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1.
Anal Chem ; 96(15): 5781-5789, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568106

RESUMO

The heart contracts incessantly and requires a constant supply of energy, utilizing numerous metabolic substrates, such as fatty acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, to supply its high energy demands. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of various metabolites is urgently needed for understanding cardiac metabolism; however, complete metabolome analyses remain challenging due to the broad range of metabolite polarities, which makes extraction and detection difficult. Herein, we implemented parallel metabolite extractions and high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods to obtain a comprehensive analysis of the human heart metabolome. To capture the diverse range of metabolite polarities, we first performed six parallel liquid-liquid extractions (three monophasic, two biphasic, and one triphasic) of healthy human donor heart tissue. Next, we utilized two complementary MS platforms for metabolite detection: direct-infusion ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (DI-FTICR) and high-resolution liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem MS (LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Using DI-FTICR MS, 9644 metabolic features were detected where 7156 were assigned a molecular formula and 1107 were annotated by accurate mass assignment. Using LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, 21,428 metabolic features were detected where 285 metabolites were identified based on fragmentation matching against publicly available libraries. Collectively, 1340 heart metabolites were identified in this study, which span a wide range of polarities including polar (benzenoids, carbohydrates, and nucleosides) as well as nonpolar (phosphatidylcholines, acylcarnitines, and fatty acids) compounds. The results from this study will provide critical knowledge regarding the selection of appropriate extraction and MS detection methods for the analysis of the diverse classes of human heart metabolites.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos , Metabolômica/métodos , Metaboloma , Ácidos Graxos , Carboidratos
2.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 170(3)2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568197

RESUMO

Cellvibrio japonicus is a saprophytic bacterium proficient at environmental polysaccharide degradation for carbon and energy acquisition. Genetic, enzymatic, and structural characterization of C. japonicus carbohydrate active enzymes, specifically those that degrade plant and animal-derived polysaccharides, demonstrated that this bacterium is a carbohydrate-bioconversion specialist. Structural analyses of these enzymes identified highly specialized carbohydrate binding modules that facilitate activity. Steady progress has been made in developing genetic tools for C. japonicus to better understand the function and regulation of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes it possesses, as well as to develop it as a biotechnology platform to produce renewable fuels and chemicals.


Assuntos
Cellvibrio , Animais , Biomassa , Cellvibrio/genética , Carboidratos , Polissacarídeos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8672, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622317

RESUMO

Extraction of lignin via green methods is a crucial step in promoting the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses. In the present study, utilisation of natural deep eutectic solvent for the pretreatment of kenaf fibres biomass is performed. Furthermore, extracted lignin from natural deep eutectic solvent pretreated kenaf biomass was carried out and its comparative study with commercial lignin was studied. The extracted lignin was characterized and investigated through Infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR Spectra shows that all samples have almost same set of absorption bands with slight difference in frequencies. CHNS analysis of natural deep eutectic solvent pretreated kenaf fibre showed a slight increase in carbon % from 42.36 to 43.17% and an increase in nitrogen % from - 0.0939 to - 0.1377%. Morphological analysis of commercial lignin shows irregular/uneven surfaces whereas natural deep eutectic solvent extracted lignin shows smooth and wavy surface. EDX analysis indicated noticeable peaks for oxygen and carbon elements which are present in lignocellulosic biomass. Thermal properties showed that lignin is constant at higher temperatures due to more branching and production of extremely condensed aromatic structures. In UV-VIS spectroscopy, commercial lignin shows slightly broad peak between 300 and 400 nm due to presence of carbonyl bond whereas, natural deep eutectic solvent extracted lignin does not show up any peak in this range. XRD results showed that the crystallinity index percentage for kenaf and natural deep eutectic solvent treated kenaf was 70.33 and 69.5% respectively. Therefore, these innovative solvents will undoubtedly have significant impact on the development of clean, green, and sustainable products for biocatalysts, extraction, electrochemistry, adsorption applications.


Assuntos
Hibiscus , Lignina , Lignina/química , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Solventes/química , Carbono , Hidrólise
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8259, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589560

RESUMO

Microalgae are widely exploited for numerous biotechnology applications, including biofuels. In this context, Chlamydomonas debaryana and Chlorococcum sp. were isolated from Fez freshwater (Morocco), and their growth and lipid and carbohydrate production were assessed at different concentrations of NaCl, NaNO3, and K2HPO4. The results indicate a small positive variation in growth parameters linked to nutrient enrichment, with no considerable variation in carbohydrate and lipid levels in both algae. Moreover, a negative variation was recorded at increased salinity and nutrient limitation, accompanied by lipid and carbohydrate accumulation. Chlorococcum sp. showed better adaptation to salt stress below 200 mM NaCl. Furthermore, its growth and biomass productivity were strongly reduced by nitrogen depletion, and its lipid production reached 47.64% DW at 3.52 mM NaNO3. As for Chlamydomonas debaryana, a substantial reduction in growth was induced by nutrient depletion, a maximal carbohydrate level was produced at less than 8.82 mM NaNO3 (40.59% DW). The effect of phosphorus was less significant. However, a concentration of 0.115 mM K2HPO4 increased lipid and carbohydrate content without compromising biomass productivity. The results suggest that growing the two Chlorophyceae under these conditions seems interesting for biofuel production, but the loss of biomass requires a more efficient strategy to maximize lipid and carbohydrate accumulation without loss of productivity.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Microalgas , Fósforo , Lipídeos/química , Salinidade , Nitrogênio , Marrocos , Cloreto de Sódio , Carboidratos , Água Doce , Biomassa , Biocombustíveis
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8261, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589622

RESUMO

In view of the health concerns associated with high sugar intake, this study investigates methods to enhance sweetness perception in chocolate without increasing its sugar content. Using additive manufacturing, chocolate structures were created from masses with varying sugar and fat compositions, where hazelnut oil served as a partial cocoa butter replacement. The study found that while variations in sugar content minimally affected the physical properties of the chocolate masses, hazelnut oil significantly modified melting behavior and consumption time. Chocolate masses with higher hazelnut oil content but similar sugar content exhibited a 24% increase in sweetness perception, likely due to accelerated tastant (i.e., sucrose) release into saliva. Multiphase structures, designated as layered, cube-in-cube, and sandwich structures, exhibited less sensory differences compared to the homogeneous control. Nonetheless, structures with hazelnut oil-rich outer layers resulted in an 11% increase in sweetness perception, even without sugar gradients. This suggests that tastant release plays a more critical role than structural complexity in modifying sweetness perception. This research highlights the efficacy of simpler multiphase structures, such as sandwich designs, which offer sensory enhancements comparable to those of more complex designs but with reduced manufacturing effort, thus providing viable options for industrial-scale production.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Cacau/química , Sacarose , Carboidratos , Nutrientes
6.
J Chem Phys ; 160(14)2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591687

RESUMO

The pervasive presence of nanoplastics (NPs) in the environment has gained increasing attention due to their accumulation in living organisms. These emerging contaminants inevitably interact with extracellular polymeric substances along respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts, and diverse organic coating on the surface of NPs, known as bio- or eco-corona, is formed. Although its impact on altering the NP properties and potential cell internalization has been extensively examined, studies on its role in NP partitioning in the cell membrane are elusive yet. In this work, molecular dynamics is used to investigate the formation of chitosan (CT) corona centered on a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) nanoparticle and the uptake of the resulting complex onto lipid membranes. Coarse-grained models compatible with the newly developed Martini 3.0 force field are implemented for the two polymers employing the atomistic properties as targets in the parameterization. The reliability of the coarse-grained polymer models is demonstrated by reproducing the structural properties of the PVC melt and of solvated CT strands, as well as by determining the conformation adopted by the latter at the NP surface. Results show that the spontaneous binding of CT chains of high and intermediate protonation degrees led to the formation of soft and hard corona that modulates the interaction of PVC core with model membranes. The structural changes of the corona adsorbed at the lipid-water interface enable a subsequent transfer of the NP to the center of the saturated lipid membranes and a complete or partial transition to a snorkel conformation depending on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance in the CT-PVC complex. Overall, the computational investigation of the coarse-grained model system provides implications for understanding how the eco-corona development influences the uptake and implicit toxicology of NPs.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas , Nanopartículas , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Cloreto de Polivinila , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Nanopartículas/química , Carboidratos
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2982, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582785

RESUMO

Paternal diet can influence the phenotype of the next generation, yet, the dietary components inducing specific responses in the offspring are not identified. Here, we use the Nutritional Geometry Framework to determine the effects of pre-conception paternal dietary macronutrient balance on offspring metabolic and behavioral traits in mice. Ten isocaloric diets varying in the relative proportion of protein, fats, and carbohydrates are fed to male mice prior to mating. Dams and offspring are fed standard chow and never exposed to treatment diets. Body fat in female offspring is positively associated with the paternal consumption of fat, while in male offspring, an anxiety-like phenotype is associated to paternal diets low in protein and high in carbohydrates. Our study uncovers that the nature and the magnitude of paternal effects are driven by interactions between macronutrient balance and energy intake and are not solely the result of over- or undernutrition.


Assuntos
Dieta , Pai , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrientes , Carboidratos , Gorduras na Dieta , Dieta Hiperlipídica
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 7765-7773, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556742

RESUMO

Climate change affects the content and composition of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, warming-induced changes in the SOC compounds remain unknown. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular mixing models, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we analyzed the variations and relationships in molecular compounds in Mollisol with 10-56 g C kg-1 soil-1 by translocating soils under six climate regimes. We found that increased temperature and precipitation were negatively correlated with carbohydrate versus lipid and lignin versus protein. The former was consistent across soils with varying SOC contents, but the latter decreased as the SOC content increased. The carbohydrate-lipid correlations were related to dithionite-citrate-extractable Fe, while the lignin-protein correlations were linked to changes in moisture and pyrophosphate-extractable Fe/Al. Our findings indicate that the reduction in the mineral protection of SOC is associated with molecular alterations in SOC under warming conditions.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Solo/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Lignina , Lipídeos , Carboidratos
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7896, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570571

RESUMO

Ornamental foliage plants that have a dense appearance are highly valued. One way to achieve this is by using plant growth regulators as a tool for plant growth management. In a greenhouse with a mist irrigation system, a study was conducted on dwarf schefflera, an ornamental foliage plant, which was exposed to foliar application of gibberellic acid and benzyladenine hormones. The hormones were sprayed on dwarf schefflera leaves at 0, 100, and 200 mg/l concentrations, at 15-day intervals in three stages. The experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design, with four replicates. The combination of gibberellic acid and benzyladenine at 200 mg/l concentration had a significant effect on leaf number, leaf area, and plant height. The treatment also resulted in the highest content of photosynthetic pigments. Furthermore, the highest soluble carbohydrate to reducing sugars ratio was observed in treatments of 100 and 200 mg/l benzyladenine, and 200 mg/l gibberellic acid + benzyladenine. Stepwise regression analysis showed that root volume was the first variable to enter the model, explaining 44% of variations. The next variable was root fresh weight, and the two-variable model explained 63% of variations in leaf number. The greatest positive effect on leaf number was related to root fresh weight (0.43), which had a positive correlation with leaf number (0.47). The results showed that 200 mg/l concentration of gibberellic acid and benzyladenine significantly improved morphological growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis, and reducing sugar and soluble carbohydrate contents in dwarf schefflera.


Assuntos
Benzilaminas , Giberelinas , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Benzilaminas/farmacologia , Plantas , Carboidratos/análise , Hormônios/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7918, 2024 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575633

RESUMO

Generalist species, which exploit a wide range of food resources, are expected to be able to combine available resources as to attain their specific macronutrient ratio (percentage of caloric intake of protein, lipids and carbohydrates). Among mammalian predators, the red fox Vulpes vulpes is a widespread, opportunistic forager: its diet has been largely studied, outlining wide variation according to geographic and climatic factors. We aimed to check if, throughout the species' European range, diets vary widely in macronutrient composition or foxes can combine complementary foods to gain the same nutrient intake. First, we assessed fox's intake target in the framework of nutritional geometry. Secondly, we aimed to highlight the effects of unbalanced diets on fox density, which was assumed as a proxy for Darwinian fitness, as assessed in five areas of the western Italian Alps. Unexpectedly, the target macronutrient ratio of the fox (52.4% protein-, 38.7% lipid- and 8.9% carbohydrate energy) was consistent with that of hypercarnivores, such as wolves and felids, except for carbohydrate intakes in urban and rural habitats. The inverse relation between density and the deviation of observed macronutrient ratios from the intake target suggests that fox capability of surviving in a wide range of habitats may not be exempt from fitness costs and that nutrient availability should be regarded among the biotic factors affecting animal abundance and distribution.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Raposas , Animais , Ecossistema , Carboidratos
11.
J Proteome Res ; 23(4): 1471-1487, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576391

RESUMO

In arthropods, hemolymph carries immune cells and solubilizes and transports nutrients, hormones, and other molecules that are involved in diverse physiological processes including immunity, metabolism, and reproduction. However, despite such physiological importance, little is known about its composition. We applied mass spectrometry-based label-free quantification approaches to study the proteome of hemolymph perfused from sugar-fed female and male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A total of 1403 proteins were identified, out of which 447 of them were predicted to be extracellular. In both sexes, almost half of these extracellular proteins were predicted to be involved in defense/immune response, and their relative abundances (based on their intensity-based absolute quantification, iBAQ) were 37.9 and 33.2%, respectively. Interestingly, among them, 102 serine proteases/serine protease-homologues were identified, with almost half of them containing CLIP regulatory domains. Moreover, proteins belonging to families classically described as chemoreceptors, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs), were also highly abundant in the hemolymph of both sexes. Our data provide a comprehensive catalogue of A. aegypti hemolymph basal protein content, revealing numerous unexplored targets for future research on mosquito physiology and disease transmission. It also provides a reference for future studies on the effect of blood meal and infection on hemolymph composition.


Assuntos
Aedes , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Aedes/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Proteômica , Carboidratos
12.
Planta ; 259(5): 113, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581452

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Carbohydrates are hydrolyzed by a family of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases. Here, we have summarized the roles of various plant defense glycosidases that possess different substrate specificities. We have also highlighted the open questions in this research field. Glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) are a family of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) that hydrolyze glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Compared to those of all other sequenced organisms, plant genomes contain a remarkable diversity of glycosidases. Plant glycosidases exhibit activities on various substrates and have been shown to play important roles during pathogen infections. Plant glycosidases from different GH families have been shown to act upon pathogen components, host cell walls, host apoplastic sugars, host secondary metabolites, and host N-glycans to mediate immunity against invading pathogens. We could classify the activities of these plant defense GHs under eleven different mechanisms through which they operate during pathogen infections. Here, we have provided comprehensive information on the catalytic activities, GH family classification, subcellular localization, domain structure, functional roles, and microbial strategies to regulate the activities of defense-related plant GHs. We have also emphasized the research gaps and potential investigations needed to advance this topic of research.


Assuntos
Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Polissacarídeos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Plantas/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612540

RESUMO

Carbohydrate-based surfactants are amphiphilic compounds containing hydrophilic moieties linked to hydrophobic aglycones. More specifically, carbohydrate esters are biosourced and biocompatible surfactants derived from inexpensive renewable raw materials (sugars and fatty acids). Their unique properties allow them to be used in various areas, such as the cosmetic, food, and medicine industries. These multi-applications have created a worldwide market for biobased surfactants and consequently expectations for their production. Biobased surfactants can be obtained from various processes, such as chemical synthesis or microorganism culture and surfactant purification. In accordance with the need for more sustainable and greener processes, the synthesis of these molecules by enzymatic pathways is an opportunity. This work presents a state-of-the-art lipase action mode, with a focus on the active sites of these proteins, and then on four essential parameters for optimizing the reaction: type of lipase, reaction medium, temperature, and ratio of substrates. Finally, this review discusses the latest trends and recent developments, showing the unlimited potential for optimization of such enzymatic syntheses.


Assuntos
Lipase , Tensoativos , Ésteres , Carboidratos , Catálise
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612667

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is characterized by low-grade inflammation, loss of articular cartilage, subchondral bone remodeling, synovitis, osteophyte formation, and pain. Strong, continuous pain may indicate the need for joint replacement in patients with end-stage OA, although postoperative pain (POP) of at least a two-month duration persists in 10-40% of patients with OA. STUDY PURPOSE: The inflammation observed in joint tissues is linked to pain caused by the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Since the biosynthesis of cytokines requires energy, their production is supported by extensive metabolic conversions of carbohydrates and fatty acids, which could lead to a disruption in cellular homeostasis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between POP development and disturbances in energy metabolic conversions, focusing on carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 26 healthy subjects and 50 patients with end-stage OA before joint replacement surgery. All implants were validated by orthopedic surgeons, and patients with OA demonstrated no inherent abnormalities to cause pain from other reasons than OA disease, such as malalignment, aseptic loosening, or excessive bleeding. Pain levels were assessed before surgery using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and neuropathic pain questionnaires, DN4 and PainDETECT. Functional activity was evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Three and six months after surgery, pain indices according to a VAS of 30 mm or higher were considered. Total RNA isolated from whole blood was analyzed using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) for the expression of genes related to carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism. Protein levels of the examined genes were measured using an ELISA in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We used qRT-PCR because it is the most sensitive and reliable method for gene expression analysis, while an ELISA was used to confirm our qRT-PCR results. KEY FINDINGS: Among the study cohort, 17 patients who reported POP demonstrated significantly higher (p < 0.05) expressions of the genes PKM2, LDH, SDH, UCP2, CPT1A, and ACLY compared to pain-free patients with KOA. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses confirmed the association between these gene expressions and pain development post-arthroplasty. A principle component analysis identified the prognostic values of ACLY, CPT1A, AMPK, SDHB, Caspase 3, and IL-1ß gene expressions for POP development in the examined subjects. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the disturbances in energy metabolism, as observed in the PBMCs of patients with end-stage KOA before arthroplasty, may contribute to POP development. An understanding of these metabolic processes could provide insights into the pathogenesis of KOA. Additionally, our findings can be used in a clinical setting to predict POP development in end-stage patients with KOA before arthroplasty.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Dor Pós-Operatória , Inflamação , Carboidratos , Citocinas , Ácidos Graxos
15.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613031

RESUMO

In diabetes, pancreatic ß-cells gradually lose their ability to secrete insulin with disease progression. ß-cell dysfunction is a contributing factor to diabetes severity. Recently, islet cell heterogeneity, exemplified by ß-cell dedifferentiation and identified in diabetic animals, has attracted attention as an underlying molecular mechanism of ß-cell dysfunction. Previously, we reported ß-cell dedifferentiation suppression by calorie restriction, not by reducing hyperglycemia using hypoglycemic agents (including sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors), in an obese diabetic mice model (db/db). Here, to explore further mechanisms of the effects of food intake on ß-cell function, db/db mice were fed either a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (db-HC) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (db-HF) using similar calorie restriction regimens. After one month of intervention, body weight reduced, and glucose intolerance improved to a similar extent in the db-HC and db-HF groups. However, ß-cell dedifferentiation did not improve in the db-HC group, and ß-cell mass compensatory increase occurred in this group. More prominent fat accumulation occurred in the db-HC group livers. The expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism, mainly regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, differed significantly between groups. In conclusion, the fat/carbohydrate ratio in food during calorie restriction in obese mice affected both liver lipid metabolism and ß-cell dedifferentiation.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Desdiferenciação Celular , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Fígado , Carboidratos , Obesidade
16.
Xenotransplantation ; 31(2): exen12855, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602029

RESUMO

Carbohydrate-antigens widely existed on glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids of all mammalian cells play a crucial role in self-defense and immunity. Xeno-reactive antibodies included in natural human sera play a protecting role in an acute phase-rejection of xenotransplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of an alteration of glycosylation-pattern, caused by human sialyltransferases such as hST3Gal II or hST6GalNAc IV, on human serum mediated cytotoxicity in pig kidney PK15 cells. From LDH cytotoxicity assay, cytotoxicity to human serum was significantly increased in hST3Gal II and hST6GalNAc IV-transfected PK15 cells, as compared to the control. In the hST6Gal I-carrying cells, the cytotoxicity to human serum was rather decreased. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis revealed that an alteration of pig glycosylation-pattern by hST3Gal II or hST6GalNAc IV influences on a binding of human IgM or IgG, respectively, in pig kidney cells, regardless of Gal antigen alteration. Finally, we found that hST6GalNAc IV contributed to increase of terminal disialylated tetrasaccharide structure, disialyl T antigen, as evidenced by increase of the MAL II lectin binding capacity in the hST6GalNAc IV-transfected PK15 cells, compared with control. Therefore, our results suggest that carbohydrate antigens, such as disialyl T antigen, newly synthesized by the ST3Gal II- and ST6GalNAc IV are potentially believed to be new xeno-reactive elements.


Assuntos
Sialiltransferases , beta-Galactosídeo alfa-2,3-Sialiltransferase , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Transplante Heterólogo , Sialiltransferases/genética , Sialiltransferases/química , Sialiltransferases/metabolismo , Antígenos Virais de Tumores , Carboidratos , Mamíferos/metabolismo
17.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114261, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609238

RESUMO

Our previous study indicated that whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) showed effective anti-fatigue properties, but its regulatory mechanism on recovery from exercise in mice is unclear. In the present study, we divided the mice into control, WP, and WPH groups and allowed them to rest for 1 h and 24 h after exercise, respectively. The changes in muscle metabolites of mice in the recovery period were investigated using metabolomics techniques. The results showed that the WPH group significantly up-regulated 94 muscle metabolites within 1 h of rest, which was 1.96 and 2.61 times more than the control and WP groups, respectively. In detail, significant decreases in TCA cycle intermediates, lipid metabolites, and carbohydrate metabolites were observed in the control group during exercise recovery. In contrast, administration with WP and WPH enriched more amino acid metabolites within 1 h of rest, which might provide a more comprehensive metabolic environment for muscle repair. Moreover, the WPH group remarkably stimulated the enhancement of lipid, carbohydrate, and vitamin metabolites in the recovery period which might provide raw materials and energy for anabolic reactions. The result of the western blot further demonstrated that WPH could promote muscle repair via activating the Sestrin2/Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling pathway within 1 h of rest. These findings deepen our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by WPH to promote muscle recovery and may serve as a reference for comprehensive assessments of protein supplements on exercise.


Assuntos
Hidrolisados de Proteína , Soro do Leite , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Músculos , Carboidratos , Lipídeos
18.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 227, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous observational investigations have indicated a potential association between relative dietary macronutrient intakes and atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF) risk. In this study, we employed Mendelian Randomization (MR) to evaluate the presence of causality and to elucidate the specific causal relationship. METHODS: We employed six, five, and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as instrumental variables for relative carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake, identified from a genome-wide association study that included 268,922 individuals of European descent. Furthermore, we acquired summary statistics for genome-wide association studies on AF from the FinnGen consortium, which involved 22,068 cases and 116,926 controls. To evaluate the causal estimates, we utilized the random effect inverse variance weighted method (IVW) and several other MR methods, including MR-Egger, weighted median, and MR-PRESSO, to confirm the robustness of our findings. RESULTS: Our analysis indicates a convincing causal relationship between genetically predicted relative carbohydrate and protein intake and reduced AF risk. Inverse variance weighted analysis results for carbohydrates (OR = 0.29; 95% CI (0.14, 0.59); P < 0.001) and protein (OR = 0.47; 95% CI (0.26, 0.85); P = 0.01) support this association. Our MR analysis did not identify a significant causal relationship between relative fat intake and AF risk. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence supporting a causal relationship between higher relative protein and carbohydrate intake and a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Ingestão de Alimentos , Carboidratos
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 399: 130642, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561154

RESUMO

Aqueous galactose solutions containing eggshell was heated at 120 °C to produce calcium supplements containing rare sugars. Galactose was isomerized to rare sugars with improving rare sugar yields compared to those without eggshell. Organic acids were also formed as byproducts during the reaction. These acids were neutralized by dissolving eggshells with increasing the calcium ion concentration in the solution. When eggshell components (calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, or calcium phosphate) were used for the treatment, rare sugars were also formed. Especially, addition of magnesium carbonate improved rare sugar yield, but byproduct formation became more pronounced. Eggshells used in the treatment were used for repeated treatments. When eggshells were used three times, rare sugar yield changed only slightly but the selectivity of rare sugars improved significantly. By these processes, we obtained an aqueous solution of rare sugars containing calcium ion at 295 mg/L, which has potential as ingredients for dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Magnésio , Açúcares , Animais , Galactose , Casca de Ovo , Carboidratos , Água
20.
Cryo Letters ; 45(2): 69-87, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557986

RESUMO

Despite the routine use of cryopreservation for the storage of biological materials, its outcomes are often sub-optimal (including reduced post-thaw viability, recovery, and functionality) due to the damage caused by uncontrolled ice growth. Traditional cryoprotective agents (CPAs), including dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), fail to prevent damage caused by ice growth and concerns over CPA cytotoxicity have fostered an increased interest in developing improved CPAs and cryoprotection strategies. The inhibition of ice recrystallization by natural antifreeze (glyco)proteins [AF(G)Ps] to improve cryopreservation outcomes has been examined; however, the ice binding properties of these substances and their challenging large-scale production make them poor CPA candidates. Therefore, the development and deployment of biocompatible, small-molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) for use as CPAs is a worthwhile objective. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies on AF(G)Ps revealed that simple carbohydrate derivatives could inhibit ice recrystallization. It was later discovered that this activity could be fine-tuned by delicately balancing the molecule's hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. Current generation small-molecule IRIs have been meticulously designed to avoid binding to the surface of ice and subsequent biological testing (for both cytotoxicity and cryopreservation efficacy) has demonstrated significant improvements to the cryopreservation outcomes of several cell types. However, an individualized cell-specific approach for the simultaneous assessment of multiple cryopreservation outcomes is necessary to realize the full potential of IRIs as CPAs. This article provides a detailed overview of the development of small-molecule carbohydrate-based IRIs and highlights the crucial cell-specific biological considerations that must be taken into account when assessing cryopreservation outcomes. https://doi.org/10.54680/fr24210110112.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Gelo , Sobrevivência Celular , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Crioprotetores/química , Carboidratos , Iris
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