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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502454

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a global threat that has spread since the end of 2019, causing severe clinical sequelae and deaths, in the context of a world pandemic. The infection of the highly pathogenetic and infectious SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has been proven to exert systemic effects impacting the metabolism. Yet, the metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology and progression of COVID-19 are still unclear. Here, we present the results of a mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic analysis on a cohort of 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, classified according to disease severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Our analysis defines a clear signature of COVID-19 that includes increased serum levels of lactic acid in all the forms of the disease. Pathway analysis revealed dysregulation of energy production and amino acid metabolism. Globally, the variations found in the serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect a more complex systemic perturbation induced by SARS-CoV-2, possibly affecting carbon and nitrogen liver metabolism.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Carbono/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361594

RESUMO

Carbon is the crucial source of energy during aerobic composting. There are few studies that explore carbon preservation by inoculation with microbial agents during goat manure composting. Hence, this study inoculated three proportions of microbial agents to investigate the preservation of carbon during goat manure composting. The microbial inoculums were composed of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, and yeast, and the proportions were B1 treatment (1:1:1:1:2), B2 treatment (2:2:1:1:2), and B3 treatment (3:3:1:1:2). The results showed that the contents of total organic carbon were enriched by 12.21%, 4.87%, and 1.90% in B1 treatment, B2 treatment, and B3 treatment, respectively. The total organic carbon contents of B1 treatment, B2 treatment, and B3 treatment were 402.00 ± 2.65, 366.33 ± 1.53, and 378.33 ± 2.08 g/kg, respectively. B1 treatment significantly increased the content of total organic carbon compared with the other two treatments (p < 0.05). Moreover, the ratio of 1:1:1:1:2 significantly reduced the moisture content, pH value, EC value, hemicellulose, and lignin contents (p < 0.05), and significantly increased the GI value and the content of humic acid carbon (p < 0.05). Consequently, the preservation of carbon might be a result not only of the enrichment of the humic acid carbon and the decomposition of hemicellulose and lignin, but also the increased OTU amount and Lactobacillus abundance. This result provided a ratio of microbial agents to preserve the carbon during goat manure aerobic composting.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos , Esterco/microbiologia , Animais , Cabras , Substâncias Húmicas
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4948, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400630

RESUMO

Since the middle of the past century, the Western Antarctic Peninsula has warmed rapidly with a significant loss of sea ice but the impacts on plankton biodiversity and carbon cycling remain an open question. Here, using a 5-year dataset of eukaryotic plankton DNA metabarcoding, we assess changes in biodiversity and net community production in this region. Our results show that sea-ice extent is a dominant factor influencing eukaryotic plankton community composition, biodiversity, and net community production. Species richness and evenness decline with an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). In regions with low SST and shallow mixed layers, the community was dominated by a diverse assemblage of diatoms and dinoflagellates. Conversely, less diverse plankton assemblages were observed in waters with higher SST and/or deep mixed layers when sea ice extent was lower. A genetic programming machine-learning model explained up to 80% of the net community production variability at the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Among the biological explanatory variables, the sea-ice environment associated plankton assemblage is the best predictor of net community production. We conclude that eukaryotic plankton diversity and carbon cycling at the Western Antarctic Peninsula are strongly linked to sea-ice conditions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ciclo do Carbono , Camada de Gelo , Plâncton/fisiologia , Regiões Antárticas , Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Eucariotos , Microbiota , Plâncton/genética , Temperatura
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 222: 112259, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274827

RESUMO

Zostera marina, a widespread seagrass, evolved from a freshwater ancestor of terrestrial monocots and successfully transitioned into a completely submerged seagrass. We found that its oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) was partially inactivated in response to light exposure, as evidenced by both the increment of the relative variable fluorescence at the K-step and the downregulation of the OEC genes and proteins. This photosynthetic regulation was further addressed at both proteome and physiology levels by an in vivo study. The unchanged content of the ΔpH sensor PsbS protein and the non-photochemical quenching induction dynamics, described by a single exponential function, verified the absence of the fast qE component. Contents and activities of chlororespiration, Mehler reaction, malic acid synthesis, and photorespiration key enzymes were not upregulated, suggesting that alternative electron flows remained unactivated. Furthermore, neither significant production of singlet oxygen nor increment of total antioxidative capacity indicated that reactive oxygen species were not produced during light exposure. In summary, these low electron consumptions may allow Z. marina to efficiently use the limited electrons caused by partial OEC photoinactivation to maintain a normal carbon assimilation level.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Zosteraceae/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Metabolismo Energético , Luz , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteoma/análise , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298902

RESUMO

One-carbon (1C) metabolism plays a key role in biological functions linked to the folate cycle. These include nucleotide synthesis; the methylation of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the methionine cycle; and transsulfuration to maintain the redox condition of cancer stem cells in the tumor microenvironment. Recent studies have indicated that small therapeutic compounds affect the mitochondrial folate cycle, epitranscriptome (RNA methylation), and reactive oxygen species reactions in cancer cells. The epitranscriptome controls cellular biochemical reactions, but is also a platform for cell-to-cell interaction and cell transformation. We present an update of recent advances in the study of 1C metabolism related to cancer and demonstrate the areas where further research is needed. We also discuss approaches to therapeutic drug discovery using animal models and propose further steps toward developing precision cancer medicine.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Humanos , Metilação , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2314: 595-609, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235672

RESUMO

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is the mainstay of tuberculosis drug development programs. In this chapter, we describe methods for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis growing in liquid media as a function of carbon source, detergent, and environmental stress imposed by acidic pH as well as reactive nitrogen intermediates. Methods for determining the effect of bovine serum albumin in the growth medium on antimicrobial susceptibility are also described. Finally, we provide a method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing on agar medium.


Assuntos
Ágar/química , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Carbono/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207153

RESUMO

Aerobic denitrification is considered as a promising biological method to eliminate the nitrate contaminants in waterbodies. However, the molecular mechanism of this process varies in different functional bacteria. In this study, the nitrogen removal characteristics for a newly isolated aerobic denitrifier Bacillus subtilis JD-014 were investigated, and the potential functional genes involved in the aerobic denitrification process were further screened through transcriptome analysis. JD-014 exhibited efficient denitrification performance when having sodium succinate as the carbon source with the range of nitrate concentration between 50 and 300 mg/L. Following the transcriptome data, most of the up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with cell motility, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy metabolism. Moreover, gene nirsir annotated as sulfite reductase was screened out and further identified as a regulator participating in the nitrogen removal process within JD-014. The findings in present study provide meaningful information in terms of a comprehensive understanding of genetic regulation of nitrogen metabolism, especially for Bacillus strains.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4119, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226558

RESUMO

Northern peatlands are experiencing more frequent and severe fire events as a result of changing climate conditions. Recent studies show that such a fire-regime change imposes a direct climate-warming impact by emitting large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. However, the fires also convert parts of the burnt biomass into pyrogenic carbon. Here, we show a potential climate-cooling impact induced by fire-derived pyrogenic carbon in laboratory incubations. We found that the accumulation of pyrogenic carbon reduced post-fire methane production from warm (32 °C) incubated peatland soils by 13-24%. The redox-cycling, capacitive, and conductive electron transfer mechanisms in pyrogenic carbon functioned as an electron snorkel, which facilitated extracellular electron transfer and stimulated soil alternative microbial respiration to suppress methane production. Our results highlight an important, but overlooked, function of pyrogenic carbon in neutralizing forest fire emissions and call for its consideration in the global carbon budget estimation.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Elétrons , Metano/biossíntese , Incêndios Florestais , Bactérias , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono , Clima , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Incêndios , Geobacter , Laboratórios , Solo
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4403, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285238

RESUMO

Sulfur cycling is ubiquitous in sedimentary environments, where it mediates organic carbon remineralization, impacting both local and global redox budgets, and leaving an imprint in pyrite sulfur isotope ratios (δ34Spyr). It is unclear to what extent stratigraphic δ34Spyr variations reflect local aspects of the depositional environment or microbial activity versus global sulfur-cycle variations. Here, we couple carbon-nitrogen-sulfur concentrations and stable isotopes to identify clear influences on δ34Spyr of local environmental changes along the Peru margin. Stratigraphically coherent glacial-interglacial δ34Spyr fluctuations (>30‰) were mediated by Oxygen Minimum Zone intensification/expansion and local enhancement of organic matter deposition. The higher resulting microbial sulfate reduction rates led to more effective drawdown and 34S-enrichment of residual porewater sulfate and sulfide produced from it, some of which is preserved in pyrite. We identify organic carbon loading as a major influence on δ34Spyr, adding to the growing body of evidence highlighting the local controls on these records.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Geografia , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ferro/química , Oxirredução , Peru , Sulfetos/química , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 85-92, July. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) can synthesize functionally diverse bioactive peptides by incorporating nonproteinogenic amino acids, offering a rich source of new drug leads. The bacterium Escherichia coli is a well-characterized production host and a promising candidate for the synthesis of nonribosomal peptides, but only limited bioprocess engineering has been reported for such molecules. We therefore developed a medium and optimized process parameters using the design of experiments (DoE) approach. RESULTS: We found that glycerol is not suitable as a carbon source for rhabdopeptide production, at least for the NRPS used for this study. Alternative carbon sources from the tricarboxylic acid cycle achieved much higher yields. DoE was used to optimize the pH and temperature in a stirred-tank reactor, revealing that optimal growth and optimal production required substantially different conditions. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a chemically defined adapted M9 medium matching the performance of complex medium (lysogeny broth) in terms of product concentration. The maximum yield in the reactor under optimized conditions was 126 mg L-1, representing a 31-fold increase compared to the first shaking-flask experiments with M9 medium and glycerol as the carbon source. Conditions that promoted cell growth tended to inhibit NRPS productivity. The challenge was therefore to find a compromise between these factors as the basis for further process development.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli , Temperatura , Biotecnologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Bioengenharia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
11.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(9): 1709-1722, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129077

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Transcriptome analysis revealed the potential mechanism of nitrogen regulating steviol glycosides synthesis via shifting of leaf carbon metabolic flux or inducing certain transcription factors. Nitrogen (N) plays key regulatory roles in both stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) growth and the synthesis of its functional metabolite steviol glycosides (SGs), but the mechanism by which this nutrient regulates SGs synthesis remains to be elucidated. To address this question, a pot experiment was performed in a greenhouse where stevia plants fertilized with N (the control as CK plants) and compared with plants without the supply of N. Physiological and biochemical analyses were conducted to test the growth and metabolic responses of plants to N regimes. Our results showed that N deficiency significantly inhibited plant growth and leaf photosynthesis, while increased leaf SGs contents in stevia (49.97, 46.64 and 84.80% respectively for rebaudioside A, stevioside, and rebaudioside C), which may be partly due to "concentration effect". Then, transcriptome analysis was conducted to understand the underlying mechanisms. A total of 535 differentially expressed genes were identified, and carbon metabolism-related events were highlighted by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Many of these genes were significantly upregulated by N-deficiency, including those involved in "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", "flavonoid biosynthesis" and "starch and sucrose metabolism". Our study also analyzed the expression patterns of SGs synthesis-related genes under two N regimes and the potential transcription factors linking N nutrition and SG metabolism. N-deficiency may promote SGs synthesis by changing the carbon metabolism flux or inducing certain transcription factors. Our results provide deeper insight into the relationship between N nutrition and SGs synthesis in stevia plants.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Stevia/genética , Stevia/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Stevia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 172: 201-212, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129926

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Mechanistically, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are reported to be etiological factors for many of the DS-related comorbidities and have previously been reported in a number of in vitro and in vivo models of DS. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction in fibroblast cells obtained via skin biopsy from individuals with DS, and to assess the impact of trisomy 21 on central carbon metabolism. Using extracellular flux assays in matched dermal fibroblasts from euploid and DS individuals, we found that basal mitochondrial dysfunction is quite mild. Stressing the cells with a cocktail of mitochondrial stressors revealed a significant mitochondrial deficit in DS cells compared to euploid controls. Evaluation of extracellular acidification rate did not reveal a baseline abnormality in glycolysis; however, metabolomic assessments utilizing isotopically labeled glucose and glutamine revealed altered central carbon metabolism in DS cells. Specifically, we observed greater glucose dependency, uptake and flux into the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway in DS fibroblasts. Furthermore, using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) we found that mitochondrial function in DS iPSCs was similar to the previously published studies employing fetal cells. Together, these data indicate that aberrant central carbon metabolism is a candidate mechanism for stress-related mitochondrial dysfunction in DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Carbono/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Síndrome de Down/genética , Síndrome de Down/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3486, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108489

RESUMO

The metabolome represents a complex network of biological events that reflects the physiologic state of the organism in health and disease. Additionally, specific metabolites and metabolic signaling pathways have been shown to modulate animal ageing, but whether there are convergent mechanisms uniting these processes remains elusive. Here, we used high resolution mass spectrometry to obtain the metabolomic profiles of canonical longevity pathways in C. elegans to identify metabolites regulating life span. By leveraging the metabolomic profiles across pathways, we found that one carbon metabolism and the folate cycle are pervasively regulated in common. We observed similar changes in long-lived mouse models of reduced insulin/IGF signaling. Genetic manipulation of pathway enzymes and supplementation with one carbon metabolites in C. elegans reveal that regulation of the folate cycle represents a shared causal mechanism of longevity and proteoprotection. Such interventions impact the methionine cycle, and reveal methionine restriction as an underlying mechanism. This comparative approach reveals key metabolic nodes to enhance healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Insulina/metabolismo , Longevidade/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metaboloma , Metionina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Timidilato Sintase/metabolismo
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(11): 6399-6419, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096591

RESUMO

sRNAs are a taxonomically-restricted but transcriptomically-abundant class of post-transcriptional regulators. While of major importance for adaption to the environment, we currently lack global-scale methodology enabling target identification, especially in species without known RNA hub proteins (e.g. Hfq). Using psoralen RNA cross-linking and Illumina-sequencing we identify RNA-RNA interacting pairs in vivo in Bacillus subtilis, resolving previously well-described interactants. Although sRNA-sRNA pairings are rare (compared with sRNA-mRNA), we identify a robust example involving the conserved sRNA RoxS and an unstudied sRNA RosA (Regulator of sRNA A). We show RosA to be the first confirmed RNA sponge described in a Gram-positive bacterium. RosA interacts with at least two sRNAs, RoxS and FsrA. The RosA/RoxS interaction not only affects the levels of RoxS but also its processing and regulatory activity. We also found that the transcription of RosA is repressed by CcpA, the key regulator of carbon-metabolism in B. subtilis. Since RoxS is already known to be transcriptionally controlled by malate via the transcriptional repressor Rex, its post-transcriptional regulation by CcpA via RosA places RoxS in a key position to control central metabolism in response to varying carbon sources.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Aptidão Genética , Proteoma , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/biossíntese , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 287, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) plays an important role in the primary metabolism of higher plants. Several studies have revealed the critical importance of PEPC in the interaction of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. However, the function mechanism of PEPC in nitrogen metabolism is unclear and needs further investigation. RESULTS: This study indicates that transgenic rice expressing the sugarcane C4-PEPC gene displayed shorter primary roots and fewer crown roots at the seedling stage. However, total nitrogen content was significantly higher in transgenic rice than in wild type (WT) plants. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were more differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) responding to nitrogen changes in transgenic rice. In particular, the most enriched pathway "glutathione (GSH) metabolism", which mainly contains GSH S-transferase (GST), was identified in transgenic rice. The expression of endogenous PEPC, GST and several genes involved in the TCA cycle, glycolysis and nitrogen assimilation changed in transgenic rice. Correspondingly, the activity of enzymes including GST, citrate synthase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase significantly changed. In addition, the levels of organic acids in the TCA cycle and carbohydrates including sucrose, starch and soluble sugar altered in transgenic rice under different nitrogen source concentrations. GSH that the substrate of GST and its components including glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine accumulated in transgenic rice. Moreover, the levels of phytohormones including indoleacetic acid (IAA), zeatin (ZT) and isopentenyladenosine (2ip) were lower in the roots of transgenic rice under total nutrients. Taken together, the phenotype, physiological and biochemical characteristics of transgenic rice expressing C4-PEPC were different from WT under different nitrogen levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the possibility that PEPC affects nitrogen metabolism through regulating GST, which provide a new direction and concepts for the further study of the PEPC functional mechanism in nitrogen metabolism.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Saccharum/enzimologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteômica , Saccharum/genética , Transcriptoma
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3912, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162838

RESUMO

Biological lignin valorization has emerged as a major solution for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. However, current biorefineries yield lignin with inadequate fractionation for bioconversion, yet substantial changes of these biorefinery designs to focus on lignin could jeopardize carbohydrate efficiency and increase capital costs. We resolve the dilemma by designing 'plug-in processes of lignin' with the integration of leading pretreatment technologies. Substantial improvement of lignin bioconversion and synergistic enhancement of carbohydrate processing are achieved by solubilizing lignin via lowering molecular weight and increasing hydrophilic groups, addressing the dilemma of lignin- or carbohydrate-first scenarios. The plug-in processes of lignin could enable minimum polyhydroxyalkanoate selling price at as low as $6.18/kg. The results highlight the potential to achieve commercial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates as a co-product of cellulosic ethanol. Here, we show that the plug-in processes of lignin could transform biorefinery design toward sustainability by promoting carbon efficiency and optimizing the total capital cost.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/metabolismo , Bioengenharia/economia , Bioengenharia/métodos , Carboidratos/química , Hidrólise , Microbiologia Industrial/economia , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3875, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162891

RESUMO

The conservation of ecosystems and their biodiversity has numerous co-benefits, both for local societies and for humankind worldwide. While the co-benefit of climate change mitigation through so called blue carbon storage in coastal ecosystems has raised increasing interest in mangroves, the relevance of multifaceted biodiversity as a driver of carbon storage remains unclear. Sediment salinity, taxonomic diversity, functional diversity and functional distinctiveness together explain 69%, 69%, 27% and 61% of the variation in above- and belowground plant biomass carbon, sediment organic carbon and total ecosystem carbon storage, respectively, in the Sundarbans Reserved Forest. Functional distinctiveness had the strongest explanatory power for carbon storage, indicating that blue carbon in mangroves is driven by the functional composition of diverse tree assemblages. Protecting and restoring mangrove biodiversity with site-specific dominant species and other species of contrasting functional traits would have the co-benefit of maximizing their capacity for climate change mitigation through increased carbon storage.


Assuntos
Avicennia/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Sequestro de Carbono , Carbono/metabolismo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Algoritmos , Avicennia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Modelos Teóricos
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 274, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a specific, coordinated interaction that results in the formation of a root nodule, where biological nitrogen fixation occurs. NADPH oxidases, or Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs) in plants, are enzymes that generate superoxide (O2 •-). Superoxide produces other reactive oxygen species (ROS); these ROS regulate different stages of mutualistic interactions. For example, changes in ROS levels are thought to induce ROS scavenging, cell wall remodeling, and changes in phytohormone homeostasis during symbiotic interactions. In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), PvRbohB plays a key role in the early stages of nodulation. RESULTS: In this study, to explore the role of PvRbohB in root nodule symbiosis, we analyzed transcriptomic data from the roots of common bean under control conditions (transgenic roots without construction) and roots with downregulated expression of PvRbohB (by RNA interference) non-inoculated and inoculated with R. tropici. Our results suggest that ROS produced by PvRBOHB play a central role in infection thread formation and nodule organogenesis through crosstalk with flavonoids, carbon metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin during the early stages of this process. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important insight into the multiple roles of ROS in regulating rhizobia-legume symbiosis.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Phaseolus/enzimologia , Nodulação , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rhizobium/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071182

RESUMO

Metformin is the first-line treatment for many people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to maintain glycaemic control. Recent evidence suggests metformin can cross the placenta during pregnancy, thereby exposing the fetus to high concentrations of metformin and potentially restricting placental and fetal growth. Offspring exposed to metformin during gestation are at increased risk of being born small for gestational age (SGA) and show signs of 'catch up' growth and obesity during childhood which increases their risk of future cardiometabolic diseases. The mechanisms by which metformin impacts on the fetal growth and long-term health of the offspring remain to be established. Metformin is associated with maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and antifolate like activity. Vitamin B12 and folate balance is vital for one carbon metabolism, which is essential for DNA methylation and purine/pyrimidine synthesis of nucleic acids. Folate:vitamin B12 imbalance induced by metformin may lead to genomic instability and aberrant gene expression, thus promoting fetal programming. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration may also be affected, thereby inhibiting placental and fetal growth, and suppressing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity for cellular nutrient transport. Vitamin supplementation, before or during metformin treatment in pregnancy, could be a promising strategy to improve maternal vitamin B12 and folate levels and reduce the incidence of SGA births and childhood obesity. Heterogeneous diagnostic and screening criteria for GDM and the transient nature of nutrient biomarkers have led to inconsistencies in clinical study designs to investigate the effects of metformin on folate:vitamin B12 balance and child development. As rates of diabetes in pregnancy continue to escalate, more women are likely to be prescribed metformin; thus, it is of paramount importance to improve our understanding of metformin's transgenerational effects to develop prophylactic strategies for the prevention of adverse fetal outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Metformina/metabolismo , Gravidez em Diabéticas/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Feto , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Humanos , Metformina/farmacologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez em Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina B 12/farmacologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3381, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099669

RESUMO

Nutrient amendment diminished bacterial functional diversity, consolidating carbon flow through fewer bacterial taxa. Here, we show strong differences in the bacterial taxa responsible for respiration from four ecosystems, indicating the potential for taxon-specific control over soil carbon cycling. Trends in functional diversity, defined as the richness of bacteria contributing to carbon flux and their equitability of carbon use, paralleled trends in taxonomic diversity although functional diversity was lower overall. Among genera common to all ecosystems, Bradyrhizobium, the Acidobacteria genus RB41, and Streptomyces together composed 45-57% of carbon flow through bacterial productivity and respiration. Bacteria that utilized the most carbon amendment (glucose) were also those that utilized the most native soil carbon, suggesting that the behavior of key soil taxa may influence carbon balance. Mapping carbon flow through different microbial taxa as demonstrated here is crucial in developing taxon-sensitive soil carbon models that may reduce the uncertainty in climate change projections.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Mudança Climática , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Acidobacteria/genética , Acidobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Acidobacteria/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Bradyrhizobium/genética , Bradyrhizobium/isolamento & purificação , Bradyrhizobium/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Previsões/métodos , Fósforo/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Streptomyces/metabolismo
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