Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 50.440
Filtrar
1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 280-286, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life is the individuals' subjective evaluation of their general well-being, including physical and mental health, social relationships and everyday functionality. The aim of our study was to examine conduct disorder in terms of gender differences in prevalence, and relationship to quality of life domains in the presence or absence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS: Altogether 392 adolescents, aged 13-18 years (M=14.5; SD= 1.37), participated in this study. The members of the clinical group were selected from Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Hospital, Budapest, Hungary with externalizing symptoms in their case history. The control group was selected from public schools in Budapest, Hungary. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid was used to diagnose conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, and parent and adolescent version of the Inventory of Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (Inventar zur Erfassung der Lebensqualität bei Kindern und Jugendlichen) was used to measure the children's quality of life. RESULTS: In this sample 8.5% of adolescents were diagnosed with conduct disorder, of which 52.9% had a comorbid oppositional defiant diagnosis. Conduct disorder diagnosis was only present in the clinical group, 9 of participants with such diagnosis were male and 24 were female. Girls with conduct disorder evaluated their family life domain (p<0.01) and their global quality of life (p<0.05) lower than the boys. Compared to adolescents without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder diagnosis, adolescents with conduct disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder had significantly worse quality of life in the domain of time spent alone (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Conduct disorder is associated with decreased quality of life. The presence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder correlates with lower quality of life in several domains. These findings are considerable for the clinical management of these externalizing disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino
2.
Codas ; 31(6): e20180261, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe and compare the anthropometric measurements and the orofacial proportions of healthy term newborns (NB) according to sex, from a public maternity hospital in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Descriptive and analytical randomized study was carried out. The participants included were 46 randomly selected healthy and full-term RNs of both sexes. A digital caliper was used to measure measurements (in millimeters) with the NB supine and occluded lips. Twice different, previously trained researchers measured each NB. Data were described using simple and percentage frequencies. The mean differences were assessed using the Mann-Whitney test, with a significance of 5%. Associations evaluated by the Fisher Exact test, and Cohen D size effects were calculated. RESULTS: Differences were found between the groups for the anthropometric measurements: midface third height (glabella-subnasal or sn-g) and bottom (subnasal-gnathion or sn-gn); and filter heights (upper-lip subnasal or sn-ls), the upper lips (subnasal-estomus or sn-sto), and lower (stomatal-gnathion or sto-gn), which was always greater in males. The orofacial proportions studied did not show differences between sexes. CONCLUSION: The study showed the presence of sexual dimorphism for the measures of the face at birth in the population born in Aracaju, Sergipe.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Nascimento a Termo/fisiologia , Brasil , Cefalometria , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1371-1377, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534322

RESUMO

Background: Women with Parkinson's disease (PD) are more likely to be older, have greater disease severity and comorbidities, and yet are less likely to receive care from a neurologist, as compared with men with PD. Within the PD population, homebound individuals are a particularly vulnerable group facing significant barriers to care, yet within this understudied population, sex-related differences have not been reported. Purpose: To identify and describe differences in homebound men and women with advanced PD and related disorders, participating in an interdisciplinary home visit program. Patients and methods: This was an exploratory analysis of homebound patients seen between February 2014 and July 2016 using data collected via in-person interviews and chart review. Results: We enrolled 85 patients, of whom 52% were women. PD was the most common diagnosis (79%), followed by dementia with Lewy bodies (5%), and other atypical parkinsonism (16%). Men were more likely to have a PD dementia diagnosis than women (17.1% vs 2.3%, p=0.03). Women were more likely to live alone (18.1% of women had no caregiver vs 2.4% of men, p=0.05). Conclusion: The role of the caregiver in facilitating safe aging-in-place is crucial. Among homebound individuals with advanced PD, women were far more likely to live alone. The absence of a spouse or care partner may be due in part to variable sex-based life expectancies. Our findings suggest that homebound women with advanced PD may face greater barriers to accessing support.


Assuntos
Demência , Pacientes Domiciliares , Vida Independente , Doença de Parkinson , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores , Comorbidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17142, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517856

RESUMO

Morphological data of talus are important for the design of talar prostheses. The talar morphology of Chinese population has been rarely reported. This study adopted a three-dimensional (3D) measurement approach to provide accurate data for the anatomical morphology of talus in Northeast Chinese population and compared it with that of foreigners.One hundred forty-six healthy subjects form Northeast China underwent computed tomography (CT) arthrography. 3D digital talar model was reconstructed and thirteen morphological parameters were measured through Mimics and Magics software. Length and breadth indexes of total talus, trochlea, medial and lateral malleolus articular surface were mainly selected. Statistical analysis was conducted by independent-samples and paired-samples t test through SPSS software.All the indexes were normally distributed. No significant difference between left and right talus was identified in either males or females (P > .05). Most of the indexes showed significant sexual differences except the radian of lateral malleolus articular surface and the posterior breadth of trochlea (P < .05). The talar anatomy of Chinese subjects is different from the published data in other populations.The promising approach adopted in this study addresses some inconvenience with previous conventional methods on cadaver specimens. The geometric parameters of talus in Chinese population differ from those in other populations. The talar measurements and morphology analysis in this study suggest that population characteristics should be taken into account. This study will provide references for the design of talar prostheses in Chinese population.


Assuntos
Imagem Tridimensional , Ossos do Tarso/anatomia & histologia , Ossos do Tarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Tamanho do Órgão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Caracteres Sexuais , Software , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125688, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383294

RESUMO

Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is common among mammals, with males typically being larger than females, as a product of sex-specific differences in growth rate and growth duration. The Musteloidea, however, exhibit a hypo-allometric reduction in SSD with increasing body size (contrary to Rensch's rule). A variety of extrinsic factors can affect juvenile growth rates and end body size, where one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other towards a specific factor, moderating patterns and degrees of SSD. Here, we analyse how male and female European badgers (Meles meles) differ in their somatic growth patterns. We compare the sex-specific growth curves across a range of somatic parameters and investigate what extrinsic (social and environmental) factors affect cub growth rates during the first 2 years of life leading to their sexual-dimorphic adult sizes. We found that average male final size of all measurements was significantly larger than those of females. Although male and female weanling cubs had similar body sizes, growth curves diverged significantly from ca. 11 months onwards due to continuous rapid growth of males versus slowing female growth. Consequently, females always concluded growth earlier than did males. In both sexes, extremities ceased to grow at an earlier age than did body length and zygomatic arch width. All badger cubs were impacted by their social environment as well as by weather conditions; however, male cubs were more sensitive to social factors, remaining smaller in social groups with more adult males present, whereas female final size was predominantly affected by weather and associated food availability. We discuss how extrinsic parameters can moderate patterns of SSD in the context of the differential equilibrium model.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Mustelidae/anatomia & histologia , Mustelidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Razão de Masculinidade , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180507, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365650

RESUMO

We used skeletochronology to compare age, size, reproductive parameters and growth patterns of two related, anuran amphibians from Northern Argentina: Leptodactylus bufonius (n=69) and L. latinasus (n=56), in order to better understand their coexistence in syntopy. Previous studies showed that the two species overlap in their dietary requirements and utilize the same habitats for feeding and breeding. We found that their life-history patterns are significantly different, L. bufonius being larger, and having a higher reproductive output and lifespan, compared to the smaller and shorter-living L. latinasus. Since none of the species exhibited sexual size dimorphism, and both acquired sexual maturity after the first year of life, we suggest that the differences in the observed life-history parameters must appear during early stages of development, during larval and/or juvenile stages.


Assuntos
Anuros/fisiologia , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/classificação , Argentina , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20170793, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411252

RESUMO

Genypterus brasiliensis, a demersal fish of large size (1.3 m of total length), occurs in the southwest Atlantic (23 to 38oS) and well appreciated due to the quality of its flesh. It was analyzed through longline and trawl fisheries, and the average length and weight of 724 specimens were significantly different between them, with the biggest and heaviest specimens caught by the former. The weight-length relationships were significantly different based upon sex: females Wt=4x10-7Lt3.3799; r2=0.97; n=262; p<0.001, and males: Wt=4x10-7Lt3.3886; r2=0.95; n=190; p<0.001. Using the otoliths readings for 153 specimens (APE of 2% and CV of 4.2%), the growth parameters estimates reveal statistical differences between sexes (p=0.05; r2=0.889). The fisheries were composed of individuals aged 1 to 13 (females) and 1 to 14 years old (males), with ring formation in late spring. The back calculated parameters (VBGF) were: Loo=1,452.38 mm, K=0.0996, t0=-0.2757 yr-1 (females) and Loo=983.07 mm, K=0.155, t0=-0.236 yr-1 (males), and longevity as 29.8 and 19.1 years old, respectively. The low biological production allied to the slow growth and a late complete maturation and its endemism, allow classify G. brasiliensis as a vulnerable resource, jeopardizing a sustainable fishery. Until reliable quantitative biological data are available, precautionary management must be considered.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Brasil , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino , Membrana dos Otólitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16540, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464891

RESUMO

Antibiotics during infancy, delivery, and breastfeeding affect the intestinal microbiota in early life and is associated with allergic disease. Gastroenteritis (GE) during infancy also affects intestinal microbiota in early life, however, its relationship to allergic disease has not been investigated.Data of 45,499 males and 49,430 females, from birth to 5 years of age, were collected from a national database in Taiwan. Subjects were categorized into early GE (GE within 0-6 months) and non-early GE group (no GE within 0-6 months). The rates of asthma (AS), allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic dermatitis (AD) over 5 years were evaluated and compared between the groups. In patients with AS, AR, and AD, the number of clinical visits and drug prescriptions for the allergic disease was also evaluated to assess the effect of early GE on allergic disease.After adjusting for the effect of GE in later life and other factors, the rates of AS [OR (odds ratio) 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.60], AR [OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.45-1.54], and AD [OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.33-1.47] were higher in the early GE group than in the non-early GE group. The magnitude of the increase was higher in females than in males. In those with AS, AR, and AD, the number of clinical visits and drug prescriptions was not different between the early GE and non-early GE groups. In children with early GE, good control of GE in the following years lowered the rate of allergic disease.Early-life GE was associated with increased rates of AS, AR, and AD in later life and this was trend more prominent in females.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/complicações , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Rinite Alérgica/etiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan/epidemiologia
13.
Oecologia ; 191(1): 61-71, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432247

RESUMO

Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) often results in dramatic differences in body size between females and males. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the relationship between developmental, physiological, and energetic mechanisms underlying SSD. We take an integrative approach to understand the relationship between developmental trajectories, metabolism, and environmental conditions resulting in extreme female-biased SSD in the crab spider Mecaphesa celer (Thomisidae). We tested for sexual differences in growth trajectories, as well as in the energetics of growth, hypothesizing that female M. celer have lower metabolic rates than males or higher energy assimilation. We also hypothesized that the environment in which spiderlings develop influences the degree of SSD of a population. We tracked growth and resting metabolic rates of female and male spiderlings throughout their ontogeny and quantified the adult size of individuals raised in a combination of two diet and two temperature treatments. We show that M. celer's SSD results from differences in the shape of female and male growth trajectories. While female and male resting metabolic rates did not differ, diet, temperature, and their interaction influenced body size through an interactive effect with sex, with females being more sensitive to the environment than males. We demonstrate that the shape of the growth curve is an important but often overlooked determinant of SSD and that females may achieve larger sizes through a combination of high food ingestion and low activity levels. Our results highlight the need for new models of SSD based on ontogeny, ecology, and behavior.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Aranhas , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2945, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270332

RESUMO

Age- and sex-related alterations in gene transcription have been demonstrated, however the underlying mechanisms are unresolved. Neuroepigenetic pathways regulate gene transcription in the brain. Here, we measure in vivo expression of the epigenetic enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs), across healthy human aging and between sexes using [11C]Martinostat positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging (n = 41). Relative HDAC expression increases with age in cerebral white matter, and correlates with age-associated disruptions in white matter microstructure. A post mortem study confirmed that HDAC1 and HDAC2 paralogs are elevated in white matter tissue from elderly donors. There are also sex-specific in vivo HDAC expression differences in brain regions associated with emotion and memory, including the amygdala and hippocampus. Hippocampus and white matter HDAC expression negatively correlates with emotion regulation skills (n = 23). Age and sex are associated with HDAC expression in vivo, which could drive age- and sex-related transcriptional changes and impact human behavior.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Carbono/farmacocinética , Emoções , Feminino , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Insect Sci ; 19(4)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340383

RESUMO

The Comal Springs dryopid beetle, Stygoparnus comalensis Barr and Spangler, and the Comal Springs riffle beetle, Heterelmis comalensis Bosse, Tuff, and Brown, are protected by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and the development of a captive self-propagating refuge is of importance to stakeholders within the Edwards Aquifer. Being able to reliably distinguish the sex of living subjects is desirable for establishing a successful refuge program. Ventrite, elytron, and pronotum measurements of S. comalensis were taken to determine if there were sexually dimorphic allometries. Various lighting techniques were also implemented to see if there were other characters that could potentially be used to distinguish females and males. Measurements were not found to satisfactorily separate sexes; however, lateral lighting was found to consistently illuminate internal abdominal structures of S. comalensis where sternite 8 was viewable in males and the fused gonocoxites were viewable in females. Lateral lighting was used to examine living specimens of H. comalensis, and it was found that sternite 8 could be viewed in both sexes where the anterior strut of females was much longer and discernible from the anterior strut of males. Commentary regarding the use of cameras and photography for observing living subjects is given.


Assuntos
Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3053, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311924

RESUMO

The germline is the only cellular lineage capable of transferring genetic information from one generation to the next. Intergenerational transmission of epigenetic memory through the germline, in the form of DNA methylation, has been proposed; however, in mammals this is largely prevented by extensive epigenetic erasure during germline definition. Here we report that, unlike mammals, the continuously-defined 'preformed' germline of zebrafish does not undergo genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation during development. Our analysis also uncovers oocyte-specific germline amplification and demethylation of an 11.5-kb repeat region encoding 45S ribosomal RNA (fem-rDNA). The peak of fem-rDNA amplification coincides with the initial expansion of stage IB oocytes, the poly-nucleolar cell type responsible for zebrafish feminisation. Given that fem-rDNA overlaps with the only zebrafish locus identified thus far as sex-linked, we hypothesise fem-rDNA expansion could be intrinsic to sex determination in this species.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Desmetilação , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Caracteres Sexuais
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1138: 71-86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313259

RESUMO

Forensic cases may require craniofacial approximations for unidentifiable victims. The accuracy of these approximations is improved by using population-specific average soft tissue depths. This study used CT scans from 64 Cretan adults (32 male and 32 female) to produce three-dimensional models of each individual's cranium and skin surface. Using the models, the soft tissue depths were measured at 36 craniofacial landmarks; the means and standard deviations were calculated for the general Cretan population, and for male and female Cretans separately. Cretan facial soft tissue depths were then compared to those of French, Slovak, and Korean adults. 16 of the 36 landmarks exhibited sex differences among Cretans, with males having consistently thicker depths than females. The facial soft tissue depths of Cretan adults also presented significant differences when compared to other populations. Overall, the average soft tissue depths obtained represent the first database for the craniofacial approximation of Cretan (Greek) adults.


Assuntos
Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropologia Forense , Caracteres Sexuais , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 100(3): 153-160, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321834

RESUMO

Animal models are widely used to study the physiopathology of human diseases. However, the influence of gender on modern society diet style-induced cardiovascular disease has not thus far been explored in these models. Thus, this study investigated cardiovascular remodelling in C57BL/6J mice fed a diet rich in saturated fat, sucrose and salt, evaluating gender effect on this process. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed AIN93M diet or a modified AIN93M rich in fat, sucrose and salt (HFSS) for 12 weeks. Body mass, water and food intake and cardiovascular remodelling were assessed. The HFSS diet did not lead to body mass gain or glucose metabolism disturbance as assessed by serum glucose, insulin and oral glucose tolerance test. However, female mice on a HFSS diet had increased visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Only male mice displayed heart hypertrophy. The left ventricle was not hypertrophied in either male or female mice, but its lumen was dilated. Intramyocardial arteries and the thoracic aorta showed media thickening in male mice, but in the female it was only observed in the thoracic aorta. Finally, intramyocardial artery dilation was present in both genders, but not in the aorta. Therefore changes in LV dimensions and arterial remodelling were influenced by both gender and the HFSS diet. In conclusion, male and female C57BL/6J mice suffered cardiovascular remodelling after 12 weeks of HFSS feeding, although they did not develop obesity or diabetes. Sexual dimorphism occurred in response to diet for body adiposity, heart hypertrophy and intramyocardial artery remodelling.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
Nature ; 571(7763): 63-71, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270481

RESUMO

Knowledge of connectivity in the nervous system is essential to understanding its function. Here we describe connectomes for both adult sexes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, an important model organism for neuroscience research. We present quantitative connectivity matrices that encompass all connections from sensory input to end-organ output across the entire animal, information that is necessary to model behaviour. Serial electron microscopy reconstructions that are based on the analysis of both new and previously published electron micrographs update previous results and include data on the male head. The nervous system differs between sexes at multiple levels. Several sex-shared neurons that function in circuits for sexual behaviour are sexually dimorphic in structure and connectivity. Inputs from sex-specific circuitry to central circuitry reveal points at which sexual and non-sexual pathways converge. In sex-shared central pathways, a substantial number of connections differ in strength between the sexes. Quantitative connectomes that include all connections serve as the basis for understanding how complex, adaptive behavior is generated.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Conectoma , Sistema Nervoso/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/inervação , Organismos Hermafroditas , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Atividade Motora , Movimento , Sistema Nervoso/citologia , Vias Neurais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA