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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4810, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968061

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for treating multiple refractory blood cancers, but further advances are required for solid tumor CAR therapy. One challenge is identifying a safe and effective tumor antigen. Here, we devise a strategy for targeting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, one of the deadliest malignancies). We report that T and NK cells transduced with a CAR that recognizes the surface marker, CD147, also known as Basigin, can effectively kill various malignant HCC cell lines in vitro, and HCC tumors in xenograft and patient-derived xenograft mouse models. To minimize any on-target/off-tumor toxicity, we use logic-gated (log) GPC3-synNotch-inducible CD147-CAR to target HCC. LogCD147-CAR selectively kills dual antigen (GPC3+CD147+), but not single antigen (GPC3-CD147+) positive HCC cells and does not cause severe on-target/off-tumor toxicity in a human CD147 transgenic mouse model. In conclusion, these findings support the therapeutic potential of CD147-CAR-modified immune cells for HCC patients.


Assuntos
Basigina/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Basigina/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5211-5219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: CBP is a transcriptional coactivator in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway that is related to cell kinetics and differentiation. This study aimed to characterize ß-catenin-activated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the direct effects of PRI-724 (a selective inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin/CBP signaling) on HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ß-catenin was performed in 199 HCC resected samples. Moreover, using cultured HCC cell lines, cell kinetics and its related proteins were analyzed after treatment of cells with C-82 (active form of PRI-724). RESULTS: Nuclear ß-catenin expression was found in 18% of HCC cases and the tumor sizes in these positive samples were larger. In HCC cell lines with a constitutively activated ß-catenin, C-82 inhibited cell proliferation. C-82 led to an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase also increased. Moreover, C-82 treatment significantly decreased the expression of cell proliferating markers and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. CONCLUSION: PRI-724(C-82) may be a novel drug for ß-catenin-activated HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(2): 179-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749126

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 conveys an anticancer effect, but little is known regarding its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study aims to determine the anticancer effect of EGb761 on HCC cell lines and clarify the underlying molecular mechanism. We explore biological functions of EGb761 in HCC using morphological observation, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cytotoxic analysis. We investigate the effects of EGb761 on proliferation and apoptosis of HCC cells using plate clone formation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase d-untranslated protein nick end labeling assays. Protein expressions of the NF-κB/p53 signal pathway were detected and identified using immunohistochemistry. The effect of EGb761 on the p53 signaling pathway was further confirmed by adding pifithrin (PFT)-α, an inhibitor of p53. We determine that EGb761 inhibits cell growth, reduces cell viability, and promotes apoptosis of HCC cells. In addition, EGb761 reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HepG2) cells in a dose-dependent manner. We also find that EGb761 exerts an anticancer effect on HepG2 cells by activating p53 and inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways. This study confirms that EGb761 inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis of HCC cells through the NF-κB/p53 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21887, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846849

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks sixth in the world, but its mortality is the third highest due to the lack of early diagnostic markers. Nowadays, the increase of autoantibody levels has been found in many cancers, and many studies have begun to pay attention to the detection of anti-p53 antibodies in HCC. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively and comprehensively analyze the potential diagnostic value of anti-p53 autoantibodies in HCC METHODS:: English articles up to November 2019 were collected. The overall sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Besides, the positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver operating characteristic curves of the overall diagnostic accuracy of anti-p53 antibody were calculated by STATA software. Finally, according to the heterogeneity of the results, the subgroup analysis, and the publication bias were performed. RESULTS: A total of 16 eligible studies were incorporated into this meta-analysis, including 1323 patients with HCC and 1896 control. The pooled sensitivity was 0.28(0.17-0.41) and specificity was 0.98 (0.95-0.99). The pooled DOR was 10.44 (6.31-17.29) and the pooled NLR was 0.74 (0.63-0.86). The area under ROC curve of symmetrical ROC was 0.840. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-p53 antibody has a high specificity for HCC, but the low sensitivity is not perfect and would limit the clinical application. The anti-p53 antibody would help rule out HCC but not help rule in HCC for early diagnosis. Whether combined as a diagnostic panel with other biomarkers or laboratory tests may prove useful requires further study.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2461-2477, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate DNA methylation alterations in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed using the Infinium Human Methylation 450 K BeadChip, and levels of mRNA expression were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. RESULTS: Compared to 36 samples of normal control liver tissue (C), DNA methylation alterations were observed on 19,281 probes in 22 samples of cancerous tissue (T) obtained from patients showing histological features compatible with NASH in their non-cancerous liver tissue (N). Among those probes, 1396 were located within CpG islands or their shores and shelves, designed around the transcription start sites of 726 genes. In representative genes, such as DCAF4L2, CKLF, TRIM4, PRC1, UBE2C and TUBA1B, both DNA hypomethylation and mRNA overexpression were observed in T samples relative to C samples, and the levels of DNA methylation and mRNA expression were inversely correlated with each other. DNA hypomethylation occurred even in N samples at the precancerous NASH stage, and this was inherited by or further strengthened in T samples. DNA hypomethylation of DCAF4L2, CKLF and UBE2C was observed in both NASH-related and viral hepatitis-related HCCs, whereas that of TRIM4, PRC1 and TUBA1B occurred in a NASH-related HCC-specific manner. DNA hypomethylation and/or mRNA overexpression of these genes was frequently associated with the necroinflammatory grade of NASH and was correlated with poorer tumor differentiation. CONCLUSION: DNA methylation alterations may occur under the necroinflammatory conditions characteristic of NASH and participate in NASH-related hepatocarcinogenesis through aberrant expression of tumor-related genes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 31, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are utilized in clinical practice; however, the prognosis is still poor on account of high recurrence rates. DNA methylation levels of CpG islands around promoters (promoter CpGis) inversely regulate gene expression and closely involved in carcinogenesis. As a new strategy, several chemicals globally inhibiting DNA methylation have been developed aiming at reducing DNA methylation levels and maintaining the expression of tumor suppressor genes. On the other hand, since these drugs nonspecifically modify DNA methylation, they can cause serious adverse effects. In order to ameliorate the methods by targeting specific CpGs, information of cancer-related genes that are regulated by DNA methylation is required. METHODS: We searched candidate genes whose expressions were regulated by DNA methylation of promoter CpGi and which are involved in HCC cases. To do so, we first identified genes whose expression were changed in HCC by comparing gene expressions of 371 HCC tissues and 41 non-tumor tissues using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The genes were further selected for poor prognosis by log-rank test of Kaplan-Meier plot and for cancer relevance by Pubmed search. Expression profiles of upregulated genes in HCC tissues were assessed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Finally, using DNA methylation data of TCGA database, we selected genes whose promoter DNA methylation levels were inversely correlated with gene expression. RESULTS: We found 115 genes which were significantly up- or downregulated in HCC tissues and were associated with poor prognosis and cancer relevance. The upregulated genes were significantly enriched in cell division, cell cycle, and cell proliferation. Among the upregulated genes in HCC, we identified hypomethylation of CpGis around promoters of FANCB, KIF15, KIF4A, ERCC6L, and UBE2C. In addition, TCGA data showed that the tumor suppressor gene P16 is unexpectedly overexpressed in many types of cancers. CONCLUSIONS: We identified five candidate genes whose expressions were regulated by DNA methylation of promoter CpGi and associate with cancer cases and poor prognosis in HCC. Modification of site-specific DNA methylation of these genes enables a different approach for HCC treatment with higher selectivity and lower adverse effects.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4513-4522, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises from hepatocytes, and is the most frequently occurring malignancy of primary liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic effects of the quaternary ammonium compound, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on HA22T/VGH HCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to our preliminary data, the effect of CTAB on cell cycle distribution, migration, invasion and the associated protein levels was examined using flow cytometry, wound-healing migration, Matrigel transwell invasion assay and western blotting under sub-lethal concentrations. RESULTS: CTAB treatment of HA22T/VGH cells casued dose-dependent mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)-like changes and impaired migration and invasion capabilities. In addition, CTAB reduced the levels of metastasis-related proteins including c-Met, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), Twist, N-cadherin, and Vimentin. Moreover, pretreatment with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) rescued CTAB-mediated effects. CONCLUSION: CTAB exhibited potent anti-EMT and anti-metastatic activities through the inhibition of migration and invasion of HA22T/VGH cells. CTAB interrupted the mesenchymal characteristics of HA22T/VGH cells, which were significantly alleviated by HGF in a dose-dependent manner. CTAB has the potential to evolve as a therapeutic agent for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Cetrimônio/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 4105-4113, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Assessment of the biological behavior of tumors is important for choosing an appropriate cancer therapy. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the biological behaviour can be assessed by tumor morphology and molecular biology. This study investigated the usefulness of tumor tissue biopsy for predicting the biological behavior of HCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 43 patients who underwent hepatectomy and preoperative liver tumor biopsy for HCC. We performed clinicopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. The expression of the following molecules was examined: regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), glypican-3 (GPC3), keratin 19 (K19), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), ß-Catenin, and p53. RESULTS: There was an overall 83.7% agreement regarding tumor differentiation between the preoperative biopsy specimens and the resected specimens. The accuracy of IHC analysis was more than 70% for all molecules between the preoperative biopsy specimens and the resected specimens. The RGS5-positive biopsy cases had higher serum α-fetoprotein levels (p=0.04), a higher rate of moderately or poorly differentiated tumors (p=0.02) and portal vein invasion (p=0.0003) than the RGS5-negative biopsy cases. The GPC3-positive biopsy cases were younger (p=0.04), had higher serum PIVKA-II levels (p=0.01), and a higher rate of portal vein invasion (p=0.03) than the GPC3-negative biopsy cases. The PIVKA-II-positive biopsy cases had significantly higher serum PIVKA-II levels than the PIVKA-II-negative biopsy cases (p=0.02). The other molecular markers showed no significantly different clinical findings between the positive and negative cases. CONCLUSION: In HCC, there was a high agreement rate of both the histopathological and IHC findings between preoperative biopsy specimens and resected specimens. In the biopsy specimens of HCC, RGS5 and GPC3 expression were useful molecular makers for predicting portal vein invasion. Liver tumor biopsy is useful for predicting the biological behavior of HCC through histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Glipicanas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Veia Porta/patologia , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235576, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide. Early identification of patients at risk for HCC recurrence is of paramount importance since early treatment of recurrent HCC after LT may be associated with increased survival. We evaluated incidence of and predictors for HCC recurrence, with a focus on the course of AFP levels. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center study of 99 HCC patients who underwent LT between January 28th, 1997 and May 11th, 2016. A multi-stage proportional hazards model with three stages was used to evaluate potential predictive markers, both by univariate and multivariable analysis, for influences on 1) recurrence after transplantation, 2) mortality without HCC recurrence, and 3) mortality after recurrence. RESULTS: 19/99 HCC patients showed recurrence after LT. Waiting time was not associated with overall HCC recurrence (HR = 1, p = 0.979). Similarly, waiting time did not affect mortality in LT recipients both with (HR = 0.97, p = 0.282) or without (HR = 0.99, p = 0.685) HCC recurrence. Log10-transformed AFP values at the time of LT (HR 1.75, p = 0.023) as well as after LT (HR 2.07, p = 0.037) were significantly associated with recurrence. Median survival in patients with a ratio (AFP at recurrence divided by AFP 3 months before recurrence) of 0.5 was greater than 70 months, as compared to a median of only 8 months in patients with a ratio of 5. CONCLUSION: A rise in AFP levels rather than an absolute threshold could help to identify patients at short-term risk for HCC recurrence post LT, which may allow intensification of the surveillance strategy on an individualized basis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Life Sci ; 257: 118131, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710948

RESUMO

AIMS: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute one of the largest families of membrane proteins in most organisms; however, their functions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. MAIN METHODS: A set of bioinformatic tools was integrated to analyze the expression of 49 members of the ABC transporter family. The function of members which had prognostic values in HCC was explored by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. KEY FINDINGS: ABCA8 and ABCA9 were significantly down-regulated in HCC. Prognostic analysis indicated that HCC patients with low expression of ABCA8 and ABCA9 had significantly shorter survival time. On the contrary, ABCB6 was over-expressed in the disease and high expression of ABCB6 was associated with worse prognosis. Co-expression analysis, and subsequently GO and KEGG analysis indicated that ABCA8 and ABCA9 might participate in the catabolic processes of multiple metabolites, while ABCB6 might regulate ferroptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals a previously unrecognized function of ABCB6 in HCC, by regulating ferroptosis. Since ABCB6 is over-expressed in HCC and ferroptosis involves in cancer development, ABCB6 might be a promising therapeutic target in the disease.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ferroptose , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17177-17186, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631996

RESUMO

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a master regulator of liver function and a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we explore the reciprocal negative regulation of HNF4α and cyclin D1, a key cell cycle protein in the liver. Transcriptomic analysis of cultured hepatocyte and HCC cells found that cyclin D1 knockdown induced the expression of a large network of HNF4α-regulated genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits the binding of HNF4α to thousands of targets in the liver, thereby diminishing the expression of associated genes that regulate diverse metabolic activities. Conversely, acute HNF4α deletion in the liver induces cyclin D1 and hepatocyte cell cycle progression; concurrent cyclin D1 ablation blocked this proliferation, suggesting that HNF4α maintains proliferative quiescence in the liver, at least, in part, via repression of cyclin D1. Acute cyclin D1 deletion in the regenerating liver markedly inhibited hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy, confirming its pivotal role in cell cycle progression in this in vivo model, and enhanced the expression of HNF4α target proteins. Hepatocyte cyclin D1 gene ablation caused markedly increased postprandial liver glycogen levels (in a HNF4α-dependent fashion), indicating that the cyclin D1-HNF4α axis regulates glucose metabolism in response to feeding. In AML12 hepatocytes, cyclin D1 depletion led to increased glucose uptake, which was negated if HNF4α was depleted simultaneously, and markedly elevated glycogen synthesis. To summarize, mutual repression by cyclin D1 and HNF4α coordinately controls the cell cycle machinery and metabolism in the liver.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Regeneração Hepática/genética , Regeneração Hepática/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2439-2446, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725355

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is considered as a diagnostic and prognostic tumorous marker for HCC, and up to 70% of HCC patients showed elevated serum levels of AFP. In the past two decades, evidences have shown that AFP not only is a tumorous biomarker for diagnosing HCC, but also plays a very complicated role in regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy and inhibiting the immune response of cells. Because AFP is significantly elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis, the role of AFP in the development of HCC is a scientific problem worthy of further exploration. In this review, we reviewed the effects of AFP on hepatocyte malignant transformation and the underlying mechanisms involved in the progression of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , alfa-Fetoproteínas/biossíntese , alfa-Fetoproteínas/genética
13.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 174, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548786

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a foremost type of cancer problem in which asialoglycoprotein receptors are overexpressed. In this study, asialoglycoprotein receptor-targeted nanoformulation (galactose-conjugated TPGS micelles) loaded with docetaxel (DTX) was developed to achieve its site-specific delivery for HCC therapy. The pharmaceutical characteristics like shape morphology, average particle size and zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release kinetics of developed system were evaluated. DTX-loaded galactosylated TPGS (DTX-TPGS-Gal) micelles and TPGS micelles (DTX-TPGS) were having 58.76 ± 1.82% and 54.76 ± 1.42% entrapment of the DTX, respectively. In vitro drug release behavior from micelles was controlled release. Cytotoxicitiy (IC50) of DTX-TPGS-Gal formulation on HepG2 cell lines was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower (6.3 ± 0.86 µg/ml) than DTX-TPGS (9.06 ± 0.82 µg/ml) and plain DTX (16.06 ± 0.98 µg/ml) indicating higher efficacy of targeted formulation. Further, in vivo biodistribution studies in animal model showed maximum drug accumulation at target site, i.e., the liver in the case of DTX-TPGS-Gal as compared with non-targeted one. It is concluded from the findings that TPGS-Gal micelles can be utilized for targeted drug delivery of cytotoxic drugs towards HCC with minimized side effects. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Docetaxel/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Galactose/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Vitamina E/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/farmacocinética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Galactose/administração & dosagem , Galactose/farmacocinética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Tecidual/fisiologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/farmacocinética
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3214, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587247

RESUMO

Long intergenic non-coding RNA-Nucleotide Metabolism Regulator (lincNMR) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) which is induced in hepatocellular carcinoma. Its depletion invokes a proliferation defect, triggers senescence and inhibits colony formation in liver, but also breast and lung cancer cells. Triple-label SILAC proteomics profiles reveal a deregulation of key cell cycle regulators in lincNMR-depleted cells like the key dNTP synthesizing enzymes RRM2, TYMS and TK1, implicating lincNMR in regulating nucleotide metabolism. LincNMR silencing decreases dNTP levels, while exogenous dNTPs rescues the proliferation defect induced by lincNMR depletion. In vivo RNA Antisense Purification (RAP-MS) identifies YBX1 as a direct interaction partner of lincNMR which regulates RRM2, TYMS and TK1 expression and binds to their promoter regions. In a Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) in vivo model, lincNMR-depleted tumors are significantly smaller. In summary, we discover a lincRNA, lincNMR, which regulates tumor cell proliferation through a YBX1-RRM2-TYMS-TK1 axis governing nucleotide metabolism.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/genética , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/metabolismo
15.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108415, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562663

RESUMO

Regorafenib, a multiple kinase inhibitor, is recently approved for treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies demonstrated that regorafenib was a mitochondrial toxicant, which associated with the impairment of mitochondria. Sirt3 is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function in cancers. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Sirt3 involved in the mitochondrial dysfunction which associated with regorafenib treatment in liver cancer cells. We found regorafenib inhibited Sirt3 and p-ERK expression in HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Bioinformatics analysis showed that Sirt3 expression was down-regulated in liver cancer tissues and its low expression was correlated with worse overall survival (OS) in liver cancer patients. After transfected with Sirt3 overexpression plasmid, we found that Sirt3 sensitized liver cancer cells to regorafenib and resulted in much more apoptosis with a significant increase of ROS level. However, exogenous antioxidant could not weaken the apoptosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential assay indicated that Sirt3 overexpression accelerated the mitochondrial depolarization process induced by regorafenib and aggravated mitochondrial injury. Cellular oxygen consumption assay showed that mitochondrial dysfunction was caused by the damage of the electron transport chain. The results demonstrated that Sirt3 overexpression promoted the increase of ROS and apoptosis induced by regorafenib through the acceleration of mitochondrial dysfunction by impairing function of the electron transport chain in liver cancer cells. Our studies verified the functional role of Sirt3 in regorafenib treatment and suggested that regorafenib accompanied with Sirt3 activator as a novel treatment strategy for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559205

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most malignant form of primary liver cancer, is the fourth most prevalent cause of cancer mortality globally. It was recently discovered that the dietary fermentable fiber, inulin, can reprogram the murine liver to favor HCC development in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. Determining the molecular pathways that are either over expressed or repressed during inulin-induced HCC would provide a platform of potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we have combined analysis of the novel inulin-induced HCC murine model and human HCC samples to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatic transcriptome profiling revealed that there were 674 DEGs in HCC mice compared to mice safeguarded from HCC. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis uncovered enrichment in ECM-receptor interaction, steroid hormone biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway, focal adhesion and protein digestion and absorption during inulin-induced HCC. Tandem mass tag based quantitative, multiplexed proteomic analysis delineated 57 differentially expressed proteins, where the over-expressed proteins were associated with cell adhesion molecules, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation and ECM-receptor interaction. After obtaining the human orthologs of the mouse genes, we did a comparison analysis to level 3 RNA-seq data found in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, corresponding to human HCC (n = 361) and healthy liver (n = 50) samples. Out of the 549 up-regulated and 68 down-regulated human orthologs identified, 142 genes (137 significantly over-expressed and 5 significantly under-expressed) were associated with human HCC. Using univariate survival analysis, we found 27 over-expressed genes involved in cell-cell adhesion and cell division that were associated with poor HCC patient survival. Overall, the genetic and proteomics signatures highlight potential underlying mechanisms in inulin-induced HCC and support that this murine HCC model is human relevant.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Insulina/toxicidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/deficiência , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
Am J Med Sci ; 359(6): 365-371, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that miR-294 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cells. However, the potential role of miR-294 in the pathogenesis of HCC remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-294 in HCC and the potential mechanism involved in this process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of miR-294 in HCC tissues and cell lines. Following the overexpression or knockdown of miR-294, the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of cells were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. The phosphorylation of JNK and ERK was determined through western blotting. Furthermore, HCC cells were treated with JNK inhibitor SP600125 or ERK inhibitor U0126 and transfected with miR-294 mimics or negative control. Subsequently, the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK was evaluated and the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of HCC cells were also determined. RESULTS: The expression of miR-294 was significantly increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. Following the overexpression of miR-294, proliferation, migration, and invasion were promoted in the SSMC-7721 cell line, and the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK was increased, while silencing of miR-294 led to the opposite result. Use of the JNK or ERK inhibitor to treat SSMC-7721 cells transfected with miR-294 mimics decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK and inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells. CONCLUSIONS: miR-294 is important for the development of HCC in terms of the biological activities of cells, and may be a novel therapeutic target for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Idoso , Antracenos/farmacologia , Butadienos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transfecção , Regulação para Cima
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497121

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is associated with an absence of obvious symptoms and poor prognosis, is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Genome-wide molecular biology studies should provide biological insights into HCC development. Based on the importance of phosphorylation for signal transduction, several protein kinase inhibitors have been developed that improve the survival of cancer patients. However, a comprehensive database of HCC-related phosphorylated biomarkers (HCCPMs) and novel HCCPMs prediction platform has been lacking. We have thus constructed the dBMHCC databases to provide expression profiles, phosphorylation and drug information, and evidence type; gathered information on HCC-related pathways and their involved genes as candidate HCC biomarkers; and established a system for evaluating protein phosphorylation and HCC-related biomarkers to improve the reliability of biomarker prediction. The resulting dBMHCC contains 611 notable HCC-related genes, 234 HCC-related pathways, 17 phosphorylation-related motifs and their 255 corresponding protein kinases, 5955 HCC biomarkers, and 1077 predicted HCCPMs. Methionine adenosyltransferase 2B (MAT2B) and acireductone dioxygenase 1 (ADI1), which regulate HCC development and hepatitis C virus infection, respectively, were among the top 10 HCCPMs predicted by dBMHCC. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), which had the highest evaluation score, was identified as the target of one HCC drug (Regorafenib), five cancer drugs, and four non-cancer drugs. dBMHCC is an open resource for HCC phosphorylated biomarkers, which supports researchers investigating the development of HCC and designing novel diagnosis methods and drug treatments. Database URL: http://predictor.nchu.edu.tw/dBMHCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Humanos , Internet , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Prognóstico
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555680

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are frequently altered in a variety of human cancer cells and are overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several literatures have proven that they are efficacious for HCC therapy, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found FGFR4 was overexpressed in HCC cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B and we used PD173074, an FGFR4 inhibitor, to explore the role of FGFR4 and its underlying mechanism in these cell lines. The results showed that PD173074 significantly arrested HepG2 and Hep3B cells in G1 phase and inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that PD173074 decreased the levels of P-FRS2α, P-ERK, CDK2, cyclin E and NF-κB (p65) in the nucleus while it increased the levels of ubiquitin and CUL3, an E3 ubiquitin ligase which involves in cyclin E degradation. Meanwhile, the data from RT-qPCR showed that PD173074 also decreased miR-141 level. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGFR4 is involved in HCC by ERK/CUL3/cyclin E signaling pathway, and the finding may provide a potential theoretical basis for treatment by targeting FGFR4 in HCC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Culina/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Culina/genética , Ciclina E/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14231-14242, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513687

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor ß-activated kinase1 (TAK1) encoded by the gene MAP3K7 regulates multiple important downstream effectors involved in immune response, cell death, and carcinogenesis. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of TAK1 in Tak1 ΔHEP mice promotes liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formation. Here, we report that genetic inactivation of RIPK1 kinase using a kinase dead knockin D138N mutation in Tak1 ΔHEP mice inhibits the expression of liver tumor biomarkers, liver fibrosis, and HCC formation. Inhibition of RIPK1, however, has no or minimum effect on hepatocyte loss and compensatory proliferation, which are the recognized factors important for liver fibrosis and HCC development. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we discovered that inhibition of RIPK1 strongly suppresses inflammation induced by hepatocyte-specific loss of TAK1. Activation of RIPK1 promotes the transcription of key proinflammatory cytokines, such as CCL2, and CCR2+ macrophage infiltration. Our study demonstrates the role and mechanism of RIPK1 kinase in promoting inflammation, both cell-autonomously and cell-nonautonomously, in the development of liver fibrosis and HCC, independent of cell death, and compensatory proliferation. We suggest the possibility of inhibiting RIPK1 kinase as a therapeutic strategy for reducing liver fibrosis and HCC development by inhibiting inflammation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Morte Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo
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