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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121573, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376665

RESUMO

Upgrading lactate/carbohydrate-rich waste biomass into medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs) by chain elongation (CE) technology exhibits economic and environmental benefits. However, the largely dispersive lactate-carbon-flow decreases MCCAs yield. This work discovered appropriate H2 supply could significantly reduce lactate-carbon-flow loss and improve MCCAs production (∼1.65 times) when the system is not operated according to well-defined operating conditions, and revealed corresponding mechanism. Hydrogen (H2) supply largely enhanced electron efficiency and electron transfer capacity, and H2 could reduce propionate (from competing acrylate pathway, which should be prevented, but when not possible, the carbon recovery from propionate is possible) to propanol, which was used as electron donor to elongate acetate and propionate. Moreover, H2 could react with CO2 (from CE process) to sequentially generate acetate and ethanol, which further contributed to caproate/caprylate generation. Comparing with non-H2-supplemented test, the lactate-carbon-flow used for MCCAs production was enhanced by ∼28.4% after H2 supply, and Clostridium spp. were the key discriminative microorganisms.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Caproatos/metabolismo , Caprilatos/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 140, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451938

RESUMO

Pseudomonas species are the most versatile of all known bacteria for metabolic flexibility and the extent of host range from plants to humans that remains unmatched. The evolution of diverse metabolic strategies in these species to adapt to the fluctuating environment guarantees high fitness as well as the ability to withstand stress at multiple levels. These abilities in Pseudomonas species are imprinted by an adaptable genetic repertoire through the integration of external and internal signals via complex regulatory networks. One of the main regulatory networks that lead to optimal growth, survival and cellular robustness is the phenomenon of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Even though a large array of information is available, the molecular machinery and the mechanism of CCR in Pseudomonas are distinctly diverse from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In Pseudomonas, the Crc and Hfq proteins, CbrAB two-component systems and the CrcZ/CrcY small RNA are key components of CCR. The main focus of this review is to elucidate the mechanism of CCR and the accessories involved in regulation of preferred carbon source utilisation over non-preferred ones and how CCR influences the virulence, antibiotic resistance, bioremediation and plant growth promotion pathways. Furthermore, we have also tried to shed some light on the "omics" approaches which can provide deep mechanistic insights into the regulation of CCR. Understanding the mechanistic picture of key regulatory entities and mechanism responsible for metabolic flexibility will create opportunities for exploitation of these versatile prokaryotes in several biotechnological processes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Repressão Catabólica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbono/metabolismo , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/genética , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo
3.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1288-1298, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370116

RESUMO

Bacterial ATP synthases drive ATP synthesis by a rotary mechanism, and play a vital role in physiology and cell metabolism. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as an industrial workhorse for amino acid production, and its ATP synthase operon contains eight structural genes and two adjacent genes, cg1360 and cg1361. So far, the physiological functions of Cg1360 (GenBank CAF19908) and Cg1361 (GenBank CAF19909) remain unclear. Here, we showed that Cg1360 was a hydrophobic protein with four transmembrane helices (TMHs), while no TMH was found in Cg1361. Deletion of cg1360, but not cg1361, led to significantly reduced cell growth using glucose and acetic acid as carbon sources, reduced F1 portions in the membrane, reduced ATP-driven proton-pumping activity and ATPase activity, suggesting that Cg1360 plays an important role in ATP synthase function. The intracellular ATP concentration in the Δcg1360 mutant was decreased to 72% of the wild type, while the NADH and NADPH levels in the Δcg1360 mutant were increased by 29% and 26%, respectively. However, the Δcg1361 mutant exhibited comparable intracellular ATP, NADH and NADPH levels with the wild-type strain. Moreover, the effect of cg1360 deletion on L-valine production was examined in the L-valine-producing V-10 strain. The final production of L-valine in the V-10-Δcg1360 mutant reached 9.2 ± 0.3 g/l in shake flasks, which was 14% higher than that of the V-10 strain. Thus, Cg1360 can be used as an effective engineering target by altering energy metabolism for the enhancement of amino acid production in C. glutamicum.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Valina/biossíntese , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases , Carbono/metabolismo , Corynebacterium glutamicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Energético , Fermentação , Ordem dos Genes , Glucose/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 531, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375926

RESUMO

Microbially produced biosurfactants are fast catching up due to their environment-friendly approach over chemical surfactants. But their commercial production is restricted due to poor economy of the production process which could be improved by using high yielding microbial strains and optimizing the process parameters. The present research was directed to optimize the biosurfactant production monitored in terms of oil displacement and emulsification (E24) index, using a promising yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii YK32. Maximum oil displacement equaling 7.5 cm was obtained with olive oil at 8% (v/v) concentration as carbon source under shaking conditions (150 rpm). Diesel being a complex hydrocarbon was not utilized easily by yeast and showed poor biosurfactant production. Yeast extract at 1.5% (w/v) concentration yielded maximum biosurfactant as evident from maximum oil displacement and E24 index equal to 8.1 cm and 52.6%, respectively. Sodium chloride at the rate of 3% (w/v) supported maximum oil displacement (8.8 cm) using the production broth containing optimized carbon and nitrogen sources. Any increase beyond this level negatively influenced the biosurfactant production. The yield was at its maximum at 30 °C as a shift in temperature either to 35 °C or 25 °C decreased the oil displacement from 8.8 to 5.2 or 7.6 cm, respectively. At 40 °C, oil displacement was decreased to 2.5 cm. Biosurfactant production appeared to be sensitive to varying pH as evident from the E24 index as high as 67.3% at pH 6.0 as compared with 60.2%, 60.1%, and 52.4% at pH 5.0, 5.5, and 7.0, respectively. Yeast biomass yield equivalent to 10.3 g/L and 8.3 g/L was recorded at pH 6 and 7, respectively, during the production process. Elimination of shaking reduced the E24 index from 67.3 to 34.8% under optimized conditions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374415

RESUMO

This study focused on evaluate the effectiveness of biochar alone compare integrated with bacterial consortium amendment on the gaseous emissions mitigation as well as carbon and nitrogen sequestration during pig manure composting. Six additive treatments were performed based on uniform mixing pig manure with wheat straw [bacterial consortium (T2), 12%wood biochar (T3), 12%wood biochar + bacterial consortium (T4), 12%wheat straw biochar (T5), 12%wheat straw biochar + bacterial consortium (T6), while T1 without any additive]. The results obviously indicated that integrated use of biochar and bacterial consortium could remarkably relieved gaseous emissions, improved carbon and nitrogen conservation as well as accelerated maturity of composting. Notably the optimum combination was existed in T6 owing to lowest nutrient losses (nitrogen and carbon losses were 9.91 g/kg and 189.54 g/kg) and gas emissions (30.16 g/kg) as well as supreme maturity (germination index > 100%); it's an economic-practical and environmental protection novel disposal approach for solid waste.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Compostagem , Gases/metabolismo , Esterco , Nutrientes , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Suínos , Triticum/química , Madeira/química
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121879, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377048

RESUMO

Along with the increase in global awareness of rising CO2 levels, microalgae have attracted considerable interest as a promising CO2 reduction platforms since they exhibit outstanding biomass productivity and are capable of producing numerous valuable products. At this moment, however, two major barriers, relatively low photosynthetic CO2 fixation efficiency and necessity of carbon-intensive microalgal process, obstruct them to be practically utilized. This review suggests effective approaches to improve life-cycle CO2 reduction of microalgal biorefinery. In order to enhance photosynthetic CO2 fixation, strategies to augment carbon content and to increase biomass productivity should be considered. For reducing CO2 emissions associated with the process operations, introduction of efficient process elements, designing of energy-saving process routes, reuse of waste resources and utilization of process integration can be noteworthy options. These comprehensive strategies will provide guidance for microalgal biorefineries to become a practical CO2 reduction technology in near future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121744, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323718

RESUMO

Haematococcus pluvialis is a prominent feedstock of astaxanthin. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) strongly influences the metabolic pathways of mixotrophic-grown microalgae, however, its role involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis is still not fully understood. In this study, integrative metabolic and physiologic profiles were analyzed in elucidating how C/N affected carbon and nitrogen assimilation and thereby exerted influence on astaxanthin biosynthesis. It was demonstrated that high C/N up-regulated the activities of acetate kinase by increase of 5.76 folds in early logarithmic phase, leading a significant increase of acetyl-CoA. The increased carbon skeletons were then funneled into astaxanthin biosynthesis. Additionally, high C/N increased the proportion of carotenoid-intermediates in cytoplasm from chloroplast. Finally, a fed-batch cultivation strategy based on C/N gradient was developed. Biomass attained 9.18 g L-1 in 100% type of immotile cyst cells, which presented astaxanthin productivity at 15.45 mg L-1 d-1 afterward, exhibiting a promising paradigm in commercial production.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofíceas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Biomassa , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Xantofilas/metabolismo
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121745, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323724

RESUMO

The status of heavy metals and the P fractions in compost affects their environmental risk. The present study investigated the effects of different initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios (15, 22, 27) on redistribution of Cu, Zn, and P fractions during composting. The results showed that the composting process transformed Cu, Zn and P from mobile fractions to more stable fractions. Compost with an initial C/N of 22 showed the most effective immobilization of Cu, Zn and P because of yielding greatest degree of polymerization. Multivariate statistical analysis identified organic matter as the most critical factor for explaining the redistribution of Cu, Zn, and P fractions in composting. However, the degree of organic matter degradation (organic matter content and Humic acid/Fulvic acid) better explained the change of bioavailability factor for Cu and the mobility of P during composting. This research provided guidance for providing technology to reduce environmental risk in compost.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Compostagem , Cobre/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(64): 9535-9538, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334508

RESUMO

Endoperoxide-containing antimalarials, such as artemisinin and the synthetic trioxolane OZ439, are prodrugs activated by heme to generate primary and secondary carbon-centered radicals. We employed activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to show that the secondary-carbon-centered radical of 1,2,4-trioxolanes is primarily responsible for protein labeling in malaria parasites.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Animais
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121855, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357042

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to compare corn stalk (CS) and cow manure (CM) for hydrochar production at different reaction temperatures (180-260 °C) and retention times (1-4 h). CM and CS resulted in hydrochars with significantly different physicochemical properties; however, both led to similar yields (30-65%). CM-derived hydrochar had a lower carbon content but a higher nitrogen and ash content than CS-derived hydrochar. CM-derived hydrochar demonstrated potential as a soil amendment due to its higher content of nitrogen, the presence of surface functional groups and higher specific surface area in comparison to CS-derived hydrochar. In comparison, CS-derived hydrochar demonstrated suitability as a solid fuel due to its high heating value and low ignition temperature. This study revealed that the composition of lignocellulose significantly impacted the properties and thus potential applications of hydrochar.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Esterco , Zea mays/química , Animais , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Bovinos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 297, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modification effect of leaching fraction (LF) on the physiological responses of plants to irrigation water salinity (ECiw) remains unknown. Here, leaf gas exchange, photosynthetic light-response and CO2-response curves, and total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation in hot pepper leaves were investigated under three ECiw levels (0.9, 4.7 and 7.0 dS m- 1) and two LFs treatments (0.17 and 0.29). RESULTS: Leaf stomatal conductance was more sensitive to ECiw than the net photosynthesis rate, leading to higher intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) in higher ECiw, whereas the LF did not affect the intrinsic WUE. Carbon isotope discrimination was inhibited by ECiw, but was not affected by LF. ECiw reduced the carboxylation efficiency, photosynthetic capacity, photorespiration rate, apparent quantum yield of CO2 and irradiance-saturated rate of gross photosynthesis; however, LF did not influence any of these responses. Total C and N accumulation in plants leaves was markedly increased with either decreasing ECiw or increasing LF. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that higher ECiw depressed leaf gas exchange, photosynthesis capacity and total C and N accumulation in leaves, but enhanced intrinsic WUE. Somewhat surprisingly, higher LF did not affect the intrinsic WUE but enhanced the total C and N accumulation in leaves.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Capsicum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Salinidade , Água/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Água/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 908-918, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326814

RESUMO

Energy (photosynthetically active [PAR] and ultraviolet [UVR] radiation) and matter (organic and inorganic nutrients) fluxes regulate the ecosystem's stability. However, the mechanisms underpinning the potential interplay between resistance and resilience to shifts in nutrient inputs and UVR are poorly understood. To assess how the UVR × nutrients interaction alters ecosystem stability, we exposed in situ a microbial food web from an oligotrophic ecosystem to: (1) two light (UVR + PAR and PAR), and (2) four nutrient (ambient concentrations, phosphorus [P], carbon [C] and C × P addition) treatments for three weeks. During this period, we quantified the community composition and biomass, sestonic P and C:P ratio, primary [PP] and bacterial [BP] production, community [CR] and bacterial [BR] respiration, excreted organic carbon [EOC], as well as the commensalistic phytoplankton-bacteria interaction (i.e. bacterial carbon demand [BCD]:EOC ratio) and the metabolic balance of the ecosystem (i.e. [PP:R] ratio). The stability of all response variables under the four environmental scenarios tested (i.e. UVR, UVR × C, UVR × P, and UVR × C × P) was quantified by means of the resistance and resilience indexes. The microbial community was dominated by phototrophs during the experimental period regardless of the treatment considered. The most complex scenario, i.e. UVR × C × P, decreased the resistance for all variables, except for BR and the PP:R ratio. Despite that PP:R ratio showed the highest resistance under such scenario, it was >1 in all environmental scenarios (i.e. net autotrophic), except under the UVR × C interaction, where, concomitant with increased resilience, the balance shifted towards net heterotrophy (PP:R < 1). Under the UVR × C × P scenario, the metabolic balance of the ecosystem proved strongly resistant due mainly to high resistance of bacterial respiration and a firm stability of the commensalistic interaction. Our results evidence that the high resilience of phototrophs (favoring their predominance over mixo- and heterotrophs) may lead to the maintenance of the autotrophic nature and carbon (C) sink capacity of the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Água Doce/microbiologia , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fitoplâncton
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 110, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280381

RESUMO

Carbon sources whether types or magnitudes were fateful in terms of stimulating growth and lipids accumulation in microalgae applied for biodiesel production. The set scenario of this work was to investigate the feasibilities of glucose (G) combining with sodium acetate (SA) carbon sources in enhancing biomass and lipid accumulation in Coccomyxa subellipsoidea. The results demonstrated that C. subellipsoidea subjected to the combination feeding of G (20 g/L) and SA (12 g/L) achieved the favorable biomass (5.22 g/L) and lipid content (52.16%). The resulting lipid productivity (388.96 mg/L/day) was 1.33- to 7.60-fold more than those of sole G or SA as well as other combinations of G and SA. Even though the total fatty acids of C. subellipsoidea cells treated with the optimal combination of G and SA showed no noticeable increment in comparison with sole G or SA, the proportion of monounsaturated C18:1 (over 48.69%) and the content of C18:3 (< 12%) were commendable in high-quality algal biodiesel production. Further, such fascinating lipid accumulation in C. subellipsoidea cells treated with G combining with SA might be attributed to that G promoted glycolysis as well as SA activated glyoxylate shunt and TCA cycle to synergistically provide sufficient acetyl-CoA precursors for lipid accumulation. These findings hinted the potential of the combination of carbon sources in enhancing the overall lipid productivity to offset alga-based biodiesel production cost and would guide other alga strains cultivation.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Acetato de Sódio/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Clorófitas/citologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Metabolômica , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 112, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286266

RESUMO

Microorganisms have evolved permeases to incorporate various essential nutrients and exclude harmful products, which assists in adaptation to different environmental conditions for survival. As permeases are directly involved in the utilization of and regulatory response to nutrient sources, metabolic engineering of microbial permeases can predictably influence nutrient metabolism and regulation. In this mini-review, we have summarized the mechanisms underlying the general regulation of permeases, and the current advancements and future prospects of metabolic engineering strategies targeting the permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The different types of permeases and their regulatory mechanisms have been discussed. Furthermore, methods for metabolic engineering of permeases have been highlighted. Understanding the mechanisms via which permeases are meticulously regulated and engineered will not only facilitate research on regulation of global nutrition and yeast metabolic engineering, but can also provide important insights for future studies on the synthesis of valuable products and elimination of harmful substances in S. cerevisiae.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Carbono/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
15.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 183-202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286324

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Isoforms of 2-OGDH E1 subunit are not functionally redundant in plant growth and development of A. thaliana. The tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-OGDH) converts 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to succinyl-CoA concomitant with the reduction of NAD+. 2-OGDH has an essential role in plant metabolism, being both a limiting step during mitochondrial respiration as well as a key player in carbon-nitrogen interactions. In Arabidopsis thaliana two genes encode for E1 subunit of 2-OGDH but the physiological roles of each isoform remain unknown. Thus, in the present study we isolated Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion knockout mutant lines for each of the genes encoding the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH enzyme. All mutant plants exhibited substantial reduction in both respiration and CO2 assimilation rates. Furthermore, mutant lines exhibited reduced levels of chlorophylls and nitrate, increased levels of sucrose, malate and fumarate and minor changes in total protein and starch levels in leaves. Despite the similar metabolic phenotypes for the two E1 isoforms the reduction in the expression of each gene culminated in different responses in terms of plant growth and seed production indicating distinct roles for each isoform. Collectively, our results demonstrated the importance of the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH in both autotrophic and heterotrophic tissues and suggest that the two E1 isoforms are not functionally redundant in terms of plant growth in A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mutagênese Insercional , Nitratos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isoformas de Proteínas , Subunidades Proteicas , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121699, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323726

RESUMO

In this work, we propose a Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model to determine the optimal design of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) production plant configuration. The superstructure based optimization model considers different carbon sources as raw material: glycerol (crude and purified), corn starch, cassava starch, sugarcane sucrose and sugarcane molasses. The PHA extraction section includes four alternatives: the use of enzyme, solvent, surfactant-NaOCl or surfactant-chelate. Model constraints include detailed capital cost for equipment, mass and energy balances, product specifications and operating bounds on process units. The resulting MINLP model maximizes the project net present value (NPV) as objective function and it is implemented in an equation oriented environment. Optimization results show the sugarcane-enzyme option as the most promising alternative (NPV = 75.01 million USD) for PHAs production with an energy consumption of 22.56 MJ/kg PHA and a production cost of 3.02 USD/kg PHA. Furthermore, an economic sensitivity analysis is performed.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/biossíntese , Carbono/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Melaço , Amido/metabolismo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109476, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352211

RESUMO

This research is aimed to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi on soil microbial activity and carbon mineralization in the maize rhizosphere under potted condition. Glomus etunicatum was used for our experiment. Results showed that AM symbiosis increased the levels of microorganism in the maize rhizosphere soil, and enhanced activity of soil microbial enzymes. After inoculating AM fungi, the contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) in the rhizosphere soil of maize increased with varying degrees. We obtained strong evidence that higher contents of MBC, DOC, ROC, superior number of microbes and stronger soil enzyme activities could be responsible for the higher rate of carbon mineralization in AM fungi treatment. AM fungi inoculation was confirmed to be effective to improve the soil quality for larger-scale ecoengineering.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Glomeromycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Biomassa , Solo/química , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Ecol Lett ; 22(9): 1462-1471, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270952

RESUMO

In subtropical oceans phytoplankton carbon: phosphorus (C : P) ratios are high, and these ratios are predicted to increase further with rising ocean temperatures and stratification. Prey stoichiometry may pose a problem for copepod zooplankton nauplii, which have high phosphorus demands due to rapid growth. We hypothesised that nauplii meet this demand by consuming bacteria. Naupliar bacterial and phytoplankton carbon and phosphorus ingestion, assimilation and incorporation were traced using 33 P and 14 C radioisotopes. Bacterial carbon was incorporated four times less efficiently into biomass than phytoplankton carbon. In contrast, bacterial and phytoplankton phosphorus were incorporated at similar efficiencies, and bacteria could meet a substantial amount of naupliar phosphorus requirements. As parts of the ocean become more oligotrophic, bacteria could help sustain naupliar growth and survival under suboptimal stoichiometric conditions. Thus, nauplii may be a shortcut for phosphorus from the microbial loop to the classical food web.


Assuntos
Bactérias/química , Copépodes/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Fósforo/metabolismo , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Radioisótopos de Fósforo/análise , Fitoplâncton/química
19.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 507-515, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330343

RESUMO

Black carbon (BC) can combine with organic matter and form secondary pollutants known as aged BC. BC and aged BC can cause respiratory system inflammation and induce lesions at relevant sites, but the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. To gain insight into the potential mechanisms, we focused on macrophages and transforming growth factor ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) which are a crucial factor in inflammation. Our research aims to determine the role of TAK1 in macrophages in pulmonary inflammation induced by particulate matter. In this study, BC and 1,4-naphthoquinone were mixed to model aged BC (1,4NQ-BC) in atmosphere. BC induced mice lung inflammation model, lung macrophage knock-down TAK1 animal model and primary macrophage knock-down TAK1 model were used to explore whether TAK1 in macrophage is a critical role in the process of inflammation. The results showed that the expressions of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-33) mRNA were significantly increased and the phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway related proteins were enhanced in RAW 264.7 cell lines. In vivo studies revealed that the indicators of pulmonary inflammation (pathology, inflammatory cell numbers) and related cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-33) mRNA expressions in CD11c-Map3k7-/- animals were significantly lower than wild-type animals after mice were instilled particles. In mice primary macrophages, the expressions of IL-6, IL-33 mRNA were inhibited after TAK1 gene was knock-down. These results unequivocally demonstrated that TAK1 plays a crucial role in BC induced lung inflammation in mice, and we can infer that BC and 1,4NQ-BC cause these inflammatory responses by stimulating pulmonary macrophages.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Fuligem/toxicidade , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
20.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(7): 560-568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246136

RESUMO

After application, herbicides often reach the soil and affect non-target soil microorganisms, decreasing their population, diversity or affecting metabolic activity. Therefore, laboratory studies were performed to evaluate the effects of diuron, hexazinone and sulfometuron-methyl alone and mixed upon carbon transformation by soil microorganisms in clayey and sandy soils and the effect on bacterial diversity and structure. Control treatment without herbicide application was also performed. Sub-samples from the control and herbicide treatments (10 g - in triplicate) were collected before herbicide application and 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after treatment (DAT), then 1 mL of 14C-glucose solution was applied. The released 14CO2 was trapped in 2 M NaOH solution and the radioactivity was analyzed by liquid scintillation counting (LSC), 12 h after glucose application. The effect of herbicides on bacterial diversity was evaluated by T-RFLP. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design. Hexazinone did not affect 14CO2 evolution. Diuron showed a greater 14CO2 evolution in sandy and clayey soil, while sulfometuron-methyl led to an increase in sandy soil, at 42 DAT. A greater evolution of carbon was observed in the treatment with herbicide mixture in sandy soil, compared with the same treatment in clayey soil or control. However, the herbicide mixture application did not affect the soil biological activity measured by the respiration rate induced by substrate. On the other hand, the herbicide mixtures affected the bacterial diversity in both soils, being the strongest effect to diuron and sulfometuron-methyl in clayey soil and hexazinone in sandy soil.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurona/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
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