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1.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304697, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problematic Internet use is characterized by excessive use of online platforms that can result in social isolation, family problems, psychological distress, and even suicide. Problematic Internet use has been associated with cannabis use disorder, however knowledge on the adult population remains limited. In Quebec, cannabis use has significatively increased since 2018, and it is associated with various risks in public safety, public health, and mental health. This study aims to identify factors associated with problematic Internet use among adult cannabis users and to better understand their experiences. METHOD: This project is a mixed explanatory sequential study consisting of two phases. Phase 1 (n = 1500) will be a cross-sectional correlational study using probability sampling to examine variables that predispose individuals to problematic Internet use, characteristics associated with cannabis use, Internet use, and the mental health profile of adult cannabis users in Quebec. Descriptive analyses and regression models will be used to determine the relationship between cannabis use and Internet use. Phase 2 (n = 45) will be a descriptive qualitative study in the form of semi-structured interviews aimed at better understanding the experience and background of cannabis users with probable problematic Internet use. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will support the development of public policies and interventions for the targeted population, by formulating courses of action that contribute to the prevention and reduction of harms associated with cannabis use and problematic Internet use. Furthermore, an integrated knowledge mobilization plan will aid in the large-scale dissemination of information that can result useful to decision-makers, practitioners, members of the scientific community, and the general population regarding the use of cannabis and the Internet.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Humanos , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Internet , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304219, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Illicit drug use is a significant public health problem. Studies have shown a high prevalence of cocaine and cannabis use in transgender women (TGW). OBJECTIVE: To describe the consumption patterns of cannabis and cocaine/crack use and variables associated with their use in TGW in Central Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on TGW in Goiás, Brazil. Participants were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling method and were interviewed face-to-face about cannabis and crack-cocaine and the variables associated with them. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test was used to assess substance use. Unweighted logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with cannabis and crack cocaine use. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 440 transgender women participated in the study. Their median age was 25 years (interquartile range: 20.5-29.5 years). Most participants were single (85.5%) and had engaged in sex work in their lifetime (58.6%). Cannabis was reported by 68.9% and 53.4% of participants in their lifetime and in the past three months, respectively, and cocaine/crack use was reported by 59.8% and 44.1% of participants in their lifetime and the past three months, respectively. Of the participants, 10.2% reported high-risk cannabis use, and 9.1% reported high-risk cocaine/crack use. Furthermore, 35% of participants reported using both drugs. Previous physical violence (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.37), inconsistent condom uses during anal sex (AOR: 2.17), and moderate-/high-risk cocaine/crack use (AOR: 3.14) were associated with high-risk cannabis use. Previous sexual violence (AOR: 2.84), previous STI (AOR: 2.90), moderate-/high-risk cannabis (AOR: 3.82), and binge drinking (AOR; 3.28) were associated with high-risk cocaine/crack use. CONCLUSION: Our study found a high frequency, significant overlap in the use of cannabis and cocaine/crack use and violence associated with these drugs consumption among TGW, highlighting the urgent need for health policies for drug disorders among this socially marginalized group.


Assuntos
Cocaína Crack , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410151, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713462

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of cannabis use in pregnancy is rising and is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. In parallel, combined prenatal use of cannabis and nicotine is also increasing, but little is known about the combined impact of both substances on pregnancy and offspring outcomes compared with each substance alone. Objective: To assess the perinatal outcomes associated with combined cannabis and nicotine exposure compared with each substance alone during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective population-based cohort study included linked hospital discharge data (obtained from the California Department of Health Care Access and Information) and vital statistics (obtained from the California Department of Public Health) from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2019. Pregnant individuals with singleton gestations and gestational ages of 23 to 42 weeks were included. Data were analyzed from October 14, 2023, to March 4, 2024. Exposures: Cannabis-related diagnosis and prenatal nicotine product use were captured using codes from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification. Main Outcome and Measures: The main outcomes were infant and neonatal death, infants small for gestational age, and preterm delivery. Results were analyzed by multivariable Poisson regression models. Results: A total of 3 129 259 pregnant individuals were included (mean [SD] maternal age 29.3 [6.0] years), of whom 23 007 (0.7%) had a cannabis-related diagnosis, 56 811 (1.8%) had a nicotine-use diagnosis, and 10 312 (0.3%) had both in pregnancy. Compared with nonusers, those with cannabis or nicotine use diagnoses alone had increased rates of infant (0.7% for both) and neonatal (0.3% for both) death, small for gestational age (14.3% and 13.7%, respectively), and preterm delivery (<37 weeks) (12.2% and 12.0%, respectively). Moreover, risks in those with both cannabis and nicotine use were higher for infant death (1.2%; adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 2.18 [95% CI, 1.82-2.62]), neonatal death (0.6%; ARR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.36-2.28]), small for gestational age (18.0%; ARR, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.86-2.02]), and preterm delivery (17.5%; ARR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.75-1.91]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that co-occurring maternal use of cannabis and nicotine products in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infant and neonatal death and maternal and neonatal morbidity compared with use of either substance alone. Given the increasing prevalence of combined cannabis and nicotine use in pregnancy, these findings can help guide health care practitioners with preconception and prenatal counseling, especially regarding the benefits of cessation.


Assuntos
Nicotina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , California/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Lactente , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 298, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public education efforts to address and reduce potential harms from cannabis use in Arab countries are either slow or inexistent, and do not follow the steadily increasing trends of cannabis use in Arab youth. Several decades of research on substance use, it can be suggested that being aware of, and knowing about, psychosis risk related to cannabis can at least limit the consumption of the substance. Motivated by a lack of measures specifically designed to measure literacy about cannabis-related psychosis risk in younger populations, and based on an extensive literature review, we aimed to create and validate a new self-report scale to assess the construct, the Cannabis-related Psychosis Risk Literacy Scale (CPRL), in the Arabic language. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried-out during the period from September 2022 to June 2023, enrolling 1855 university students (mean age of 23.26 ± 4.96, 75.6% females) from three Arab countries (Egypt, Kuwait and Tunisia). RESULTS: Starting from an initial pool of 20 items, both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested that the remaining 8 items loaded into a single factor. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency, with both McDonald omega and Cronbach's alpha values exceeding 0.7 (omega = 0.85 / alpha = 0.85). The CPRL showed measurement invariance across gender and country at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Concurrent validity of the CPRL was established by correlations with less favourable attitudes towards cannabis (r = -.14; p <.001). In addition, higher literacy levels were found in students who never used cannabis compared to lifetime users (4.18 ± 1.55 vs. 3.44 ± 1.20, t(1853) = 8.152, p <.001). CONCLUSION: The newly developed CPRL scale offers a valid and reliable instrument for assessing and better understanding literacy about cannabis-related psychosis risk among Arabic-speaking young adults. We believe that this new scale is suitable as a screening tool of literacy, as an instrument for measuring the effect of public education interventions aimed at promoting cannabis-related psychosis risk literacy among young people, and as a research tool to facilitate future studies on the topic with a wider application.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Letramento em Saúde , Transtornos Psicóticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Psicometria , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto
8.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 21(3): 87-115, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602558

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in people with HIV (PWH); however, given this population's high burden of persisting neurocognitive impairment (NCI), clinicians are concerned they may be particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of cannabis on cognition. Here, we present a systematic scoping review of clinical and preclinical studies evaluating the effects of cannabinoid exposure on cognition in HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: Results revealed little evidence to support a harmful impact of cannabis use on cognition in HIV, with few eligible preclinical data existing. Furthermore, the beneficial/harmful effects of cannabis use observed on cognition were function-dependent and confounded by several factors (e.g., age, frequency of use). Results are discussed alongside potential mechanisms of cannabis effects on cognition in HIV (e.g., anti-inflammatory), and considerations are outlined for screening PWH that may benefit from cannabis interventions. We further highlight the value of accelerating research discoveries in this area by utilizing translatable cross-species tasks to facilitate comparisons across human and animal work.


Assuntos
Cognição , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos
9.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 103: 107351, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis use among pregnant people and equivocal evidence linking prenatal cannabis exposure to adverse outcomes in offspring highlights the need to understand its potential impact on pregnancy and child outcomes. Assessing cannabis use during pregnancy remains a major challenge with potential influences of stigma on self-report as well as detection limitations of easily collected biological matrices. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive study examined the concordance between self-reported (SR) cannabis use and urine drug screen (UDS) detection of cannabis exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy and characterized concordant and discordant groups for sociodemographic factors, modes of use, secondhand exposure to cannabis and tobacco, and alcohol use and cotinine positivity. STUDY DESIGN: The Cannabis Use During Development and Early Life (CUDDEL) Study is an ongoing longitudinal study that recruits pregnant individuals presenting for obstetric care, who report lifetime cannabis use as well as using (n = 289) or not using cannabis (n = 169) during pregnancy. During the first trimester pregnancy visit, SR of cannabis use and a UDS for cannabis, other illicit drugs and nicotine are acquired from eligible participants, of whom 333 as of 05/01/2023 had both. RESULTS: Using available CUDDEL Study data on both SR and UDS (n = 333; age 26.6 ± 4.7; 88.6% Black; 45.4% below federal poverty threshold; 56.5% with paid employment; 89% with high school education; 22% first pregnancy; 12.3 ± 3.6 weeks gestation), we classified pregnant individuals with SR and UDS data into 4 groups based on concordance (k = 0.49 [95% C.I. 0.40-0.58]) between SR cannabis use and UDS cannabis detection during the first trimester: 1) SR+/UDS+ (n = 107); 2) SR-/UDS- (n = 142); 3) SR+/UDS- (n = 44); 4) SR-/UDS+ (n = 40). Those who were SR+/UDS- reported less frequent cannabis use and fewer hours under the influence of cannabis during their pregnancy. Those who were SR-/UDS+ were more likely to have joined the study at a lower gestational age with 62.5% reporting cannabis use during their pregnancy prior to being aware that they were pregnant. Of the 40 SR-/UDS+ women, 14 (i.e., 35%) reported past month secondhand exposure, or blunt usage. In the subset of individuals with SR and UDS available at trimester 2 (N = 160) and 3 (N = 140), concordant groups were mostly stable and > 50% of those in the discordant groups became concordant by the second trimester. Classifying individuals as exposed or not exposed who were SR+ and/or UDS+ resulted in minor changes in group status based on self-report at screening. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was moderate concordance between SR and UDS for cannabis use/exposure during pregnancy. Instances of SR+/UDS- discordancy may partially be attributable to lower levels of use that are not detected on UDS. SR-/UDS+ discordancy may arise from recent use prior to knowledge of pregnancy, extreme secondhand exposure, deception, and challenges with completing questionnaires. Acquiring both self-report and biological detection of cannabis use/exposure allows for the examination of convergent evidence. Classifying those who are SR+ and/or UDS+ as individuals who used cannabis during their first trimester after being aware of their pregnancy resulted in only a minor change in exposure status; thus, relying on self-report screening, at least in this population and within this sociocultural context likely provides an adequate approximation of cannabis use during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Autorrelato , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Longitudinais , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/urina , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/urina , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Cotinina/urina , Adolescente , Fumar Maconha/urina
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 280, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of associations between prenatal cannabis use (PCU) and maternal and infant health outcomes remains conflicting amid broad legalization of cannabis across Canada and 40 American states. A critical limitation of existing evidence lies in the non-standardized and crude measurement of prenatal cannabis use (PCU), resulting in high risk of misclassification bias. We developed a standardized tool to comprehensively measure prenatal cannabis use in pregnant populations for research purposes. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods, patient-oriented tool development and validation study, using a bias-minimizing process. Following an environmental scan and critical appraisal of existing prenatal substance use tools, we recruited pregnant participants via targeted social media advertising and obstetric clinics in Alberta, Canada. We conducted individual in-depth interviews and cognitive interviewing in separate sub-samples, to develop and refine our tool. We assessed convergent and discriminant validity internal consistency and 3-month test-retest reliability, and validated the tool externally against urine-THC bioassays. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty four pregnant women participated. The 9-item Cannabis Exposure in Pregnancy Tool (CEPT) had excellent discriminant (Cohen's kappa = -0.27-0.15) and convergent (Cohen's kappa = 0.72-1.0) validity; as well as high internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha = 0.92), and very good test-retest reliability (weighted Kappa = 0.92, 95% C.I. [0.86-0.97]). The CEPT is valid against urine THC bioassay (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 82%). CONCLUSION: The CEPT is a novel, valid and reliable measure of frequency, timing, dose, and mode of PCU, in a contemporary sample of pregnant women. Using CEPT (compared to non-standardized tools) can improve measurement accuracy, and thus the quality of research examining PCU and maternal and child health outcomes.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Lactente , Criança , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vitaminas , Alberta , Família
13.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 103(6): 1083-1091, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504476

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cannabis potency and its use during pregnancy have increased in the last decade. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of antenatal cannabis use on fetal growth, preterm birth and other perinatal outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A propensity score-matched analysis was performed in women with singleton pregnancies attending a tertiary care site in Barcelona. Women in the cannabis group were selected based on the results of a detection test. Primary outcomes were small for gestational age at birth (SGA), low birthweight and preterm birth. Secondary outcomes were other biometric parameters (neonatal length and head circumference), respiratory distress, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and breastfeeding at discharge. A second propensity score-matched analysis excluding other confounders (use of other recreational drugs and discontinuation of cannabis use during pregnancy) was performed. RESULTS: Antenatal cannabis was associated with a higher odds ratio of SGA (OR 3.60, 95% CI: 1.68-7.69), low birthweight (OR 3.94, 95% CI: 2.17-7.13), preterm birth at 37 weeks (OR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.12-3.84) and 32 weeks of gestation (OR 4.13, 95% CI: 1.06-16.11), admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (OR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.03-3.71), respiratory distress (OR 2.77, 95% CI: 1.26-6.34), and lower breastfeeding rates at discharge (OR 0.10, 95% CI: 0.05-0.18). When excluding other confounders, no significant association between antenatal cannabis use and SGA was found. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal cannabis use increases the risk of SGA, low birthweight, preterm birth and other adverse perinatal outcomes. However, when isolating the impact of cannabis use by excluding women who use other recreational drugs and those who discontinue cannabis during pregnancy, no significant association between antenatal cannabis use and SGA birth was found.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Pontuação de Propensão , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso
14.
Breastfeed Med ; 19(6): 490-493, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469628

RESUMO

Background: The use of cannabis and its perceived safety among pregnant and breastfeeding women has increased in the context of expanding legalization. Current guidelines recommend abstaining from the use of cannabis while pregnant or breastfeeding due to the potential for harm, although there is still much that is unknown in this field. Case Presentation: A 5-week-old infant presented with recurrent apneic episodes and a positive urine delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) screening test. The infant's mother reported regular cannabis use for treatment of depression and anxiety while pregnant and breastfeeding. The infant was subsequently transitioned to formula feedings, and the infant's condition improved. Conclusion: Cannabis and its active metabolites can be transferred into breast milk and may have deleterious neurologic effects on infants. However, a causal relationship between cannabis exposure and short- or long-term neurologic sequelae has not yet been definitively established. Further studies are warranted to assess the safety of maternal cannabis use for breastfed infants.


Assuntos
Apneia , Aleitamento Materno , Cannabis , Leite Humano , Humanos , Feminino , Leite Humano/química , Gravidez , Lactente , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Dronabinol , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
15.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 102: 107340, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prenatal cannabis use and structural birth defects in exposed offspring. METHODS: In line with the preregistered protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42022368623), we systematically searched PubMed/Medline, CINHAL, EMBASE, Web of Science, ProQuest, Psych-Info, and Google Scholar for published articles until 25 January 2024. The methodological quality of the included studies was appraised by the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). A meta-analysis was carried out to report the pooled effect estimates from the included studies. We further performed subgroup, leave-one-out sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses, which increased the robustness of our findings. RESULTS: In this cumulative meta-analysis, thirty-six observational studies, consisting of 18 case-control and 18 cohort studies, with 230, 816 cases of birth defects and 18,049,013 controls (healthy babies) were included in the final analysis. We found that offspring exposed to maternal prenatal cannabis are at greater risks of a wide range of structural birth defects: cardiovascular/heart [OR = 2.35: 95 % CI 1.63 - 3.39], gastrointestinal [OR = 2.42: 95 % CI 1.61 - 3.64], central nervous system [OR = 2.87: 95 % CI 1.51 - 5.46], genitourinary [OR = 2.39: 95 % CI 1.11 - 5.17], and any (unclassified) birth defects [OR = 1.25: 95 % CI 1.12 - 1.41]. CONCLUSION: The findings from the current study suggest that maternal prenatal cannabis exposure is associated with a higher risk of different forms of structural birth defects in offspring. The findings underscore the significance of implementing preventive strategies, including enhanced preconception counselling, to address cannabis use during pregnancy and mitigate the risk of birth defects in offspring.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Gravidez , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Materna , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 257: 111267, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis contains hundreds of chemical constituents beyond delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is believed to drive most of its acute pharmacodynamic effects. The entourage effect theory asserts that non-THC constituents can impact acute cannabis effects, but few empirical studies have systematically evaluated this theory in humans. This study assessed whether the cannabis terpenoid d-limonene mitigates the acute anxiogenic effects of THC. METHODS: Twenty healthy adults completed nine, double-blind outpatient sessions in which they inhaled vaporized THC alone (15mg or 30mg), d-limonene alone (1mg or 5mg), the same doses of THC and d-limonene together, or placebo; a subset of participants (n=12) completed a tenth session in which 30mg THC+15mg d-limonene was administered. Outcomes included subjective drug effects, cognitive/psychomotor performance, vital signs, and plasma THC and d-limonene concentrations. RESULTS: When d-limonene was administered alone, pharmacodynamic outcomes did not differ from placebo. Administration of 15mg and 30mg THC alone produced subjective, cognitive, and physiological effects typical of acute cannabis exposure. Ratings of anxiety-like subjective effects qualitatively decreased as d-limonene dose increased and concurrent administration of 30mg THC+15mg d-limonene significantly reduced ratings of "anxious/nervous" and "paranoid" compared with 30mg THC alone. Other pharmacodynamic effects were unchanged by d-limonene. D-limonene plasma concentrations were dose orderly, and concurrent administration of d-limonene did not alter THC pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSIONS: D-limonene selectively attenuated THC-induced anxiogenic effects, suggesting this terpenoid could increase the therapeutic index of THC. Future research should determine whether this effect extends to oral dose formulations and evaluate the interactions between other cannabis terpenoids or cannabinoids and THC.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Adulto , Humanos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Limoneno , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides , Método Duplo-Cego , Extratos Vegetais
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5808, 2024 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461359

RESUMO

Prenatal cannabis use is associated with adverse offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes, however the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. We sought to determine the impact of chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure on fetal neurodevelopment in a rhesus macaque model using advanced imaging combined with molecular and tissue studies. Animals were divided into two groups, control (n = 5) and THC-exposed (n = 5), which received a daily THC edible pre-conception and throughout pregnancy. Fetal T2-weighted MRI was performed at gestational days 85 (G85), G110, G135 and G155 to assess volumetric brain development. At G155, animals underwent cesarean delivery with collection of fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for microRNA (miRNA) studies and fetal tissue for histologic analysis. THC exposure was associated with significant age by sex interactions in brain growth, and differences in fetal brain histology suggestive of brain dysregulation. Two extracellular vesicle associated-miRNAs were identified in THC-exposed fetal CSF; pathway analysis suggests that these miRNAs are associated with dysregulated axonal guidance and netrin signaling. This data is indicative of subtle molecular changes consistent with the observed histological data, suggesting a potential role for fetal miRNA regulation by THC. Further studies are needed to determine whether these adverse findings correlate with long-term offspring neurodevelopmental health.


Assuntos
Cannabis , MicroRNAs , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Feto , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/genética
20.
J Psychopharmacol ; 38(3): 247-257, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing medical cannabis use, research has yet to establish whether and to what extent products containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impact driving performance among patients. Stable doses of prescribed cannabinoid products during long-term treatment may alleviate clinical symptoms affecting cognitive and psychomotor performance. AIM: To examine the effects of open-label prescribed medical cannabis use on simulated driving performance among patients. METHODS: In a semi-naturalistic laboratory study, 40 adults (55% male) aged between 23 and 80 years, consumed their own prescribed medical cannabis product. Driving performance outcomes including standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the standard deviation of speed (SDS), mean speed and steering variability were evaluated using the Forum8 driving simulator at baseline (pre-dosing), 2.5 h and 5 -h (post-dosing). Perceived driving effort (PDE) was self-reported after each drive. Oral fluid and whole blood samples were collected at multiple timepoints and analysed for THC via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A significant main effect of time was observed for mean speed (p = 0.014) and PDE (p = 0.020), with patients displaying modest stabilisation of vehicle control, increased adherence to speed limits and reductions in PDE post-dosing, relative to baseline. SDLP (p = 0.015) and PDE (p = 0.043) were elevated for those who consumed oil relative to flower-based products. Detectable THC concentrations were observed in oral fluid at 6-h post-dosing (range = 0-24 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: This semi-naturalistic study suggests that the consumption of medical cannabis containing THC (1.13-39.18 mg/dose) has a negligible impact on driving performance when used as prescribed.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Fumar Maconha , Maconha Medicinal , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Maconha Medicinal/farmacologia , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos
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