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1.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105221, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654901

RESUMO

Opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma (OV-CCA) is a major public health problem in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Countries, the poorest region in Asia. People in this region have similar traditions or respect the same religion. There is no difference in lifestyle and food culture. Excluding Thailand, publications on risk factors for OV-CCA from the GMS Countries are few, especially data on behavioral risk factors for OV-CCA. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the behavior-related risk factors and to compare the risk of OV-CCA among rural people living along the Mekong River in five GMS countries. It was a cross-sectional analytic study during June and October 2017. All participants with informed consent completed the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of risk factors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were used to compare the risk of OV-CCA. It was found that there were more drinkers than non-drinkers in all areas, except in Vietnam. The highest history of liver fluke infection was found in Cambodia. Praziquantel use and consumption of raw freshwater fish dishes were mostly found in Lao PDR. The highest consumption of nitrosamine-contaminated foodstuffs was found in Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. The spatial comparison of OV-CCA risk showed that Lao PDR and Ubon Ratchathani were two risk areas when compared to Tachileik, Myanmar (a reference area). This study provided the behavior-related risk factors for OV-CCA among people in five GMS Countries which would be a major jigsaw puzzle leading to proactive surveillance for OV-CCA prevention in the future.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4612(1): zootaxa.4612.1.11, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717086

RESUMO

The Kokarit Frog, recently referred to as Hylarana lateralis (Boulenger), is widely distributed throughout Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam), Thailand, Myanmar and southern China. The position of this species in ranid systematics remains unclear; accordingly to the latest revision by Oliver et al. (2015), it was formally withdrawn from the genus Hylarana, but not assigned to any other hylaranine genus and currently is referred to as "Hylarana" lateralis (Frost 2019).


Assuntos
Anuros , Ranidae , Animais , Camboja , China , Indochina , Laos , Larva , Mianmar , Tailândia , Vietnã
3.
Zootaxa ; 4602(1): zootaxa.4602.1.1, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717248

RESUMO

A review of female mutillids in southern Thailand is presented, based on literature, loaned material, and two field expeditions. Thirty-three species in 23 genera have been previously recorded from Thailand (Lelej 2005; Lelej et al. 2016, 2017; Okayasu et al. 2018). In March and April 2017, 337 female specimens were collected in the provinces of Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung, Songkhla, and Trang. In May 2018, 255 female specimens were collected in the provinces of Kanchanaburi, Phetchaburi, and Surat Thani. These collected specimens were sorted into 38 morphospecies: 13 already known from Thailand, nine previously described species newly recorded from Thailand, and 16 new to science and described here. Based on loaned material, three more described species were newly recorded from southern Thailand and one more undescribed species was found. Keys to females of the 31 mutillid genera found in southeast Asia and 42 mutillid species studied from southern Thailand are provided. Illustrations and diagnoses are provided for each species studied in southern Thailand, including the following 17 new species: Bischoffitilla tokay Williams, Bischoffitilla cambrai Williams, Mickelomyrme puttasoki Williams, Mickelomyrme kinguri Williams, Nordeniella maleeae Williams, Smicromyrme helarctos Williams, Smicromyrme borkenti Williams, Smicromyrme thaochani Williams, Krombeinidia agricola Williams, Krombeinidia chang Williams, Krombeinidia baanmaka Williams, Orientidia manleyi Williams, Orientidia thoawanae Williams, Petersenidia modkhong Williams, Petersenidia leleji Williams, Trogaspidia pittsi Williams, and Trogaspidia wilsoni Williams. Three new synonyms and one new combination are recognized: Bischoffitilla lamellata (Mickel, 1933) = Squamulotilla arundinacea Pagden, 1934, syn. nov., Mickelomyrme pusillaeformis (Hammer, 1962), comb. nov. = Mickelomyrme yunnanensis Lelej, 1996, syn. nov., Trogaspidia pagdeni (Mickel, 1933) = Timulla (Trogaspidia) pagdeni nodoa Mickel, 1933, syn. nov. Finally, two other taxa are raised to full species from subspecies status, Eotrogaspidia oryzae (Pagden, 1934), status resurr., and Trogaspidia lingnani (Mickel, 1933), status nov. New combination is also proposed for Krombeinidia meeungensis (Cockerell, 1928), comb. nov. Twenty-three new country records are presented: 12 from Thailand, four from Vietnam, four from Laos, two from Cambodia, and one from Indonesia.


Assuntos
Formigas , Himenópteros , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Indonésia , Laos , Tailândia , Vietnã
4.
Zootaxa ; 4695(6): zootaxa.4695.6.7, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719328

RESUMO

Takahashi (1942) described Dialeurotrachelus cambodiensis, the type species of the monotypic whitefly genus, Dialeurotrachelus Takahashi from three syntype specimens collected on an unidentified tree in Cambodia, which were subsequently lost or destroyed. It was rediscovered after eight decades in the Indian territories of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. A neotype is designated for D. cambodiensis Takahashi, from specimens collected on Diospyros kurzii Hiern (Ebenaceae) from Andaman Island, India. It is recorded for the first time from the Indian territories, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Pupal morphology is assessed for redefining the generic description with differential diagnoses from related genera, and anomalies involved with structure of the vasiform orifice and associated structures are discussed. Illustrations are provided of the puparia in life, camera lucida drawings, slide mounts, and scanning electron photomicrographs.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Camboja , Índia , Ilhas , Pupa
5.
Zootaxa ; 4686(2): zootaxa.4686.2.5, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719490

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Stictane, S. heppneri n. sp. and S. transversana n. sp. are described from Cambodia along with one newly recorded species, S. obscura (Inoue, 1976). A key to the Cambodian species of the genus Stictane with figures of adults and genitalia are presented. Moreover, adults of the little known three Vietnamese species of Diduga are illustrated herein.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Camboja , Genitália
6.
Zootaxa ; 4571(3): zootaxa.4571.3.7, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715807

RESUMO

Channa auroflammea is a new freshwater fish species of the Marulius group from the Mekong River system. Previously reported as C. marulius, C. cf. marulius, or C. aff. marulius, C. auroflammea is readily distinguished from C. marulius and other members of the Marulius group by a different colour pattern, and a DNA barcode sequence at least 6.5% divergent from other members of the group. Comparison of counts of vertebrae, dorsal-fin rays, and lateral-line scales reveals that these counts are lower in the Mekong C. auroflammea than in C. aurolineata from the Salween and Irrawaddy-Chindwin, higher than in the Marulius group species C. pseudomarulius and C. marulioides, but similar to those in C. marulius. Channa auroflammea is known from the Mekong river and tributaries in Laos and Cambodia, where it forms a regular component of the wild fisheries catch from the rivers Tonle San and Tonle Srepok. Literature records of Channa marulius from China appear to be based on confusion originating with Cuvier's description of Ophiocephalus grandinosus.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Camboja , China , Laos , Rios
7.
Zootaxa ; 4683(3): zootaxa.4683.3.4, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715918

RESUMO

Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sister species Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA recover the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter in that a specimen of S. stellatus from the type locality in Peninsular Malaysia is more closely related to S. praesignis than to Indochinese populations of S. stellatus. Furthermore, the phylogeny indicates that the Indochinese populations represent two species, thus resulting in four major lineages within this clade. These relationships are consistent with multivariate and univariate analyses of morphological and discrete color pattern data which statistically define and diagnose the four lineages and together with the molecular data, provide the foundation for robust, testable, species-level hypotheses. As such, S. stellatus is herein restricted to Peninsular Malaysia; S. annamiticus is resurrected for the circum-continental populations ranging through southeastern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and southern Vietnam; a new species-S. preylangensis sp. nov.-is described from an isolated mountain, Phnom Chi, from the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary in central Cambodia; and the taxonomy of S. praesignis remains unchanged. The description of S. preylangensis sp. nov. underscores the necessity to conserve this remnant of lowland evergreen rainforest in the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Camboja , Lagartos/genética , Malásia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tailândia , Vietnã
8.
Zootaxa ; 4671(2): zootaxa.4671.2.12, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716063

RESUMO

Last year I reported the rediscovery in Cambodia of Lestes nigriceps Fraser, 1924, described from Pusa, India (Fraser 1924a) but never reported since that time from India (Kosterin 2018). In my paper I presumed non-conspecificity of the male and females of the type series and made critical comments on Fraser's appendage drawing (Fraser 1924a: plate IX: 6) and verbal descriptions (Fraser 1924a; 1933) of this species but did not consider his key for Lestes Leach, 1815 in the 1st volume of "Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Odonata" (Fraser 1933). Later I found a considerable corruption in this key, which could lead to misidentifications. (It is noteworthy to stress that Fraser explicitly provided keys for males only).


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Mianmar , Sri Lanka
9.
Zootaxa ; 4586(2): zootaxa.4586.2.13, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716139

RESUMO

Halone Walker (1854) is one of the small genera within the tribe Lithosiini of subfamily Arctiinae (Erebidae). It was established for its type species, Halone sobria Walker, 1854, from Australia. The genus Halone is distributed in Southeast Asia (total 14 spp.: 3 spp. from India; 1 sp. from Thailand; 9 spp. from Malay Peninsula; 1 sp. from Papua New Guinea) to Australia (total 14 spp.), with 28 species described by several authors in various genera: Halone sobria Walker (1854), Setina sinuata Wallengren (1860), Pitane sejuncta Felder Rogenhofer (1875), Mosoda consolatrix Rosenstock (1885), Mosoda servilis and M. ophiodes Meyrick (1886), Sorocostia interspersa Lucas (1890), Halone coryphoea and H. ebaea Hampson (1914), Eurypepla pteridaula Turner (1922), Halone epiopsis and H. prosenes Turner (1940), Psapharacis camptopleura and Scaphidriotis xylogramma Turner (1899) from Australia; Halone furcifascia Hampson (1914) from Papua New Guinea; Halone ariadna, H. bifornica, H. dissimulata, H. oblimarea, H. pillea, H. iuguma, H. marketae, H. solitus and H. viktorai Bucsek (2012; 2014) from Malay Peninsula; Halone straturata Cerný (2009) from Thailand; Aemene diffusifascia Swinhoe (1896), Aemene flavescens Hampson (1898), and Halone flavinigra Hampson (1907) from India. The genus is cataloged in Poole (1989) and Edwards (1996).


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Austrália , Camboja , Índia , Laos , Malásia , Papua Nova Guiné , Tailândia , Vietnã
10.
Zootaxa ; 4615(1): zootaxa.4615.1.3, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716355

RESUMO

The taxa of the genus Macrogomphus Selys, 1858 occurring in continental south-east Asia are reconsidered. Macrogomphus rivularis Förster, 1914 (described from Vietnam), M. borikhanensis Fraser, 1933 (described from Laos), and M. guilinensis Chao, 1983 (described from China), are synonymised with M. albardae Selys, 1878. The relationship and conspecificity of the latter with M. parallelogramma Burmeister, 1839 are doubtful, perhaps they are bona species. Males of M. albardae (and seemingly of parallelogramma as well) are approximately trimorphic for the pale pattern of the abdominal S3-S6, being of either a 'dashed morph' (with small isolated anteriolateral spots and conspicuous middorsal streaks), or a 'ringed morph (with broad anterior rings and less conspicuous middorsal streaks), or an 'intermediate morph'. Validity of the species M. matsukii Asahina, 1986 is doubted; its holotype could be an aberrant male of M. albardae. The main diagnostic character of M. albardae, M. phalantus Lieftinck, 1935 and probably M. parallelogramma, is clarified to be the structure of the cercus inner branch. M. phalantus jayavarman subsp. nov. is described from temporarily inundated forest at the northern bank of the great Lake Tonlé Sap of Cambodia (Siem Reap Province, 1.5 km SSW of Kampong Pluk village, 13.1956° N, 103.9725° E, 3 m a.s.l.), which is ca 1,300 km north and overseas from the presumed range of M. phalantus phalantus.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Camboja , China , Laos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Vietnã
11.
Zootaxa ; 4564(2): zootaxa.4564.2.7, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716506

RESUMO

Twenty new species of Agrilus jewel beetles from the Oriental region are described and illustrated: Agrilus cicadelloides sp. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak); A. draco sp. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah); A. hergovitsi sp. nov. (Malaysia: Johor); A. hik sp. nov.(Cambodia); A. ika sp. nov. (Solomon Islands); A. jankae sp. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra, Singapore); A. jum sp. nov. (Laos); A. kon sp. nov. (Cambodia); A. mimicus sp. nov. (Laos); A. qom sp. nov. (Laos); A. titi sp. nov. (Malaysia: Perak); A. uxo sp. nov. (Vietnam); A. wos sp. nov. (Laos); A. xen sp. nov. (Laos); A. xia sp. nov. (Laos); A. xis sp. nov. (Laos); A. yoa sp. nov. (Laos, Vietnam); A. yuk sp. nov. (Laos); A. zao sp. nov. (Indonesia: Java and Sumba Islands); A. zim sp. nov. (Malaysia: Pahang).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Camboja , Indonésia , Laos , Malásia , Melanesia , Tamanho do Órgão , Singapura , Vietnã
12.
Zootaxa ; 4563(2): zootaxa.4563.2.1, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716539

RESUMO

Before this study, giant pill-millipedes (order Sphaerotheriida) were unknown from Laos despite their presence in all surrounding countries. As by-catch from collections by arachnologists, 31 specimens of Sphaerotheriida from Laos became available for study. The sample included 14 species. Three species were only represented by females, which are described but cannot be named. Of the remaining 11 species, a single species belongs to the genus Zephronia Gray, 1832: Z. laotica n. sp.; and the other ten belong to the genus Sphaerobelum Verhoeff, 1924: S. bolavensis n. sp., S. phouloei n. sp., S. denticulatum n. sp., S. spinatum n. sp., S. lachneeis n. sp., S. peterjaegeri n. sp., S. nigrum n. sp., S. splendidum n. sp., S. laoticum n. sp., and S. schwendingeri n. sp. This more than doubles the known diversity of Sphaerobelum. Here, I integratively describe these species, combining morphology and DNA barcodes with a molecular analysis including all Zephroniidae species deposited on GenBank-including the only giant pill-millipede species known from Cambodia, Zephronia dawydoffi Attems, 1953. An updated determination key to the species of the genus is presented. Zephronia laotica n. sp. belongs to the monophyletic Zephronia sensu stricto group, which is confirmed by molecular barcoding. In contrast, most species of Sphaerobelum are in a weakly supported clade. Genetically, Sphaerobelum species differ greatly from one another, with most p-distances >15%. The lowest observed p-distance (9.8%) is between S. truncatum Wongthamwanich et al. 2012 from Thailand and S. peterjaegeri n. sp.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Laos , Tailândia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4560(3): zootaxa.4560.3.2, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716566

RESUMO

The genus Rhitymna Simon, 1897 is revised by means of new material. Four new species are described: R. gerdmangel spec. nov. (Thailand, Malaysia; male, female), R. merianae spec. nov. (Indonesia: Bali; male), R. flores spec. nov. (Indonesia: Flores; male, female), R. senckenbergi spec. nov. (Philippines; male). The male of R. plana Jäger, 2003 and the female of R. tangi Quan Liu, 2012 are described for the first time. Rhitymna simoni Jäger, 2003 is recognised as junior synonym of R. cursor (Thorell, 1894) comb. nov., the latter transferred from the genus Olios Walckenaer, 1837. New records are given for further Rhitymna species, among them new country or island records for R. verruca (Wang, 1991) (Thailand), R. tangi Quan Liu, 2012 (Laos), R. plana Jäger, 2003 (Cambodia), R. pinangensis (Thorell, 1891) (Thailand), R. deelemanae Jäger, 2003 (Bali). The number of cheliceral bristles close to the fang base is recognised as size dependent, therefore without true phylogenetic signal. Two main types of copulatory organs within the genus are recognised and discussed. R. gerdmangel spec. nov. has a special biology as it lives exclusively in bamboo. Holes made by beetles or woodpeckers are used to enter the bamboo stem. Spiders hide during the day and lay their eggs in bamboo internodes.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Indonésia , Laos , Malásia , Masculino , Óvulo , Filipinas , Filogenia , Tailândia
14.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 23(10): 1047, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627766

Assuntos
Tuberculose , Camboja , Humanos
15.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1646024, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500551

RESUMO

Background: Most studies evaluate active case findings (ACF) for bacteriologically confirmed TB. Adapted diagnostic approaches are needed to identify cases with lower bacillary loads. Objectives: To assess the likelihood of diagnosing all forms of TB, including clinically diagnosed pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB, using different ACF algorithms in Cambodia. Methods: Clients were stratified into 'high-risk' (presumptive TB plus TB contact, or history of TB, or presumptive HIV infection; n = 12,337) and 'moderate-risk' groups (presumptive TB; n = 28,804). Sputum samples were examined by sputum smear microscopy (SSM) or Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). Initially, chest X-ray using a mobile radiography unit was a follow-up test after a negative sputum examination [algorithms A (Xpert/X-ray) and B (SSM/X-ray)]. Subsequently, all clients received an X-ray [algorithms C (X-ray+Xpert) and D (Xray+SSM/Xpert)]. X-rays were interpreted on the spot. Results: Between 25 August 2014 and 31 March 2016, 2217 (5.4%) cases with all forms of TB cases were diagnosed among 41,141 adults. The majority of TB cases (1488; 67.1%) were diagnosed using X-ray. When X-rays were taken and interpreted the same day the sputum was collected, same-day diagnosis more than doubled. Overall, the number needed to test (NNT) to diagnose one case was 18.6 (95%CI:17.9-19.2). In the high-risk group the NNT was lower [algorithm D: NNT = 17.3(15.9-18.9)] compared with the 'moderate-risk group' [algorithm D: NNT = 20.8(19.6-22.2)]. In the high-risk group the NNT was lower when using Xpert as an initial test [algorithm A: NNT = 12.2(10.8-13.9) or algorithm C: NNT = 11.2(9.6-13.0)] compared with Xpert as a follow-up test [algorithm D: NNT = 17.3(15.9-18.9)]. Conclusion: To diagnose all TB forms, X-ray should be part of the diagnostic algorithm. The combination of X-ray and Xpert testing for high-risk clients was the most effective ACF approach in this setting.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(3): 310-320, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477508

RESUMO

This case report describes the typical features of the dermatological progression of a patient stung by a (probable) box jellyfish. The purpose is to guide clinicians and patients to an understanding of what to expect after such a sting using the clinical narrative and unique sequential photographs of the injury. With knowledgeable consultation from experienced physicians and meticulous care, this envenomation healed without the need for skin grafting.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Mordeduras e Picadas/tratamento farmacológico , Cubomedusas , Dermatopatias/terapia , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Camboja , Humanos , Pele/fisiopatologia , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1200, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of childhood undernutrition are persistently high in Cambodia. Existing ready-to-use supplementary and therapeutic foods (RUSFs and RUTFs) have had limited acceptance and effectiveness. Therefore, our project developed and trialled a locally-produced, multiple micronutrient fortified lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) with therapeutic and supplementary versions. This ready-to-use food (RUF) is innovative in that, unlike many RUFs, it contains fish instead of milk. Development began in 2013 and the RUF was finalised in 2015. From 2015 until the present, both the RUTF and the RUSF versions were trialled for acceptability and effectiveness. METHODS: This paper draws on project implementation records and semi-structured interviews to describe the partnership between the Cambodian Ministries of Health and Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, UNICEF, the French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD), universities, and Vissot factory. It discusses the project implementation and lessons learned from the development and trialling process, and insights into positioning nutrition on the health agenda in low and middle-income countries. RESULTS: The lessons learned relate to the importance of project planning, management, and documentation in order to seize opportunities in the research, policy, advocacy, and programming environment while ensuring adequate day-to-day project administration and resourcing. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that projects such as ours, that collaborate to develop and test novel, locally-produced RUTFs and RUSFs, offer an exciting opportunity to respond to both local programmatic and broader research needs.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fast Foods , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Humanos
18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 664, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are colonized by a large but mostly uncharacterized natural virome of RNA viruses, and the composition and distribution of the natural RNA virome may influence the biology and immunity of Anopheles malaria vector populations. RESULTS: Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled in malaria endemic forest village sites in Senegal and Cambodia, including Anopheles funestus, Anopheles gambiae group sp., and Anopheles coustani in Senegal, and Anopheles hyrcanus group sp., Anopheles maculatus group sp., and Anopheles dirus in Cambodia. The most frequent mosquito species sampled at both study sites are human malaria vectors. Small and long RNA sequences were depleted of mosquito host sequences, de novo assembled and clustered to yield non-redundant contigs longer than 500 nucleotides. Analysis of the assemblies by sequence similarity to known virus families yielded 115 novel virus sequences, and evidence supports a functional status for at least 86 of the novel viral contigs. Important monophyletic virus clades in the Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales orders were found in these Anopheles from Africa and Asia. The remaining non-host RNA assemblies that were unclassified by sequence similarity to known viruses were clustered by small RNA profiles, and 39 high-quality independent contigs strongly matched a pattern of classic RNAi processing of viral replication intermediates, suggesting they are entirely undescribed viruses. One thousand five hundred sixty-six additional high-quality unclassified contigs matched a pattern consistent with Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), suggesting that strand-biased piRNAs are generated from the natural virome in Anopheles. To functionally query piRNA effect, we analyzed piRNA expression in Anopheles coluzzii after infection with O'nyong nyong virus (family Togaviridae), and identified two piRNAs that appear to display specifically altered abundance upon arbovirus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa and Asia are ubiquitously colonized by RNA viruses, some of which are monophyletic but clearly diverged from other arthropod viruses. The interplay between small RNA pathways, immunity, and the virome may represent part of the homeostatic mechanism maintaining virome members in a commensal or nonpathogenic state, and could potentially influence vector competence.


Assuntos
Anopheles/virologia , Florestas , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Camboja , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Senegal
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416153

RESUMO

Despite worldwide efforts, maternal and child mortality remains a major health problem in many developing countries. Cambodia's maternal mortality rate has decreased over recent years through government efforts and support from various international development cooperation agencies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that affected the accessibility of Cambodia's maternal healthcare services. Data from maternal health service surveys conducted in Battambang, Cambodia in 2012 and 2015 were compared and analyzed. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify factors related to the accessibility of integrated maternal healthcare service. The travel time to health centers was found to be related to distance from the health center (ß = 0.031, p < 0.001), travel time during the rainy season (ß = 0.166, p < 0.001), and travel cost (ß = 0.001, p < 0.001), with an explanatory power of 27% (R2 = 0.274). Based on these findings, future research and policy should focus on improving accessibility to effective maternal and child healthcare services, to reduce maternal and child mortality. This study is intended to contribute to developing a multi-directional and integrated strategy for access to maternal health services in developing countries.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Camboja , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 45-51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442892

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica and hybrid Fasciola are distributed throughout Asia. Herein, we investigated the species of the Fasciola fluke distributed in three hotspots of fascioliasis in Cambodia. A total of 92 flukes collected from 21 slaughtered cattle from Kandal (44), Battambang (41), and Kratie (7) Provinces were identified as F. gigantica using multiplex PCR for a nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. The overall prevalence of F. gigantica infestation was 7.14% (21/294). Phylogenetic as well as population genetics analyses were performed using the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). The 19 ND1 haplotypes were identified from Cambodian F. gigantica (haplotype diversity, 0.83). All of the haplotypes were classified into F. gigantica haplogroup C, which includes ND1 haplotypes detected from Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Myanmar, and China. Among haplogroup C, novel and unique haplotypes of Cambodia were found in the Battambang and Kandal Provinces, and the nucleotide diversity of the Cambodian population (0.00532) was the highest. Pairwise fixation indices among the F. gigantica populations from these countries indicated that the Cambodian and Thailand populations were related to each other. The highest genetic diversity in the Cambodian population suggests that F. gigantica in Cambodia may be the ancestor of the populations in Southeast Asian countries. Most likely, livestock movement, including Zebu cattle, played an important role in the transmission of F. gigantica. In this study, the hybrid Fasciola flukes that are commonly found in neighboring countries, were not found in Cambodia. Further comprehensive investigations of Fasciola prevalence should be conducted by analyzing a wider range of hosts throughout Cambodia to reach a more solid conclusion about the absence of hybrid flukes.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Variação Genética , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Camboja , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Haplótipos , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfotransferases/genética , Prevalência
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