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1.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 27(4): 338-343, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836807

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will summarize recent studies assessing the effect of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) on glucose metabolism in healthy, prediabetic or type 2 diabetic adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, a particular interest in starch and its digestibility has arisen, with data showing a positive effect of SDS and RS on the glucose homeostasis of healthy, at-risk, prediabetic and type 2 diabetic patients but research is ongoing. SUMMARY: Carbohydrates (CHO) and especially starch play a major role in the prevention and management of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). This largely depends on the quality and the digestibility (rate and extent) of the ingested starchy products, beyond their quantity. SDS have been poorly studied but display a beneficial effect on reducing glucose excursions in healthy and insulin-resistant subjects and a relevant potential to improve glucose control in type 2 diabetic individuals. As for RS, the results appear to be encouraging but remain heterogeneous, depending the nature of the RS and its role on microbiota modulation. Further studies are needed to confirm the present results and investigate the potential complementary beneficial effects of SDS and RS on long-term glucose homeostasis to prevent cardiometabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Digestão , Homeostase , Resistência à Insulina , Amido , Humanos , Amido/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Amido Resistente/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo
3.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 151, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence links glucose intolerance and diabetes as aspects of metabolic dysregulation that are associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Inflammation and inflammasome activation have emerged as a potential link between these disparate pathologies. As diet is a key factor in both the development of metabolic disorders and inflammation, we hypothesize that long term changes in dietary factors can influence nervous system function by regulating inflammasome activity and that this phenotype would be sex-dependent, as sex hormones are known to regulate metabolism and immune processes. METHODS: 5-week-old male and female transgenic mice expressing a caspase-1 bioluminescent reporter underwent cranial window surgeries and were fed control (65% complex carbohydrates, 15% fat), high glycemic index (65% carbohydrates from sucrose, 15% fat), or ketogenic (1% complex carbohydrates, 79% fat) diet from 6 to 26 weeks of age. Glucose regulation was assessed with a glucose tolerance test following a 4-h morning fast. Bioluminescence in the brain was quantified using IVIS in vivo imaging. Blood cytokine levels were measured using cytokine bead array. 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing of mouse feces was performed to assess alterations in the gut microbiome. Behavior associated with these dietary changes was also evaluated. RESULTS: The ketogenic diet caused weight gain and glucose intolerance in both male and female mice. In male mice, the high glycemic diet led to increased caspase-1 biosensor activation over the course of the study, while in females the ketogenic diet drove an increase in biosensor activation compared to their respective controls. These changes correlated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines present in the serum of test mice and the emergence of anxiety-like behavior. The microbiome composition differed significantly between diets; however no significant link between diet, glucose tolerance, or caspase-1 signal was established. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet composition, specifically the source and quantity of carbohydrates, has sex-specific effects on inflammasome activation in the central nervous system and behavior. This phenotype manifested as increased anxiety in male mice, and future studies are needed to determine if this phenotype is linked to alterations in microbiome composition.


Assuntos
Caspase 1 , Dieta Cetogênica , Camundongos Transgênicos , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 21(1): 2365307, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sports nutrition is an impactful component to sports performance. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the sports nutrition knowledge of National Collegiate Athletic Association collegiate athletes and assess self-reported perceived requirements for energy and macronutrient intake. A secondary aim was to evaluate the awareness of physical and emotional perceptions associated with mindful eating. METHODS: Participants included NCAA Division I (DI, n = 45), II (DII, n = 31), and III (DIII, n = 47) athletes. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sports nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements. Daily energy intake values were calculated using a recommended relative energy intake value of 40, 50, and 60 kcal/kg/day for low, moderate, and high activity levels, respectively. Carbohydrate recommendations were calculated using 4, 6, and 8 g/kg/day, protein recommendations were calculated using relative intakes of 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 g/kg/day, and fat recommendations were calculated from a relative percentage of total predicted daily energy requirements, equating to 15, 25, and 30% of daily energy. Additionally, athletes completed a questionnaire to assess mindfulness regarding eating habits. RESULTS: Overall, athletes answered 45.5 ± 13.5% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with significant differences observed between male (48.6 ± 13.6%) and female athletes (43.6 ± 13.2%; p = 0.044), as well as significant differences observed between DI athlete scores (38.8 ± 14.1%) and DII athletes (47.7 ± 11.4%; p = 0.002), and DI athletes and DIII athletes (51.71 ± 11.83%; p = <0.001). All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy intake requirements (female, 2,112 ± 575 kcal/day; male, 3,283 ± 538 kcal/day). The mindfulness eating habits total score was significantly higher in male athletes (65.1 ± 6.5) compared to female athletes (60.9 ± 9.5; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Division I, II, and III collegiate athletes have poor sports nutrition knowledge, with Division I athletes having exhibited lower scores compared to Division II and III athletes on the sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Athletes from all levels of collegiate sports underestimated their energy and macronutrient requirements. Differences in mindful eating habits among female and male athletes were also evident.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Atletas/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Atenção Plena , Autorrelato
6.
Exp Gerontol ; 192: 112449, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704127

RESUMO

BDNF is a protein associated with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between BDNF and cognitive functions and the intake of macronutrients in postmenopausal women. For this purpose, 72 postmenopausal women were recruited to the study and divided into two subgroups: overweight/obese and normal weight. Using a 3-day food record, nutrition was assessed. The markers studied were the level of BDNF, which was determined from the venous blood serum collected from women, and selected cognitive functions. We observed that in the normal BMI group macronutrient intake was correlated with BDNF levels, and only total fat and carbohydrate intake were inversely correlated with BDNF levels. There were inverse correlations observed among selected parameters of cognitive functioning. In the Ov/Ob group, macronutrient intake correlated with the BDNF level for several variables, e.g. vice versa with total protein, fat and carbohydrate intake, as well as dietary cholesterol. It has also been noted that there are links between the BDNF factor and excessive body weight.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Cognição , Sobrepeso , Pós-Menopausa , Humanos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Feminino , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Sobrepeso/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Nutrientes , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem
7.
Nutr Diet ; 81(3): 325-334, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747095

RESUMO

AIMS: This cross-sectional observational study quantified Australian Football League Women's athletes' match volume, and compared match-day dietary intakes against recommendations. METHODS: Self-report, direct observation, and fluid measurements determined dietary intake (n = 17, 25 ± 4.5 years, 22.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) on five home match days (early or late starting). Global positioning system software captured match volume. Linear mixed effects models evaluated differences in early versus late match volume and nutrient intakes. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Athletes covered 6712 ± 622 m during matches, with similar numbers of very high-intensity running efforts over equal distances in early and late matches (early vs. late efforts [no.]: 8.5 ± 4.9 vs. 9.5 ± 5.5; distance [m]: 203 ± 127 vs. 212 ± 113). Across all match days, 71% (n = 12) of athletes met their predicted daily energy requirements. However, 82% (n = 14) failed to meet minimum daily carbohydrate recommendations; intake was lower on early compared with late match days (4.7 g/day vs. 5.4 g/kg/day, p = 0.027). On average, no athletes met carbohydrate recommendations in the 2 h prior to a match and only 24% (n = 4) met recommendations during matches. All athletes met post-match carbohydrate and protein requirements. CONCLUSION: Athletes cover large distances during games with frequent bursts of high-intensity running. However, they do not adjust their intake to meet the energy demands of competition, with inadequate fuelling prior to and during matches. These findings emphasise the need for greater athlete education and dietary support to maximise strategic fuelling to optimise athletic performance.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Austrália , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol Americano , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Recomendações Nutricionais , Dieta , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(4): 159, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730223

RESUMO

Cell components soluble in neutral detergent are a diverse group, both compositionally and nutritionally. The present study aimed to evaluate production responses, behavior (eating, ruminating, and idling), and nitrogen balance of dairy goats fed different ratios of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrate fractions. Five multiparous Alpine does with mean ± SD initial body mass of 49.5 ± 7.9 kg and 60 days of lactation were randomly assigned in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The treatments were the ratios of starch (starch associated with soluble sugar [StSS]) to neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF) (StSS:NDSF): 0.89, 1.05, 1.24, 1.73, and 2.92. No effect was observed (P > 0.05) of StSS:NDSF on the intakes of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and NDSC. However, DM intake showed a quadratic behavior (P = 0.049). The ingestive behavior was affected by StSS:NDSF linearly increased (P = 0.002) the feeding efficiency. The increase in StSS:NDSF caused a linear increase in fecal (P = 0.011), urinary (P < 0.001), and milk nitrogen excretion (P = 0.024). The increase in StSS:NDSF affected (P = 0.048) milk yield and net energy lactation (P = 0.036). In conclusion, dairy goats experience reduced dry matter intake and milk yield when subjected to high-NDSC diets, specifically those above 1.24 StSS:NDSF ratio. Elevated NDSC levels in the diets lead to decreased feeding time, whereas rumination remains unaffected. Nitrogen losses in goats increase linearly with high-NDSC diets, and a significant impact on nitrogen balance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta , Cabras , Lactação , Leite , Nitrogênio , Animais , Cabras/fisiologia , Feminino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Leite/química , Ração Animal/análise , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem
9.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 27(4): 350-354, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712890

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize recent studies that highlight the complex relationship between nutrition, carbohydrate, insulin provision and glycaemic control in the critically ill patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: Results of observational studies concur to support early hypoglycaemia and persisting hyperglycaemia as life-threatening events. In contrast, interventional studies indicate that early macronutrient restriction appears to reduce the benefits related to insulin therapy. This restriction is however associated with improved outcomes in itself. The potential role of modified enteral solutions as an adjunctive treatment to attenuate hyperglycaemia warrants further research. The selection of a therapeutic modality may also differ according to the characteristics of the setting, such as the nurse-to-patient ratio, the type and accuracy of meters, including near-continuous glucose monitoring and the availability of computer-guided protocols. SUMMARY: There appears to be significant interplay between nutrition, including carbohydrate provision, blood glucose control and clinical outcomes. Individualized care is probably needed to define the optimal glucose target and nutritional intervention. This can differ according to the preexistence of chronic hyperglycaemia, the timing from the onset of critical illness and the clinical condition itself.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Estado Terminal , Carboidratos da Dieta , Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina , Apoio Nutricional , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/metabolismo , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos
10.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 79(2): 539-544, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696133

RESUMO

Chickpeas have large variations in their types and nutrient composition, owing to diverse environmental conditions, breeding techniques, and cultivars. Thirty-one improved varieties of chickpeas bred for various agronomic traits like high yield, resistance to diseases, and tolerance to abiotic stress were analyzed for their nutrient composition, along with two local varieties. They were found to be rich in proteins (16.09-26.22 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (10.33-26.33 g/100 g) with moderate amounts of available carbohydrates (34.20-54.72 g/100 g) and to have a significant quantity of minerals like calcium (127.50-183.86 mg/100 g), iron (4.55-8.33 mg/100 g), and phosphorous (285.92-528.31 mg/100 g). They were found to be similar (fat, carbohydrates, dietary fiber) or statistically higher (protein, ash) than the local varieties for all the nutrient parameters that were analyzed. A significant difference was also found between the desi and kabuli varieties, where the desi variety was found to have significantly lower fat and available carbohydrates but high dietary fiber content. This study signifies that the varietal differences in nutritional composition are significant in chickpeas. Varieties like Sasho, ICCV 96030, and Teketay showed desirable nutritional qualities associated with moisture, protein, dietary fiber, and minerals like zinc, phosphorous, iron, copper, and calcium. This data will be beneficial for manufacturers in the product development and value addition industries for the selection of varieties ideal for their needs since the nutrient component also confers several functional and physiochemical properties to the chickpea seed besides providing a nutritionally diverse diet.


Assuntos
Cicer , Fibras na Dieta , Minerais , Valor Nutritivo , Cicer/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Proteínas Alimentares/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(5): 181, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822166

RESUMO

Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are readily fermentable in the rumen and, are a critical factor while preparing protracted feed for higher animal performance. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous complete feeds were prepared for this investigation to contain varying levels of nonstructural carbohydrates viz., 40.13 (NSC1), 45.21 (NSC2), 50.00 (NSC3) and 55.85 (NSC4) per cent, respectively. The four isocaloric and isonitrogenous complete feeds were tested in 32 Mecheri ram lambs (around three months of age) in a completely randomised block design (n = 8), and the lambs were fed their respective feed for six months. The study revealed that the increased NSC level in the complete diet increased the body weight and weight gain linearly (P < 0.05). The dietary NSC level affected the dry matter consumption in a quadratic manner (P < 0.05) and the lambs of the NSC4 group consumed significantly (P < 0.05) less DM compared to other dietary groups. The overall average feed conversion efficiency differed significantly (P < 0.05) among dietary groups. The correlation between dietary NSC level and faecal score was quadratic (r2 = 62.7, P < 0.05). The rumen pH, total nitrogen and NH3-N concentration were linearly decreased (P < 0.05) and the molar proportion of total short-chain fatty acids and propionic acid were increased (P < 0.05). The energy loss expressed as methane production was significantly (P < 0.01) lower for the high NSC diet-fed lambs. The lambs fed on a low NSC diet had significantly (P < 0.05) lower carcass weights, dressing percentage and loin eye area. The per cent share of rumen weight in the total fore stomach and the rumen papillae measurements length, width and surface area were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in high NSC diet-fed lambs. Increased levels of NSC in the diet increased (P < 0.05) fat deposition in the internal organs. The saturated fatty acids content in the meat was significantly (P < 0.05) lowered, whereas, the oleic acid and linoleic acid were increased (P < 0.05) as the NSC level increased in the diet. The study revealed that as the level of NSC increased in the complete diet there was a concomitant improvement in the final body weight, ADG and feed efficiency of post-weaned Mecheri lambs. It can therefore be recommended that the complete feed with 50 per cent NSC levels would be optimum to reap maximum returns from fattening Mecheri lambs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Rúmen , Animais , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fermentação , Aumento de Peso , Distribuição Aleatória , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Laeknabladid ; 110(6): 298-306, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High FODMAP (fermentable oligo-, di, monosaccharides and polyols) foods have been linked with worsening symptoms of IBS patients. The aim was to compare gastrointestinal symptoms and dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome following a low FODMAP diet, with or without individual nutrition therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 54 patients that met Rome IV criteria for IBS were randomized into two groups, guided group (individual nutrition therapy, n=28) and self-management group (learned about low FODMAP diet online, n=26). Both groups followed low FODMAP diet for 4 weeks. Four-day food records were used to assess dietary intake. Symptoms were assessed by the IBS-severity scoring system (ISB-SSS). RESULTS: The number of subjects who did not complete the study was 13, thereof five in the nutrition therapy and eight in the self-management group, leaving 23 and 18 subjects available for analysis, respectively. Symptoms declined from baseline to endpoint in both groups, by 183±101 points on average in the group receiving nutrition therapy (p< 0.001) and 132±110 points in the self-management group (p< 0.001), with no difference between groups. At baseline, about 80% of meals in both groups contained food high in FODMAP's. The corresponding proportion was 9% and 36% in week 3 in the nutrition therapy and self-management group, respectively (p< 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both groups experienced relieve of symptoms, but compliance to the low FODMAP diet was better in the group receiving individual nutrition therapy compared with the group who only received instructions on how to learn about low FODMAP diet online.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Monossacarídeos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Monossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Monossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polímeros/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Dissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Dissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Masculino , Feminino , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Oligossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Dieta FODMAP
13.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794661

RESUMO

In individuals with McArdle disease (IWMD), the ingestion of carbohydrates before exercise has previously been shown in laboratory studies to significantly decrease the exercising symptoms of the condition and increase exercise tolerance during the early stages of exercise. As a result, carbohydrate ingestion pre-exercise is currently included in management guidelines, and often advised by medical professionals treating the condition. The aim of the current study was to determine whether positive lab-based results for the ingestion of carbohydrate before exercise in laboratory studies are being effectively translated into practice and produce perceptions of the same positive outcomes in real-world settings (RWS). An online survey method was used to collect responses from 108 IWMD. Data collected on the amount and type of carbohydrate consumed prior to exercise found that most surveyed participants (69.6%) who supplied qualitative data (n = 45) consumed less than the 37 g currently recommended in management guidelines. Survey data also revealed a large variation in the type and amount of carbohydrate ingested when IWMDs are applying carbohydrate ingestion before exercise in RWS. Consistent with these findings, only 17.5% of participants stated that they found carbohydrate ingestion before exercise relieved or minimised their MD symptoms. Results suggest that positive lab-based findings (increased exercise tolerance) of carbohydrate ingestion before exercise are not being effectively translated to RWS for many IWMD. There is a need for improved patient education of IWMD on the application of carbohydrate ingestion before exercise in RWS.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Exercício Físico , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo V , Humanos , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo V/terapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tolerância ao Exercício , Idoso , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10631, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724633

RESUMO

Higher fat-to-muscle mass ratio (FMR) is reported to be a risk factor for various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and mortality. Although this association suggests that reducing FMR may help to prevent certain diseases and mortality, the relationship between FMR and lifestyle factors is unclear. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional study with the aim to elucidate this relationship. This cross-sectional study included 1518 healthy Japanese adults aged 30 to 64 years. We measured FMR in the whole body, arms, legs, and trunk and assessed various lifestyle factors. Then, we performed forced entry multiple regression analyses for FMR with the following variables: sex, age, physical activity, dietary intake, sleep quality, cigarette smoking, stress levels, and body mass index. As a result, whole-body and regional FMRs were correlated with female sex (ß = 0.71); age (ß = 0.06); physical activity (ß = - 0.07); dietary intake of protein (ß = - 0.12), carbohydrate (ß = 0.04), sodium (ß = 0.13), and fiber (ß = - 0.16); and body mass index (ß = 0.70). The results suggest that in the Japanese middle-aged population, low FMR is associated with certain lifestyle factors, i.e. higher physical activity and a diet with higher protein and fiber and lower carbohydrate and sodium, independent of age, sex, and body mass index.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Proteínas Alimentares , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Japão , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Estilo de Vida
15.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732543

RESUMO

This observational pilot study examined the association between diet, meal pattern and glucose over a 2-week period under free-living conditions in 26 adults with dysglycemia (D-GLYC) and 14 with normoglycemia (N-GLYC). We hypothesized that a prolonged eating window and late eating occasions (EOs), along with a higher dietary carbohydrate intake, would result in higher glucose levels and glucose variability (GV). General linear models were run with meal timing with time-stamped photographs in real time, and diet composition by dietary recalls, and their variability (SD), as predictors and glucose variables (mean glucose, mean amplitude of glucose excursions [MAGE], largest amplitude of glucose excursions [LAGE] and GV) as dependent variables. After adjusting for calories and nutrients, a later eating midpoint predicted a lower GV (ß = -2.3, SE = 1.0, p = 0.03) in D-GLYC, while a later last EO predicted a higher GV (ß = 1.5, SE = 0.6, p = 0.04) in N-GLYC. A higher carbohydrate intake predicted a higher MAGE (ß = 0.9, SE = 0.4, p = 0.02) and GV (ß = 0.4, SE = 0.2, p = 0.04) in N-GLYC, but not D-GLYC. In summary, our data suggest that meal patterns interact with dietary composition and should be evaluated as potential modifiable determinants of glucose in adults with and without dysglycemia. Future research should evaluate causality with controlled diets.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Refeições , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Masculino , Feminino , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Alimentar , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Idoso
16.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732572

RESUMO

The effects of gut microbiota on the association between carbohydrate intake during pregnancy and neonatal low birth weight (LBW) were investigated. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 257 singleton-born mother-child pairs in Taiwan, and maternal dietary intake was estimated using a questionnaire, with each macronutrient being classified as low, medium, or high. Maternal fecal samples were collected between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, and gut microbiota composition and diversity were profiled using 16S rRNA amplicon gene sequencing. Carbohydrates were the major source of total energy (56.61%), followed by fat (27.92%) and protein (15.46%). The rate of infant LBW was 7.8%, which was positively correlated with maternal carbohydrate intake. In the pregnancy gut microbiota, Bacteroides ovatus and Dorea spp. were indirectly and directly negatively associated with fetal growth, respectively; Rosenburia faecis was directly positively associated with neonatal birth weight. Maternal hypertension during pregnancy altered the microbiota features and was associated with poor fetal growth. Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates can modify the composition and function of the pregnancy gut microbiota, thus providing a potential marker to modulate deviations from dietary patterns, particularly in women at risk of hypertension during pregnancy, to prevent neonatal LBW.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Humanos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fezes/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Taiwan , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal
17.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732629

RESUMO

Monitoring glycemic control status is the cornerstone of diabetes management. This study aimed to reveal whether moderate-carbohydrate (CHO) diets increase the risk of free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and it presents the short-term effects of four different diet models on blood sugar, glycemic variability (GV), and FFA levels. This crossover study included 17 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus to identify the effects of four diets with different CHO contents and glycemic index (GI) on GV and plasma FFA levels. Diet 1 (D1) contained 40% CHO with a low GI, diet 2 (D2) contained 40% CHO with a high GI, diet 3 (D3) contained 60% CHO with a low GI, and diet 4 (D4) contained 60% CHO with a high GI. Interventions were performed with sensor monitoring in four-day periods and completed in four weeks. No statistical difference was observed among the groups in terms of blood glucose area under the curve (p = 0.78), mean blood glucose levels (p = 0.28), GV (p = 0.59), and time in range (p = 0.567). FFA and total triglyceride levels were higher in the D1 group (p < 0.014 and p = 0.002, respectively). Different diets may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases by affecting GI, FFA, and blood glucose levels.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Carboidratos da Dieta , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
J Clin Invest ; 134(9)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690730

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is an integral part of the human metaorganism that is required to shape physiologic host immune responses including host defense against pathogens. Disease-associated gut dysbiosis has been characterized by blooms of pathobionts, which are bacterial species that can drive disease under certain conditions. Pathobionts like Enterobacteriaceae often bloom during flares of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and are causally linked with IBD in murine models. In this issue of the JCI, Hecht and colleagues investigated how simple carbohydrates are causally linked to the bloom of the gut pathobiont Klebsiella pneumoniae, which belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Notably, the presence of fiber reduced the dissemination of K. pneumoniae into the blood and liver in a colitis model. Their findings provide a diet-related mechanism for gut dysbiosis, which has implications in the management of IBD and other conditions in which gut dysbiosis is an underlying factor.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Humanos , Animais , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Camundongos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Klebsiella , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta
19.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 21(1): 2345358, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional intake and sleep, play an important role for recovery and performance in elite sport but little work has been undertaken in archery. The present study aimed to assess energy intake (EI), hydration status, and sleep parameters in world-class male archers over the course of a four-day competition. METHODS: Results, Conclusions Six male, elite-standard archers participated in the study and measurements of hydration status, EI, competition load, and sleep were recorded throughout each day of competition. RESULTS: Daily energy, carbohydrate, and protein intake ranged between 2,563 and 3,986 kcal, 4 and 7.1 g/kg BM, 2.2 and 3.6 g/kg BM per day, respectively. Thus, archers practiced elements of periodized nutrition such that energy and carbohydrate intake was greater on the high-volume competition days (i.e. days 1 and 3; more numbers of arrows, longer duration, and walking distance) in comparison to low-volume days (days 2 and 4) over the tournament (all p > 0.01). Additionally, urine specific gravity was higher after waking, compared to pre- and post-competition, and before bed (all p < 0.05). This indicates that archers were euhydrated pre- and post-competition and before bedtime, while they were slightly hypohydrated after waking up. Sleep data show that disturbances were kept to a minimum. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, archers appear capable of periodizing their nutritional intake according to daily physical loading during a tournament whilst, staying euhydrated and maintaining sleep quality. In part, such data can help to explain why these archers experience a sustained level of success.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Sono , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Humanos , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Desidratação , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia
20.
J Diabetes ; 16(5): e13555, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between macronutrient intake and diabetes is unclear. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey to explore the association between macronutrient intake trajectories and diabetes risk in this study. METHODS: We included 6755 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline and participated in at least three surveys. The energy supply ratio of carbohydrate, protein, and fat was further calculated from dietary data; different macronutrient trajectories were determined using multitrajectory models; and multiple Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between these trajectories and diabetes. RESULTS: We found three multitrajectories: decreased low carbohydrate-increased moderate protein-increased high fat (DLC-IMP-IHF), decreased high carbohydrate-moderate protein-increased low fat (DHC-MP-ILF), and balanced-macronutrients (BM). Compared to the BM trajectory, DHC-MP-ILF trajectories were significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.228, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.571-6.632), whereas no association between DLC-IMP-IHF trajectories and diabetes was found in our study (HR: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.351-1.392). CONCLUSIONS: The downward trend of high carbohydrate and the increasing trend of low fat increased the risk of diabetes in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Nutrientes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , China/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Nutrientes/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , População do Leste Asiático
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