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1.
J Gene Med ; 26(3): e3681, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484722

RESUMO

Doxorubicin is a commonly used anti-cancer drug used in treating a variety of malignancies. However, a major adverse effect is cardiotoxicity, which is dose dependent and can be either acute or chronic. Doxorubicin causes injury by DNA damage, the formation of free reactive oxygen radicals and induction of apoptosis. Our aim is to induce expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) in cardiomyocytes derived from human iPS cells (hiPSC-CM), to determine whether this will allow cells to effectively remove doxorubicin and confer cardioprotection. We generated a lentivirus vector encoding MRP1 (LV.MRP1) and validated its function in HEK293T cells and stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. The activity of the overexpressed MRP1 was also tested, by quantifying the amount of fluorescent dye exported from the cell by the transporter. We demonstrated reduced dye sequestration in cells overexpressing MRP1. Finally, we demonstrated that hiPSC-CM transduced with LV.MRP1 were protected against doxorubicin injury. In conclusion, we have shown that we can successfully overexpress MRP1 protein in hiPSC-CM, with functional transporter activity leading to protection against doxorubicin-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Miócitos Cardíacos , Humanos , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Células HEK293 , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia
2.
Mol Med Rep ; 29(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488036

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (Dox) exhibits a high efficacy in the treatment of numerous types of cancer. However, the beneficial cytotoxic effects of Dox are often accompanied by an increase in the risk of cardiotoxicity. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a key role in Dox­induced cardiomyopathy (DIC). OS in cardiomyocytes disrupts endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, leading to the accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins known as ER stress. ER stress acts as an adaptive mechanism; however, prolonged ER stress together with OS may lead to the initiation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The present study aimed to explore the potential of an anti­diabetic drug, empagliflozin (EMPA), in mitigating Dox­induced ER stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of 1 h pretreatment of EMPA on Dox­treated cardiomyocytes isolated from Sprague­Dawley rats were investigated. After 24 h, EMPA pre­treatment promoted cell survival in the EMPA + Dox group compared with the Dox group. Results of the present study also demonstrated that EMPA mitigated overall ER stress, as the increased expression of ER stress markers was reduced in the EMPA + Dox group. Additionally, OS, inflammation and expression of ER stress apoptotic proteins were also significantly reduced following EMPA pre­treatment in the EMPA + Dox group. Thus, EMPA may exert beneficial effects on Dox­induced ER stress and may exhibit potential changes that can be utilised to further evaluate the role of EMPA in mitigating DIC.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Cardiomiopatias , Glucosídeos , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Apoptose , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático
3.
Am J Chin Med ; 52(2): 453-469, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490806

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a powerful anthracycline antineoplastic drug used to treat a wide spectrum of tumors. However, its clinical application is limited due to cardiotoxic side effects. Astragaloside IV (AS IV), one of the major compounds present in aqueous extracts of Astragalus membranaceus, possesses potent cardiovascular protective properties, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of AS IV on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC). Our findings revealed that DOX induced pyroptosis through the caspase-1/gasdermin D (GSDMD) and caspase-3/gasdermin E (GSDME) pathways. AS IV treatment significantly improved the cardiac function and alleviated myocardial injury in DOX-exposed mice by regulating intestinal flora and inhibiting pyroptosis; markedly suppressed the levels of cleaved caspase-1, N-GSDMD, cleaved caspase-3, and N-GSDME; and reversed DOX-induced downregulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and activation of the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in mice. The SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 significantly blocked the protective effects of AS IV. Collectively, our results suggest that AS IV protects against DIC by inhibiting pyroptosis through the SIRT1/NLRP3 pathway.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Camundongos , Animais , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Piroptose/fisiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Gasderminas , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Caspase 1/metabolismo
4.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 29(2): 349-357, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485043

RESUMO

This comprehensive review delves into the pivotal role of mitochondria in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, a significant complication limiting the clinical use of this potent anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent. Doxorubicin, while effective against various malignancies, is associated with dose-dependent cardiotoxicity, potentially leading to irreversible cardiac damage. The review meticulously dissects the molecular mechanisms underpinning this cardiotoxicity, particularly focusing on mitochondrial dysfunction, a central player in this adverse effect. Central to the discussion is the concept of mitochondrial quality control, including mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission balance) and mitophagy. The review presents evidence linking aberrations in these processes to cardiotoxicity in doxorubicin-treated patients. It elucidates how doxorubicin disrupts mitochondrial dynamics, leading to an imbalance between mitochondrial fission and fusion, and impairs mitophagy, culminating in the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and subsequent cardiac cell damage. Furthermore, the review explores emerging therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial dysfunction. It highlights the potential of modulating mitochondrial dynamics and enhancing mitophagy to mitigate doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage. These strategies include pharmacological interventions with mitochondrial fission inhibitors, fusion promoters, and agents that modulate mitophagy. The review underscores the promising results from preclinical studies while advocating for more extensive clinical trials to validate these approaches in human patients. In conclusion, this review offers valuable insights into the intricate relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity. It underscores the need for continued research into targeted mitochondrial therapies as a means to improve the cardiac safety profile of doxorubicin, thereby enhancing the overall treatment outcomes for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Doenças Mitocondriais , Humanos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Mitocôndrias , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Mitocondriais/complicações , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 122, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456997

RESUMO

Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC), which is a cardiovascular complication, has become the foremost determinant of decreased quality of life and mortality among survivors of malignant tumors, in addition to recurrence and metastasis. The limited ability to accurately predict the occurrence and severity of doxorubicin-induced injury has greatly hindered the prevention of DIC, but reducing the dose to mitigate side effects may compromise the effective treatment of primary malignancies. This has posed a longstanding clinical challenge for oncologists and cardiologists. Ferroptosis in cardiomyocytes has been shown to be a pivotal mechanism underlying cardiac dysfunction in DIC. Ferroptosis is influenced by multiple factors. The innate immune response, as exemplified by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), may play a significant role in the regulation of ferroptosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of NETs in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte ferroptosis and elucidate their regulatory role. This study confirmed the presence of NETs in DIC in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that depleting neutrophils effectively reduced the occurrence of doxorubicin-induced ferroptosis and myocardial injury in DIC. Additionally, our findings showed the pivotal role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a critical molecule implicated in DIC and emphasized its involvement in the modulation of ferroptosis subsequent to NETs inhibition. Mechanistically, we obtained preliminary evidence suggesting that doxorubicin-induced NETs could modulate yes-associated protein (YAP) activity by releasing HMGB1, which subsequently bound to toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the cardiomyocyte membrane, thereby influencing cardiomyocyte ferroptosis in vitro. Our findings suggest that doxorubicin-induced NETs modulate cardiomyocyte ferroptosis via the HMGB1/TLR4/YAP axis, thereby contributing to myocardial injury. This study offers a novel approach for preventing and alleviating DIC by targeting alterations in the immune microenvironment.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares , Ferroptose , Proteína HMGB1 , Cardiopatias , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos
6.
OMICS ; 28(3): 103-110, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466948

RESUMO

Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody used in oncotherapy for HER2-positive tumors. However, as an adverse effect, trastuzumab elevates the risk of heart failure, implying the involvement of energy production and mitochondrial processes. Past studies with transcriptome analysis have offered insights on pathways related to trastuzumab safety and toxicity but limited study sizes hinder conclusive findings. Therefore, we meta-analyzed mitochondria-related gene expression data in trastuzumab-treated cardiomyocytes. We searched the transcriptome databases for trastuzumab-treated cardiomyocytes in the ArrayExpress, DDBJ Omics Archive, Gene Expression Omnibus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science repositories. A subset of 1270 genes related to mitochondrial functions (biogenesis, organization, mitophagy, and autophagy) was selected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology Resource databases to conduct the present meta-analysis using the Metagen package (Study register at PROSPERO: CRD42021270645). Three datasets met the inclusion criteria and 1243 genes were meta-analyzed. We observed 69 upregulated genes after trastuzumab treatment which were related mainly to autophagy (28 genes) and mitochondrial organization (28 genes). We also found 37 downregulated genes which were related mainly to mitochondrial biogenesis (11 genes) and mitochondrial organization (24 genes). The present meta-analysis indicates that trastuzumab therapy causes an unbalance in mitochondrial functions, which could, in part, help explain the development of heart failure and yields a list of potential molecular targets. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the cardiotoxic effects of trastuzumab and may have implications for the development of targeted therapies to mitigate such effects.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Miócitos Cardíacos , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 173: 116464, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503242

RESUMO

The study aimed to demonstrate that matrine can reduce apoptosis in H9c2 cells induced by the cardiotoxic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX).The researchers pretreated H9c2 cells with different concentrations of matrine before exposing them to DOX and cultured them for 24 h. They assessed cell survival rates using cell counting kit-8 and MTT assay. Hoechst 33258 dye kits were used to determine apoptosis, while laser confocal JC-1 method was applied to test the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Complex I activities were detected following the manufacturer's protocol. The results indicated that matrine pretreatment significantly increased the survival rate of H9c2 cells injured by DOX. Additionally, matrine reduced apoptosis in H9c2 cells through the improvement of MMP and activity of Complex I, which were damaged by DOX.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Matrinas , Humanos , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Transporte de Elétrons , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/metabolismo , Apoptose , Estresse Oxidativo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474123

RESUMO

Radiotherapy-induced cardiac toxicity and consequent diseases still represent potential severe late complications for many cancer survivors who undergo therapeutic thoracic irradiation. We aimed to assess the phenotypic and paracrine features of resident cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (CMSCs) at early follow-up after the end of thoracic irradiation of the heart as an early sign and/or mechanism of cardiac toxicity anticipating late organ dysfunction. Resident CMSCs were isolated from a rat model of fractionated thoracic irradiation with accurate and clinically relevant heart dosimetry that developed delayed dose-dependent cardiac dysfunction after 1 year. Cells were isolated 6 and 12 weeks after the end of radiotherapy and fully characterized at the transcriptional, paracrine, and functional levels. CMSCs displayed several altered features in a dose- and time-dependent trend, with the most impaired characteristics observed in those exposed in situ to the highest radiation dose with time. In particular, altered features included impaired cell migration and 3D growth and a and significant association of transcriptomic data with GO terms related to altered cytokine and growth factor signaling. Indeed, the altered paracrine profile of CMSCs derived from the group at the highest dose at the 12-week follow-up gave significantly reduced angiogenic support to endothelial cells and polarized macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory profile. Data collected in a clinically relevant rat model of heart irradiation simulating thoracic radiotherapy suggest that early paracrine and transcriptional alterations of the cardiac stroma may represent a dose- and time-dependent biological substrate for the delayed cardiac dysfunction phenotype observed in vivo.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Lesões por Radiação , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Lesões por Radiação/metabolismo
9.
Redox Biol ; 70: 103067, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316068

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity seriously limits its clinical applicability, and no therapeutic interventions are available. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent regulated cell death characterised by lipid peroxidation, plays a pivotal role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation is the most frequent type of RNA modification and involved in DOX-induced ferroptosis, however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. P21 was recently found to inhibit ferroptosis by interacting with Nrf2 and is regulated in a P53-dependent or independent manner, such as through m6A modification. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying m6A modification in DOX-induced ferroptosis by focusing on P21. Our results show that fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) down-regulation was associated with DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. FTO over-expression significantly improved cardiac function and cell viability in DOX-treated mouse hearts and H9C2 cells. FTO over-expression significantly inhibited DOX-induced ferroptosis, and the Fer-1 inhibition of ferroptosis significantly reduced DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. P21 was significantly upregulated by FTO and activated Nrf2, playing a crucial role in the anti-ferroptotic effect. FTO upregulated P21/Nrf2 in a P53-dependent manner by mediating the demethylation of P53 or in a P53-independent manner by mediating P21/Nrf2 directly. Human antigen R (HuR) is crucial for FTO-mediated regulation of ferroptosis and P53-P21/Nrf2. Notably, we also found that P21 inhibition in turn inhibited HuR and P53 expression, while HuR inhibition further inhibited FTO expression. RNA immunoprecipitation assay showed that HuR binds to the transcripts of FTO and itself. Collectively, FTO inhibited DOX-induced ferroptosis via P21/Nrf2 activation by mediating the m6A demethylation of P53 or P21/Nrf2 in a HuR-dependent manner and constituted a positive feedback loop with HuR and P53-P21. Our findings provide novel insight into key functional mechanisms associated with DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and elucidate a possible therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Cardiotoxicidade , Ferroptose , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ferroptose/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , RNA , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo
10.
Redox Biol ; 70: 103079, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359747

RESUMO

Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) adversely impacts patients' long-term health and quality of life. Its underlying mechanism is complex, involving regulatory cell death mechanisms, such as ferroptosis and autophagy. Moreover, it is a challenge faced by patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Endurance exercise (E-Exe) preconditioning effectively counters DIC injury, potentially through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. However, detailed studies on this process's mechanisms are scarce. Here, E-Exe preconditioning and DIC models were established using mice and primary cultured adult mouse cardiomyocytes (PAMCs). Akin to ferrostatin-1 (ferroptosis inhibitor), rapamycin (autophagic inducer), and MitoTEMPO (mitochondrial free-radical scavenger), E-Exe preconditioning effectively alleviated Fe2+ accumulation and oxidative stress and improved energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in DIC injury, as demonstrated by multifunctional, enzymatic, and morphological indices. However, erastin (ferroptosis inducer), 3-methyladenine (autophagic inhibitor), adenovirus-mediated AMPKα2 downregulation, and AMPKα2 inhibition by compound C significantly diminished these effects, both in vivo and in vitro. The results suggest a non-traditional mechanism where E-Exe preconditioning, under mild mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, upregulates and phosphorylates AMPKα2, thereby enhancing mitochondrial complex I activity, activating adaptive autophagy, and improving myocardial tolerance to DIC injury. Overall, this study highlighted the pivotal role of mitochondria in myocardial DIC-induced ferroptosis and shows how E-Exe preconditioning activated AMPKα2 against myocardial DIC injury. This suggests that E-Exe preconditioning could be a viable strategy for patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Superóxidos , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
11.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 43: 9603271241231947, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324556

RESUMO

Objectives: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective chemotherapeutic used to treat many adult and pediatric cancers, such as solid tumors, leukemia, lymphomas and breast cancer. It can also cause injuries to multiple organs, including the heart, liver, and brain or kidney, although cardiotoxicity is the most prominent side effect of DOX. In this study, we examined the potential effects of DOX on autophagy activity in two different mouse fibroblasts.Methods: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and mouse primary cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were treated with DOX to assess changes in the expression of two commonly used autophagy protein markers, LC3II and p62. We also examined the effects of DOX the on expression of key genes that encode components of the molecular machinery and regulators modulating autophagy in response to both extracellular and intracellular signals.Results: We observed that LC3II levels increased and p62 levels decreased following the DOX treatment in NIH3T3 cells. However, similar effects were not observed in primary cardiac fibroblasts. In addition, DOX treatment induced the upregulation of a significant number of genes involved in autophagy in NIH3T3 cells, but not in primary cardiac fibroblasts.Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate that DOX upregulates autophagy in fibroblasts in a cell-specific manner.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Criança , Animais , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Fibroblastos , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Autofagia , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Apoptose
12.
Environ Toxicol ; 39(5): 2993-3002, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314641

RESUMO

Fludioxonil (Flu) is a phenylpyrrole fungicide and is currently used in over 900 agricultural products globally. Flu possesses endocrine-disrupting chemical-like properties and has been shown to mediate various physiological and pathological changes, such as apoptosis and differentiation, in diverse cell lines. However, the effects of Flu on cardiomyocytes have not been studied so far. The present study investigated the effects of Flu on mitochondria in AC16 human cardiomyocytes and H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. Flu decreased cell viability in a water-soluble tetrazolium assay and mediated morphological changes suggestive of apoptosis in AC16 and H9c2 cells. We confirmed that annexin V positive cells were increased by Flu through annexin V/propidium iodide staining. This suggests that the decrease in cell viability due to Flu may be associated with increased apoptotic changes. Flu consistently increased the expression of pro-apoptotic markers such as Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved-caspase 3. Further, Flu reduced the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in AC16 and H9c2 cells, which is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as observed through JC-1 staining. In addition, Flu augmented the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which can trigger oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that Flu induces mitochondrial dysregulation in cardiomyocytes via the downregulation of the OCR and MMP and upregulation of the oxidative stress, consequently resulting in the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. This study provides evidence of the risk of Flu toxicity on cardiomyocytes leading to the development of cardiovascular diseases and suggests that the use of Flu in agriculture should be done with caution and awareness of the probable health consequences of exposure to Flu.


Assuntos
Dioxóis , Doenças Mitocondriais , Miócitos Cardíacos , Pirróis , Ratos , Animais , Humanos , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Anexina A5/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Apoptose , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial
13.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 24(3): 266-279, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347287

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX; also known as adriamycin) serves as a crucial antineoplastic agent in cancer treatment; however, its clinical utility is hampered by its' intrinsic cardiotoxicity. Although most DOX biotransformation occurs in the liver, a comprehensive understanding of the impact of DOX biotransformation and its' metabolites on its induced cardiotoxicity remains to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to explore the role of biotransformation and DOX's main metabolites in its induced cardiotoxicity in human differentiated cardiac AC16 cells. A key discovery from our study is that modulating metabolism had minimal effects on DOX-induced cytotoxicity: even so, metyrapone (a non-specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450) increased DOX-induced cytotoxicity at 2 µM, while diallyl sulphide (a CYP2E1 inhibitor) decreased the 1 µM DOX-triggered cytotoxicity. Then, the toxicity of the main DOX metabolites, doxorubicinol [(DOXol, 0.5 to 10 µM), doxorubicinone (DOXone, 1 to 10 µM), and 7-deoxydoxorubicinone (7-DeoxyDOX, 1 to 10 µM)] was compared to DOX (0.5 to 10 µM) following a 48-h exposure. All metabolites evaluated, DOXol, DOXone, and 7-DeoxyDOX caused mitochondrial dysfunction in differentiated AC16 cells, but only at 2 µM. In contrast, DOX elicited comparable cytotoxicity, but at half the concentration. Similarly, all metabolites, except 7-DeoxyDOX impacted on lysosomal ability to uptake neutral red. Therefore, the present study showed that the modulation of DOX metabolism demonstrated minimal impact on its cytotoxicity, with the main metabolites exhibiting lower toxicity to AC16 cardiac cells compared to DOX. In conclusion, our findings suggest that metabolism may not be a pivotal factor in mediating DOX's cardiotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Cardiotoxicidade , Humanos , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Coração , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Miócitos Cardíacos
14.
Environ Pollut ; 346: 123651, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408505

RESUMO

Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is an organophosphorus flame retardant, but its cardiac toxicity has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, in the current study, the effect of TPHP on the heart and the underlying mechanism involved was evaluated. C57BL/6 J mice were administered TPHP (0, 5, and 50 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. In addition, H9c2 cells were treated with three various concentrations (0, 50, and 150 µM) of TPHP, with and without the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine or the mitochondrial fusion promoter M1. TPHP caused cardiac fibrosis and increased the levels of CK-MB and LDH in the serum. TPHP increased the levels of ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Furthermore, TPHP caused mitochondrial damage, and induced fusion and fission disorders that contributed to mitophagy in both the heart of C57BL/6 J mice and H9c2 cells. Transcriptome analysis showed that TPHP induced up- or down-regulated expression of various genes in myocardial tissue and revealed enriched apoptosis pathways. It was also found that TPHP could remarkably increase the expression levels of Bax, cleaved Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-3, and decreased Bcl-2, thereby causing apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Taken together, the results suggested that TPHP promoted mitophagy through mitochondria fusion dysfunction resulting from oxidative stress, leading to fibrosis by inducing myocardial apoptosis.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Miócitos Cardíacos , Organofosfatos , Camundongos , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Apoptose , Fibrose
15.
Discov Med ; 36(181): 415-423, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity has been corroborated to be the toxic influence of cisplatin (CDDP). Oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis play a vital part in cardiotoxicity induced by CDDP. Salvianolic acid Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is a monomeric component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory influences. In this research, we explored the mechanism of SalB in cardiotoxicity induced by CDDP. METHOD: 36 Wistar rats were separated into sham subgroup, CDDP (10 mg/kg) subgroup, CDDP (10 mg/kg) + SalB (1 µM) subgroup at random, CDDP (10 mg/kg) + SalB (5 µM) subgroup and CDDP (10 mg/kg) + SalB (10 µM) subgroup, Nicotinic Acid Riboside (NAR, 5 µM), with 6 rats in each subgroup. The cardiac function of rats in each subgroup was estimated by echocardiography, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining corroborated the pathological changes of cardiac tissue. Biochemical kits were utilized for detecting the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-18, and caspase-1 concentrations in serum, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardial tissue, TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining, and flow cytometry were utilized for estimating the apoptosis level in myocardial tissue, western blot was used for estimating caspase-3, Bcl2-Associated X (Bax) levels in myocardial tissue and proteins levels related to Nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) signal pathway. RESULTS: CDDP-induced cardiac dysfunction, myocardial injury, boosted LDH and CK levels in serum (p < 0.05), memorably increased oxidative stress level in myocardial tissue (p < 0.05), boosted inflammatory response (p < 0.05), boosted apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes (p < 0.05), and declined the Nrf2, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein levels (p < 0.05). Interestingly, SalB remedy could alleviate the changes caused by CDDP in the above parameters, significantly decrease the level of myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SalB ameliorates the injury of cardiomyocytes induced by chemotherapy through oxidative stress mediated by the Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signal pathway.


Assuntos
Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Benzofuranos , Depsídeos , Miócitos Cardíacos , Ratos , Animais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Oxidativo , Apoptose
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396896

RESUMO

Late cardiotoxicity is a formidable challenge in anthracycline-based anticancer treatments. Previous research hypothesized that co-administration of carvedilol (CVD) and dexrazoxane (DEX) might provide superior protection against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity compared to DEX alone. However, the anticipated benefits were not substantiated by the findings. This study focuses on investigating the impact of CVD on myocardial redox system parameters in rats treated with DOX + DEX, examining its influence on overall toxicity and iron metabolism. Additionally, considering the previously observed DOX-induced ascites, a seldom-discussed condition, the study explores the potential involvement of the liver in ascites development. Compounds were administered weekly for ten weeks, with a specific emphasis on comparing parameter changes between DOX + DEX + CVD and DOX + DEX groups. Evaluation included alterations in body weight, feed and water consumption, and analysis of NADPH2, NADP+, NADPH2/NADP+, lipid peroxidation, oxidized DNA, and mRNA for superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase expressions in cardiac muscle. The iron management panel included markers for iron, transferrin, and ferritin. Liver abnormalities were assessed through histological examinations, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and serum albumin level measurements. During weeks 11 and 21, reduced NADPH2 levels were observed in almost all examined groups. Co-administration of DEX and CVD negatively affected transferrin levels in DOX-treated rats but did not influence body weight changes. Ascites predominantly resulted from cardiac muscle dysfunction rather than liver-related effects. The study's findings, exploring the impact of DEX and CVD on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, indicate a lack of scientific justification for advocating the combined use of these drugs at histological, biochemical, and molecular levels.


Assuntos
Ascite , Cardiotoxicidade , Ratos , Animais , Carvedilol/farmacologia , NADP/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Ascite/patologia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ferro/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Transferrina/metabolismo , Peso Corporal
17.
J Chem Inf Model ; 64(4): 1172-1186, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300851

RESUMO

Drug-induced cardiotoxicity (DICT) is a major concern in drug development, accounting for 10-14% of postmarket withdrawals. In this study, we explored the capabilities of chemical and biological data to predict cardiotoxicity, using the recently released DICTrank data set from the United States FDA. We found that such data, including protein targets, especially those related to ion channels (e.g., hERG), physicochemical properties (e.g., electrotopological state), and peak concentration in plasma offer strong predictive ability for DICT. Compounds annotated with mechanisms of action such as cyclooxygenase inhibition could distinguish between most-concern and no-concern DICT. Cell Painting features for ER stress discerned most-concern cardiotoxic from nontoxic compounds. Models based on physicochemical properties provided substantial predictive accuracy (AUCPR = 0.93). With the availability of omics data in the future, using biological data promises enhanced predictability and deeper mechanistic insights, paving the way for safer drug development. All models from this study are available at https://broad.io/DICTrank_Predictor.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 700: 149582, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306930

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used antitumor drug, but its clinical applicability is hampered by the unfortunate side effect of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC). In our current study, we retrieved three high-throughput sequencing datasets related to DIC from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. We conducted differential analysis using R (DESeq2) to pinpoint differentially expressed genes (DEGs, and identified 11 genes that were consistently altered in both the control and DOX-treated groups. Notably, our Random Forest analysis of these three GEO datasets highlighted the significance of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) in the context of DIC. The DOX-induced mouse model and cell model were used for the in vivo and in vitro studies to reveal the role of NR4A1 in DIC. We found that silencing NR4A1 by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) contained shRNA in vivo alleviated the DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction, cardiomyocyte injury and fibrosis. Mechanistically, we found NR4A1 silencing was able to inhibit DOX-induced the cleavage of NLRP3, IL-1ß and GSDMD in vivo. Further in vitro studies have shown that inhibition of NR4A1 suppressed DOX-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress through the same molecular mechanism. We prove that NR4A1 plays a critical role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inducing pyroptosis via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and it might be a promising therapeutic target for DIC.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Inflamassomos , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares , Animais , Camundongos , Apoptose , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética
19.
Cell Signal ; 117: 111070, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307305

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (Dox) is a potent antineoplastic agent, but its use is curtailed by severe cardiotoxicity, known as Dox-induced cardiomyopathy (DIC). The molecular mechanism underlying this cardiotoxicity remains unclear. Our current study investigates the role of Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 36 (USP36), a nucleolar deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), in the progression of DIC and its mechanism. We found increased USP36 expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and H9C2 cells exposed to Dox. Silencing USP36 significantly mitigated Dox-induced oxidative stress injury and apoptosis in vitro. Mechanistically, USP36 upregulation positively correlated with Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) expression, and its knockdown led to a reduction in PARP1 levels. Further investigation revealed that USP36 could bind to and mediate the deubiquitination of PARP1, thereby increasing its protein stability in cardiomyocytes upon Dox exposure. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type (WT) USP36 plasmid, but not its catalytically inactive mutant (C131A), stabilized PARP1 in HEK293T cells. We also established a DIC model in mice and observed significant upregulation of USP36 in the heart. Cardiac knockdown of USP36 in mice using a type 9 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV9)-shUSP36 significantly preserved cardiac function after Dox treatment and protected against Dox-induced structural changes within the myocardium. In conclusion, these findings suggest that Dox promotes DIC progression by activating USP36-mediated PARP1 deubiquitination. This novel USP36/PARP1 axis may play a significant regulatory role in the pathogenesis of DIC.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Cardiotoxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Apoptose , Cardiomiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Células HEK293 , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo
20.
Phytomedicine ; 127: 155473, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. However, its clinical application is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Recent findings demonstrated that autophagy inhibition and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by oxidative stress dominate the pathophysiology of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC), however, there are no potential molecules targeting on these. PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore whether aucubin (AU) acting on inimitable crosstalk between NRF2 and HIPK2 mediated the autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in DIC, and provide a new and alternative strategy for the treatment of DIC. METHODS AND RESULTS: We first demonstrated the protection of AU on cardiac structure and function in DIC mice manifested by increased EF and FS values, decreased serum CK-MB and LDH contents and well-aligned cardiac tissue in HE staining. Furthermore, AU alleviated DOX-induced myocardial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and autophagy flux dysregulation in mice, as measured by decreased ROS, 8-OHdG, and TUNEL-positive cells in myocardial tissue, increased SOD and decreased MDA in serum, aligned mitochondria with reduced vacuoles, and increased autophagosomes. In vitro, AU alleviated DOX-induced oxidative stress, autophagy inhibition, and apoptosis by promoting NRF2 and HIPK2 expression. We also identified crosstalk between NRF2 and HIPK2 in DIC as documented by overexpression of NRF2 or HIPK2 reversed cellular oxidative stress, autophagy blocking, and apoptosis aggravated by HIPK2 or NRF2 siRNA, respectively. Simultaneously, AU promoted the expression and nuclear localization of NRF2 protein, which was reversed by HIPK2 siRNA, and AU raised the expression of HIPK2 protein as well, which was reversed by NRF2 siRNA. Crucially, AU did not affect the antitumor activity of DOX against MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, which made up for the shortcomings of previous anti-DIC drugs. CONCLUSION: These collective results innovatively documented that AU regulated the unique crosstalk between NRF2 and HIPK2 to coordinate oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis against DIC without compromising the anti-tumor effect of DOX in vitro.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Camundongos , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos , Apoptose , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Autofagia
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