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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210624, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254431

RESUMO

Sex is one of the first features to be diagnosed in human identification, composing, with age, ancestry and stature, the so called "big four". Aim: The present study aimed to metrically analyze the sexual dimorphism in skulls of known age and sex from Rio Grande do Sul ­ Brazil. Methods: This was a crosssectional study of metrical analysis, which used a sample comprised of 209 human skulls (106 male and 103 female) older than 22 years old at the time of death, undamaged and without signs of trauma or abnormalities. The point nasion and the most superior points on the zygomaticotemporal sutures from each side were connected forming a triangle. This area was calculated using Heron's formula, and the results were submitted for statistical analysis. Results: All measurements showed significant values for sexual dimorphism. Through the area of the triangle, it was possible to determine sex with an accuracy of 83.97% for males and 83.50% for females. Conclusion: This simple method requires only a caliper, and still can be reliable for forensic human identification. It must be diffused and tested on other samples, and can be used as a good and inexpensive tool for experts in day-to-day practice


Assuntos
Crânio , Caracteres Sexuais , Antropologia Forense , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e218796, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254745

RESUMO

Forensic physical anthropometry allows the determination of animal species and estimates sex, ancestry, age and height. Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of a cranioscopic/ morphological evaluation for sex estimation with a sample of the Brazilian mixed-race population by conducting a qualitative visual assessment without prior knowledge of sex. Methods: This is a blind cross-sectional study that evaluated 30 cranial characteristics of 192 skulls with mandible, 108 male and 84 female individuals, aged 22 to 97 years, from the Osteological and Tomographic Biobank. The qualitative characteristics were classified and compared to the actual sex information of the Biobank database. The statistical analysis was used to calculate de Cohen's kappa coefficient, total percentage of agreement, sensitivity and specificity of visual sex classification. Results: Of the 30 cranial variables analyzed, 15 presented moderate degree of agreement, achieving value of Kappa test between 0.41­0.60: Glabella (Gl), Angle and lines (At), Mental eminence (Em), Mandible size (Tm), Cranial base (Bc), Mouth depth (Pb), Nasal aperture (Anl), Supraorbital region (Rs), Orbits (Orb), Mastoid processes (Pm), Alveolar arches (Aa), Zygomatic arch (Az), Orbital edge (Bo), Supraorbital protuberances (Pts), and Supramastoid crests and rugosity (Crsm). The Facial physiognomy (Ff) presented substantial reliability (0.61-0.80) with 89.8% sensitivity for male sex and 70.2% specificity. Conclusions: Cranial morphological characteristics present sexual dimorphism; however, in this study only 15 variables showed moderate degree of agreement and can be used in sex estimation. Only one variable (Ff) 81.2% total agreement with substantial reliability. Quantitative methods can be associated for safe sex estimation


Assuntos
Crânio , Caracteres Sexuais , Antropologia Forense , Mandíbula
3.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210251, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520680

RESUMO

Sexual selection is often considered as a critical evolutionary force promoting sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. However, empirical evidence for a positive relationship between sexual selection on males and male-biased SSD received mixed support depending on the studied taxonomic group and on the method used to quantify sexual selection. Here, we present a meta-analytic approach accounting for phylogenetic non-independence to test how standardized metrics of the opportunity and strength of pre-copulatory sexual selection relate to SSD across a broad range of animal taxa comprising up to 95 effect sizes from 59 species. We found that SSD based on length measurements was correlated with the sex difference in the opportunity for sexual selection but showed a weak and statistically non-significant relationship with the sex difference in the Bateman gradient. These findings suggest that pre-copulatory sexual selection plays a limited role for the evolution of SSD in a broad phylogenetic context.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Seleção Sexual , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4439-4442, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are common treatments for rectal and anal cancer. Anticipation of treatment may cause distress and sleep disorders. This study aimed to identify risk factors for sleep disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 42 patients with rectal or anal cancer scheduled for radiotherapy, 16 characteristics were analyzed for associations with pre-radiotherapy sleep disorders including age, gender, performance score, comorbidity, patient's or family history of additional cancer/melanoma, distress score, emotional/physical/practical problems, tumor site and stage, surgery and relation to COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of pre-radiotherapy sleep disorders was 42.9%. Sleep disorders were significantly associated with Karnofsky performance score 60-80 (p=0.044), Charlson comorbidity index ≥3 (p=0.0012), distress score 6-10 (p=0.00012), and more emotional (p=0.0012), physical (p=0.0004) or practical (p=0.033) problems. A trend was found for female gender (p=0.061). CONCLUSION: Sleep disorders were common in patients with rectal or anal cancer scheduled for radiotherapy. Risk factors can help identify patients requiring psychooncological support already prior to the start of radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Ânus/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prevalência , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/psicologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Neuron ; 109(17): 2641-2642, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473950

RESUMO

Chronic pain is more common in women, however, our understanding of sex-specific differences in pain mechanisms is rudimentary. In this issue of Neuron, Luo et al., (2021) delineate a novel sex-specific neuro-immune pathway contributing to enhanced mechanical pain in females.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501608

RESUMO

Spain is one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although risk factors for severe disease are published, sex differences have been widely neglected. In this multicentre study, we aimed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in men and women hospitalised with COVID-19. An observational longitudinal study was conducted in the cohort of patients admitted to four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain, from 1 March 2020 to 15 April 2020. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from hospital records. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 30-day survival and multiple Cox regression models were applied. All analyses were stratified by sex. A total of 968 patients were included (54.8% men, median age 67.0 years). In-hospital mortality reached 19.1% in men and 16.0% in women. Factors independently associated with an increased hazard of death were advanced age, higher CURB-65 score and not receiving azithromycin treatment, in both sexes; active cancer and autoimmune disease, in men; cardiovascular disease and chronic lung disease, in women. Disease outcomes and predictors of death differed between sexes. In-hospital mortality was higher in men, but the long-term effects of COVID-19 merit further research. The sex-differential impact of the pandemic should be addressed in public health policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17473, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471195

RESUMO

As for all newly-emergent pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 presents with a relative paucity of clinical information and experimental models, a situation hampering both the development of new effective treatments and the prediction of future outbreaks. Here, we find that a simple virus-free model, based on publicly available transcriptional data from human cell lines, is surprisingly able to recapitulate several features of the clinically relevant infections. By segregating cell lines (n = 1305) from the CCLE project on the base of their sole angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mRNA content, we found that overexpressing cells present with molecular features resembling those of at-risk patients, including senescence, impairment of antibody production, epigenetic regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis, neutralization of the interferon response, proneness to an overemphasized innate immune activity, hyperinflammation by IL-1, diabetes, hypercoagulation and hypogonadism. Likewise, several pathways were found to display a differential expression between sexes, with males being in the least advantageous position, thus suggesting that the model could reproduce even the sex-related disparities observed in the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Overall, besides validating a new disease model, our data suggest that, in patients with severe COVID-19, a baseline ground could be already present and, as a consequence, the viral infection might simply exacerbate a variety of latent (or inherent) pre-existing conditions, representing therefore a tipping point at which they become clinically significant.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação para Cima , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Caracteres Sexuais
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 486, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green tea has been one of the most popular beverages in China since ancient times. Mixed results concerning the effect of green tea consumption on the incidence of hypertension have been published over the past decades. However, no previous studies have focused on longevous individuals in China and the sex differences in the association between habitual green tea intake and hypertension. METHODS: The data extracted from the database of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) in 2018 were used for a secondary analysis. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the odds ratio (OR) of daily green tea consumption on the incidence of hypertension by sex. RESULTS: A total of 9277 individuals were included in the analysis (39.8% were men). The included individuals had a mean age of 80.9 and 84.8 years for those who drank green tea daily and those who had never, respectively (p <  0.001). The incidence of hypertension varied at baseline according to green tea drinking habit and sex. For women who had a habitual green tea intake or had never drunk green tea, the incidence of hypertension was 47.3 and 43.9%, respectively (p = 0.241), whereas it was 51.6 and 39.7% for men (p <  0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, a 38% increase in the risk of hypertension was observed in men who consumed green tea daily (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.15-1.67; p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Chinese longevous men had a 38% higher risk of developing hypertension when drinking green tea daily. However, no effect of green tea consumption on the incidence of hypertension in women was found. More attention should be paid to the lifestyle of longevous individuals for health promotion, and a sex-specific approach to deliver care for very elderly people is warranted.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Chá , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the role of proteins from the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family in schizophrenia-like abnormalities in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia induced by prenatal methylazoxymethanol (MAM) administration (MAM-E17). METHODS: An inhibitor of BET proteins, JQ1, was administered during adolescence on postnatal days (P) 23-P29, and behavioural responses (sensorimotor gating, recognition memory) and prefrontal cortical (mPFC) function (long-term potentiation (LTP), molecular and proteomic analyses) studies were performed in adult males and females. RESULTS: Deficits in sensorimotor gating and recognition memory were observed only in MAM-treated males. However, adolescent JQ1 treatment affected animals of both sexes in the control but not MAM-treated groups and reduced behavioural responses in both sexes. An electrophysiological study showed LTP impairments only in male MAM-treated animals, and JQ1 did not affect LTP in the mPFC. In contrast, MAM did not affect activity-dependent gene expression, but JQ1 altered gene expression in both sexes. A proteomic study revealed alterations in MAM-treated groups mainly in males, while JQ1 affected both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: MAM-induced schizophrenia-like abnormalities were observed only in males, while adolescent JQ1 treatment affected memory recognition and altered the molecular and proteomic landscape in the mPFC of both sexes. Thus, transient adolescent inhibition of the BET family might prompt permanent alterations in the mPFC.


Assuntos
Azepinas/administração & dosagem , Acetato de Metilazoximetanol/análogos & derivados , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Azepinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Acetato de Metilazoximetanol/toxicidade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ratos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Triazóis/farmacologia
10.
Int Heart J ; 62(4): 837-842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334582

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation due to abdominal obesity plays a major role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Gender differences are well characterized in the development of CVD; however, in the association among abdominal obesity, chronic inflammation, and preclinical atherosclerosis, gender differences in the general population remain to be clarified. We retrospectively analyzed 1,163 subjects who underwent voluntary health checkups at our institute. We defined carotid artery plaque formation as carotid intima-media thickness ≥ 1.1 mm. Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference was a major independent predictor of increase in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level in both men and women. Serum CRP level was significantly increased in men with carotid artery plaque formation, but not in women. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that serum CRP level, as well as age and hypertension, was independently associated with carotid artery plaque formation only in men. This result may suggest a potential of gender-specific difference in the association between serum CRP level and the prevalence of carotid artery plaque formation. Further investigations are required to confirm our results and to clarify the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/complicações , Inflamação/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Circunferência da Cintura
11.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 45, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity seems to be influenced by genetic background, sex, age, and presence of specific comorbidities. So far, little attention has been paid to sex-specific variations of demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of COVID-19 patients referred to the same hospital in the two consecutive pandemic waves. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected in 1000 COVID-19 patients (367 females and 633 males), 500 hospitalized in the first wave and 500 in the second one, at the ASST Spedali Civili of Brescia from March to December 2020. Statistical analyses have been employed to compare data obtained in females and males, taking into account their age, and during the first and second COVID-19 waves. RESULTS: The mean age at the time of hospitalization was similar in females and males but was significantly higher for both in the second wave; the time elapsed from symptom onset to hospital admission did not differ between sexes in the two waves, and no correlation was observed between delayed hospital admission and length of hospitalization. The number of multi-symptomatic males was higher than that of females, and patients with a higher number of comorbidities were more frequently admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and more frequently died. Older males remained in the ICU longer than females and showed a longer disease duration, mainly the first wave. The highest levels of white blood cells, neutrophils, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were significantly higher in males and in the first, and along with higher levels of D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and procalcitonin which were preferentially documented in patients requiring ICU or died. While the rate of death in ICU was higher in males, the overall death rate did not differ between the sexes; however, the deceased women were older. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that once patients were hospitalized, the risk of dying was similar between females and males. Therefore, future studies should aim at understanding the reasons why, for a given number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, fewer females develop the disease requiring hospitalization. HIGHLIGHTS: Although the hospitalized males were significantly more, the similar number of hospitalizations of the > 75-year-old females and males could be due to the fact that in Brescia province, elderly women are about twice as many as men. Although males spent more days in the hospital, had a longer disease duration, developed a critical illness more frequently, and were admitted and died in the ICU more than females, the total rate of deaths among patients was not significantly different between sexes. Overall, the most frequent comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases, which were preferentially seen among patients hospitalized in the second wave; it is possible that the knowledge gained in the first wave concerning the association between certain comorbidities and worse disease evolution has guided the preferential hospitalization of patients with these predominant comorbidities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(3): 352-359, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409813

RESUMO

The aim of the work was to clarify the gender, age and variable differences in the structure of brain structures in healthy volunteers in connection with the task of distinguishing between physiological aging and pathological processes of the brain. The study methods included performing structural MRI of the brain in 131 conditionally healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years (72 of them were women and 59 men). Using the method of MR voxel-based morphometry, the total volume of the brain as a whole, as well as its segmented parts, was measured, followed by a comparison of the data obtained in age subgroups and between the sexes. The data obtained in the course of the study indicate that the right and left thalamuses, the left caudate nucleus, the right shell, the left pale ball, and both hippocampus undergo the greatest reduction in size after 60 years. The greatest changes in the hippocampus are the volumes of CA3 Brodman fields. It is established that the process of «physiological aging¼ of the brain.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
13.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21840, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423881

RESUMO

With an aging world population, there is an increased risk of fracture and impaired healing. One contributing factor may be aging-associated decreases in vascular function; thus, enhancing angiogenesis could improve fracture healing. Both bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and thrombopoietin (TPO) have pro-angiogenic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treatment with BMP-2 or TPO on the in vitro angiogenic and proliferative potential of endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from lungs (LECs) or bone marrow (BMECs) of young (3-4 months) and old (22-24 months), male and female, C57BL/6J mice. Cell proliferation, vessel-like structure formation, migration, and gene expression were used to evaluate angiogenic properties. In vitro characterization of ECs generally showed impaired vessel-like structure formation and proliferation in old ECs compared to young ECs, but improved migration characteristics in old BMECs. Differential sex-based angiogenic responses were observed, especially with respect to drug treatments and gene expression. Importantly, these studies suggest that NTN1, ROBO2, and SLIT3, along with angiogenic markers (CD31, FLT-1, ANGPT1, and ANGP2) differentially regulate EC proliferation and functional outcomes based on treatment, sex, and age. Furthermore, treatment of old ECs with TPO typically improved vessel-like structure parameters, but impaired migration. Thus, TPO may serve as an alternative treatment to BMP-2 for fracture healing in aging owing to improved angiogenesis and fracture healing, and the lack of side effects associated with BMP-2.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracteres Sexuais , Trombopoetina/farmacologia , Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Feminino , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444535

RESUMO

This study empirically explored the activity profiles of Korean older adults by considering a wide range of activities simultaneously and further investigated the socioeconomic factors associated with activity profiles. Gender differences in activity profiles were examined in-depth. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify activity profiles based on a nationally representative sample of older adults from the most recent two waves of the Korean Time Use Survey (n = 3034 for 2014 and n = 3960 for 2019). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was employed to further examine the factors associated with the activity profiles. The findings revealed four distinct activity groups, although there were differences in activity profiles between the two waves. Several sociodemographic factors, such as gender, age, assets and income, were significantly associated with the activity profiles. Findings from this study can inform policy makers seeking interventions that enhance the overall well-being of older adults through activity engagement.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Classes Latentes , República da Coreia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(8): 1810-1813, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346069

RESUMO

In Focus: Li, X-Y., & H. Kokko. (2021). Sexual dimorphism driven by intersexual resource competition: Why is it rare, and where to look for it? Journal of Animal Ecology, 00, 1-13. Ecological sexual dimorphism, that is differences between the sexes in traits that are naturally selected as opposed to sexually selected, is gaining increasing attention after having often been dismissed as the 'less-parsimonious' explanation for differences between sexes. One potential driver of ecological sexual dimorphism is intersexual resource competition, in a process analogous to ecological character displacement between species; yet, clear empirical examples are scarce. Li and Kokko present mathematical models that introduce novel pieces to the puzzle: the role of the scale of mating competition and the spatial variation in resource availability. They show that ecological sexual dimorphism evolves when local mating groups are small (e.g. monogamous pairs) and when different resources are homogeneously available across habitats. Counterintuitively, larger mating groups (e.g. polygyny), and consequently higher intralocus sexual conflict, lead to sexual monomorphism. Habitat heterogeneity also leads to overlapping niches, although it can sometimes drive polymorphism within sexes. This study highlights why the conditions for intrasexual resource competition to drive evolution of sexual dimorphism are stringent, even in the absence of genetic constraints or competing species. Crucially, it highlights the importance of considering the mating system and the spatial scale of resource competition for understanding the occurrence of ecological sexual dimorphism, showing a large potential for future work considering different aspects of species' life histories and spatial dynamics.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Fenótipo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445224

RESUMO

The tightly localized noradrenergic neurons (NA) in the locus coeruleus (LC) are well recognized as essential for focused arousal and novelty-oriented responses, while many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit diminished attention, engagement and orienting to exogenous stimuli. This has led to the hypothesis that atypical LC activity may be involved in ASD. Oxytocin (OXT) neurons and receptors are known to play an important role in social behavior, pair bonding and cognitive processes and are under investigation as a potential treatment for ASD. However, little is known about the neurotransmission from hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) OXT neurons to LC NA neurons. In this study, we test, in male and female rats, whether PVN OXT neurons excite LC neurons, whether oxytocin is released and involved in this neurotransmission, and whether activation of PVN OXT neurons alters novel object recognition. Using "oxytocin sniffer cells" (CHO cells that express the human oxytocin receptor and a Ca indicator) we show that there is release of OXT from hypothalamic PVN OXT fibers in the LC. Optogenetic excitation of PVN OXT fibers excites LC NA neurons by co-release of OXT and glutamate, and this neurotransmission is greater in males than females. In male, but not in female animals, chemogenetic activation of PVN OXT neurons increases attention to novel objects.


Assuntos
Atenção , Locus Cerúleo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Transmissão Sináptica , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ocitocina/genética , Ratos , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 671074, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458157

RESUMO

Infant gut microbiota plays a vital role in immune response, mediates neurobehavioral development and health maintenance. Studies of twins' gut microbiota found that gut microbiota composition and diversity tend to be mature and stable with increasing postnatal age (PNA). Preterm infant gut microbiome shifts dramatically when they were staying in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Compositions and shifting characteristics of gut microbiota among neonatal preterm twins and triplets during their early life are still unknown, which impedes a better understanding of the mechanism underpinning neurobehavioral development and precise intervention/health of preterm neonates. This longitudinal cohort study used a twins/triplets design to investigate the interaction of genetic (e.g., male vs. female) and environmental factors influencing the development of the gut microbiome in early life. We included 39 preterm infants, 12 were Female twins/triplets (Female T/T) including 3 twins pairs and 2 triplets, 12 were male twins (Male T) including 6 twins pairs, and 15 were mixed-sex twins/triplets (Mix T/T) including 6 twins pairs and 1 triplet (8 females and 7 males) during the first four weeks of NICU stay. Weekly gut microbiota patterns between females and males were compared by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe). Metagenomics function of gut microbiota was predicted by using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt). Weekly function (KEGG pathways) differences between females and males were detected by using Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Results found that female pairs and male pairs were significantly different in gut microbiome diversity, compositions, and predicted metabolic profiles, importantly, females and males were also significantly dissimilar within their co-twin/triplet pairs of the mixed-sex group, infants of co-twins/triplets shared more similar features than un-related infants from different twins' pair. Future research developing personalized interventions for vulnerable high-risk infants should consider sex, and the interaction of sex and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Filogenia , Caracteres Sexuais
18.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(5): 411-417, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334663

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anaphylactic reactions reported after Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) RNA vaccines were expected to be more frequent in atopic subjects and attributed to its polyethylene glycol component. RECENT FINDINGS: Anaphylaxis to SARS-CoV2 RNA vaccines is no more frequent than in any vaccine and direct proofs for the role of its polyethylene glycol component are lacking. SUMMARY: Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are an essential global intervention to control the current pandemic situation. Anaphylactic reactions have rapidly been reported after SARS-CoV2 RNA vaccines. This risk is now measured at 2.5-11/1 000 000 in the context of vaccine safety surveillance programs and only one case was documented to be due to polyethylene glycol. Suggestions for its role are indirect. The COVID-19 vaccination is rolling out vastly and surveillance programs are key to monitor severe adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis due to vaccine is extremely rare and specific cases should receive individualized investigation and care, highlighting the key role of allergists in the vaccination programmes.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 948, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373576

RESUMO

The preoptic area (POA) is one of the most evolutionarily conserved regions of the vertebrate brain and contains subsets of neuropeptide-expressing neurons. Here we found in the teleost medaka that two neuropeptides belonging to the secretin family, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (Pacap) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), exhibit opposite patterns of sexually dimorphic expression in the same population of POA neurons that project to the anterior pituitary: Pacap is male-biased, whereas Vip is female-biased. Estrogen secreted by the ovary in adulthood was found to attenuate Pacap expression and, conversely, stimulate Vip expression in the female POA, thereby establishing and maintaining their opposite sexual dimorphism. Pituitary organ culture experiments demonstrated that both Pacap and Vip can markedly alter the expression of various anterior pituitary hormones. Collectively, these findings show that males and females use alternative preoptic neuropeptides to regulate anterior pituitary hormones as a result of their different estrogen milieu.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oryzias/metabolismo , Hormônios Hipofisários/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
J Exp Biol ; 224(7)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424964

RESUMO

Characterizing sex and species differences in muscle physiology can contribute to a better understanding of proximate mechanisms underlying behavioral evolution. In Xenopus, the laryngeal muscle's ability to contract rapidly and its electromyogram potentiation allows males to produce calls that are more rapid and intensity-modulated than female calls. Prior comparative studies have shown that some species lacking typical male features of vocalizations sometimes show reduced sex differences in underlying laryngeal physiology. To further understand the evolution of sexually differentiated laryngeal muscle physiology and its role in generating behavior, we investigated sex differences in the laryngeal physiology of X. muelleri, a species in which male and female calls are similar in rapidity but different with respect to intensity modulation. We delivered ethologically relevant stimulus patterns to ex vivo X. muelleri larynges to investigate their ability to produce various call patterns, and we also delivered stimuli over a broader range of intervals to assess sex differences in muscle tension and electromyogram potentiation. We found a small but statistically significant sex difference in laryngeal electromyogram potentiation that varied depending on the number of stimuli. We also found a small interaction between sex and stimulus interval on muscle tension over an ethologically relevant range of stimulus intervals; male larynges were able to produce similar tensions to female larynges at slightly smaller (11-12 ms) inter-stimulus intervals. These findings are consistent with behavioral observations and present a previously undescribed intermediate sex difference in Xenopus laryngeal muscle physiology.


Assuntos
Laringe , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Vocalização Animal , Xenopus , Xenopus laevis
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