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1.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2022: 5289776, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131847

RESUMO

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases manifest differently in men and women. The purpose of this study is to compare the sex difference in the characteristics of coronary artery spasm (CAS) in patients with nonobstructive cardiovascular disease (NOCVD) and the clinical outcomes in accordance with sex in CAS patients. Methods: The study analysed 5,491 patients with NOCVD who underwent an acetylcholine provocation test from November 2004 to May 2014 for evaluation of chest pain. CAS was defined as greater than 70% of luminal narrowing of the artery during the acetylcholine provocation test. Results: The patients were divided into men (n = 2,506) and women (n = 2,985). Mean follow-up days were 1,218 ± 577 days. To adjust for confounding factors, the propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed in all patients and among the CAS patients. After PSM analysis, a total of 1,201 pairs in all patients and a total of 713 pairs in CAS patients were generated. In all patients, women showed significantly less incidence of CAS compared with men (62.3% vs 50.9%, P < 0.01). Myocardial bridge (MB) and moderate stenosis were less prevalent in women, while transient ST elevation and ischemic chest pain during provocation were more frequent in women. In CAS patients, men had a higher incidence of multivessel spasm than women (35.7% vs. 29.7%, P < 0.01). Old age, dyslipidemia, and MB were independent risk factors of CAS in both men and women. In CAS patients, there was no statistical differences for various individual and composite major outcomes up to five years in either men or women. In men with CAS, old age was a risk factor of a 5-year major adverse cardiac event (MACE), and moderate stenosis was a risk factor of both 5-year MACE and 5-year recurrent angina. In women with CAS, mild stenosis was a risk factor of 5-year MACE, while myocardial bridge was a risk factor of 5-year recurrent angina. Conclusions: In this study, there were sex differences in the angiographic and clinical parameters during the acetylcholine provocation test, incidence of CAS, risk factors of CAS, 5-year MACE, and recurrent angina. Old age, dyslipidemia, and MB were independent risk factors of CAS in both sexes. However, major clinical outcomes up to five years in CAS patients were not different according to sex.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Vasoespasmo Coronário , Acetilcolina , Angina Pectoris , Dor no Peito , Constrição Patológica , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Vasoespasmo Coronário/diagnóstico , Vasoespasmo Coronário/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Espasmo
3.
Biol Sex Differ ; 13(1): 47, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in adolescents and adults by sex in blood levels of leptin and adiposity have been described; however, it is not yet clear if these differences arise from the prepubertal stage in subjects with a normal-weight. Therefore, we examine whether there are differences by sex in levels of blood leptin and adiposity in children with a normal-weight between 0 and 10 years old. METHODS: Search strategy: eligible studies were obtained from three electronic databases (Ovid, Embase and LILACS) and contact with experts. SELECTION CRITERIA: healthy children up to 10 years of age with normal-weight according to age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES: data were extracted by four independent reviewers using a predesigned data collection form. For the analysis, we stratified according to age groups (newborns, 0.25-0.5 years, 3-5.9 years, 6-7.9 years, 8-10 years). The statistical analysis was performed in the R program. RESULTS: Of the initially identified 13,712 records, 21 were selected in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The sex was associated with the overall effect on blood leptin (pooled MD = 1.72 ng/mL, 95% CI: 1.25-2.19) and body fat percentage (pooled MD = 3.43%, 95% CI: 2.53-4.33), being both higher in girls. This finding was consistent in the majority of age groups. CONCLUSION: The results of our meta-analyses support the sexual dimorphism in circulating blood leptin and body fat percentage between girls and boys with normal-weight from prepuberty.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Leptina , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade , Caracteres Sexuais
4.
PLoS Biol ; 20(9): e3001768, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067235

RESUMO

Sex differences in the fitness effects of genetic variants can influence the rate of adaptation and the maintenance of genetic variation. For example, "sexually antagonistic" (SA) variants, which are beneficial for one sex and harmful for the other, can both constrain adaptation and increase genetic variability for fitness components such as survival, fertility, and disease susceptibility. However, detecting variants with sex-differential fitness effects is difficult, requiring genome sequences and fitness measurements from large numbers of individuals. Here, we develop new theory for studying sex-differential selection across a complete life cycle and test our models with genotypic and reproductive success data from approximately 250,000 UK Biobank individuals. We uncover polygenic signals of sex-differential selection affecting survival, reproductive success, and overall fitness, with signals of sex-differential reproductive selection reflecting a combination of SA polymorphisms and sexually concordant polymorphisms in which the strength of selection differs between the sexes. Moreover, these signals hold up to rigorous controls that minimise the contributions of potential confounders, including sequence mapping errors, population structure, and ascertainment bias. Functional analyses reveal that sex-differentiated sites are enriched in phenotype-altering genomic regions, including coding regions and loci affecting a range of quantitative traits. Population genetic analyses show that sex-differentiated sites exhibit evolutionary histories dominated by genetic drift and/or transient balancing selection, but not long-term balancing selection, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of effectively weak SA balancing selection in historically small populations. Overall, our results are consistent with polygenic sex-differential-including SA-selection in humans. Evidence for sex-differential selection is particularly strong for variants affecting reproductive success, in which the potential contributions of nonrandom sampling to signals of sex differentiation can be excluded.


Assuntos
Seleção Genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido
5.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 14(1): 133, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex is increasingly recognized as a significant factor contributing to the biological and clinical heterogeneity in AD. There is also growing evidence for the prominent role of DNA methylation (DNAm) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We studied sex-specific DNA methylation differences in the blood samples of AD subjects compared to cognitively normal subjects, by performing sex-specific meta-analyses of two large blood-based epigenome-wide association studies (ADNI and AIBL), which included DNA methylation data for a total of 1284 whole blood samples (632 females and 652 males). Within each dataset, we used two complementary analytical strategies, a sex-stratified analysis that examined methylation to AD associations in male and female samples separately, and a methylation-by-sex interaction analysis that compared the magnitude of these associations between different sexes. After adjusting for age, estimated immune cell type proportions, batch effects, and correcting for inflation, the inverse-variance fixed-effects meta-analysis model was used to identify the most consistent DNAm differences across datasets. In addition, we also evaluated the performance of the sex-specific methylation-based risk prediction models for AD diagnosis using an independent external dataset. RESULTS: In the sex-stratified analysis, we identified 2 CpGs, mapped to the PRRC2A and RPS8 genes, significantly associated with AD in females at a 5% false discovery rate, and an additional 25 significant CpGs (21 in females, 4 in males) at P-value < 1×10-5. In methylation-by-sex interaction analysis, we identified 5 significant CpGs at P-value < 10-5. Out-of-sample validations using the AddNeuroMed dataset showed in females, the best logistic prediction model included age, estimated immune cell-type proportions, and methylation risk scores (MRS) computed from 9 of the 23 CpGs identified in AD vs. CN analysis that are also available in AddNeuroMed dataset (AUC = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.65-0.83). In males, the best logistic prediction model included only age and MRS computed from 2 of the 5 CpGs identified in methylation-by-sex interaction analysis that are also available in the AddNeuroMed dataset (AUC = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results show that the DNA methylation differences in AD are largely distinct between males and females. Our best-performing sex-specific methylation-based prediction model in females performed better than that for males and additionally included estimated cell-type proportions. The significant discriminatory classification of AD samples with our methylation-based prediction models demonstrates that sex-specific DNA methylation could be a predictive biomarker for AD. As sex is a strong factor underlying phenotypic variability in AD, the results of our study are particularly relevant for a better understanding of the epigenetic architecture that underlie AD and for promoting precision medicine in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Metilação de DNA , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(17): 6057-6064, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The hard palate participates in the construction of the oral and nasal cavities and represents the bony barrier between them. Morphological differences of the hard palate are important for forensic medicine, anthropology, anatomy, as well as scientific branches dealing with the study of evolutionary development, populations differences. The aim of this study was to determine sexual dimorphism of hard palate on three-dimensional (3D) models of human skulls using geometric morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research was conducted on 3D models of 209 human skulls from Bosnian population (139 male, 70 female). On the obtained 3D models, we marked landmarks on the palate using Landmark editor program. Using MorphoJ program we analyzed sex differences of shape and size on hard palate. RESULTS: The principal component analysis showed that the first two components (PC1 and PC2) described 55.503% of the total morphological variability of the hard palate. The results of the discriminant analysis showed predictive power for male with 66.91% accuracy and for female with 58.57% accuracy based on the shape and size of the hard palate. The influence of size of the hard palate on its shape was statistically significant (p<0.0001). The results of discriminant analysis based on shape of hard palate showed predictive power for male with 68.34% accuracy and for female with 64.29% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences of hard palate are statistically significant and can be used for sex determination in skeletal remains. The percentage of accuracy for determining sex based on the hard palate was higher for men in this study.


Assuntos
Palato Duro , Crânio , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palato Duro/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Biol Sex Differ ; 13(1): 49, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For more than 150 years, research studies have documented greater variability across males than across females ("greater male variability"-GMV) over a broad range of behavioral and morphological measures. In placental mammals, an ancient difference between males and females that may make an important contribution to GMV is the different pattern of activation of X chromosomes across cells in females (mosaic inactivation of one the two X chromosomes across cells) vs males (consistent activation of a single X chromosome in all cells). In the current study, variability in hearing thresholds was examined for human listeners with thresholds within the normal range. Initial analyses compared variability in thresholds across males vs. across females. If greater across-male than across-female variability was present, and if these differences in variability related to the different patterns X-chromosome activation in males vs. females, it was expected that correlations between related measures within a given subject (e.g., hearing thresholds at given frequency in the two ears) would be greater in males than females. METHODS: Hearing thresholds at audiometric test frequencies (500-6000 or 500-8000 Hz) were extracted from two datasets representing more than 8500 listeners with normal hearing (4590 males, 4376 females). Separate data analyses were carried out on each dataset to compare: (1) relative variability in hearing thresholds across males vs. across females at each test frequency; (2) correlations between both across-ear and within-ear hearing thresholds within  males vs. within  females, and (3) mean thresholds for females vs. males at each frequency. RESULTS: A consistent pattern of GMV in hearing thresholds was seen across frequencies in both datasets. In addition, both across-ear and within-ear correlations between thresholds were consistently greater in males than females. Previous studies have frequently reported lower mean thresholds for females than males for listeners with normal hearing. One of the datasets replicated this result, showing a clear and consistent pattern of lower mean thresholds for females. The second data set did not show clear evidence of this female advantage. CONCLUSIONS: Hearing thresholds showed clear evidence of greater variability across males than across females and higher correlations across related threshold measures within males than within females. The results support a link between the observed GMV and the mosaic pattern of X-activation for females that is not present in males.


Assuntos
Placenta , Caracteres Sexuais , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Audição , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Cromossomo X
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273717, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status neighborhood exposure to stress and violence may be sources of negative stimuli that poses significant health risks for children, adolescents and throughout the life course of an individual. The study aims to investigate if aberrant epigenetic DNA methylation changes may be a potential mechanism for regulating neighborhood exposures and health outcomes. METHODS: Exposure to environmental stressors identified in 98 young African American (AA) adults aged 18-25 years old from the Washington D.C., area were used in the study. We correlated the association between stress markers; cortisol, CRP, IgG, IGA, IgM, and self-reported exposure to violence and stress, with quantitative DNA methylation changes in a panel of gene-specific loci using saliva DNA. RESULTS: In all participants studied, the exposure to violence was significant and negatively correlated with DNA methylation of MST1R loci (p = 0.032; r = -0.971) and nominally significant with NR3C1 loci (p = 0.053; r = -0.948). In addition, we observed significant and negative correlation of DNA methylation changes of LINE1 (p = 0.044; r = -0.248); NR3C1 (p = 0.017; r = -0.186); MSTR1 (p = 0.022; r = -0.192); and DRD2 (p = 0.056; r = -0.184; albeit nominal significant correlation) with IgA expression. On the other hand, we observed a significant and position correlation of DNA methylation changes in DRD2 (p = 0.037; r = 0.184) with IgG expression. When participants were stratified by sex, we observed in AA young male adults, significant DNA methylation changes of MST1R (p< 0.05) and association with exposure to violence and IgG level. We also observed significant DNA methylation levels of DRD2 (p< 0.05) and association with IgA, IgG, and cortisol level. Furthermore, we observed significant DNA methylation changes of NR3C1 (p< 0.05) with stress, IgA, and IgG in the male participants only. On the other hand, we only observed significant and a positive association of IgG with DNA methylation levels of ESR1 (p = 0.041) in the young AA female participants. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary observation of significant DNA methylation changes in neuronal and immune genes in saliva samples supports our recently published genome-wide DNA methylations changes in blood samples from young AA male adults indicating that saliva offers a non-invasive means for DNA methylation prediction of exposure to environmental stressors in a gender-specific manner.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Hidrocortisona , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Criança , DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Saliva/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273701, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083870

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine sex-specific differences in the blood glucose (BG) response to recurrent aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes rats. Specifically, we examined the role of peak estrogen (E2) concentrations during proestrus on BG response to prolonged repetitive aerobic exercise. To do so, nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four exercised groups: control female (CXF; n = 5), control male (CXM; n = 5), diabetic female (DXF, n = 5) and diabetic male (DXM, n = 4). Diabetes was induced in DX groups via subcutaneous multiple injections of low dose streptozotocin (20mg/day for 7 days). After four days of exercise, muscle and liver glycogen content, liver gluconeogenic enzyme content, muscle Beta oxidation activity and BG responses to exercise were compared. The final bout of exercise took place during proestrus when E2 concentrations were at their highest in the female rats. During days 1-3 DXM had significantly lower BG concentrations during exercise than DXF. While both T1DM and non-T1DM females demonstrated higher hepatic G6Pase expression and muscle beta oxidation activity levels on day 4 exercise, no differences in BG response between the male and female T1DM rats were evident. Further, no differences in liver and muscle glycogen content following day 4 of exercise were seen between the sexes. These results would suggest that heightened E2 levels during proestrus may not be an important factor governing glucose counter regulatory response to exercise in female T1DM rats. Rather, the pre-exercise blood glucose levels are likely to be a large determinant of the blood glucose response to exercise in both male and female rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Roedores , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273050, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112601

RESUMO

Infection with the respiratory pathogen influenza A virus (IAV) causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. While host genotype is thought to contribute to severity of disease, naturally occurring genetic determinants remain mostly unknown. Moreover, more severe disease is seen in women compared with men, but genetic mechanisms underlying this sex difference remain obscure. Here, using IAV infection in a mouse model of naturally selected genetic diversity, namely C57BL6/J (B6) mice carrying chromosomes (Chr) derived from the wild-derived and genetically divergent PWD/PhJ (PWD) mouse strain (B6.ChrPWD consomic mice), we examined the effects of genotype and sex on severity of IAV-induced disease. Compared with B6, parental PWD mice were completely protected from IAV-induced disease, a phenotype that was fully recapitulated in the B6.Chr16PWD strain carrying the PWD-derived allele of Mx1. In contrast, several other consomic strains, including B6.Chr3PWD and B6.Chr5PWD, demonstrated greatly increased susceptibility. Notably, B6.Chr5PWD and B6.ChrX.3PWD strains, the latter carrying the distal one-third of ChrX from PWD, exhibited increased morbidity and mortality specifically in male but not female mice. Follow up analyses focused on B6 and B6.ChrX.3PWD strains demonstrated moderately elevated viral load in B6.ChrX3PWD male, but not female mice. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated genotype- and sex-specific gene expression profiles in the infected lung, with male B6.ChrX.3 mice exhibiting the most significant changes, including upregulation of a proinflammatory gene expression program associated with myeloid cells, and altered sex-biased expression of several X-linked genes that represent positional candidates, including Tlr13 and Slc25a53. Taken together, our results identify novel loci on autosomes and the X chromosome regulating IAV susceptibility and demonstrate that sex differences in IAV susceptibility are genotype-dependent, suggesting that future genetic association studies need to consider sex as a covariate.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Caracteres Sexuais , Cromossomo X
11.
Biol Sex Differ ; 13(1): 50, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114567

RESUMO

The fetal placenta is a source of hormones and immune factors that play a vital role in maintaining pregnancy and facilitating fetal growth. Cells in this extraembryonic compartment match the chromosomal sex of the embryo itself. Sex differences have been observed in common gestational pathologies, highlighting the importance of maternal immune tolerance to the fetal compartment. Over the past decade, several studies examining placentas from term pregnancies have revealed widespread sex differences in hormone signaling, immune signaling, and metabolic functions. Given the rapid and dynamic development of the human placenta, sex differences that exist at term (37-42 weeks gestation) are unlikely to align precisely with those present at earlier stages when the fetal-maternal interface is being formed and the foundations of a healthy or diseased pregnancy are established. While fetal sex as a variable is often left unreported in studies performing transcriptomic profiling of the first-trimester human placenta, four recent studies have specifically examined fetal sex in early human placental development. In this review, we discuss the findings from these publications and consider the evidence for the genetic, hormonal, and immune mechanisms that are theorized to account for sex differences in early human placenta. We also highlight the cellular and molecular processes that are most likely to be impacted by fetal sex and the evolutionary pressures that may have given rise to these differences. With growing recognition of the fetal origins of health and disease, it is important to shed light on sex differences in early prenatal development, as these observations may unlock insight into the foundations of sex-biased pathologies that emerge later in life.


Assuntos
Placenta , Caracteres Sexuais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(17): e026123, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056724

RESUMO

Background Women have been reported to have worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following stroke than men, but uncertainty exists over the reasons for the sex difference. Methods and Results We included all ischemic strokes registered with the BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) project (May 2010-December 2016), a population-based stroke study, who completed a 90-day outcome interview. Information on baseline characteristics was obtained from medical records and in-person interviews. HRQoL was measured by the 12-item short-form Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. Multivariable Tobit regression was used to estimate the mean difference in overall HRQoL scores (range, 1-5; higher indicating better HRQoL) between sexes and to identify contributing factors to the differences. We included 1061 cases with complete data on HRQoL and covariates (median age, 67 years; 51% women). In unadjusted analyses, women had poorer overall HRQoL than men (mean difference, -0.26 [95% CI, -0.40 to -0.13]). Contributors to this difference included sociodemographic/prestroke factors (eg, age, race and ethnicity, prestroke function), risk factors/comorbidities (eg, history of stroke, Alzheimer disease/dementia), and initial stroke severity. Sociodemographic/prestroke factors explained 62% of the sex difference (mean difference, -0.08 [95% CI, -0.21 to 0.04]). In a fully adjusted model that included adjustment for all confounding factors, the sex difference was eliminated and became nonsignificant (mean difference, -0.03 [95% CI, -0.16 to 0.09]). Conclusions Poorer HRQoL in women compared with men was observed and explained by the combination of sociodemographic and prestroke factors, including physical function before stroke and stroke severity. The findings suggest potential subgroups of women who might benefit from more targeted interventions before and after stroke to improve HRQoL.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604913, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090835

RESUMO

Objectives: Determine the changes in clinical, pharmacological and healthcare resource use parameters, between the 6 months prior to the lockdown and the 6 months following its end, in a population with hypertension who did not have a diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: Real world data observational study of 245,979 persons aged >16 years with hypertension in Aragon (Spain). Clinical (systolic-diastolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides and anthropometric measures); pharmacological (diuretics, calcium channel antagonists, and ACE inhibitors); and utilization of healthcare resources were considered. We performed the Student's T-test for matched samples (quantitative) and the Chi-squared test (qualitative) to analyze differences between periods. Results: SBP, DBP, parameters of renal function and triglycerides displayed a significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, worsening in women. In men only DBP and eGFR showed a worsening, although to a lesser extent than in women. Certain antihypertensive drugs and health-resource utilization remained below pre-pandemic levels across the 6 months post-lockdown. Conclusion: Changes in lifestyles, along with difficulties in access to routine care has not substantially compromised the health and quality of life of patients with hypertension.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Caracteres Sexuais , Triglicerídeos
15.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079753

RESUMO

A dietary pattern transition is a risk factor for the double burden of malnutrition (DBM), but related information is limited. This study aimed to identify sex differences in dietary patterns of adults in a low-middle income country and to examine their association with DBM. A total of 8957 adults (4465 men and 4492 non-pregnant and non-lactating women) who participated in the 2013 Philippine National Nutrition Survey were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were formulated to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and DBM. The factor analysis derived seven dietary patterns for males and six patterns for females. Results showed that approximately 30% of Filipino adults suffered from DBM. The rice pattern was associated with lower odds of DBM for males only. The meat and sugar pattern in males and the protein-rich foods, cereal, and sugar pattern in females decreased DBM likelihood. An inverse relationship was observed for the vegetables and corn patterns, wherein females had an increased risk for DBM. Our findings suggest that rice-based and meat-containing patterns could play protective roles in DBM development among adults in the Philippines. Understanding sex-specific dietary patterns can be utilized to guide public health nutrition interventions in the prevention of malnutrition in all its forms.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Caracteres Sexuais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Açúcares
16.
Zootaxa ; 5175(2): 285-292, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095365

RESUMO

Although the genus Rineloricaria is widely distributed in the Neotropical region, its species usually occupy single drainages with high habitat fidelity. Rineloricaria species show evident sexual dimorphism with hypertrophied odontodes in sexually mature males. Here, we describe a new species of Rineloricaria present in the Rio Paraiba do Sul basin and coastal rivers in Rio de Janeiro State. The new species has extreme sexual dimorphism making possible to differentiate it from all congeners. The new species can also be separated from other sympatric species by morphometric characteristics and dermal plates pattern.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Platelmintos , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Rios , Caracteres Sexuais
17.
Zootaxa ; 5174(4): 401-443, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095389

RESUMO

Atopida is a New Zealand endemic genus distributed in both North and South Islands. Remarkable sexual dimorphism of most species was a source of numerous misinterpretations in studies by Thomas Brounmales and females of the same species were often described as distinct taxa. After examining type material of all species and over 600 additional unidentified specimens from several institutions, the following new synonyms were established: Atopida grahami Broun, 1910 is a junior synonym of A. hirta Broun, 1880; A. pallidula Broun, 1921 is a junior synonym of A. impressa Broun, 1914; A. basalis Broun, 1912 and A. sinuata Broun, 1893 are junior synonyms of A. proba Sharp, 1878; A. lawsoni Sharp, 1878 is a junior synonym of A. suturalis (White, 1846). The following eight species are newly described: Atopida insularis sp. nov., A. lescheni sp. nov., A. paparoa sp. nov., A. paringa sp. nov., A. tuhua sp. nov., A. waipoua sp. nov., A. walkerae sp. nov., and A. westlandensis sp. nov.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Caracteres Sexuais
18.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 22(3): 393-400, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to identify different key genes and pathways between postmenopausal females and males by studying differentially expressed genes (DEGs). METHODS: GSE32317 and GSE55457 gene expression data were downloaded from the GEO database, and DEGs were discovered using R software to obtain overlapping DEGs. The interaction between overlapping DEGs was further analyzed by establishing the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Finally, GO and KEGG were used for enrichment analysis. RESULTS: 924 overlapping DEGs between postmenopausal women and men with osteoarthritis (OA) were identified, including 674 up-regulated genes and 249 down-regulated ones. And 10 hub genes were identified in the PPI network, including BMP4, KDM6A, JMJD1C, NFATC1, PRKX, SRF, ZFX, LAMTOR5, UFD1L and AMBN. The findings of the functional enrichment analysis suggested that these genes were predominantly expressed in MAPK signaling pathway as well as the Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, indicating that those two pathways may be involved in onset and disease progression of OA in postmenopausal patients. CONCLUSION: BMP4, KDM6A, JMJD1C, PRKX, ZFX and LAMTOR5 are expected to play crucial roles in disease development in postmenopausal patients and may be ideal targets or prognostic markers for the treatment of OA.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Osteoartrite , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desmetilases , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji , Masculino , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2606-2616, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studying sex differences in the efficacy of immunotherapy may contribute to the practice of the precision medicine, especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a kind of cancer with sexual bimorphism. METHODS: Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published by PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Scopus, before 15 June 2022, testing immunotherapy (CTLA-4 or PD-1/L1 inhibitor alone, combination or with chemotherapy) versus non-immunotherapy (receiving chemotherapy or placebo only) were included to assess different efficacy between males and females. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). This meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022298439). RESULTS: Sixteen RCTs, involving 10,155 patients with advanced NSCLC, was collected in this meta-analysis. The pooled HR comparing immunotherapy vs non-immunotherapy were 0.76 (95%CI 0.71-0.81) for males and 0.74 (95%CI 0.63-0.87) for females. The pooled HRs comparing immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy were 0.79 (95%CI 0.70-0.89) for males and 0.63 (95%CI 0.42-0.92) for females. The pooled HRs comparing ICIs versus chemotherapy were 0.74 (95%CI 0.67-0.81) for males and 0.83 (95%CI 0.73-0.95) for females. In squamous NSCLC, the pooled HRs comparing immunotherapy vs non-immunotherapy were 0.73 (95%CI 0.58-0.91) for males and 0.74 (95%CI 0.37-1.48) for females. In non-squamous NSCLC, the pooled HRs comparing immunotherapy versus non-immunotherapy were 0.62 (95%CI 0.71-0.94) for males and 0.59 (95%CI 0.39-0.89) for females. CONCLUSION: Compared to chemotherapy, immunotherapy can improve the prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC. Meanwhile, there are sex differences in the efficacy of immunotherapy.KEY MESSAGECompared to chemotherapy, immunotherapy can improve the prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC.The most interesting thing in this study is that immunotherapy showed significant sex differences in the treatment of squamous NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antígeno CTLA-4/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
Zootaxa ; 5138(1): 75-82, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101036

RESUMO

The female and male of Sclerogibba berlandi Benoit, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Sclerogibbidae), collected in Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) and characterized by a pronounced sexual dimorphism, were associated for the first time by mitochondrial COI sequences. A comparison with COI sequences of S. crassifemorata Riggio De Stefani-Perez, 1888 and S. talpiformis Benoit, 1950 from Abu Dhabi proved the diversity of S. berlandi. The COI sequence of a female of S. rossi Olmi, 2005 from Japan, Okinawa-jima, was analyzed for the first time and compared with the other sequences.


Assuntos
Himenópteros/classificação , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Himenópteros/anatomia & histologia , Himenópteros/genética , Masculino , Emirados Árabes Unidos
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