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PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300873, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578821


In implementing the equity incentive system, this paper delves into the listed enterprises' selection of equity incentive models. While previous research has extensively covered the effects, models, and influencing factors of equity incentives, there needs to be more in-depth literature focusing on the diverse incentive models and their impact on corporate performance. Notably, there needs to be more literature on considering entrepreneurial spirit as a mechanism. It aims to explore the relationship between executives' choices under different incentive models, the entrepreneurial spirit fostered by these models, and their combined impact on corporate performance. The findings reveal that adopting the restricted stock incentive model by listed enterprises implementing the equity incentive system significantly positively affects enterprise performance. Mechanistic tests show that when a company implements the restricted stock incentive model, executives prioritize maximizing their interests, leading them to embrace more risk in their investment decisions. This behavior, in turn, stimulates the adventurous spirit of executives, positively impacting enterprise performance, particularly pronounced in companies with more concentrated executive power. Moreover, executives may be more inclined to invest in high-risk, high-reward innovative projects, a behavior indicative of innovation and more prevalent in firms with higher research and development (R&D) investment. However, the limitation of this paper is that the study evaluates the operation of the equity incentive system in China by taking listed companies in China as an example, which is not necessarily suitable for foreign developed capitalist countries. This study contributes to the study of principal-agent problems by exploring the relationship between executives, entrepreneurship and firm performance.

Empreendedorismo , Motivação , Capitalismo , China , Internacionalidade
Community Dent Health ; 41(1): 70-74, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533922


There are important calls for greater inclusion of Indigenous and racialised communities in oral microbiome research. This paper uses the concept of racial capitalism (the extractive continuity of colonialism) to critically examine this inclusion agenda. Racial capitalism explicitly links capitalist exploitations with wider social oppressions e.g., racisms, sexism, ableism. It is not confined to the commercial sector but pervades white institutions, including universities. By using the lens of racial capitalism, we find inclusion agendas allow white institutions to extract social and economic value from relations of race. Racially inclusive research is perceived as a social good, therefore, it attracts funding. Knowledge and treatments developed from research create immense value for universities and pharmaceutical companies with limited benefits for the communities themselves. Moreover, microbiome research tends to drift from conceptualisations that recognise it as something that is shaped by the social, including racisms, to one that is determined genetically and biologically. This location of problems within racialised bodies reinforces racial oppressions and allows companies to further profit from raciality. Inclusion in oral microbiome research must consider ways to mitigate racial capitalism. Researchers can be less extractive by using an anti-racism praxis framework. This includes working with communities to co-design studies, create safer spaces, giving marginalised communities the power to set and frame agendas, sharing research knowledges and treatments through accessible knowledge distributions, open publications, and open health technologies. Most importantly, inclusion agendas must not displace ambitions of the deeper anti-oppression social reforms needed to tackle health inequalities and create meaningful inclusion.

Capitalismo , Racismo , Humanos
Front Health Serv Manage ; 40(3): 1-3, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386459
Soc Sci Med ; 343: 116576, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237286


Understanding the shifting nature of structural racism historically and across institutions is vital for effective action towards racial health equity. While public health research on structural racism is rapidly increasing, most studies are missing the interdependence of policies and institutional practices over time that shape power imbalances and lead to entrenched health inequities. Here, we discuss Ruth Wilson Gilmore's concept of organized abandonment - the intentional disinvestment in communities which, in turn, creates opportunities for extraction, revenue generation, and carceral enforcement to fill the cracks of a compromised social infrastructure - to encourage action-oriented public health research that is grounded in history and an understanding of racial capitalism. We present a case example using publicly-available data on redlining, gentrification and policing in Seattle, Washington. We mapped the intersections of redlining and gentrification and estimated their neighborhood-level association with police activity using Bayesian spatial Poisson regression models. We found that histories of racist housing policies like redlining and processes of gentrification are interdependent and shape contemporary neighborhood racial and economic segregation and police activity. Compared to structurally advantaged neighborhoods, police stops were higher in neighborhoods that were 1) historically disinvested (i.e. redlined) and remain low-income and structurally disadvantaged and 2) formerly industrial and business districts that were not redlined and are now gentrified. Notably, we found that policing practices were significantly more intensive in neighborhoods that were both high redlined and gentrified. Together, these findings illustrate how the place-based racialized processes of dispossession, displacement and policing are deeply intertwined to maintain racial capitalism. Our findings also highlight the importance of examining multiple racialized processes simultaneously to fill critical gaps in the existing literature that are necessary for sustainable solutions to address structural racism.

Racismo , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Capitalismo , Saúde Pública , Racismo Sistêmico
N Engl J Med ; 390(5): 471-475, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38197811
J Med Ethics ; 50(2): 84-89, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38050159


Patient online record access (ORA) is spreading worldwide, and in some countries, including Sweden, and the USA, access is advanced with patients obtaining rapid access to their full records. In the UK context, from 31 October 2023 as part of the new NHS England general practitioner (GP) contract it will be mandatory for GPs to offer ORA to patients aged 16 and older. Patients report many benefits from reading their clinical records including feeling more empowered, better understanding and remembering their treatment plan, and greater awareness about medications including possible adverse effects. However, a variety of indirect evidence suggests these benefits are unlikely to accrue without supplementation from internet-based resources. Using such routes to augment interpretation of the data and notes housed in electronic health records, however, comes with trade-offs in terms of exposing sensitive patient information to internet corporations. Furthermore, increased work burdens on clinicians, including the unique demands of ORA, combined with the easy availability and capability of a new generation of large language model (LLM)-powered chatbots, create a perfect collision course for exposing sensitive patient information to private tech companies. This paper surveys how ORA intersects with internet associated privacy risks and offers a variety of multilevel suggestions for how these risks might be better mitigated.

Capitalismo , Privacidade , Humanos , Confidencialidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
Br J Sociol ; 75(1): 108-131, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010901


This paper examines the types of work that jurists have historically undertaken and maps how opportunities for legal practice have been shaped by social origins across three centuries: after constitutional independence in the mid-1800s, during industrial capitalism in the mid-1900s, and at present-day advanced capitalism. I analyze historical archive data on law graduates from the 19th and 20th centuries in combination with administrative registry data from the 1990s onwards and employ correspondence analysis to explore how social backgrounds shape careers, considering transformations in class structures and the changing significance of juridical expertise over time. Within each period, jurists have served in very different roles including those that craft and cater to the institutional make-up of the state and the markets. My analysis shows that the impact of social origin on occupational outcomes has undergone significant changes, mirroring shifts in the broader social structure; from the importance of legal and political capital (within regional jurisdictions) in the 19th century to the significance of economic capital as the main structuring principle, but also a greater significance of cultural capital, in contemporary times. The ability to reach the most powerful positions among law graduates-within the polity in the 19th century, and the economy in the 21st century-has been differently structured by origins. I argue that expansion of the student body, the declining standing of the university, and heightened differentiation of the social structure and the juridical field have made intimate familiarity with the business world pivotal for forging mutually beneficial alliances between jurists and the increasingly dominant capitalist class. Today, a select group of jurists have managed to connect with and contribute to the rising power of private capital. Thus, the historical tale of jurists cannot be accurately captured by notions of uniform descent from national power structures.

Capitalismo , Ocupações , Humanos , Noruega , Indústrias , Comércio
Nurs Philos ; 25(1): e12460, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37403431


Healthcare under the auspices of late-stage capitalism is a total institution that mortifies nurses and patients alike, demanding conformity, obedience, perfection. This capture, which resembles Deleuze's enclosure, entangles nurses in carceral systems and gives way to a postenclosure society, an institution without walls. These societies of control constitute another sort of total institution, more covert and insidious for their invisibility (Deleuze, 1992). While Delezue (1992) named physical technologies like electronic identification badges as key to understanding these societies of control, the political economy of late-stage capitalism functions as a total institution with no cohesive, centralized, connected material apparatus required. In this manuscript, we outline the ways in which the healthcare industrial complex demands nurse conformity and how that, in turn, operationalizes nurses in service to the institution. This foundation leads to the assertion that nursing must foster a radical imagination for itself, unbound by reality as it presently exists, in order that we might conjure more just, equitable futures for caregivers and care receivers alike. To tease out what a radical imagination might look like, we dwell in paradox: getting folks the care they need in capitalist healthcare systems; engaging nursing's deep history to inspire alternative understandings for the future of the discipline; and how nursing might divest from extractive institutional structures. This paper is a jumping-off place to interrogate the ways institutions telescope and where nursing fits into the arrangement.

Capitalismo , Enfermagem , Humanos
Psicol. USP ; 352024.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos, LILACS | ID: biblio-1537988


Desde a consolidação de emissoras de rádio e TV no Pará, a mídia local propaga a ideia de uma "música paraense", título utilizado com frequência em uma série de eventos recentemente produzidos dentro e fora do estado. Ao contestar essa singularização, a presente pesquisa apresenta uma análise psicossociológica dos mecanismos que operam na inter-relação entre indústria cultural e formação de massas, utilizando como objeto privilegiado de estudo o espetáculo Terruá Pará. Visando tal intento, além do recurso à revisão bibliográfica, realizou-se uma pesquisa documental sobre parte do material impresso produzido para a terceira edição do festival. Em termos conclusivos, defende-se que o Terruá Pará, embora pautado por um discurso pretensamente racional em prol da valorização da música regional, torna-se dialeticamente promotor de irracionalidades expressas na sugestão de modos de subjetivação específicos que, desconsiderando diversidades, acabam por reduzir o seu público consumidor à qualidade de multidão abstrata

Since the consolidation of radio and TV broadcasters in Pará, local media has propagated the idea of a "Pará music," moniker often used in a series of events produced in and outside the State. By contesting such singularization, this psychosociological analysis unveils the mechanisms that mediate cultural industry and mass formation by analyzing the spectacle Terruá Pará. For this purpose, a bibliographic review was conducted, as well as a documentary research concerning part of the printed material produced for the festival's third edition. In conclusion, although Terruá Pará appears based on an allegedly rational discourse to value regional music, it dialectically promotes irrationalities expressed in specific modes of subjectivation that, disregarding diversity, reduce its consuming public to the quality of abstract crowd

Depuis la consolidation des stations de radio et télévision à l'état du Pará, les médias locaux ont diffusé l'idée d'une «musique paraense¼, expression souvent utilisée dans une série d'événements récemment produits dans cet état autant que dehors. En contestant cette singularisation, cette recherche présente une analyse psychosociologique des mécanismes agissant dans l'interrelation entre l'industrie culturelle et la formation des foules, en prenant comme objet principal d'étude le spectacle Terruá Pará. Dans ce but, outre le recours à l'étude bibliographique, on a mené une recherche documentaire sur une partie du matériel imprimé produit pour la troisième édition du festival. En conclusion, on soutient que Terruá Pará, bien que guidé par un discours prétendument rationnel en faveur de la valorisation de la musique régionale, devient dialectiquement promoteur d'irrationalités exprimées par la suggestion de modes de subjectivation spécifiques qui, en ignorant les diversités, finissent par réduire son public consommateur à une foule abstraite

Desde la consolidación de las estaciones de radio y televisión en Pará, los medios locales han difundido la "musica paraense", título de uso frecuente en eventos producidos dentro y fuera del Estado. Al impugnar esta singularización, esta investigación presenta un análisis psicosociológico de los mecanismos que operan en la interrelación entre la industria cultural y la formación de masas, utilizando como objeto privilegiado de estudio el espectáculo Terruá Pará. Además del uso de la revisión bibliográfica, fue llevada a cabo una investigación documental sobre parte del material producido para la tercera edición del festival. En conclusión, se argumenta que Terruá Pará, aunque guiado por un discurso supuestamente racional a favor de la valorización de la música regional, se convierte dialécticamente en promotor de irracionalidades expresadas en la sugerencia de modos específicos de subjetivación que, sin tener en cuenta las diversidades, reducen su público consumidor a la calidad de multitud abstracta

Características Culturais , Cultura Popular , Música , Narcisismo , Capitalismo , Pertencimento
Health (London) ; 28(1): 22-39, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869595


The critical political economy of health offers different explanations for the social causes of health and the social factors determining the distribution of these causes. However, the relational, post-anthropocentric and monist ontology of the new materialisms overcomes this complexity, while retaining a critical focus. In this perspective, the social, economic and political relations of capitalism act upon bodies and other matter in everyday events, rather than as 'social structures'. Using a conceptual toolkit of 'affect', 'assemblage', 'capacity' and 'micropolitics', the paper asks the question: 'what does capitalism do?' The re-analysis of the social and economic relations of capitalism in terms of a production-assemblage and a market-assemblage reveals not only the workings of capitalist accumulation, but also how previously-unremarked more-than-human affects in these assemblages simultaneously produce uncertainty, waste and inequalities. This micropolitical economy of health is illustrated with examples from recent research, including a critical assessment of health inequalities during the Covid-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Capitalismo
Rev. polis psique ; 13(2): 76-96, 2023-11-13.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1517841


O suicídio é um fenômeno multifatorial, considerado um grave problema de saúde pública que atinge, em média, cerca de 700 mil pessoas todos os anos. Diante disso, este artigo tem por objetivo analisar este fenômeno e sua relação com o capitalismo, tendo como base a determinação social da saúde e o cenário individualista deste modelo de sociedade que podem ser causadores da morte autoprovocada. Com isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica que evidenciou a precarização da vida na realidade brasileira e o sofrimento social envolto à população marginalizada, mediado pelas desigualdades do sistema capitalista, dentre elas o desemprego, precarização do trabalho, racismo, sexismo, lgbtfobia e a pobreza como alguns dos elementos envolvidos no suicídio. Verificou-se a importância de considerar os atravessamentos sociais, políticos, econômicos, históricos e culturais no debate sobre a morte voluntária e na promoção e valorização da vida, contrapondo uma visão individualista e reducionista do fenômeno. (AU)

El suicidio es un fenómeno multifactorial, considerado un grave problema de salud pública que afecta, en promedio, a alrededor de 700,000 personas cada año. Ante esto, este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar este fenómeno y su relación con el capitalismo, basándose en la determinación social de la salud y en el escenario individualista de este modelo de sociedad, que pueden ser causantes de la muerte autoprovocada. Con esto, se realizó una investigación bibliográfica que evidenció la precarización de la vida en la realidad brasileña y el sufrimiento social que rodea a la población marginada, mediado por las desigualdades del sistema capitalista, entre las que se encuentran el desempleo, la precarización del trabajo, el racismo, el sexismo, la lgbtfobia y la pobreza como algunos de los elementos del suicidio. Se destacó la importancia de considerar los cruces sociales, políticos, económicos, históricos y culturales en el debate sobre la muerte voluntaria y en la promoción y valoración de la vida, oponiéndose a una visión individualista y reduccionista del fenómeno. (AU)

Suicide is a multifactorial phenomenon, considered a serious public health problem that affects, on average, about 700 thousand people per year. Therefore, this article aims to analyze the phenomenon of suicide and its relationship with capitalism, based on the social determination of the health and the individualistic scenario of this model of society that can be the cause of self-mutilation. With that, a bibliographical research was carried out that evidenced the precariousness of life in the Brazilian reality and the social suffering that surrounds the marginalized population, mediated by the inequalities of the capitalist system, including unemployment, precariousness of employment, racism, sexism, LGBTphobia and poverty as some of the elements involvedin suicide. It was found important to consider the social, political, economic, historical and cultural intersections in the debate on voluntary death and in the promotion and appreciation of life, in opposition to an individualistic and reductionist viewof the phenomenon.

Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Capitalismo , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Determinação Social da Saúde , Suicídio/psicologia
Healthc Pap ; 21(3): 36-42, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37887168


In response to the arguments put forward by Dryden (2023), this paper discusses the disproportionate toll of the COVID-19 pandemic on racially marginalized communities - particularly, Black healthcare workers. There were numerous reports in the media that Black people were being treated poorly by healthcare providers and that Black healthcare workers felt poorly protected compared to their white counterparts. This paper argues that the National Health Service has been maintained through a system of racial capitalism. The author proposes that to address racial health inequity a more in-depth understanding of our shared colonial history is required.

COVID-19 , Medicina Estatal , Humanos , Capitalismo , Pandemias , Grupos Raciais
Lancet Planet Health ; 7(9): e784-e792, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37673549


Multiple social and ecological crises are currently unfolding, the tackling of which requires a thorough understanding of their interlinkages and root causes. More sharing of essential resources while increasing access to valuable goods and services, especially for the most vulnerable in society, has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce environmental and social damage. However, a more reflective approach to sharing is needed to make sure that it does not worsen some of the issues that it aims to address. In this Personal View, we outline the principles of radical sharing, which highlight the salience of environmental limits, access to essential goods and services, and non-exploitative relationships. Furthermore, we discuss key enablers and barriers to radical sharing and a more successful integration into sharing practices that prioritise needs satisfaction for all within planetary boundaries. Critical perspectives on the sharing economy need to account for the role of power, politics, capitalism, and citizenship alongside the more widely discussed issues around exploitation, discrimination, and greenwashing.

Capitalismo , Política
Aesthethika (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 19(2): 29-40, sept. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523192


Desde la última década del Siglo XX y en particular desde la primera década del siglo XXI se ha venido consolidando una digitalización hipertextual de los datos, así como de la producción y gestión de conocimiento. Si bien ello precede a la pandemia global del COVID-19, ésta aceleró significativamente su naturalización. En armonía con este orden de cosas, se ha configurado una transformación radical del hacer universitario que lo ha posicionado como un auxiliar estratégico del Capitalismo Cognitivo. Este ensayo busca reflexionar sobre sus efectos y sobre el proceso de centralización que lo caracteriza

Since the last decade of the 20th century, and in particular since the first decade of the 21st century, a hypertextual digitization of data has been consolidating, as well as of the production and management of knowledge. While this predates the global COVID 19 pandemic, she significantly accelerated her naturalization. In harmony with this order of things, a radical transformation of university work has been configured that has positioned it as a strategic auxiliary of Cognitive Capitalism. This essay seeks to reflect on its effects and on the centralization process that characterizes it

Humanos , Ensino , Universidades , Alfabetização Digital , Capitalismo , Acesso à Informação
Global Health ; 19(1): 63, 2023 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37644579


BACKGROUND: In this article, I utilize the concept of the Plantationocene as an analytical framework to generate a holistic and historical understanding of the present-day struggles of a mostly Haitian migrant workforce on sugar plantations in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: Inspired by Paul Farmer's methodology, I combine political economy, history, and ethnography approaches to interpret the experiences of sugarcane cutters across historical and contemporary iterations of colonial, post-colonial, and neo-colonial practices over the course of five centuries. RESULTS: My findings elucidate the enduring power of capitalism, implicating corporate and state elites, as the structural scaffolding for acts of racialized violence that condition the life-and-death circumstances of Black laborers on Caribbean plantations to this day. Although today's sugarcane cutters may suffer differently than their enslaved or wage labor ancestors on the plantation, I argue that an unfettered racialized pattern of lethal exploitation is sustained through the structural violence of neoliberalism that links present conditions with the colonial past. CONCLUSIONS: Ultimately, this paper contributes understandings of the plantationocene's enduring effects in the global south by demonstrating how imperialist arrangements of capitalism are not a distant memory from the colonial past but instead are present yet hidden and obscured while relocated and reanimated overseas to countries like the Dominican Republic, where American capitalists still exploit Black bodies for profit and power.

Etnicidade , Açúcares , Humanos , República Dominicana , Haiti , Capitalismo
Lancet Glob Health ; 11(9): e1469-e1474, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37591594


This Viewpoint considers the implications of incorporating two interdisciplinary and burgeoning fields of study, settler colonialism and racial capitalism, as prominent frameworks within academic global health. We describe these two modes of domination and their historical and ongoing roles in creating accumulated advantage for some groups and disadvantage for others, highlighting their relevance for decolonial health approaches. We argue that widespread epistemic and material injustice, long noted by marginalised communities, is more apparent and challengeable with the consistent application of these two frameworks. With examples from the USA, Brazil, and Zimbabwe, we describe the health effects of settler colonial erasure and racial capitalist exploitation, also revealing the rich legacies of resistance that highlight potential paths towards health equity. Because much of the global health knowledge production is constructed from unregenerate contexts of settler colonialism and racial capitalism and yet focused transnationally, we offer instead an approach of bidirectional decoloniality. Recognising the broader colonial world system at work, bidirectional decoloniality entails a truly global health community that confronts Global North settler colonialism and racial injustice as forcefully as the various colonialisms perpetrated in the Global South.

Capitalismo , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Colonialismo , Saúde Global , Brasil
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 12: 7936, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37579389


This commentary expresses appreciation for Professor Labonté's work, along with some hopefully constructive suggestions. Professor Labonté's editorial shows ambivalence about reforms within capitalism. Such reforms remain contradictory and unlikely to prevail. Transformation to post-capitalist political economies is an exciting focus of moving beyond the hurtful effects of capitalism. Can "the state… mitigate capitalism's inherent inegalitarianism"? Problematically, government resides in the capitalist state, whose main purpose is to protect the capitalist economic system. The state's contradictory characteristics manifest in inadequate measures to protect health, as during the COVID-19 pandemic. "Social determination," referring to illness-generating structures of power and finance, is replacing "social determinants," referring mainly to demographic variables. Problems warranting attention include: capitalist industrial agriculture causing pandemics through destruction of protective natural habitat, structural racism, sexism and social reproduction, social class structure linked to inequality, and expropriation of nature to accumulate capital. Transformation to post-capitalism involves creative construction of new solidarity economies, while creative destructions block smooth functioning of the capitalist system.

COVID-19 , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Capitalismo , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global