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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126716, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333407

RESUMO

With the continuous pressure of water contamination caused by textile industry, loose nanofiltration (LNF) membranes prepared by green materials with an extraordinary water permeability are highly desirable for the recovery and purification of dyes and salts. In this work, low-pressure LNF membranes with ultrahigh permeability were fabricated via one-step interfacial polymerization (IP), in which inexpensive natural carbohydrate-derived sugars with large size and low reactivity were utilized as aqueous monomers to design selective layer. A systematic characterization by chemical analysis and optical microscopy demonstrated that the formed polyester film features not only loosen the structure, but also results in a hydrophilic and negatively charged surface. The optimized sucrose-based membrane (Su0.6/TMC0.1) with an excellent water permeability of 52.4 LMH bar-1 was found to have a high rejection of dyes and a high transmission of salts. In addition, the sugar-based membrane manifested an excellent anti-fouling performance and long-term stability. Furthermore, the non-optimized Gl0.6/TMC0.1 and Ra0.6/TMC0.1 membranes also shown a high water permeability, while maintaining a competitive dye/salt separation performance, which confirmed the universal applicability of the membrane design principle. Therefore, the proposed new strategy for preparing next-generation LNF membranes can contribute towards the textile wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Corantes , Purificação da Água , Carboidratos , Membranas Artificiais , Poliésteres
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 673, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic risk factors causing a pathological condition that increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A variety of dietary approaches have been examined to halt this rapid trend; however, the effects of modified-Paleo diet and medium-carbohydrate diet on inflammation, adipokines, hepatokines, and the profile of endothelial microparticles in individuals with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated in detail. The present study is designed to examine the effect of modified-Paleo and moderate-carbohydrate diet with two delivery modes: "fixed diet plan" vs "calorie counting" on weight, body composition, serum levels of some hepatokines and adipocytokines, and flow cytometric analysis of endothelial microparticles in adults with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Eighty metabolic syndrome patients will be recruited in this study. They will be randomly allocated to one of the following 4 groups: (1) receiving a modified-Paleo diet with calorie counting, (2) receiving a modified-Paleo diet with a fixed diet plan, (3) receiving a medium-carbohydrate diet with calorie counting, and (4) receiving a medium-carbohydrate diet with a fixed diet plan for 10 weeks. Weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition will be assessed at the study baseline and at the end of the trial. Serum insulin, asprosin, chemerin, FGF-21, CTRP-1, PYY, ghrelin, plasma EMPs (CD31+/CD42b- and CD144+/CD42b-), lipid profile, glycemic indices, hs-CRP, leptin, vitamin C, creatinine and satiety, hunger, fullness, and desire to eat (via visual analog scales) will be measured at the study baseline and at the end of the trial. Insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity will be determined using the HOMA-IR and QUICKI equations. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial that will determine the effect of modified-Paleo and moderate-carbohydrate diet on weight, body composition, serum levels of some hepatokines and adipocytokines, and the profile of EMPs in adults with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the effects of different diet delivery modes, including "fixed diet plan" and "calorie counting" will also be analyzed. The results of this trial can provide clinical witnesses on the effectiveness of carbohydrate-restricted diets in ameliorating metabolic status and prevent the development of chronic diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2016121925267N4 . Registered on 26 July 2017.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Hormônios Peptídicos , Adipocinas , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos , Quimiocinas , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Fibrilina-1 , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112801, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560614

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a widespread stress in semi-arid forests worldwide, but how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition to improve plant saline tolerance remains unclear. Here, the cuttings of a widely distributed poplar from central Asia, Populus russikki Jabl., were exposed to either normal or low nitrogen (LN) concentrations for two weeks in semi-controlled greenhouse, and then they were added with moderate salt solution or not for another two weeks to evaluate their physiological, biochemical, metabolites and transcriptomic profile changes. LN-pretreating alleviated the toxicity caused by the subsequent salt stress in the poplar plants, demonstrated by a significant reduction in the influx of Na+ and Cl- and improvement of the K+/Na+ ratio. The other salt-stressed traits were also ameliarated, indicated by the variations of chlorophyll content, PSII photochemical activity and lipid peroxidation. Stress alleviation resulted from two different processes. First, LN pretreatment caused a significant increase of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), allowed for an increased production of osmolytes and a higher potential fueling ion transport under subsequent salt condition, along with increased transcript levels of the cation/H+ ATPase. Second, LN pretreatment enhanced the transcript levels of stress signaling components and phytohormones pathway as well as antioxidant enzyme activities. The results indicate that early restrictions of N supply could enhance posterior survival under saline stress in poplar plants, which is important for plantation programs and restoration activities in semi-arid areas.


Assuntos
Populus , Carboidratos , Nitrogênio , Populus/genética , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal
4.
Talanta ; 235: 122792, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517650

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a widely used tool for the analysis of carbohydrates. However, the detection of carbohydrates by MALDI-TOF MS is often limited by the unsatisfactory ionization efficiency, instability and the matrix interference in low molecular weight region. Here, we demonstrate that a reactive matrix, 2-hydrazinoquinoline (2-HQ), can be used to detect neutral, sialic and low molecular weight carbohydrates sensitively both in the positive and negative ion mode. Since 2-HQ reacts efficiently with the reducing end of carbohydrate to form stable hydrazone, the ionization efficiency of derived carbohydrates is significantly enhanced. Using 2-HQ, the sensitivity for analyzing glycans has been improved 10-fold and 100-fold compared with those using 3-aminquinoline (3-AQ) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) as matrix, respectively. Moreover, quantitative analysis of neutral, acidic and low molecular weight carbohydrates has been achieved because of the good reproducibility by using 2-HQ as matrix. As a result, up to 50 glycans in a single sample spot of human fresh serum without any prior purification and enrichment have been successfully detected. Therefore, 2-HQ as a new reactive matrix has shown great potentials in widespread applications for sensitive, selective, quantitative, high speed and high throughput analysis of carbohydrates in complex samples by MALDI-TOF MS.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Polissacarídeos , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
5.
Tree Physiol ; 41(8): 1425-1438, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383074

RESUMO

Deciduous trees mostly rely on non-structural carbohydrates (NSC-soluble carbohydrates and starch) stored prior to dormancy to sustain both spring bloom and the initial phase of spring growth prior to the transition of leaves from sink to source. Winter management of NSC, their loss due to respiration, reallocation patterns and remobilization during spring, seems to be key to a timely and synchronous bloom. To assess tree dependence on NSC during dormancy, we tested whether the interruption of local branch NSC accumulation prior to dormancy by defoliation and the interruption of NSC translocation by phloem girdling influence spring phenology in three major deciduous Mediterranean nut crop species: Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A Webb, a hybrid between Pistacia integerrima (J. L. Stewart ex Brandis) and P. atlantica Desf. (referred to as P. integerrima), and Juglans regia L. Defoliation treatments had different effects on NSC concentration in different species depending on the time of application. However, despite the significant initial impact (increase or decrease of NSC concentration), with time this impact diminished resulting in overall similar concentrations between control and defoliated branches suggesting the presence of NSC reallocation during dormancy. Phloem girdling in P. dulcis and P. integerrima resulted in reduced export activity and greater NSC concentrations, while in J. regia girdling resulted in lower NSC concentrations, indicating that this species requires a net import of NSC during dormancy. Bud break was distinctly delayed by both defoliation and phloem girdling in all the three species, providing evidence of the significant roles that fall NSC accumulation and winter NSC management play in priming trees for spring growth resumption.


Assuntos
Açúcares , Árvores , Carboidratos , Nozes , Folhas de Planta , Estações do Ano
6.
J Microbiol ; 59(9): 827-839, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382149

RESUMO

Probiotics effectively prevent and improve metabolic diseases such as diabetes by regulating the intestinal microenvironment and gut microbiota. However, the effects of probiotics in gestational diabetes mellitus are not clear. Here, we showed that probiotic supplements significantly improved fasting blood glucose in a gestational diabetes mellitus rat model. To further understand the mechanisms of probiotics in gestational diabetes mellitus, the gut microbiota were analyzed via 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that compared with the normal pregnant group, the gestational diabetes mellitus rats had decreased diversity of gut microbiota. Moreover, probiotic supplementation restored the diversity of the gut microbiota in gestational diabetes mellitus rats, and the gut microbiota structure tended to be similar to that of normal pregnant rats. In particular, compared with gestational diabetes mellitus rats, the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was higher after probiotic supplementation. Furthermore, activating carbohydrate metabolism and membrane transport pathways may be involved in the potential mechanisms by which probiotic supplements alleviate gestational diabetes mellitus. Overall, our results suggested that probiotic supplementation might be a novel approach to restore the gut microbiota of gestational diabetes mellitus rats and provided an experimental evidence for the use of probiotic supplements to treat gestational diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 481-491, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425393

RESUMO

Tissue loss of plants caused by herbivores is very common in nature. As the storage and first photosynthetic organ, the loss of cotyledon severely impacts dicot seedling establishment and the subsequent growth. However, it is still not clear how plants adjust their metabolic strategy in response to cotyledon loss. In this study, we employed ICP-OES, GC and LC-MS to examine the effects of cotyledon removal (RC1: remove one cotyledon, RC2: remove two cotyledon) on mineral element distribution and metabolite changes in a traditional Chinese herbal plant, Astragalus membranaceus. The results showed that cotyledon removal had a greater effect on shoot than root growth. Specifically, RC2 revealed a more serious impact on shoot growth than RC1. Microelement Mn and Na in shoot increased more in RC2 than RC1. Macroelement K and microelement B in root increased in RC2. The metabolite results in shoot showed that sugars related to galactose metabolism reduced while amino acids significantly increased in RC2. In root, sugars related to fructose and mannose metabolism decreased in both RC1 and RC2 while most flavonoids increased in RC2. It can be concluded that cotyledon removal triggered different metabolic strategies in both root and shoot. In shoot, more Mn was absorbed to improve the lowered photosynthetic efficiency. Meanwhile, increased Na may have promoted carbohydrate consumption and amino acid synthesis, thereby maintaining shoot growth. In root, K and B participation in cell division and expansion increased, as well as the delivery and metabolism of carbohydrates, to maintain root system growth.


Assuntos
Cotilédone , Plântula , Astragalus propinquus , Carboidratos , Minerais , Raízes de Plantas
8.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 3762-3777, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337748

RESUMO

Cold plasma is formed by the nonthermal ionization of gas into free electrons, ions, reactive atomic and molecular species, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This cold plasma can be used to alter the surface of solid and liquid foods, and it offers multiple advantages over traditional thermal treatments, such as no thermal damage and increased output variation (due to the various input parameters gas, power, plasma type, etc.). Cold plasma appears to have limited impact on the sensory and color properties, at lower power and treatment times, but there has been a statistically significant reduction in pH for most of the cold plasma treatments reviewed (p < 0.05). Carbohydrates (cross linking and glycosylation), lipids (oxidation), and proteins (secondary structure) are more significantly impacted due to cold plasma at higher intensities and longer treatment times. Although cold plasma treatments and food matrices can vary considerably, this review has identified the literary evidence of some of the influences and impacts of the vast array of cold plasma treatment parameters on the biomolecular and organoleptic properties of these foods. Due to the rapidly evolving nature of the field, we have also identified that authors prioritize the presentation of different information when publishing from different research areas. Therefore, we have proposed a number of key physical and chemical cold plasma parameters that should be considered for inclusion in all future publications in the field.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Gases em Plasma , Carboidratos/química , Temperatura Baixa , Manipulação de Alimentos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensação
9.
Animal ; 15(9): 100347, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455154

RESUMO

Nutritional programming is a concept proposed to be applied in the field of fish nutrition to improve the use of new diets in aquaculture. This study aimed to investigate for the first time the effects of a glucose injection into the yolk at the alevin stage on intermediary metabolism and growth in adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at 32-37 weeks later in the life. The early stimulus was performed through direct microinjection of 2 M glucose into yolk sacs of Nile tilapia alevin. Subsequently, in adult tilapia, the long-term effects of glucose stimulus on growth performance, blood metabolites, chemical composition in the liver and muscle, expression of genes involved in glucose transport and metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) and related pathways (amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis) were investigated. Our results showed that, even though early glucose injection had no effect on growth performance in adult fish, very few significant effects on glucose metabolism were observed. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential metabolic programming after a dietary challenge, a 2 × 2 factorial design with two early stimuli (0.85% NaCl or 2 M glucose) and two different dietary carbohydrate intakes (medium-carbohydrate diet, CHO-M; high-carbohydrate diet, CHO-H) was performed between weeks 33 and 37. As expected, compared with the CHO-M diet, the CHO-H diet led to decreased growth performance, higher glyceamia and triglyceridemia, higher glycogen and lipid levels in the liver as well as down-regulation of gluconeogenesis and amino acid catabolism gene expressions. More interestingly, although early glucose injection had no significant effect on growth performance, it enhanced the capacities for lipogenesis, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, particularly in fish that were fed the CHO-H diet. Thus, the nutritional programming of tilapia linked to glucose injection into the yolk of alevins is always visible at the adult stage albeit less intense than what we previously observed in juvenile.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Animais , Carboidratos , Dieta/veterinária , Gluconeogênese , Glucose
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361604

RESUMO

A novel homogeneous polysaccharide named GEP-1 was isolated and purified from Gastrodia elata (G. elata) by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and membrane separator. GEP-1, which has a molecular weight of 20.1 kDa, contains a polysaccharide framework comprised of only glucose. Methylation and NMR analysis showed that GEP-1 contained 1,3,6-linked-α-Glcp, 1,4-linked-α-Glcp, 1,4-linked-ß-Glcp and 1,4,6-linked-α-Glcp. Interestingly, GEP-1 contained citric acid and repeating p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as one branch. Furthermore, a bioactivity test showed that GEP-1 could significantly promote the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei (L.paracasei) strains. These results implied that GEP-1 might be useful for human by modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Gastrodia/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Akkermansia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1622270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409099

RESUMO

This study investigates the antioxidant activities of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate extracts from the marine mollusk Perna canaliculus. Lipids were extracted using acetone, which was followed by protein extraction using the broad-spectrum enzyme Alcalase and then carbohydrate extraction using cetylpyridinium chloride. Eighty white BALB/c mice were divided into eight groups according to the administered extracts. Groups 1 and 5 were the control and toxin control groups, respectively. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were administered lipid, protein, and carbohydrate extracts, respectively. The other groups were administered P. canaliculus extracts as well as gentamicin and acetaminophen, known as ethanolic extracts, derived from Nerium oleander to induce oxidation stress. All groups showed significant improvements in body weight (p < 0.05). The lipid extract group showed a significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05). After the toxin injection, all groups treated with P. canaliculus extracts showed increased antioxidant effects on hepatocytes (p < 0.05). The lipid extracts induced antioxidant effects to protect the kidney by increasing lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05) and catalase activities (p < 0.05). Also, protein extracts showed antioxidant effects by increasing glutathione and catalase levels significantly (p < 0.005). In conclusion, P. canaliculus extracts, especially lipids and proteins, have potent antioxidant activities that protect vital organs from oxidation stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Perna (Organismo)/química , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Carboidratos/isolamento & purificação , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais , Nerium/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas/farmacologia
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378683

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Carboidratos
13.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(4): 332-342, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342954

RESUMO

Animals survive nutrient deficiency by controlling their physiology, such as sugar metabolism and energy-consuming developmental events. Although research on the insect neural mechanisms of the starvation-induced modulation has progressed, the mechanisms have not been fully understood due to their complexity. Myoinhibitory peptides are known to be neuropeptides involved in various physiological activities, development, and behavior. Here, we analyzed the responsiveness of Plautia stali myoinhibitory peptides (Plast-MIPs) to starvation and their physiological role in the brown-winged green bug, P. stali. First, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to investigate the response of Plast-MIP neurons in the cephalic ganglion to fasting under long day conditions. Fasting significantly enhanced the immunoreactivity to Plast-MIPs in the pars intercerebralis (PI), which is known to be a brain region related to various endocrine regulations. Next, to analyze the physiological role of Plast-MIPs, we performed RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Plast-Mip and injection of synthetic Plast-MIP in normally fed and fasted females. The knockdown of Plast-Mip did not have significant effects on the body weight or proportions of ovarian development in each feeding condition. On the other hand, the knockdown of Plast-Mip increased the gonadosomatic index of normally fed females whereas it did not have a significant effect on food intake. Notably, the knockdown of Plast-Mip diminished the fasting-induced reduction of hemolymph reducing sugar levels. Additionally, injection of synthetic Plast-MIP acutely decreased the hemolymph reducing sugar level. Our results suggested responsiveness of Plast-MIPs in the PI to fasting and their functional role in reduction of the hemolymph reducing sugar level.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Hemolinfa/química , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Feminino , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Interferência de RNA
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 361, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Priming of seed prior chilling is regarded as one of the methods to promote seeds germination, whole plant growth, and yield components. The application of biostimulants was reported as beneficial for protecting many plants from biotic or abiotic stresses. Their value was as important to be involved in improving the growth parameters of plants. Also, they were practiced in the regulation of various metabolic pathways to enhance acclimation and tolerance in coriander against chilling stress. To our knowledge, little is deciphered about the molecular mechanisms underpinning the ameliorative impact of biostimulants in the context of understanding the link and overlap between improved morphological characters, induced metabolic processes, and upregulated gene expression. In this study, the ameliorative effect(s) of potassium silicate, HA, and gamma radiation on acclimation of coriander to tolerate chilling stress was evaluated by integrating the data of growth, yield, physiological and molecular aspects. RESULTS: Plant growth, yield components, and metabolic activities were generally diminished in chilling-stressed coriander plants. On the other hand, levels of ABA and soluble sugars were increased. Alleviation treatment by humic acid, followed by silicate and gamma irradiation, has notably promoted plant growth parameters and yield components in chilling-stressed coriander plants. This improvement was concomitant with a significant increase in phytohormones, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrate contents, antioxidants defense system, and induction of large subunit of RuBisCO enzyme production. The assembly of Toc complex subunits was maintained, and even their expression was stimulated (especially Toc75 and Toc 34) upon alleviation of the chilling stress by applied biostimulators. Collectively, humic acid was the best the element to alleviate the adverse effects of chilling stress on growth and productivity of coriander. CONCLUSIONS: It could be suggested that the inducing effect of the pretreatments on hormonal balance triggered an increase in IAA + GA3/ABA hormonal ratio. This ratio could be linked and engaged with the protection of cellular metabolic activities from chilling injury against the whole plant life cycle. Therefore, it was speculated that seed priming in humic acid is a powerful technique that can benefit the chilled along with non-chilled plants and sustain the economic importance of coriander plant productivity.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Coriandrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/análise , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos da radiação , Coriandrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Coriandrum/efeitos da radiação , Enzimas/metabolismo , Raios gama , Substâncias Húmicas , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos de Potássio/química , Compostos de Potássio/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos da radiação
15.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1176: 338750, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399893

RESUMO

Developing a highly sensitive immunoassay for tumor biomarkers is particularly important in bioanalysis and early disease diagnosis. In this work, a simple one-pot solvothermal method was developed for controllable synthesis of well-dispersed PtCo alloyed nanodendrites (PtCo NDs) by using l-carnosine as the co-structure-directing agent. The PtCo NDs had a large specific surface area and provided abundant active sites available for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Based on the highly enhanced currents of the ORR, a novel label-free electrochemical immunosensor was fabricated for highly sensitive assay of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). The sensor showed a wide linear range of 0.1-200 U mL-1 and a low limit of detection (LOD) down to 0.0114 U mL-1 (S/N = 3), in turn exploring its application to diluted human serum samples with satisfactory results. This study provides a feasible platform for monitoring other tumor markers in clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Anticorpos Imobilizados , Carboidratos , Catálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Ouro , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Oxigênio
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149227, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332386

RESUMO

The production of carbohydrate-enriched biomass from waste streams as a sustainable biofuel precursor is a noteworthy endeavor. This study investigates the long-term microalgae cultivated under low domestic wastewater loads and different hydraulic retention times (HRT) in a semi-continuous photobioreactor. The influence of operational conditions, the microalgae interaction with carbon, nutrients availability, and microbial population in terms of carbohydrate content were elucidated. The results revealed that the operation at similar low nutrients and carbon loads maintained at three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 10, 8, and 6 days caused different patterns in nutrients uptake and biomass composition. Particularly, the carbohydrate accumulation was greatly influenced by the unbalance in the N:P ratios than complete depletion of the nutrients. Hence, during the period operated at HRT of 10 d, high nutrients removal efficiencies were observed while gradually increasing carbohydrate content up to 57% in dry cell weight (DCW). Afterward, the decrease to 8 and 6 d of HRT showed lower nutrient consumption with depleted alkalinity, reaching an appreciably high carbohydrate accumulation of up to 46%, and 56%, respectively. The biomass concentration decreased in the order of HRT of 10, 8, and 6 days. This study demonstrated that microalgae adapted to low carbon and nutrient loads could still accumulate high carbohydrate at shorter HRT using domestic wastewater as substrate.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fotobiorreatores
17.
Food Chem ; 365: 130442, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237569

RESUMO

We evaluated the use of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy for simultaneous in situ quantification of the nutritional composition of liquid food stuffs in the industrial kitchen context. Different methodologies were compared, including dry and wet acquisition along with instrument parameters and measurement times of 4 and 60 s. The most effective technique was 1-minute measurement, with prediction errors of 2.6, 0.7, 1.0, 2.2, 0.8, 2.4 g/100 mL and 150 Kcal, for carbohydrates, proteins, fat, sugars, saturated fat, water and energy values, respectively.The 4-second method resulted in larger errors but was more applicable for inline measurements. Dry measurements successfully predicted the fractions of proteins, fat, carbohydrates, and sugars, relative to total solids. An app was created to facilitate implementation in a kitchen environment. Compared with other techniques recommended by the FAO, the approach offered a simple alternative for simultaneous prediction of nutritional parameters in an industrial kitchen set-up.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Açúcares , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Proteínas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
J Med Chem ; 64(14): 10350-10370, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236855

RESUMO

NK1R antagonists, investigated for the treatment of several pathologies, have shown encouraging results in the treatment of several cancers. In the present study, we report on the synthesis of carbohydrate-based NK1R antagonists and their evaluation as anticancer agents against a wide range of cancer cells. All of the prepared compounds, derived from either d-galactose or l-arabinose, have shown high affinity and NK1R antagonistic activity with a broad-spectrum anticancer activity and an important selectivity, comparable to Cisplatin. This strategy has allowed us to identify the galactosyl derivative 14α, as an interesting hit exhibiting significant NK1R antagonist effect (kinact 0.209 ± 0.103 µM) and high binding affinity for NK1R (IC50 = 50.4 nM, Ki = 22.4 nM by measuring the displacement of [125I] SP from NK1R). Interestingly, this galactosyl derivative has shown marked selective cytotoxic activity against 12 different types of cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Carboidratos/síntese química , Carboidratos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cricetulus , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 28(5): 441-445, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269712

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the benefits of a partnership between patient advocacy organizations (PAO) and clinical researchers in order to clinically study the prior anecdotal patient experience of utilizing a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) to manage McArdle disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The bedside-to-bench and back again method of translational research is well suited to explore anecdotal patient experiences, particularly for rare diseases. In McArdle disease, patients have explored the use of a LCKD to address the ubiquitous occurrence of physical activity intolerance and minimize associated adverse events. The International Association for Muscle Glycogen Storage Disease harnessed the power of social media to better understand this patient-centric finding and has subsequently partnered with clinical researchers to convey patient-centered priorities for research. From this partnership, a series of clinical and survey studies have been initiated. SUMMARY: Collaboration between PAOs and clinical researchers has the potential to foster patient empowerment, advance anecdotal experiences into scientific hypotheses, and ultimately guide the development of management guidelines that reflect the patient perspective.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo V , Mídias Sociais , Carboidratos , Humanos , Doenças Raras
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(8): 5105-5116, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304303

RESUMO

Hindgut of wild ruminants harbours diversified anaerobic bacteria with promising fiber degrading ability. Fibrolytic enzyme activity is strongly influenced by diet and host species which till date remains unexplored for harnessing their optimum benefits. The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize fiber degrading anaerobic bacteria from faeces of wild blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) inhabiting in semiarid regions. A total of 167 isolates were obtained from 85 faecal samples using M-10 medium, on the basis of clear zones formed on Congo red plates 20 isolates were selected and designated as NLG1-20 for microscopic and biochemical characterization. Further, molecular confirmation was done by PCR analysis with universal 16S rDNA primers. All isolates were obligatory anaerobes except, NLG4, NLG19 and NLG20. Majority of the sugars tested were utilized by most of the isolates except arabinose. Fibrolytic enzyme activities revealed that NLG1 had highest endoglucanase activity, NLG13 had highest exoglucanase activity while NLG8 showed maximum xylanase activity. In case of FPase assay, highest and lowest values were observed in isolate NLG11 (8.96 U/mL) and NLG8 (5.58 U/mL), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates revealed a highly diverse group of microbes mainly belonging to the family Paenibacillaceae which have not been previously characterized in ruminants for fiber degradation. Therefore, results obtained in the present study indicated that the screened isolates showed promising fiber degrading potential in terms of filter paper assay and fibrolytic enzyme activity which can be explored further for improving lignocellulose digestibility in ruminants as an additive.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias , Fibras na Dieta , Animais , Carboidratos , Bovinos , Fezes , Masculino , Filogenia
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