en outre la façon dont certains facteurs individuels sont susceptibles d'interférer dans les interactions que les communautés entretiennent avec cet environnement alimentaire. Développer et formuler des cadres et structures liés à l'alimentation, propres à chaque écosystème, peut orienter la mise en œuvre de mesures visant à améliorer des résultats spécifiques dans le domaine de la santé publique ou de la préservation de l'environnement. Notre cadre conceptuel inclut les différents aspects des cours d'eau, ce qui aidera à mener de futurs travaux et à élaborer des politiques de santé publique pour mieux les qualifier, les appréhender et intervenir en vue d'assurer la protection de la biodiversité et des écosystèmes fluviaux ainsi que la sécurité alimentaire, la santé et les moyens de subsistance.


Los ríos son partes fundamentales de los sistemas alimentarios, pero con frecuencia se ignoran. Tienen múltiples funciones que favorecen la seguridad alimentaria, la nutrición, la salud y los medios de vida de las comunidades que los rodean. Sin embargo, dadas las actuales prácticas insostenibles del sistema alimentario, la construcción de embalses y el cambio climático, la mayoría de los ríos más grandes del mundo son cada vez más susceptibles a la degradación medioambiental, con implicaciones negativas para las comunidades que dependen de ellos. En este documento, se describe el dinamismo y la naturaleza polifacética de los ríos como entornos alimentarios (es decir, el lugar dentro de los sistemas alimentarios donde las personas obtienen sus alimentos) y su función para garantizar la seguridad alimentaria, incluida la mejora de los hábitos alimentarios y la salud en general. Asimismo, se proporciona un marco conceptual que explica los ríos como entornos alimentarios dentro del sistema alimentario en su conjunto y se describen enfoques para caracterizar estos entornos alimentarios con el fin de comprender mejor cómo influyen en los resultados de la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición. Mediante la aplicación de este marco al río Mekong en Camboya, se describen los ríos como entornos alimentarios silvestres multifacéticos integrados en ecosistemas, entornos socioculturales y políticos y sectores de influencia. Además, se explican cómo los factores individuales pueden influir en la interacción de las comunidades con este entorno alimentario. El desarrollo y la articulación de marcos específicos de los ecosistemas relacionados con la alimentación y sus constructos pueden orientar la aplicación de políticas destinadas a mejorar determinados resultados en materia de salud pública o sostenibilidad medioambiental. El marco conceptual que se presenta incorpora las múltiples dimensiones de los ríos, lo que ayudará en futuros trabajos y en la formulación de políticas de salud pública a describir, comprender e intervenir mejor para asegurar la protección de la biodiversidad y los ecosistemas fluviales, así como la seguridad alimentaria, la salud y los medios de subsistencia.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Humanos , Camboja , Alimentos , Segurança Alimentar
6.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36839263

RESUMO

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains a global health concern. Studies on the impact of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) on micronutrient status during SAM treatment are almost nonexistent. The objective was to investigate the impact of RUTFs on the iron and vitamin A status of 6-59-month-old children receiving SAM treatment. Biomarkers of vitamin A status (retinol-binding protein, RBP), iron status (ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, sTfR), and inflammation (C-reactive protein, CRP, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, AGP) were collected at admission and discharge (week 8) during an RUTF effectiveness trial. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as RBP <0.70 µmol/L, low body iron as body iron (BI) <0 mg/kg and deficient iron stores as ferritin <12 µg/L. Data were available for 110 and 75 children at admission and discharge, respectively. There was no significant difference in haemoglobin, ferritin, sTfR, BI or RBP concentrations between admission and discharge. At discharge, BI was 0.2 mg/kg lower, and there was a tendency towards a slightly lower RBP concentration, but the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was low at admission and discharge (6% and 3%, respectively). The small impact of both RUTFs on improving vitamin A and iron status during SAM treatment calls for further research on the bioavailability of micronutrients to enhance the effectiveness of SAM treatment on micronutrient status.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Desnutrição Aguda Grave , Oligoelementos , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Ferro/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Ferritinas , Orosomucoide/metabolismo , Micronutrientes , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 30, 2023 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36765360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to the general population, persons with disabilities are at increased risk of poor mental health. The aim of this study was to determine the rates and correlates of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among persons with physical disabilities in Cambodia. METHODS: From July to December 2021 data were collected as part of a mental health screening programme for persons with physical disabilities who access prosthetic and orthotic services. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler-10 (K-10) and PTSD using the PC-PTSD-5. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with levels of psychological distress and PTSD among this population. RESULTS: Our study found a high prevalence of psychological distress and PTSD in this patient cohort. Of the 213 participants, 31.5% were likely to be experiencing mild to moderate psychological distress indicative of a mental health disorder, with 13.6% likely to have a severe mental health disorder. Sixty-five percent of patients reported experiencing PTSD symptoms, with forty-six percent meeting the criteria for probable PTSD. Psychological distress was associated with pathological worry, rumination, and facets of mindfulness. Rumination and pathological worry were found to be significant predictors of psychological distress. PTSD symptoms were associated with pathological worry but not facets of mindfulness or rumination. Facets of mindfulness and pathological worry were found to be significant predictors of PTSD. CONCLUSION: Integration of mental health services within the disability sector is required to address psychological distress and PTSD symptoms among people with physical disabilities in Cambodia. Health system interventions, such as screening, referral, and the training of health providers, need to be strengthened. Further studies focussing on the psychosocial determinants of mental health of persons with disabilities in Cambodia are required.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Angústia Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
8.
J Environ Public Health ; 2023: 6739550, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36824232

RESUMO

This article considers and adds empirical nuances to the recent conceptualization of pro-poor water management. Using the concept of pro-poor hydraulic governmentality along the Vietnam-Cambodia border of ThÆ°ong PhÆ°oc commune, we argue that water management is linked to local rural livelihoods in a complex and dynamic pro-poor mechanism. While certain policies organize local populations according to cost-effectiveness ignoring local customs, the practicalities of dealing with such constraints are much more ambivalent. This article demonstrates the structural pro-poor complexity among sand excavation, riverbank landslides, water management, local livelihoods, and populace resettlement. The government's resettlement plans and the perceptions of residents of these plans are intertwined with a wider political, economic, social, and cultural significance in the context of strong institutional power in Vietnam. Limitations and future research agenda are also indicated in the discussion and conclusion section.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Água , Governo , Vietnã , Camboja
9.
BMJ Open ; 13(2): e067840, 2023 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36806137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of commonly used sepsis screening tools across prospective sepsis cohorts in the USA, Cambodia and Ghana. DESIGN: Prospective cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: From 2014 to 2021, participants with two or more SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome) criteria and suspected infection were enrolled in emergency departments and medical wards at hospitals in Cambodia and Ghana and hospitalised participants with suspected infection were enrolled in the USA. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, and Harrell's C-statistic calculated to determine 28-day mortality prediction performance of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score ≥2, SIRS score ≥3, National Early Warning Score (NEWS) ≥5, Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) ≥5 or Universal Vital Assessment (UVA) score ≥2. Screening tools were compared with baseline risk (age and sex) with the Wald test. RESULTS: The cohorts included 567 participants (42.9% women) including 187 participants from Kumasi, Ghana, 200 participants from Takeo, Cambodia and 180 participants from Durham, North Carolina in the USA. The pooled mortality was 16.4% at 28 days. The mortality prediction accuracy increased from baseline risk with the MEWS (C-statistic: 0.63, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.68; p=0.002), NEWS (C-statistic: 0.68; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.73; p<0.001), qSOFA (C-statistic: 0.70, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.75; p<0.001), UVA score (C-statistic: 0.73, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.78; p<0.001), but not with SIRS (0.60; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.65; p=0.13). Within individual cohorts, only the UVA score in Ghana performed better than baseline risk (C-statistic: 0.77; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.83; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among the cohorts, MEWS, NEWS, qSOFA and UVA scores performed better than baseline risk, largely driven by accuracy improvements in Ghana, while SIRS scores did not improve prognostication accuracy. Prognostication scores should be validated within the target population prior to clinical use.


Assuntos
Sepse , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Camboja , Estudos de Coortes
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 80, 2023 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36750767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in children remain challenging, particularly in resource-limited settings. Healthcare providers and caregivers are critical in improving childhood TB screening and treatment. This study aimed to determine the barriers to childhood TB detection and management from the perspectives of healthcare providers and caregivers in Cambodia. METHOD: We conducted this qualitative study between November and December 2020. Data collection included in-depth interviews with 16 healthcare providers purposively selected from four operational districts and 28 caregivers of children with TB and children in close contact with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB residing in the catchment areas of the selected health centers. Data were analyzed using thematic analyses. RESULTS: Mean ages of healthcare providers and caregivers were 40.2 years (standard deviation [SD] 11.9) and 47.9 years (SD 14.6), respectively. Male was predominant among healthcare providers (93.8%). Three-fourths of caregivers were female, and 28.6% were grandparents. Inadequate TB staff, limited knowledge on childhood TB, poor collaboration among healthcare providers in different units on TB screening and management, limited quality of TB diagnostic tools, and interruption of supplies of childhood TB medicines due to maldistribution from higher levels to health facilities were the key barriers to childhood TB case detection and management. Caregivers reported transportation costs to and from health facilities, out-of-pocket expenditure, time-consuming, and no clear explanation from healthcare providers as barriers to childhood TB care-seeking. Aging caregivers with poor physical conditions, lack of collaboration from caregivers, ignorance of healthcare provider's advice, and parent movement were also identified as barriers to childhood TB case detection and management. CONCLUSIONS: The national TB program should further invest in staff development for TB, scale-up appropriate TB diagnostic tools and ensure its functionalities, such as rapid molecular diagnostic systems and X-ray machines, and strengthen childhood TB drug management at all levels. These may include drug forecasting, precise drug distribution and monitoring mechanism, and increasing community awareness about TB to increase community engagement.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Cuidadores , Camboja , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde
11.
Matern Child Nutr ; 19(2): e13485, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36751966

RESUMO

Consumption of unhealthy commercial foods and beverages (UCFB) is common among infants and young children living in low- and middle-income countries. Such foods can displace other nutritious foods, however, there is limited evidence on how this consumption tracks across time. This study assessed and tracked UCFB consumption of children living in rural/peri-urban Cambodia during the complementary feeding period, identified UCFB consumption patterns of these children, and explored the association between UCFB consumption and growth. A 6-month longitudinal cohort study was implemented among 567 caregivers of children aged 10-14 months at recruitment. UCFB consumption was estimated each month via a telephone-administered 7-day food frequency questionnaire, and UCFB consumption patterns were identified based on changes in this frequency of consumption over time. The majority of children either maintained (45.7%, n = 246) or developed (43.5%, n = 234) an unhealthy consumption pattern and only 10.8% (n = 58) of children maintained/transitioned into a healthy consumption pattern. High consumers of UCFB at 10-14 months had a 4.7 (CI: 4.7 [3.1-7.2]) times odds of being high consumers of UCFB at 15-19 months (p < 0.001). There was a trend of lower length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) among children maintaining or developing an unhealthy consumption pattern (~-0. SD LAZ) compared to children maintaining/transitioning into a healthy consumption pattern, however, this association was not statistically significant. Findings indicate that high UCFB consumption begins during infancy and tracks into early childhood. National policies and programmes centred on early interventions addressing the use of UCFB for infant and young child feeding are needed.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Camboja , Estudos Longitudinais , Bebidas
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 183, 2023 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36810110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limited health and social care infrastructure that existed in the 1970s in Cambodia was destroyed due to the Khmer Rouge. Mental Health service infrastructures have developed in Cambodia in the last twenty five years, however, they have been shaped significantly by very limited funding being made available for human resources, support services and research. The lack of research on Cambodia's mental health systems and services is a significant barrier to the development of evidence-based mental health policies and practice. In order to address this barrier, effective research and development strategies are needed in Cambodia, which are based on locally well-informed research priorities. There are many possibilities for mental health research in LMIC countries such as Cambodia, therefore focused research priorities in these areas are needed to guide future research investment. This paper is the result of the development of international collaborative workshops, which focused on service mapping and research priority setting in the field of mental health in Cambodia. METHODS: A nominal group technique was used to gather ideas and insights from a range of key mental health service stakeholders in Cambodia. RESULTS: The key issues in service provisions for people with mental health issues and disorders, the interventions and programmes of support available, and currently needed, were identified. This paper also identifies five key mental health research priority areas which could form the basis for effective mental health research and development strategies in Cambodia. CONCLUSION: There is a clear need for the Cambodian government to devise a clear policy framework for health research. This framework could focus on the five research domains identified in this paper and could be incorporated within its National Health Strategic plans. The implementation of this approach would likely lead to the development of an evidence base which would allow the development of effective and sustainable strategies for mental health problem prevention and intervention. This would also contribute to promote the Cambodian government's capacity to take the deliberate, concrete, and targeted steps necessary to address the complex mental health needs of its population.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Camboja/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Pesquisa
13.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 281, 2023 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36755266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Cambodia, female entertainment workers (FEWs) are disproportionately affected by global and local disasters, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. To prevent the spread of COVID-19, the government imposed tight restrictions, including closures of entertainment venues, such as karaoke bars, beer gardens, nightclubs, or massage parlors, leading FEWs to face economic and social disruptions. This study aims to assess the relationship between income loss during the pandemic and gender-based violence (GBV) among FEWs in Cambodia to inform future disaster response programs. METHODS: We conducted a phone survey in August 2021 with 369 randomly sampled FEWs from a national organization's email list. We used a structured questionnaire to ask the participants about job and income loss, food security, mental health, access to health services, and GBV. We fit a linear regression model to examine the differences in GBV experience between FEWs who lost all their income and those who lost partial income due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Key covariables comprised the number of dependents, smartphone ownership, internet access, food security, and mental health. Multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The mean age (31.6 vs. 30.6), years of formal education (6.3 vs. 6.3), marital status (24.2 vs. 23.8 never married), and the number of children (1.3 vs. 1.1) of women reporting having lost all income were not significantly different from those who experienced partial income loss. Overall, GBV experiences were significantly higher in FEWs who lost all income than in those who lost partial income (62.9% vs. 47.4%, p = 0.03). Controlling for the number of dependents, smartphone ownership, and food security, the adjusted odds ratio for GBV was significant in the adjusted model (AOR = 1.23 (1.08-1.40), p = 0.001) indicating that those who experienced total income loss were more likely to experience GBV than those who experienced partial income loss. In addition, they were significantly less likely to be food secure (p = 0.04), less likely to own a smartphone (p = 0.02), and had more dependents (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Disaster response programs should consider the implications of safety measures and government support for both formal and informal workers regarding safety, food access, and mental health support. Food assistance programs should target the most vulnerable informal sector workers during crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674006

RESUMO

Supply-side healthcare financing still dominates healthcare financing in many countries where the government provides line-item budgets for health facilities irrespective of the quantity or quality of services rendered. There is a risk that this approach will reduce the efficiency of services and the value of money for patients. This paper analyzes the situation of public health centers in Cambodia to determine the relevance of supply- and demand-side financing as well as lump sum and performance-based financing. Based on a sample of the provinces of Kampong Thom and Kampot in the year 2019, we determined the income and expenditure of each facility and computed the unit cost with comprehensive step-down costing. Furthermore, the National Quality Enhancement Monitoring Tool (NQEMT) provided us with a quality score for each facility. Finally, we calculated the efficiency as the quotient of quality and cost per service unit as well as correlations between the variables. The results show that the largest share of income was received from supply-side financing, i.e., the government supports the health centers with line-item budgets irrespective of the number of patients and the quality of care. This paper demonstrates that the efficiency of public health centers increases if the relevance of performance-based financing increases. Thus, the authors recommend increasing performance-based financing in Cambodia to improve value-based healthcare. There are several alternatives available to re-balance demand- and supply-side financing, and all of them must be thoroughly analyzed before they are implemented.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Academias de Ginástica , Humanos , Camboja , Gastos em Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Financiamento Governamental
15.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e063261, 2023 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the challenges and outcomes of implementing a national syphilis follow-up system to improve syphilis management in maternal and child health (MCH) services in Cambodia. DESIGN: Operational study; quantitative cohort data and cross sectional qualitative data. SETTING: Public health facilities at national level and in four provinces with high syphilis prevalence in Cambodia. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women screened for syphilis; MCH health care providers and managers. METHODS: We conducted an operational research using syphilis screening and treatment data collected from a national follow-up system (cohort data) and reported in the health management information system (HMIS) between 2019 and 2020. We also conducted indepth interviews with 16 pregnant women and focus group discussions with 37 healthcare providers and managers. Descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis were used. OUTCOME MEASURES: Syphilis testing and treatment results and perceptions regarding these services. RESULTS: A total of 470 pregnant women who tested positive in rapid syphilis testing were recorded in the national syphilis follow-up system in 2019-2020. Of these, 71% (332 of 470) received a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test and 95% (n=315) tested positive; 78% (246 of 315) received any syphilis treatment and only 28% (88 of 315) were treated adequately with benzathine penicillin G (BPG). Data from four provinces with high syphilis prevalence (more closely monitored) showed higher testing and treatment rates than at the national level. HMIS aggregated data reported a higher number of pregnant women screened and treated for syphilis than the follow-up system during the same period. Barriers to syphilis testing and treatment included late antenatal care, long distance to RPR testing and treatment, partners' lack of support to reach the health facility, BPG stockout and poor adherence to oral treatment in the absence of BPG. Providers and managers reported a lack of communication across services, insufficient skills to treat infants and absence of clear guidance regarding the revised follow-up system. Study findings contributed to changes in operating procedures nationwide to facilitate access to syphilis testing and adequate treatment and a systematic follow-up of pregnant women and exposed infants. CONCLUSIONS: Study results contributed to informing improvements to syphilis management in MCH services in Cambodia.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Sífilis Congênita , Sífilis , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Seguimentos , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Penicilina G Benzatina/uso terapêutico
16.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e061959, 2023 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess usage of public and private healthcare, related healthcare expenditure, and associated factors for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or hypertension (HTN) and for people without those conditions in Cambodia. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey. SETTINGS: Five operational districts (ODs) in Cambodia. PARTICIPANTS: Data were from 2360 participants aged ≥40 years who had used healthcare services at least once in the 3 months preceding the survey. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME: The main variables of interest were the number of healthcare visits and healthcare expenditure in the last 3 months. RESULTS: The majority of healthcare visits took place in the private sector. Only 22.0% of healthcare visits took place in public healthcare facilities: 21.7% in people with HTN, 37.2% in people with T2D, 34.7% in people with T2D plus HTN and 18.9% in people without the two conditions (p value <0.01). For people with T2D and/or HTN, increased public healthcare use was significantly associated with Health Equity Fund (HEF) membership and living in ODs with community-based care. Furthermore, significant healthcare expenditure reduction was associated with HEF membership and using public healthcare facilities in these populations. CONCLUSION: Overall public healthcare usage was relatively low; however, it was higher in people with chronic conditions. HEF membership and community-based care contributed to higher public healthcare usage among people with chronic conditions. Using public healthcare services, regardless of HEF status reduced healthcare expenditure, but the reduction in spending was more noticeable in people with HEF membership. To protect people with T2D and/or HTN from financial risk and move towards the direction of universal health coverage, the public healthcare system should further improve care quality and expand social health protection. Future research should link healthcare use and expenditure across different healthcare models to actual treatment outcomes to denote areas for further investment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Camboja , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
17.
Acta Trop ; 239: 106829, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649803

RESUMO

Aedes mosquitoes are some of the most important and globally expansive vectors of disease. Public health efforts are largely focused on prevention of human-vector contact. A range of entomological indices are used to measure risk of disease, though with conflicting results (i.e. larval or adult abundance does not always predict risk of disease). There is a growing interest in the development and use of biomarkers for exposure to mosquito saliva, including for Aedes spp, as a proxy for disease risk. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive geostatistical analysis of exposure to Aedes mosquito bites among a pediatric cohort in a peri­urban setting endemic to dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. We use demographic, household, and environmental variables (the flooding index (NFI), land type, and proximity to a river) in a Bayesian geostatistical model to predict areas of exposure to Aedes aegypti bites. We found that hotspots of exposure to Ae. aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) were relatively small (< 500 m and sometimes < 250 m) and stable across the two-year study period. Age was negatively associated with antibody responses to Ae. aegypti SGE. Those living in agricultural settings had lower antibody responses than those living in urban settings, whereas those living near recent surface water accumulation were more likely to have higher antibody responses. Finally, we incorporated measures of larval and adult density in our geostatistical models and found that they did not show associations with antibody responses to Ae. aegypti SGE after controlling for other covariates in the model. Our results indicate that targeted house- or neighborhood-focused interventions may be appropriate for vector control in this setting. Further, demographic and environmental factors more capably predicted exposure to Ae. aegypti mosquitoes than commonly used entomological indices.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Criança , Mosquitos Vetores , Camboja/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Larva
18.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0265784, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Cambodia, the importance of valuing women's childbirth experiences in improving quality of care has been understudied. This is largely because of absence of reliable Khmer tools for measuring women's intrapartum care experiences. Generally, cross-cultural development of those tools often involves translation from a source language into a target language. Yet, few earlier studies considered Cambodian cultural context. Thus, we developed the Cambodian version of the Person-Centered Maternity Care (PCMC) scale, by culturally adapting its original to Cambodian context for ensuring cultural equivalence and content validity. METHODS: Three rounds of cognitive interviewing with 20 early postpartum women were conducted at two governmental health facilities in Cambodia. Cognitive interviewing was composed of structured questionnaire pretesting and qualitative probing. The issues identified in the process of transcribing and translating audio-recorded cognitive interviews were iteratively discussed among study team members, and further analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 14 issues related to cultural adaptations were identified in the 31 translated questions for the Cambodian version of the PCMC scale. Our study identified three key findings: (i) discrepancies between the WHO recommendations on intrapartum care and Cambodian field realities; (ii) discrepancies in recognition on PCMC between national experts and local women; and (iii) challenges in correctly collecting and interpreting less-educated women's views on intrapartum care. CONCLUSION: Not only women's verbal data but also their non-verbal data and cultural contexts should be comprehensively counted, when reflecting Cambodian women's intrapartum practice realities in the translated version. This is the first study that attempted to develop the tool for measuring Cambodian women's experiences during childbirth, by addressing cross-cultural issues.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Camboja , Período Pós-Parto , Parto , Instalações de Saúde
19.
Environ Res ; 220: 115230, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623681

RESUMO

Cambodia's 16.5 million people are exposed to air pollution in excess of World Health Organisation guidelines. The Royal Government of Cambodia has regulated air pollutant emissions and concentrations since 2000, but rapid economic growth and energy consumption means air pollution continues to impact human health. In December 2021, the Ministry of Environment of Cambodia published Cambodia's first Clean Air Plan that outlines actions to reduce air pollutant emissions over the next decade. This work presents the quantitative air pollution mitigation assessment underpinning the identification and evaluation of measures included in Cambodia's Clean Air Plan. Historic emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5, black carbon, organic carbon) and gaseous (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, sulphur dioxide, ammonia, and carbon monoxide) air pollutants are quantified between 2010 and 2015, and projected to 2030 for a baseline scenario. Mitigation scenarios reflecting implementation of 14 measures included in Cambodia's Clean Air Plan were modelled, to quantify the national reduction in emissions, from which the reduction in ambient PM2.5 exposure and attributable health burdens were estimated. In 2015, the residential, transport, and waste sectors contribute the largest fraction of national total air pollutant emissions. Without emission reduction measures, air pollutant emissions could increase by between 50 and 150% in 2030 compared to 2015 levels, predominantly due to increases in transport emissions. The implementation of the 14 mitigation measures could substantially reduce emissions of all air pollutants, by between 60 and 80% in 2030 compared to the baseline. This reduction in emissions was estimated to avoid approximately 900 (95% C.I.: 530-1200) premature deaths per year in 2030 compared to the baseline scenario. In addition to improving air pollution and public health, Cambodia's Clean Air Plan could also to lead to additional benefits, including a 19% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, simultaneously contributing to Cambodia's climate change goals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Humanos , Camboja , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre
20.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 23(1): 9-17, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633562

RESUMO

Background: Bartonella species are fastidious gram-negative vector-borne bacteria with a wide range of mammalian reservoirs. While it is understood that some species of Bartonella are human pathogens, the extent of human exposure to Bartonella species (both pathogenic and nonpathogenic) is yet to be fully understood. Materials and Methods: To this end, residual sera from participants enrolled in undifferentiated fever studies in Cambodia, Ghana, Laos, and Peru were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae, using the FOCUS diagnostics Dual Spot- Bartonella IgG Immunofluorescence assay. Forty-eight patients with suspected or confirmed Bartonella bacilliformis exposure or infection in Peru were screened to assess cross-reactivity of the FOCUS assay for IgG against other Bartonella species. Results: Ten of 13 patients with confirmed B. bacilliformis infection were Bartonella-specific IgG positive, and overall, 36/48 of the samples were positive. In addition, 79/206, 44/200, 101/180, and 57/100 of the samples from Peru, Laos, Cambodia, and Ghana, respectively, were Bartonella-specific IgG positive. Furthermore, ectoparasite pools from Cambodia, Laos, and Peru were tested using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Of the sand fly pools collected in Peru, 0/196 were qPCR positive; 15/140 flea pools collected in Cambodia were qPCR positive; while 0/105 ticks, 0/22 fleas, and 0/3 louse pools collected in Laos tested positive for Bartonella DNA. Conclusion: Evidence of Bartonella in fleas from Cambodia supports the possibility that humans are exposed to Bartonella through this traditional vector. However, Bartonella species were not found in fleas, ticks, or lice from Laos, or sand flies from Peru. This could account for the lower positive serology among the population in Laos and the strictly localized nature of B. bacilliformis infections in Peru. Human exposure to the Bartonella species and Bartonella as a human pathogen warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Carrapatos , Humanos , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Peru/epidemiologia , Laos/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Gana , Infestações por Pulgas/microbiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Mamíferos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...