Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53.543
Filtrar
1.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(10): 895-897, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009240

RESUMO

An outbreak of pneumonia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and has been spread worldwide rapidly now. Over 5.3-million confirmed cases and 340,000 disease-associated deaths have been found till May 25, 2020. The potential pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 to affect the target is via the receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 can be found in the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and reproductive organs such as human ovaries and Leydig cells in the testis. This receptor plays a dominant role in the fertility function. Considering the crucial roles of testicular cells of the male reproductive system, increasing numbers of studies focus on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the testis. In this literature, we reviewed several studies to evaluate the relevance between SARS-CoV-2, ACE receptor, and female and male reproductive system and found that the risk of being attacked by SARS-CoV-2 is higher in males than in females. Since men infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus may have the risk of impaired reproductive performance, such as the orchitis and an elevated of luteinizing hormone (LH), and additionally, SARS-CoV-2 virus may be found in semen, although the latter is still debated, all suggest that we should pay much attention to sexual transmitted disease and male fertility after recovering from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Genitália/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
2.
Zootaxa ; 4857(1): zootaxa.4857.1.10, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056351

RESUMO

The male and immatural Dasythyreus polytrichus Khaustov and Abramov, 2010 (Acari: Dasythyreidae), collected from spruce bark in Western Siberia, Russia are described for the first time in the genus. Sexual dimorphism and leg setal development in this species are discussed.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Picea , Animais , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 710-713, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018086

RESUMO

Recent developments of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) provide multifractal/multiscale (MFMS) descriptions of the heart rate self-similarity, a promising approach to cardiovascular complexity. However, it is unclear whether the MFMS DFA may also describe the nonlinear components of heart rate variability. Our aim is to define MFMS DFA indices for quantifying the short-term and long-term degree of the heart-rate nonlinearity and to apply these indices to detect possible sex-related differences.We recorded the inter-beat-interval (IBI) series in 42 male and in 42 female healthy participants sitting at rest for about 2 hours. For each series j, we generated 100 phase-randomized surrogate series. We applied the MFMS DFA to estimate the self-similarity coefficients α over scales τ between 8 and 512 s and moment orders q between -5 and +5, obtaining coefficients for the original series, αO,j (q, τ), and for each surrogate, αi,j (q, τ) with 1≤i≤100. We first evaluated πj(q, τ), percentile of αi,j (q, τ) distribution in which was αO,j (q, τ). Then we calculated the percentages of scales where πj(q, τ) was <5% for 8≤τ≤16 s (short-term nonlinearity index NL1(q)) and for 16≤τ≤512 s (long-term nonlinearity index NL2(q)). We found that NL1(q) was generally greater than 50% at all q≥0 but q=2 (i.e., moment order of the monofractal DFA), while at q<0 it was high in males only, with significant sex differences at q=-1 and q=-2. Results indicate that the multifractal DFA may highlight nonlinear heart-rate components at the short scales that are not revealed by the traditional monofractal DFA and that appear related to gender differences.Clinical Relevance- This supports the use of MFMS DFA to integrate the linear information from traditional spectral methods of heart rate variability in clinical studies aimed at improving the stratification of the cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Caracteres Sexuais , Algoritmos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Postura Sentada
4.
Zootaxa ; 4825(1): zootaxa.4825.1.1, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056264

RESUMO

The extant genera and subgenera of the order Scolopendromorpha are critically reviewed and provided with updated diagnoses and a new identification key; the most recent revisions of scolopendromorph genera are concisely summarised. Rhoda Meinert, 1886 and Cryptops (Chromatanops) Verhoeff, 1906 are suggested to be a junior synonyms of Scolopendropsis Brandt, 1841 and Cryptops (Cryptops) Leach, 1814, respectively. The subgeneric status is formally fixed for Cryptops (Paracryptops) Pocock, 1891 and Cormocephalus (Campylostigmus) Ribaut, 1923; the taxonomic status of the former genus Kanparka Waldock Edgecombe, 2012 is discussed. As a result of synonymies, the number of scolopendromorph genera and subgenera is currently 37. The formal status of the former tribes Scolopendrini Leach, 1814, Asanadini Verhoeff, 1907 and Arrhabdotini Attems, 1930 is briefly discussed; the presence of the sexual dimorphism among the taxa of generic level is overviewed.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Caracteres Sexuais
5.
Zootaxa ; 4762(1): zootaxa.4762.1.1, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056890

RESUMO

Eelpout species of the genus Lycenchelys Gill, 1884 recorded from Japanese waters are taxonomically revised. This study recognizes the following 11 species from Japanese waters as valid: Lycenchelys albomaculata Toyoshima, 1983, Lycenchelys aurantiaca Shinohara Matsuura, 1998, Lycenchelys hippopotamus Schmidt, 1950, Lycenchelys maculata Toyoshima, 1985, Lycenchelys makushok Fedorov Andriashev, 1993, Lycenchelys melanostomias Toyoshima, 1983, Lycenchelys rassi Andriashev, 1955, Lycenchelys remissaria Fedorov, 1995, Lycenchelys ryukyuensis Shinohara Anderson, 2007, Lycenchelys squamosa Toyoshima, 1983 and Lycenchelys tohokuensis Anderson Imamura, 2002. We redescribe species in detail based on type specimens as well as additional specimens in many cases. The synonymy of Lycenchelys brevimaxillaris Toyoshima, 1985 with L. melanostomias is supported in this study. Sexual dimorphism and changes with growth are revealed in L. albomaculata, L. aurantiaca, L. hippopotamus, L. makushok, L. melanostomias and L. rassi, all based on 10 or more specimens, for relative head length, head width, and upper and lower jaw lengths. In addition, we also found that the sizes at which sexual dimorphism can be recognized, and the tendencies for change with growth, differ among species. Furthermore, the dimorphism in head length is influenced by the snout length, eye diameter and/or postorbital length in L. albomaculata and L. aurantiaca.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Peixes , Japão , Mandíbula , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Zootaxa ; 4780(1): zootaxa.4780.1.5, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055758

RESUMO

Samples collected from Monte Hermoso, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina revealed the presence of specimens of the genus Franciscideres Dal Zotto et al., 2013, previously known only from Brazil. This morphotype seems to differ from the only known species, Franciscideres kalenesos Dal Zotto et al., 2013, in the following characters: (1) presence of ventrolateral tubes on segment 1, (2) introvert features, (3) each segment composed of a closed cuticular ring, (4) trunk cuticle ornamented by a secondary fringe of knob-like structures, (5) posterior margin of segment 10 ventrally terminating in two lateral and one broad triangular lobes, (6) posterior margin of segment 11 centrally terminating in four lobes (7) lateral terminal spines armed with thorn-like processes, (8) pores/sensory spots/gland cells distribution and (9) sexual dimorphism in segments 10 and 11. Because of the lack of full information about F. kalenesos from Brazil, we consider the new exemplars as Franciscideres cf. kalenesos. Additionally, we provide new information about the movement of this species using light microscopy and we compare these movements with those of other meiofaunal inhabitants.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Movimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Argentina , Microscopia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4820(3): zootaxa.4820.3.8, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056061

RESUMO

Europoeurypus inglaeso gen. et sp. nov. is described from Eocene Baltic amber found on the Sambian Peninsula, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Four additional specimens of mycterid beetles from collections of Baltic amber are reported. The secondary sexual characters and sexual dimorphism in the Eocene representatives of the genus Omineus Lewis, 1895 are documented for the first time and examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT). The studied Omineus male specimens were attributed to the fossil species Omineus febribilis Alekseev, Pollock Bukejs, 2019. A key to fossil species of Eurypinae from Eocene ambers is provided and several aspects of the biogeography of the subfamily Eurypinae are discussed.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
Zootaxa ; 4822(3): zootaxa.4822.3.5, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056279

RESUMO

Based on a study of the type material, Genaxiphia hirashimai Okutani, 1965, a southern Japanese xiphydriid showing remarkable sexual dimorphism, is newly combined with the genus Hyperxiphia Maa, 1949. The previously unknown female is described, and the male is redescribed with additional material. The sexes are associated by examination of specimens of both sexes that apparently emerged from the same piece of branch and by a molecular analysis using mitochondrial COI sequences. Hyperxiphia hirashimai, originally described from Amami-oshima Island, is newly recorded from Miyake-jima Island, southwestern Shikoku, southern Kyushu, Yakushima, Kuroshima and Okinawa-jima Islands.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Japão , Masculino , Filogenia , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2189-2203, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012349

RESUMO

Men are consistently overrepresented in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severe outcomes, including higher fatality rates. These differences are likely due to gender-specific behaviors, genetic and hormonal factors, and sex differences in biological pathways related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several social, behavioral, and comorbid factors are implicated in the generally worse outcomes in men compared with women. Underlying biological sex differences and their effects on COVID-19 outcomes, however, have received less attention. The present review summarizes the available literature regarding proposed molecular and cellular markers of COVID-19 infection, their associations with health outcomes, and any reported modification by sex. Biological sex differences characterized by such biomarkers exist within healthy populations and also differ with age- and sex-specific conditions, such as pregnancy and menopause. In the context of COVID-19, descriptive biomarker levels are often reported by sex, but data pertaining to the effect of patient sex on the relationship between biomarkers and COVID-19 disease severity/outcomes are scarce. Such biomarkers may offer plausible explanations for the worse COVID-19 outcomes seen in men. There is the need for larger studies with sex-specific reporting and robust analyses to elucidate how sex modifies cellular and molecular pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2. This will improve interpretation of biomarkers and clinical management of COVID-19 patients by facilitating a personalized medical approach to risk stratification, prevention, and treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Caracteres Sexuais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201688, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962546

RESUMO

Tarantulas paradoxically exhibit a diverse palette of vivid coloration despite their crepuscular to nocturnal habits. The evolutionary origin and maintenance of these colours remains mysterious. In this study, we reconstructed the ancestral states of both blue and green coloration in tarantula setae, and tested how these colours correlate with presence of stridulation, urtication and arboreality. Green coloration has probably evolved at least eight times, and blue coloration is probably an ancestral condition that appears to be lost more frequently than gained. While our results indicate that neither colour correlates with the presence of stridulation or urtication, the evolution of green coloration appears to depend upon the presence of arboreality, suggesting that it ptobably originated for and functions in crypsis through substrate matching among leaves. We also constructed a network of opsin homologues across tarantula transcriptomes. Despite their crepuscular tendencies, tarantulas express a considerable diversity of opsin genes-a finding that contradicts current consensus that tarantulas have poor colour vision on the basis of low opsin diversity. Overall, our findings raise the possibility that blue coloration could have ultimately evolved via sexual selection and perhaps proximately be used in mate choice or predation avoidance due to possible sex differences in mate-searching.


Assuntos
Opsinas , Pigmentação , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Cor , Evolução Molecular , Comportamento Predatório , Opsinas de Bastonetes , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21968, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899034

RESUMO

The aim of this study is twofold: firstly, to investigate the plantar pressure distribution differences in children coming from 4 different weight categories and secondly to analyze the presence of sex-related plantar pressure distribution differences.Overall, 416 children, aged 7 to 12 years old were randomly selected from 6 different local schools, and voluntarily participated in the study. Two hundred twenty six of them were men, while 190 were women (mean age: 9.93 ±â€Š1.02 years; height: 1.39 ±â€Š0.8 m; body mass: 37.76 ±â€Š10.34 kg; BMI: 19.24 ±â€Š4.02 kg/m). Based on the body mass index (BMI) the sample was grouped in the following categories: underweight (UW); normal weight (NW); overweight (OW), and obese (OB). Besides, the plantar load distribution parameters (total plantar load distribution and load distribution in forefoot and rearfoot) were assessed employing freeMed Maxi; Sensor Medica device. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test the data distribution. Between-groups comparisons were conducted using Mann-Whitney U test, or using Kruskal-Wallis test associated with pairwise comparisons.There were significant differences in load distribution between weight categories, with (OW) and (NW) being significantly different with (O), P = .03 and P = .04, respectively. No significant differences were found on load distribution on the rearfoot and forefoot between categories. The sex effect, particularly among boys, revealed a different pattern of load distribution among (O) compared with other categories. This effect was not detected among women. Different profile of load distribution on the rearfoot and forefoot between boys and girls was found, with girls bearing significantly more weight in the right rearfoot compared with boys (P = .001).It can be concluded that the weight status of the children can affect the plantar load distribution, with obese category being different from (NW) and (OW). Additionally, the sex plays a role when it comes to the load distribution in different regions of the foot. Moreover, since the young age, due to growth and development process, is accompanied with anatomical foot changes which might be affected from numerous factors, assessing plantar pressure distribution in young children results to be a quite complicated matter.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Articulações do Pé/fisiopatologia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
13.
Science ; 369(6509): 1298-1299, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913086
14.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945643

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected nearly 7 million individuals and claimed more than 0.4 million lives to date. There are several reports of gender differences related to infection and death due to COVID-19. This raises important questions such as "Whether there are differences based on gender in risk and severity of infection or mortality rate?" and "What are the biological explanation and mechanisms underlying these differences?" Emerging evidences have proposed sex-based immunological, genetic, and hormonal differences to explain this ambiguity. Besides biological differences, women have also faced social inequities and economic hardships due to this pandemic. Several recent studies have shown that independent of age males are at higher risk for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Although susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 was found to be similar across both genders in several disease cohorts, a disproportionate death ratio in men can be partly explained by the higher burden of pre-existing diseases and occupational exposures among men. At immunological point of view, females can engage a more active immune response, which may protect them and counter infectious diseases as compared to men. This attribute of better immune responses towards pathogens is thought to be due to high estrogen levels in females. Here we review the current knowledge about sex differences in susceptibility, the severity of infection and mortality, host immune responses, and the role of sex hormones in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Estrogênios/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Testosterona/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(9)2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899439

RESUMO

The importance of host genetics and demography in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a crucial aspect of infection, prognosis and associated case fatality rate. Individual genetic landscapes can contribute to understand Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) burden and can give information on how to fight virus spreading and the associated severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The spread and pathogenicity of the virus have become pandemic on specific geographic areas and ethnicities. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 firstly emerged in East Asia and next in Europe, where it has caused higher morbidity and mortality. This is a peculiar feature of SARS-CoV-2, different from past global viral infections (i.e., SARS-1 or MERS); it shares with the previous pandemics strong age- and sex-dependent gaps in the disease outcome. The observation that the severest COVID-19 patients are more likely to have a history of hypertension, diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease and receive Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) inhibitor treatment raised the hypothesis that RAS-unbalancing may have a crucial role. Accordingly, we recently published a genetic hypothesis on the role of RAS-pathway genes (ACE1, rs4646994, rs1799752, rs4340, rs13447447; and ACE2, rs2285666, rs1978124, rs714205) and ABO-locus (rs495828, rs8176746) in COVID-19 prognosis, suspecting inherited genetic predispositions to be predictive of COVID-19 severity. In addition, recently, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) found COVID-19-association signals at locus 3p21.31 (rs11385942) comprising the solute carrier SLC6A20 (Na+ and Cl- coupled transporter family) and at locus 9q34.2 (rs657152) coincident with ABO-blood group (rs8176747, rs41302905, rs8176719), and interestingly, both loci are associated to RAS-pathway. Finally, ACE1 and ACE2 haplotypes seem to provide plausible explanations for why SARS-CoV-2 have affected more heavily some ethnic groups, namely people with European ancestry, than Asians.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Prognóstico , Caracteres Sexuais
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olympic weightlifting requires technical skills, explosive power, strength, and coordination. Weightlifters can be competitive within a range of morphological characteristics due to competition body weight classes. To date no studies have examined when sex differences arise in weightlifting and the impact of body mass on performances at different ages. OBJECTIVES: To examine when sex-related differences emerge, to quantify the influence of body mass on performances at different ages, and to estimate the age at peak performance. METHODS: Competitions results from USA Weightlifting National Championships, Youth, Junior, and Senior from 2014 to 2019 were collected for weightlifters aged 6 to 30. RESULTS: At age 10 the median total weight lifted was 51kg and 54kg, respectively, for girls and boys. From age 10 to 12 a gender gap emerges with a sex difference of 11.7% at age 14 at 55kg body mass. At age 25 the sex-related performance difference is smaller for lighter athletes (23.6% at 69kg body mass) and larger for heavier athletes (29.9% at 81kg body mass). The median peak age for men is 26.5 years (95% CI: 25.7, 27.3) and for women 25.9 years (95% CI: 24.7, 27.3). CONCLUSION: We quantified the impact of body weight and age and sex differences for youth and young adults, ages 6 to 30 years old, participating in national level Olympic weightlifting competitions in the United States. Body weight at younger ages has less impact on performance compared to older ages, and boys and girls perform similarly. When reaching the ages typically associated with the onset of puberty, boys' performances rapidly increase and the gap between genders widens. Women achieve peak performance at a similar age than men. Such results may help to establish progression trajectories for talented athletes and inform coaches, athletes and national governing bodies.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Peso Corporal , Levantamento de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematological reference intervals are important in clinical and diagnostic management for the assessment of health and disease conditions. Hematological reference intervals are better to be established based on gender and age differences as these are among the main affecting factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish hematological reference intervals among apparently healthy adolescents aged 12-17 years in Mekelle City, Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia, 2019. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 249 adolescents aged 12-17 years from December 2018 to May 2019. About 4ml of blood sample was collected from each study participant using vacutainer tube containing K2EDTA. Hematological parameters were analyzed using Sysmex KX-21N hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corporation Kobe, Japan). Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Both parametric and non-parametric analyses were used to calculate the median and 95% of reference intervals. The 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles were calculated using descriptive statistics for the upper and lower reference limits of the study participants. Differences in reference intervals between male and female participants were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULT: Among the 249 participants 122 (49%) were males and 127 (51%) were females with the median age of 14.5 (range 12 to 17) years were recruited in this study. The median and the 95% reference intervals of hematological parameters were determined. The 95% RIs were: Red blood cells (1012/Liter) 4.6-5.9 (Males) and 4.3-5.6 (Females), White blood cells (109/Liter) 2.9-9.6 (Males) and 3.4-10.2 (Females), Hemoglobin (g/dl) 12.6-17.1 (Males) and 12-15.4 (Females), Platelets (109/Liter) 138-364 (Males) and 151-462 (Females). Almost all of the hematological parameters showed significant differences (p<0.05) across gender. CONCLUSION: The hematological reference intervals established in this study showed a difference based on gender. We suggest preparing and using distinct local reference intervals for males and females separately.


Assuntos
Testes Hematológicos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Etiópia , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos/normas , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236653, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956411

RESUMO

Symbiosis can facilitate the development of specialized organs in the host body to maintain relationships with beneficial microorganisms. To understand the developmental and genetic mechanisms by which such organs develop, it is critical to first investigate the morphology and developmental timing of these structures during the onset of host development. We utilized micro-computed tomography (µCT) to describe the morphology and development of mycangia, a specialized organ, in the Asian ambrosia beetle species Euwallacea validus which maintains a mutualistic relationship with the Ascomycete fungus, Fusarium oligoseptatum. We scanned animals in larval, pupal and adult life stages and identified that mycangia develop during the late pupal stage. Here we reconcile preliminary evidence and provide additional morphological data for a second paired set of structures, including the superior, medial mycangia and an inferior, lateral pair of pouch-like structures, in both late-stage pupae and adult female beetles. Furthermore, we report the possible development of rudimentary, or partially developed pairs of medial mycangia in adult male beetles which has never been reported for any male Xyleborini. Our results illustrate the validity of µCT in observing soft tissues and the complex nature of mycangia morphology and development.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/ultraestrutura , Animais , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Pupa/anatomia & histologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/ultraestrutura , Caracteres Sexuais , Microtomografia por Raio-X
19.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000870, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986697

RESUMO

Obesity and related metabolic diseases show clear sex-related differences. The growing burden of these diseases calls for better understanding of the age- and sex-related metabolic consequences. High-throughput lipidomic analyses of population-based cohorts offer an opportunity to identify disease-risk-associated biomarkers and to improve our understanding of lipid metabolism and biology at a population level. Here, we comprehensively examined the relationship between lipid classes/subclasses and molecular species with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, we evaluated sex specificity in the association of the plasma lipidome with age and BMI. Some 747 targeted lipid measures, representing 706 molecular lipid species across 36 classes/subclasses, were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometer on a total of 10,339 participants from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab), with 563 lipid species being validated externally on 4,207 participants of the Busselton Health Study (BHS). Heat maps were constructed to visualise the relative differences in lipidomic profile between men and women. Multivariable linear regression analyses, including sex-interaction terms, were performed to assess the associations of lipid species with cardiometabolic phenotypes. Associations with age and sex were found for 472 (66.9%) and 583 (82.6%) lipid species, respectively. We further demonstrated that age-associated lipidomic fingerprints differed by sex. Specific classes of ether-phospholipids and lysophospholipids (calculated as the sum composition of the species within the class) were inversely associated with age in men only. In analyses with women alone, higher triacylglycerol and lower lysoalkylphosphatidylcholine species were observed among postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women. We also identified sex-specific associations of lipid species with obesity. Lysophospholipids were negatively associated with BMI in both sexes (with a larger effect size in men), whilst acylcarnitine species showed opposing associations based on sex (positive association in women and negative association in men). Finally, by utilising specific lipid ratios as a proxy for enzymatic activity, we identified stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD-1), fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3), and plasmanylethanolamine Δ1-desaturase activities, as well as the sphingolipid metabolic pathway, as constituent perturbations of cardiometabolic phenotypes. Our analyses elucidate the effect of age and sex on lipid metabolism by offering a comprehensive view of the lipidomic profiles associated with common cardiometabolic risk factors. These findings have implications for age- and sex-dependent lipid metabolism in health and disease and suggest the need for sex stratification during lipid biomarker discovery, establishing biological reference intervals for assessment of disease risk.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Menopausa/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236994, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854110

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prematurity has been identified as a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and birth-week has not been strongly evidenced. We evaluated the correlation between the degree of prematurity and the incidence of autism in a cohort of 871 children born prematurely and followed from birth. The cohort was reduced to 416 premature infants born between 2011-2017 who were followed for 2-14 years, and analyzed according to birth week (degree of prematurity), and according to gender. RESULTS: 43 children (10.3%) received a definite diagnosis of ASD. There was a significant correlation between birth week and the risk of ASD, with 22.6% of children diagnosed with ASD when born at 25 weeks, versus 6% of ASD diagnoses at 31 weeks of prematurity. For children born after 32 weeks, the incidence decreased to 8-12.5%. A strong link was found between earlier birth week and increased autism risk; the risk remained elevated during near-term prematurity in boys. A correlation between early birth week and an elevated risk for ASD was seen in all children, but accentuated in females, gradually decreasing as birth week progresses; in males the risk for ASD remains elevated for any birth week. CONCLUSION: A statistically significant increase in rates of autism was found with each additional week of prematurity. Females drove this direct risk related to degree of prematurity, while males had an elevated risk throughout prematurity weeks, even at near-term. We recommend including ASD screening in follow up of infants born prematurely, at all levels of prematurity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA