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1.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 101, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are cost-effective carbon sources for an affordable production of lipids. Hexanoic acid, the acid with the longest carbon chain in the SCFAs pool, is produced in anaerobic fermentation of organic residues and its use is very challenging, even inhibiting oleaginous yeasts growth. RESULTS: In this investigation, an adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was performed to improve Yarrowia lipolytica ACA DC 50109 tolerance to high hexanoic acid concentrations. Following ALE, the transcriptomic analysis revealed several genetic adaptations that improved the assimilation of this carbon source in the evolved strain compared to the wild type (WT). Indeed, the evolved strain presented a high expression of the up-regulated gene YALI0 E16016g, which codes for FAT1 and is related to lipid droplets formation and responsible for mobilizing long-chain acids within the cell. Strikingly, acetic acid and other carbohydrate transporters were over-expressed in the WT strain. CONCLUSIONS: A more tolerant yeast strain able to attain higher lipid content under the presence of high concentrations of hexanoic acid has been obtained. Results provided novel information regarding the assimilation of hexanoic acid in yeasts.


Assuntos
Yarrowia , Fermentação , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Caproatos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Carbono/metabolismo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2318160121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598339

RESUMO

Organic carbon availability in soil is crucial for shaping microbial communities, yet, uncertainties persist concerning microbial adaptations to carbon levels and the ensuing ecological and evolutionary consequences. We investigated organic carbon metabolism, antibiotic resistance, and virus-host interactions in soils subjected to 40 y of chemical and organic fertilization that led to contrasting carbon availability: carbon-poor and carbon-rich soils, respectively. Carbon-poor soils drove the enrichment of putative genes involved in organic matter decomposition and exhibited specialization in utilizing complex organic compounds, reflecting scramble competition. This specialization confers a competitive advantage of microbial communities in carbon-poor soils but reduces their buffering capacity in terms of organic carbon metabolisms, making them more vulnerable to environmental fluctuations. Additionally, in carbon-poor soils, viral auxiliary metabolic genes linked to organic carbon metabolism increased host competitiveness and environmental adaptability through a strategy akin to "piggyback the winner." Furthermore, putative antibiotic resistance genes, particularly in low-abundance drug categories, were enriched in carbon-poor soils as an evolutionary consequence of chemical warfare (i.e., interference competition). This raises concerns about the potential dissemination of antibiotic resistance from conventional agriculture that relies on chemical-only fertilization. Consequently, carbon starvation resulting from long-term chemical-only fertilization increases microbial adaptations to competition, underscoring the importance of implementing sustainable agricultural practices to mitigate the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance and to increase soil carbon storage.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Solo/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 68, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trophic strategy is one key principle to categorize microbial lifestyles, by broadly classifying microorganisms based on the combination of their preferred carbon sources, electron sources, and electron sinks. Recently, a novel trophic strategy, i.e., chemoorganoautotrophy-the utilization of organic carbon as energy source but inorganic carbon as sole carbon source-has been specifically proposed for anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME-1) and Bathyarchaeota subgroup 8 (Bathy-8). RESULTS: To further explore chemoorganoautotrophy, we employed stable isotope probing (SIP) of nucleic acids (rRNA or DNA) using unlabeled organic carbon and 13C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), i.e., inverse stable isotope labeling, in combination with metagenomics. We found that ANME-1 archaea actively incorporated 13C-DIC into RNA in the presence of methane and lepidocrocite when sulfate was absent, but assimilated organic carbon when cellulose was added to incubations without methane additions. Bathy-8 archaea assimilated 13C-DIC when lignin was amended; however, their DNA was derived from both inorganic and organic carbon sources rather than from inorganic carbon alone. Based on SIP results and supported by metagenomics, carbon transfer between catabolic and anabolic branches of metabolism is possible in these archaeal groups, indicating their anabolic versatility. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for the incorporation of the mixed organic and inorganic carbon by ANME-1 and Bathy-8 archaea in the environment. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Archaea , Metano , Archaea/genética , Marcação por Isótopo , Oxirredução , Metano/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , DNA , Anaerobiose , Sedimentos Geológicos , Filogenia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 7765-7773, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556742

RESUMO

Climate change affects the content and composition of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, warming-induced changes in the SOC compounds remain unknown. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular mixing models, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we analyzed the variations and relationships in molecular compounds in Mollisol with 10-56 g C kg-1 soil-1 by translocating soils under six climate regimes. We found that increased temperature and precipitation were negatively correlated with carbohydrate versus lipid and lignin versus protein. The former was consistent across soils with varying SOC contents, but the latter decreased as the SOC content increased. The carbohydrate-lipid correlations were related to dithionite-citrate-extractable Fe, while the lignin-protein correlations were linked to changes in moisture and pyrophosphate-extractable Fe/Al. Our findings indicate that the reduction in the mineral protection of SOC is associated with molecular alterations in SOC under warming conditions.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Solo/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Lignina , Lipídeos , Carboidratos
5.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588720

RESUMO

Reproductive development of fruiting trees, including mango (Mangifera indica L.), is limited by non-structural carbohydrates. Competition for sugars increases with cropping, and consequently, vegetative growth and replenishment of starch reserves may reduce with high yields, resulting in interannual production variability. While the effect of crop load on photosynthesis and the distribution of starch within the mango tree has been studied, the contribution of starch and sugars to different phases of reproductive development requires attention. This review focuses on mango and examines the roles of non-structural carbohydrates in fruiting trees to clarify the repercussions of crop load on reproductive development. Starch buffers the plant's carbon availability to regulate supply with demand, while sugars provide a direct resource for carbon translocation. Sugar signalling and interactions with phytohormones play a crucial role in flowering, fruit set, growth, ripening and retention, as well as regulating starch, sugar and secondary metabolites in fruit. The balance between the leaf and fruit biomass affects the availability and contributions of starch and sugars to fruiting. Crop load impacts photosynthesis and interactions between sources and sinks. As a result, the onset and rate of reproductive processes are affected, with repercussions for fruit size, composition, and the inter-annual bearing pattern.


Assuntos
Frutas , Mangifera , Animais , Amido/metabolismo , Aves , Árvores , Carbono/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 272, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. are both original plants of 'Gan Cao' in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and G. uralensis is currently the mainstream variety of licorice and has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these species have shown some degree of tolerance to salinity, G. inflata exhibits higher salt tolerance than G. uralensis and can grow on saline meadow soils and crusty saline soils. However, the regulatory mechanism responsible for the differences in salt tolerance between different licorice species is unclear. Due to land area-related limitations, the excavation and cultivation of licorice varieties in saline-alkaline areas that both exhibit tolerance to salt and contain highly efficient active substances are needed. The systematic identification of the key genes and pathways associated with the differences in salt tolerance between these two licorice species will be beneficial for cultivating high-quality salt-tolerant licorice G. uralensis plant varieties and for the long-term development of the licorice industry. In this research, the differences in growth response indicators, ion accumulation, and transcription expression between the two licorice species were analyzed. RESULTS: This research included a comprehensive comparison of growth response indicators, including biomass, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and total flavonoids content, between two distinct licorice species and an analysis of their ion content and transcriptome expression. In contrast to the result found for G. uralensis, the salt treatment of G. inflata ensured the stable accumulation of biomass and total flavonoids at 0.5 d, 15 d, and 30 d and the restriction of Na+ to the roots while allowing for more K+ and Ca2+ accumulation. Notably, despite the increase in the Na+ concentration in the roots, the MDA concentration remained low. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the regulatory effects of growth and ion transport on the two licorice species were strongly correlated with the following pathways and relevant DEGs: the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the photosynthetic carbon fixation pathway involved in carbon metabolism; Casparian strip formation (lignin oxidation and translocation, suberin formation) in response to Na+; K+ and Ca2+ translocation, organic solute synthesis (arginine, polyamines, GABA) in response to osmotic stresses; and the biosynthesis of the nonenzymatic antioxidants carotenoids and flavonoids in response to antioxidant stress. Furthermore, the differential expression of the DEGs related to ABA signaling in hormone transduction and the regulation of transcription factors such as the HSF and GRAS families may be associated with the remarkable salt tolerance of G. inflata. CONCLUSION: Compared with G. uralensis, G. inflata exhibits greater salt tolerance, which is primarily attributable to factors related to carbon metabolism, endodermal barrier formation and development, K+ and Ca2+ transport, biosynthesis of carotenoids and flavonoids, and regulation of signal transduction pathways and salt-responsive transcription factors. The formation of the Casparian strip, especially the transport and oxidation of lignin precursors, is likely the primary reason for the markedly higher amount of Na+ in the roots of G. inflata than in those of G. uralensis. The tendency of G. inflata to maintain low MDA levels in its roots under such conditions is closely related to the biosynthesis of flavonoids and carotenoids and the maintenance of the osmotic balance in roots by the absorption of more K+ and Ca2+ to meet growth needs. These findings may provide new insights for developing and cultivating G. uralensis plant species selected for cultivation in saline environments or soils managed through agronomic practices that involve the use of water with a high salt content.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Transcriptoma , Lignina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Carbono/metabolismo , Solo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 242024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587863

RESUMO

Previously, we reported an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-1A derivative able to produce succinic acid (SA) from glycerol with net CO2 fixation. Apart from an engineered glycerol utilization pathway that generates NADH, the strain was equipped with the NADH-dependent reductive branch of the TCA cycle (rTCA) and a heterologous SA exporter. However, the results indicated that a significant amount of carbon still entered the CO2-releasing oxidative TCA cycle. The current study aimed to tune down the flux through the oxidative TCA cycle by targeting the mitochondrial uptake of pyruvate and cytosolic intermediates of the rTCA pathway, as well as the succinate dehydrogenase complex. Thus, we tested the effects of deletions of MPC1, MPC3, OAC1, DIC1, SFC1, and SDH1 on SA production. The highest improvement was achieved by the combined deletion of MPC3 and SDH1. The respective strain produced up to 45.5 g/L of SA, reached a maximum SA yield of 0.66 gSA/gglycerol, and accumulated the lowest amounts of byproducts when cultivated in shake-flasks. Based on the obtained data, we consider a further reduction of mitochondrial import of pyruvate and rTCA intermediates highly attractive. Moreover, the approaches presented in the current study might also be valuable for improving SA production when sugars (instead of glycerol) are the source of carbon.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Ácido Succínico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7899, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570566

RESUMO

Hutchison's niche theory suggests that coexisting competing species occupy non-overlapping hypervolumes, which are theoretical spaces encompassing more than three dimensions, within an n-dimensional space. The analysis of multiple stable isotopes can be used to test these ideas where each isotope can be considered a dimension of niche space. These hypervolumes may change over time in response to variation in behaviour or habitat, within or among species, consequently changing the niche space itself. Here, we use isotopic values of carbon and nitrogen of ten amino acids, as well as sulphur isotopic values, to produce multi-isotope models to examine niche segregation among an assemblage of five coexisting seabird species (ancient murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus, double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus, Leach's storm-petrel Oceanodrama leucorhoa, rhinoceros auklet Cerorhinca monocerata, pelagic cormorant Phalacrocorax pelagicus) that inhabit coastal British Columbia. When only one or two isotope dimensions were considered, the five species overlapped considerably, but segregation increased in more dimensions, but often in complex ways. Thus, each of the five species occupied their own isotopic hypervolume (niche), but that became apparent only when factoring the increased information from sulphur and amino acid specific isotope values, rather than just relying on proxies of δ15N and δ13C alone. For cormorants, there was reduction of niche size for both species consistent with a decline in their dominant prey, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, from 1970 to 2006. Consistent with niche theory, cormorant species showed segregation across time, with the double-crested demonstrating a marked change in diet in response to prey shifts in a higher dimensional space. In brief, incorporating multiple isotopes (sulfur, PC1 of δ15N [baselines], PC2 of δ15N [trophic position], PC1 and PC2 of δ13C) metrics allowed us to infer changes and differences in food web topology that were not apparent from classic carbon-nitrogen biplots.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Charadriiformes , Animais , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Isótopos/metabolismo , Aves/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7885, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570698

RESUMO

SbtB is a PII-like protein that regulates the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in cyanobacteria. SbtB proteins can bind many adenyl nucleotides and possess a characteristic C-terminal redox sensitive loop (R-loop) that forms a disulfide bridge in response to the diurnal state of the cell. SbtBs also possess an ATPase/ADPase activity that is modulated by the redox-state of the R-loop. To investigate the R-loop in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, site-specific mutants, unable to form the hairpin and permanently in the reduced state, and a R-loop truncation mutant, were characterized under different inorganic carbon (Ci) and light regimes. Growth under diurnal rhythm showed a role of the R-loop as sensor for acclimation to changing light conditions. The redox-state of the R-loop was found to impact the binding of the adenyl-nucleotides to SbtB, its membrane association and thereby the CCM regulation, while these phenotypes disappeared after truncation of the R-loop. Collectively, our data imply that the redox-sensitive R-loop provides an additional regulatory layer to SbtB, linking the CO2-related signaling activity of SbtB with the redox state of cells, mainly reporting the actual light conditions. This regulation not only coordinates CCM activity in the diurnal rhythm but also affects the primary carbon metabolism.


Assuntos
Carbono , Synechocystis , Carbono/metabolismo , Estruturas R-Loop , Synechocystis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
10.
Fungal Biol ; 128(2): 1664-1674, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575239

RESUMO

Although tyrosol is a quorum-sensing molecule of Candida species, it has antifungal activity at supraphysiological concentrations. Here, we studied the effect of tyrosol on the physiology and genome-wide transcription of Aspergillus nidulans to gain insight into the background of the antifungal activity of this compound. Tyrosol efficiently reduced germination of conidia and the growth on various carbon sources at a concentration of 35 mM. The growth inhibition was fungistatic rather than fungicide on glucose and was accompanied with downregulation of 2199 genes related to e.g. mitotic cell cycle, glycolysis, nitrate and sulphate assimilation, chitin biosynthesis, and upregulation of 2250 genes involved in e.g. lipid catabolism, amino acid degradation and lactose utilization. Tyrosol treatment also upregulated genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), increased specific GST activities and the glutathione (GSH) content of the cells, suggesting that A. nidulans can detoxify tyrosol in a GSH-dependent manner even though this process was weak. Tyrosol did not induce oxidative stress in this species, but upregulated "response to nutrient levels", "regulation of nitrogen utilization", "carbon catabolite activation of transcription" and "autophagy" genes. Tyrosol may have disturbed the regulation and orchestration of cellular metabolism, leading to impaired use of nutrients, which resulted in growth reduction.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Aspergillus nidulans , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Glutationa/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa/farmacologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 273, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520566

RESUMO

An ever-growing body of literature evidences the protective role of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) against a plethora of mostly physical stressors in prokaryotic cells. To date, most of the research done involved bacterial strains isolated from habitats not considered to be life-challenging or extremely impacted by abiotic environmental factors. Polar region microorganisms experience a multitude of damaging factors in combinations rarely seen in other of Earth's environments. Therefore, the main objective of this investigation was to examine the role of PHAs in the adaptation of psychrophilic, Arctic-derived bacteria to stress conditions. Arctic PHA producers: Acidovorax sp. A1169 and Collimonas sp. A2191, were chosen and their genes involved in PHB metabolism were deactivated making them unable to accumulate PHAs (ΔphaC) or to utilize them (Δi-phaZ) as a carbon source. Varying stressors were applied to the wild-type and the prepared mutant strains and their survival rates were assessed based on CFU count. Wild-type strains with a functional PHA metabolism were best suited to survive the freeze-thaw cycle - a common feature of polar region habitats. However, the majority of stresses were best survived by the ΔphaC mutants, suggesting that the biochemical imbalance caused by the lack of PHAs induced a permanent cell-wide stress response thus causing them to better withstand the stressor application. Δi-phaZ mutants were superior in surviving UV irradiation, hinting that PHA granule presence in bacterial cells is beneficial despite it being biologically inaccessible. Obtained data suggests that the ability to metabolize PHA although important for survival, probably is not the most crucial mechanism in the stress-resistance strategies arsenal of cold-loving bacteria. KEY POINTS: • PHA metabolism helps psychrophiles survive freezing • PHA-lacking psychrophile mutants cope better with oxidative and heat stresses • PHA granule presence enhances the UV resistance of psychrophiles.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo
12.
Microb Biotechnol ; 17(3): e14438, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529712

RESUMO

Paenibacillus polymyxa is a non-pathogenic, Gram-positive bacterium endowed with a rich and versatile metabolism. However interesting, this bacterium has been seldom used for bioproduction thus far. In this study, we engineered P. polymyxa for isobutanol production, a relevant bulk chemical and next-generation biofuel. A CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing tool facilitated the chromosomal integration of a synthetic operon to establish isobutanol production. The 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis pathway, leading to the main fermentation product of P. polymyxa, was eliminated. A mutant strain harbouring the synthetic isobutanol operon (kdcA from Lactococcus lactis, and the native ilvC, ilvD and adh genes) produced 1 g L-1 isobutanol under microaerobic conditions. Improving NADPH regeneration by overexpression of the malic enzyme subsequently increased the product titre by 50%. Network-wide proteomics provided insights into responses of P. polymyxa to isobutanol and revealed a significant metabolic shift caused by alcohol production. Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, was identified as a bottleneck that hindered efficient NADPH regeneration through this pathway. Furthermore, we conducted culture optimization towards cultivating P. polymyxa in a synthetic minimal medium. We identified biotin (B7), pantothenate (B5) and folate (B9) to be mutual essential vitamins for P. polymyxa. Our rational metabolic engineering of P. polymyxa for the production of a heterologous chemical sheds light on the metabolism of this bacterium towards further biotechnological exploitation.


Assuntos
Butanóis , Paenibacillus polymyxa , Paenibacillus , Paenibacillus polymyxa/genética , Paenibacillus polymyxa/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Paenibacillus/genética , Engenharia Metabólica
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 925: 171763, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494030

RESUMO

Microbial biofilms are behind microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Sessile cells in biofilms are many times more concentrated volumetrically than planktonic cells in the bulk fluids, thus providing locally high concentrations of chemicals. More importantly, "electroactive" sessile cells in biofilms are capable of utilizing extracellularly supplied electrons (e.g., from elemental Fe) for intracellular reduction of an oxidant such as sulfate in energy metabolism. MIC directly caused by anaerobic biofilms is classified into two main types based on their mechanisms: extracellular electron transfer MIC (EET-MIC) and metabolite MIC (M-MIC). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are notorious for their corrosivity. They can cause EET-MIC in carbon steel, but they can also secrete biogenic H2S to corrode other metals such as Cu directly via M-MIC. This study investigated the use of conductive magnetic nanowires as electron mediators to accelerate and thus identify EET-MIC of C1020 by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The presence of 40 ppm (w/w) nanowires in ATCC 1249 culture medium at 37 °C resulted in 45 % higher weight loss and 57 % deeper corrosion pits after 7-day incubation. Electrochemical tests using linear polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization supported the weight loss data trend. These findings suggest that conductive magnetic nanowires can be employed to identify EET-MIC. The use of insoluble 2 µm long nanowires proved that the extracellular section of the electron transfer process is a bottleneck in SRB MIC of carbon steel.


Assuntos
Desulfovibrio vulgaris , Desulfovibrio , Nanofios , Humanos , Aço , Elétrons , Carbono/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Desulfovibrio/metabolismo , Corrosão , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Redução de Peso
14.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 77, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythritol is a four-carbon polyol with an unclear role in metabolism of some unconventional yeasts. Its production has been linked to the osmotic stress response, but the mechanism of stress protection remains unclear. Additionally, erythritol can be used as a carbon source. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, its assimilation is activated by the transcription factor Euf1. The study investigates whether this factor can link erythritol to other processes in the cell. RESULTS: The research was performed on two closely related strains of Y. lipolytica: MK1 and K1, where strain K1 has no functional Euf1. Cultures were carried out in erythritol-containing and erythritol-free media. Transcriptome analysis revealed the effect of Euf1 on the regulation of more than 150 genes. Some of these could be easily connected with different aspects of erythritol assimilation, such as: utilization pathway, a new potential isoform of transketolase, or polyol transporters. However, many of the upregulated genes have never been linked to metabolism of erythritol. The most prominent examples are the degradation pathway of branched-chain amino acids and the glyoxylate cycle. The high transcription of genes affected by Euf1 is still dependent on the erythritol concentration in the medium. Moreover, almost all up-regulated genes have an ATGCA motif in the promoter sequence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may be particularly relevant given the increasing use of erythritol-induced promoters in genetic engineering of Y. lipolytica. Moreover, use of this yeast in biotechnological processes often takes place under osmotic stress conditions. Erythritol might be produce as a by-product, thus better understanding of its influence on cell metabolism could facilitate processes optimization.


Assuntos
Yarrowia , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Eritritol/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Carbono/metabolismo
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 397: 130508, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431057

RESUMO

C. pyrenoidosa, a species of microalgae, has been recognized as a viable protein source for human consumption. The primary challenges in this context are the development of an efficient extraction process and the valorization of the resultant waste streams. This study, situated within the paradigm of circular economy, presents an innovative extraction approach that achieved a protein extraction efficiency of 62 %. The extracted protein exhibited remarkable oil-water emulsifying performances, such as uniform morphology with high creaming stability, suggesting a sustainable alternative to conventional emulsifiers. Additionally, hydrothermal liquefaction technique was employed for converting the residual biomass and waste solution from the extraction process into biocrude. A biocrude yield exceeding 40 wt%, characterized by a carbon content of 73 % and a higher heating value of 36 MJ/kg, were obtained. These findings demonstrate the promising potential of microalgae biorefinery, which is significant for paving toward circular economy and zero-waste society.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Humanos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Biomassa
16.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14235, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472162

RESUMO

N2 -fixing legumes can strongly affect ecosystem functions by supplying nitrogen (N) and improving the carbon-fixing capacity of vegetation. Still, the question of how their leaf-level N status and carbon metabolism are coordinated along leaf ageing remains unexplored. Leaf tissue carbon isotopic composition (δ13 C) provides a useful indicator of time-integrated intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). Here, we quantified the seasonal changes of leaf δ13 C, N content on a mass and area basis (Nmass , Narea , respectively), Δ18 O (leaf 18 O enrichment above source water, a proxy of time-integrated stomatal conductance) and morphological traits in an emblematic N2 -fixing legume tree, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), at a subtropical site in Southwest China. We also measured xylem, soil and rainwater isotopes (δ18 O, δ2 H) to characterize tree water uptake patterns. Xylem water isotopic data reveal that black locust primarily used shallow soil water in this humid habitat. Black locust exhibited a decreasing δ13 C along leaf ageing, which was largely driven by decreasing leaf Nmass , despite roughly constant Narea . In contrast, the decreasing δ13 C along leaf ageing was largely uncoupled from parallel increases in Δ18 O and leaf thickness. Leaf N content is used as a proxy of leaf photosynthetic capacity; thus, it plays a key role in determining the seasonality in δ13 C, whereas the roles of stomatal conductance and leaf morphology are minor. Black locust leaves can effectively adjust to changing environmental conditions along leaf ageing through LMA increases and moderate stomatal conductance reduction while maintaining constant Narea to optimize photosynthesis and carbon assimilation, despite declining leaf Nmass and δ13 C.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Robinia , Árvores/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Solo , Água/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
17.
Geobiology ; 22(2): e12593, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476006

RESUMO

Biological processes in the Proterozoic Ocean are often inferred from modern oxygen-deficient environments (MODEs) or from stable isotopes in preserved sediment. To date, few MODE studies have simultaneously quantified carbon fixation genes and attendant stable isotopic signatures. Consequently, how carbon isotope patterns reflect these pathways has not been thoroughly vetted. Addressing this, we profiled planktonic productivity and quantified carbon fixation pathway genes and associated organic carbon isotope values (δ13 CPOC ) of size-fractionated (0.2-2.7 and >2.7 µm) particulate matter from meromictic Fayetteville Green Lake, NY, USA. The high-O2 Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) gene (cbbL) was most abundant in the <2.7 µm size fraction in shallow oxic and deep hypoxic waters, corresponding with cyanobacterial and eukaryote algal populations. The low-O2 CBB gene (cbbM) was most abundant near the lower oxycline boundary in the larger size fraction, coincident with purple sulfur bacteria populations. The reverse citric acid cycle gene (aclB) was equally abundant in both size fractions in the deepest photic zone, coinciding with green sulfur bacteria populations. Methane coenzyme reductase A (mcrA), of anaerobic methane cyclers, was most abundant at the lower oxycline boundary in both size fractions, coinciding with Methanoregula populations. δ13 CPOC values overlapped with the high-O2 CBB fixation range except for two negative excursions near the lower oxycline boundary, likely reflecting assimilation of isotopically-depleted groundwater-derived carbon by autotrophs and sulfate-reducers. Throughout aphotic waters, δ13 CPOC values of the large size fraction became 13 C-enriched, likely reflecting abundant purple sulfur bacterial aggregates. Eukaryote algae- or cyanobacteria-like isotopic signatures corresponded with increases in cbbL, cbbM, and aclB, and enrichment of exopolymer-rich prokaryotic photoautotrophs aggregates. Results suggest that δ13 CPOC values of preserved sediments from areas of the Proterozoic Ocean with sulfidic photic zones may reflect a mixture of alternate carbon-fixing populations exported from the deep photic zone, challenging the paradigm that sedimentary stable carbon isotope values predominantly reflect oxygenic photosynthesis from surface waters.


Assuntos
Chromatiaceae , Cianobactérias , Carbono/metabolismo , Lagos/microbiologia , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Oxigênio/análise , Chromatiaceae/metabolismo , Metano , Oceanos e Mares
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 398: 130512, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437960

RESUMO

The reuse of wastewater after seawater cultivation is critically important. In this study, a phosphorus-supplemented seawater-wastewater cyclic system (PSSWCS) based on Chlorella pyrenoidosa SDEC-35 was developed. With the addition of phosphorus, the algal biomass and the ability to assimilate nitrogen and carbon were improved. At the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of 20:1, the biomass productivity per mass of nitrogen reached 3.6 g g-1 (N) day-1 in the second cycle. After the third cycle the protein content reached 35.7% of dry mass, and the major metabolic substances in PSSWCS reached the highest content level of 89.5% (35.7% protein, 38.3% lipid, and 15.5% carbohydrate). After the fourth cycle the lipid content maintained at 40.1%. Furthermore, 100.0% recovery of wastewater in PSSWCS increased the nitrogen and carbon absorption to 15.0 and 396.8 g per tonne of seawater. This study achieved seawater-wastewater recycle and produced high-lipid and high-protein algae by phosphorus addition.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Chlorella/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Água do Mar , Fósforo/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Carbono/metabolismo
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5867-5877, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446418

RESUMO

De novo biosynthesis of high-value added food additive p-coumaric acid (p-CA) direct from cellulose/hemicellulose is a more sustainable route compared to the chemical route, considering the abundant cellulose/hemicellulose resources. In this study, a novel factory was constructed for the production of p-CA in Yarrowia lipolytica using cellulose/hemicellulose as the sole carbon source. Based on multicopy integration of the TAL gene and reprogramming the shikimic acid pathway, the engineered strain produced 1035.5 ± 67.8 mg/L p-CA using glucose as a carbon source. The strains with overexpression of cellulases and hemicellulases produced 84.3 ± 2.4 and 65.3 ± 4.6 mg/L p-CA, using cellulose (carboxymethyl-cellulose) or hemicellulose (xylan from bagasse) as the carbon source, respectively. This research demonstrated the feasibility of conversion of cost-effective cellulose/hemicellulose into a value-added product and provided a sustainable cellulolytic cell factory for the utilization of cellulose/hemicellulose.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos , Polissacarídeos , Yarrowia , Yarrowia/genética , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Celulose/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5797-5804, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465388

RESUMO

Biological production of citramalate has garnered attention due to its wide application for food additives and pharmaceuticals, although improvement of yield is known to be challenging. When glucose is used as the sole carbon source, carbon loss through decarboxylation steps for providing acetyl-CoA from pyruvate is inevitable. To avoid this, we engineered a strain to co-utilize glucose and cost-effective acetate while preventing carbon loss for enhancing citramalate production. The production pathway diverged to independently supply the precursors required for the synthesis of citramalate from glucose and acetate, respectively. Moreover, the phosphotransferase system was inactivated and the acetate assimilation pathway and the substrate ratio were optimized to enable the simultaneous and efficient utilization of both carbon sources. This yielded results (5.0 g/L, 0.87 mol/mol) surpassing the yield and titer of the control strain utilizing glucose as the sole carbon source in flask cultures, demonstrating an economically efficient strain redesign strategy for synthesizing various products.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Malatos , Engenharia Metabólica , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo
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