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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
2.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684043

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was the evaluation of cytokine patterns in terms of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1ß secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) supernatants isolated from blood of children affected by generalized epilepsy and treated in vitro with myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic, and total protein fractions of meat and fish sources. Children with generalized epilepsy (EC group, n = 16) and children without any clinical signs of disease, representing a control group (CC group n = 16), were recruited at the Complex Structure of Neuropsychiatry Childhood-Adolescence of Policlinico Riuniti (Foggia, Italy). Myofibrillar (MYO), sarcoplasmic (SA), and total (TOT) protein fractions were obtained from longissimus thoracis muscle of beef (BF) and lamb (LA); from pectoralis muscle of chicken (CH); and from dorsal white muscle of sole (Solea solea, SO), European hake (Merluccius merluccius, EH), and sea bass fish (Dicentrarchus labrax, SB), respectively. PBMCs were isolated from peripheral blood of EC and CC groups, and an in vitro stimulation in the presence of 100 µg/mL for each protein fraction from different meat sources was performed. Data were classified according to three different levels of cytokines produced from the EC group relative to the CC group. TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 levels were not affected by different meat fractions and meat sources; on the contrary, IL-1ß levels were found to be significantly affected by the tested proteins fractions, as well as different meat sources, in high-level cytokine group. On average, the protein fractions obtained from LB, BF, and CH meat sources showed a higher level of IL-1ß than the protein fractions obtained from EH and SB fish samples. When all cytokine classes were analyzed, on average, a significant effect was observed for IL-10, IL-1ß, and TNF-α. Data obtained in the present study evidence that the nutritional strategy based on protein from fish and meat sources may modulate the immunological cytokine pattern of infants with generalized epilepsy.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Epilepsia Generalizada , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epilepsia Generalizada/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6 , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Carne , Ovinos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 79, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations of cancer with types of diets, including vegetarian, fish, and poultry-containing diets, remain unclear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the association of type of diet with all cancers and 19 site-specific incident cancers in a prospective cohort study and then in a meta-analysis of published prospective cohort studies. METHODS: A total of 409,110 participants from the UK Biobank study, recruited between 2006 and 2010, were included. The outcomes were incidence of all cancers combined and 19 cancer sites. Associations between the types of diets and cancer were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Previously published prospective cohort studies were identified from four databases, and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 10.6 years (IQR 10.0; 11.3). Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians (hazard ratio (HR) 0.87 [95% CI: 0.79 to 0.96]) and pescatarians (HR 0.93 [95% CI: 0.87 to 1.00]) had lower overall cancer risk. Vegetarians also had a lower risk of colorectal and prostate cancers compared with meat-eaters. In the meta-analysis, vegetarians (Risk Ratio (RR): 0.90 [0.86 to 0.94]) and pescatarians (RR 0.91 [0.86; 0.96]) had lower risk of overall and colorectal cancer. No associations between the types of diets and prostate, breast, or lung cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians and pescatarians had a lower risk of overall, colorectal, and prostate cancer. When results were pooled in a meta-analysis, the associations with overall and colorectal cancer persisted, but the results relating to other specific cancer sites were inconclusive.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Aves Domésticas , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vegetarianos
4.
Biomaterials ; 286: 121602, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660866

RESUMO

A major challenge for successful cultured meat production is the requirement for large quantities of skeletal muscle satellite cells (MuSCs). Commercial microcarriers (MCs), such as Cytodex®1, enable extensive cell expansion by offering a large surface-to-volume ratio. However, the cell-dissociation step post cell expansion makes the cell expansion less efficient. A solution is using food-grade MCs made of sustainable raw materials that do not require a dissociation step and can be included in the final meat product. This study aimed to produce food-grade MCs from food industry by-products (i.e., turkey collagen and eggshell membrane) and testing their ability to expand bovine MuSCs in spinner flask systems for eight days. The MCs' physical properties were characterized, followed by analyzing the cell adhesion, growth, and metabolic activity. All MCs had an interconnected porous structure. Hybrid MCs composed of eggshell membrane and collagen increased the mechanical hardness and stabilized the buoyancy compared to pure collagen MCs. The MuSCs successively attached and covered the entire surface of all MCs while expressing high cell proliferation, metabolic activity, and low cell cytotoxicity. Cytodex®1 MCs were included in the study. Relative gene expression of skeletal muscle markers showed reduced PAX7 and increased MYF5, which together with augmented proliferation marker MKI67 indicated activated and proliferating MuSCs on all MCs. Furthermore, the expression pattern of cell adhesion receptors (ITGb5 and SDC4) and focal adhesion marker VCL varied between the distinct MCs, indicating different specific cell receptor interactions with the various biomaterials. Altogether, our results demonstrate that these biomaterials are promising prospects to produce custom-fabricated food-grade MCs intended to expand MuSCs.


Assuntos
Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Indústria Alimentícia , Carne , Músculo Esquelético , Porosidade , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
5.
Food Microbiol ; 106: 104035, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690439

RESUMO

Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter spp and Salmonella spp. These two bacterial genera are commonly linked with cases of human gastrointestinal disease, thus mitigating their presence in the poultry meat supply chain is paramount. Here, the efficacy of two sanitizers, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), was tested using whole chicken carcasses obtained either prior to the inside/outside wash or the post-immersion spin chill steps of processing. Two concentrations of PAA (100 and 200 ppm) and ASC (450 and 900 ppm) were tested, and both significantly reduced total viable bacteria and Campylobacter counts per carcass. Both sanitizers also reduced the prevalence of Salmonella on whole carcasses from both processing steps. Log reduction of both the total viable and Campylobacter counts were, however, temperature and processing stage dependent. The efficacy of both PAA and ASC were also compared with sodium hypochlorite. No significant difference between the three sanitizers was observed for the reduction of TVC, Campylobacter or Salmonella using carcasses obtained at either processing step. These results demonstrate that PAA or ASC could be implemented as a replacement or used in addition to sodium hypochlorite to effectively reduce bacteria on whole carcasses.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Ácido Peracético , Animais , Bactérias , Galinhas/microbiologia , Cloretos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Salmonella , Hipoclorito de Sódio
6.
Food Microbiol ; 106: 104034, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690453

RESUMO

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Pseudomonas were considered as common colonizers of fresh and spoilage meat, where they tended to live in the proximity. In this study, we tested the interplay between different isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and Pseudomonas in random two-by-two combinations grown as dual-species consortia. Results showed that the growth fitness of E. coli was not facilitated by the presence of all tested Pseudomonas strains, and vice versa. Representative combinations were further selected to investigate the property changes following the time course of biofilms formation as compared to single species. Cell counting confirmed that the growth of E. coli O157:H7 was challenged by the presence of Pseudomonas strains as previously described. Our findings shed new light on the evidence that the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7 was negatively affected by the presence of Pseudomonas according to the evaluation of spatial organization and genetic expression of virulence factors, which might be a naturally existing biological phenomenon constraining the safety risk of former strains in meat processing and preservation. Intriguingly, we observed that E. coli managed to stably co-exist at low cellular abundance in the progress of dual-species consortia, indicating successful adaptive mechanisms that need further investigations to uncover.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157 , Microbiota , Biofilmes , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne , Pseudomonas/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9154, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650423

RESUMO

It has been debated whether intensive selection for growth and carcass yield in pig breeding programmes can affect the size of internal organs, and thereby reduce the animal's ability to handle stress and increase the risk of sudden deaths. To explore the respiratory and circulatory system in pigs, a deep learning based computational pipeline was built to extract the size of lungs and hearts from CT-scan images. This pipeline was applied on CT images from 11,000 boar selection candidates acquired during the last decade. Further, heart and lung volumes were analysed genetically and correlated with production traits. Both heart and lung volumes were heritable, with h2 estimated to 0.35 and 0.34, respectively, in Landrace, and 0.28 and 0.4 in Duroc. Both volumes were positively correlated with lean meat percentage, and lung volume was negatively genetically correlated with growth (rg = - 0.48 ± 0.07 for Landrace and rg = - 0.44 ± 0.07 for Duroc). The main findings suggest that the current pig breeding programs could, as an indirect response to selection, affect the size of hearts- and lungs. The presented methods can be used to monitor the development of internal organs in the future.


Assuntos
Carne , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Masculino , Fenótipo , Suínos
8.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111365, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650983

RESUMO

Leuconostoc mesenteroides are generally recognized as a group of specific spoilage organisms in meat and poultry products, which cause acidification and blown pack spoilage of meat. In this study, a total of 6 representative strains selected from 55 L. mesenteroides isolated from spoiled meat were tested to evaluate the spoilage ability by metabonomics and in-situ analysis. The intra-species spoilage heterogeneity was observed. The results showed that the acidifying and gas production capacity of L. mesenteroides was distinct between in broth and on meat. The pH of inoculated MRS broth was 1.38 to 1.49 units lower than that of the sterile broth and the height of gas column in Durham tube ranged from 8 mm to 11 mm at 72 h, all significantly different from the sterile group. Metabonomic analysis revealed that the main produced organic acids were myristic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, valeric acid and enoic acid. It also illustrated that the UHPLC-MS/MS profiles of L4 and L5 was distinct from the other strains. In terms of meat inoculated with L. mesenteroides, most pH values did not show significant difference from that of the meat without inoculation, and vacuum packaging distension was not observed. Increase of TVB-N was very limited as well. The growth rate of L2, L4 and L5, as well as the pH changes of L3 and L6, varied wildly between different growth matrix. The differences between L5 and the other strains were the most obvious. The growth rate of L5 was the highest in vitro but the lowest in situ, and its acid- and gas-producing rate was relatively lower than that of the other groups. The results exhibited that it is limited to judge the bacteria-derived meat spoilage only by in-vitro growth. What should be focused on is the spoilage strengths in situ rather than the pure standard culture. In conclusion, the present study analyses profiles related to growth, acidification and gas production of L. mesenteroides in vitro and in situ, and provides references for emphasis on future research to reduce the loss of meat in consequence of spoilage.


Assuntos
Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Leuconostoc , Carne , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111103, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650996

RESUMO

Spoilage dynamics of two beef burger batches from different beef origins were followed from their shared processing run until the use-by date and beyond. Amplicon based sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities were compared with microbial counts and volatilome profile in order to determine whether and at which extent their perishability was related to the batch origin. Microbiological counts did not differ between batch A and B, whereas Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) profiles were only distinguishable after the use-by date. Metataxonomic analysis showed that both batches shared the same initial fungal and bacterial community, which however represented a transient signature of the processing run. Indeed, it was rapidly replaced by batch-autochthonous species of fungi and bacteria. Different temporal succession patterns of psychotropic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were observed between the batches from the fourth day of vacuum storage. In particular, the sequential dominance of Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc piscium in batch B was correlated with a more heterogeneous volatilome and greater production of VOCs linked to off-odours, such as the acetoin. The metataxonomic survey was able to discriminate between the two batches of hamburgers in relation to their origin and regardless of the initially shared processing-derived contamination.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Vácuo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111171, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651035

RESUMO

To explore the chemical composition of chicken meat during different growth and development periods, the dynamic alterations of the metabolite composition were determined using LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics. Together, 573 metabolites were identified in chicken meat from five age stages. Generally, pentadecanoic acid, stearic acid, creatine, carnosine, IMP, L-histidine and L-isoleucine presented an upward trend with age, while anserine, DHA, L-aspartic acid, LPA 18:1 and LPI 18:1 decreased with age. The main pathways of chicken meat metabolism affected by age were fructose and mannose metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, riboflavin metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and linoleic acid metabolism. Using transcriptomic profiling data, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis between gene expression and metabolite profile data in each age comparison. Integration analysis of metabolome and transcriptome would be helpful to understand the biological processes underlying the development of meat quality and explore valuable biomarkers for specific metabolite accumulation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transcriptoma , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Carne/análise , Metaboloma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111307, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651067

RESUMO

As a high-value processed aquatic product, wet-aged tuna has gradually become a popular food, but its lipidomics characteristics during the aging process have not been investigated. Herein, the lipidomics phenotypic data of tuna at different wet-aging stages were acquired using iKnife rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry, in which the dominant lipid components, including fatty acid (FA), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI), were structurally identified. Principal component analysis, permutation test, heatmap, and circos plot analysis were performed to characterize lipids in wet-aged tuna, among which FAC18:1, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and PIC18:0/22:6 were the most contributing components for determining the wet-aging stage of tuna. The results indicated that iKnife-REIMS is accurate (86.5%), reliable, and could be used in the real-time detection of tuna meat during different wet-aging stages.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Atum , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Carne/análise
12.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111334, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651084

RESUMO

The aging of beef affects the metabolome and, thus, its quality, such as taste or tenderness. In addition to the aging method, intrinsic factors, such as breed, feed and muscle type, also have an effect on beef's metabolome. It is not known yet whether the position of the sampling in large muscles also has an influence on beef's metabolome and its aging outcome. The effect of the sampling position in M. longissimus dorsi as a large muscle was investigated in dry-aged and wet-aged beef over an aging period of 28 days. In this study, we analyzed 360 samples out of the entire length of M. longissimus dorsi of 18 'Simmental' young bulls by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The position in the muscle affected the polar fraction of metabolome of non-aged and aged beef significantly. However, sampling position did not overlay significant differences in the metabolome of dry-aged and wet-aged beef. The aging time of beef also had a significant effect on the metabolome. Marker metabolites, such as leucine, isoleucine, inosine 5'-monophosphate and hypoxanthine, were found to be indicative of the aging time applied. In addition, marker metabolites (lactic acid, anserine, O-acetyl-L-carnitine) were identified for the aging type applied.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Carne/análise , Músculos Paraespinais , Paladar
13.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13742, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670479

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles (0, 1, 2, and 4) on the physicochemical properties, water-holding status, and nutritional values of broiler drumsticks. The results showed that L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness) values, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, total volatile basic nitrogen, and total viable counts significantly increased but pH values, protein solubility, and sensorial acceptance decreased after four FT cycles (P Ë‚ 0.05). The decreases in moisture content thawing loss, centrifugation loss, drip loss, and cooking loss indicated that the water-holding capacities of samples subjected to multiple FT cycles were diminished. Results of cell microstructure analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the occurrence of ruptured muscle cells with decreased fiber diameters and changes in myosin heavy chain band intensity after multiple FT cycles (P Ë‚ 0.05). As the number of FT cycles increased, the content of total free amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), eicosatetraenoic (EPA, C20:5), and docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6) acids decreased (P Ë‚ 0.05). In conclusion, four repeated FT cycles accelerated the deterioration of physiochemical properties, reduced the water-holding status, and considerably impaired sensory characteristics and nutritional values of chicken meat.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Carne , Animais , Congelamento , Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Água/análise
14.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675365

RESUMO

Slaughterhouses are a key source of bacterial contamination in poultry meat and products, which is a major health and economic concern for several public authorities. This study aimed to quantify the non-compliance of bacterial contamination on chicken meat sampled from slaughterhouses and identify risk factors associated with the contamination. A questionnaire survey of 569 chicken slaughterhouses was undertaken and 1,707 meat samples were collected to determine the level of bacterial contamination. The proportion of the non-compliance associated with aerobic plate count [APC] (24.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%), Enterococcus spp. (24.7%), coliforms (13.5%), Escherichia coli (33.3%), and Salmonella spp. (33.4%) based on the livestock authorities' criteria was determined. Our results highlighted that the scalding process without scalding water temperature control or improper scalding increased the risk of APC (odds ratio, OR = 4.84, 95% CI: 2.72-8.61), S. aureus (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.29-5.55), Enterococcus spp. (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 2.01-5.69), coliforms (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.47-6.15), and E. coli (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.58-4.56) contamination on meat samples. Meat from eviscerated carcasses was more likely to be non-compliance due to contamination by E. coli (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.14-3.38). Furthermore, open or semi-closed system slaughterhouses (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.23-2.60) and lack of equipment for specific slaughtering areas (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.04-2.61) increased the likelihood of Salmonella spp. occurrence. This is the first study of factors influencing the non-compliance of meat samples across Thailand. Authorities can use the study findings to enhance food safety strategies at the national level.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Galinhas , Animais , Bactérias , Galinhas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella , Staphylococcus aureus , Tailândia
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9354, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672430

RESUMO

During a microbiological and genomic surveillance study conducted to investigate the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) and commercial meat samples, in a Brazilian city with a high occurrence of infections by ESBL-producing bacteria, we have identified the presence of CTX-M (-2, -14, -15, -24, -27 and -55)-producing E. coli of international clones ST38, ST117, ST131 and ST354. The ST131 was more prevalent in human samples, and worryingly the high-risk ST131-C1-M27 was identified in human infections for the first time. We also detected CTX-M-55-producing E. coli ST117 from meat samples (i.e., chicken and pork) and human infections. Moreover, the clinically relevant CTX-M-24-positive E. coli ST354 clone was detected for the first time in human samples. In summary, our results highlight a potential of commercialized meat as a reservoir of high-priority E. coli lineages in the community, whereas the identification of E. coli ST131-C1-M27 indicates that novel pandemic clones have emerged in Brazil, constituting a public health issue.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Células Clonais , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Carne , beta-Lactamases/genética
16.
Genet Sel Evol ; 54(1): 42, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meat quality and composition traits have become valuable in modern pork production; however, genetic improvement has been slow due to high phenotyping costs. Combining genomic information with multi-trait indirect selection based on cheaper indicator traits is an alternative for continued cost-effective genetic improvement. METHODS: Data from an ongoing breeding program were used in this study. Phenotypic and genomic information was collected on three-way crossbred and purebred Duroc animals belonging to 28 half-sib families. We applied different methods to assess the value of using purebred and crossbred information (both genomic and phenotypic) to predict expensive-to-record traits measured on crossbred individuals. Estimation of multi-trait variance components set the basis for comparing the different scenarios, together with a fourfold cross-validation approach to validate the phenotyping schemes under four genotyping strategies. RESULTS: The benefit of including genomic information for multi-trait prediction depended on the breeding goal trait, the indicator traits included, and the source of genomic information. While some traits benefitted significantly from genotyping crossbreds (e.g., loin intramuscular fat content, backfat depth, and belly weight), multi-trait prediction was advantageous for some traits even in the absence of genomic information (e.g., loin muscle weight, subjective color, and subjective firmness). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the value of using different sources of phenotypic and genomic information. For most of the traits studied, including crossbred genomic information was more beneficial than performing multi-trait prediction. Thus, we recommend including crossbred individuals in the reference population when these are phenotyped for the breeding objective.


Assuntos
Carne , Carne de Porco , Animais , Genoma , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Suínos/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269278, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657815

RESUMO

The widening gap between the supply and demand for meat products has increased the need to produce plant-based meat analogs as protein sources. Meat analogs are principally composed of soy-based textured vegetable proteins. Despite ongoing technical developments, one of the unresolved challenges for plant-based meat analogs is the off-flavor from soy, which limits their consumer acceptability. Among the various methods developed for overcoming this challenge, masking the beany flavors with cyclodextrins (CDs) is an attractive, cost-effective, and safe strategy. However, the current established CD treatment method does not meet the requirement for a clean-label. This study aimed to develop more acceptable off-flavor-masking technologies for plant-based patties for modern clean-label preferences using enzymatic methods. We used the cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGT), "Amano," as a commercially available food-grade CGT. The CGT-catalyzed reaction in plant-based patties yielded 17.1 g/L CD. As CGT could yield sufficient CD in the patties, we investigated whether CDs produced by CGT could mask the off-flavors released from the plant-based patties. The CGT-treated patties had significantly lower volatilization amounts of the known beany off-flavor-generating compounds compared to the non-treated patties. Moreover, CGT treatment improved the texture of the patties and increased their water- and oil-holding capacity. As CGT is rendered inactive after cooking, it would not be considered an additive. These findings indicated that CDs produced by the CGT reaction could effectively mask off-flavors of meat analogs and improve their physical properties while meeting clean-label requirements.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Produtos da Carne , Culinária , Glucosiltransferases , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269194, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657920

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to find E. coli, a prevalent pathogen that causes food-borne illnesses, in chicken samples (n = 500) collected from three districts in KhyberPukhtunkhwa: Mardan, Swabi, and Swat. The E. coli isolates were identified by Gram staining, API strips and Universal Stress Protein. A total of 412 samples tested positive for E. coli and were sensitive to MEM, TZP, and FOS as evidenced by disc diffusion method. The isolates were resistant to TE, NOR, and NA with statistically significant results (P≤0.05). The isolates showed the presence of different antibiotic resistance genes; blaOXA-1, blaCTX-M15, blaTEM-1, QnrS, TetA, AAC, AAD, Sul1 and Sul2. The results revealed mutations in blaOXA-1 gene (H81Q), blaTEM-1 (C108Y, T214A, K284E and P301S), QnrS (H95R) and Sul2 (E66A). The findings of this study may be helpful in better management of E. coli infections by physicians.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Carne , Paquistão , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269131, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657942

RESUMO

Eimeria (E.) maxima is one of the most pathogenic Eimeria spp persistently invading the middle jejunum and ileum, damaging the intestinal mucosa of chickens. Heat stress (HS) is a common stressor and equally contributes to inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of E. maxima infection and HS on ileal digestibility, mRNA expression of nutrient transporters, and ileal tissue morphology in broiler chickens. There were four treatment groups: thermoneutral control (TNc), thermoneutral infected (TNi), heat stress control (HSc), and heat stress infected (HSi), 6 replicates each of 10 birds per treatment. Chickens were fed a diet containing 0.2% TiO2. At 6-day-post infection, ileal content and tissue were collected to quantify ileal digestibility of crude protein and fat, mRNA levels of nutrient transporters and histopathology. Growth and feed intake were reduced in all treatment groups, compared with the TNc. Contrary to expectation, the combination of two major stressors (E. maxima and HS) in the TNi group exhibited almost normal digestibility while only the TNi birds expressed severe digestibility depression, compared with the TNc group. The TNi group showed the lowest mRNA expression of the transporters: SGLT1, GLUT2-5-8-10-12, FABP1-2-6, and PEPT1 compared with the other treatment groups. The expression of the absorptive enterocytes' gene markers (ACSL5, IAP, and SGLT1) supported by the ileal tissue morphology indicated that the TNi group had the highest enterocytic destruction. The expression of oxidative genes (iNOS and CYBB) dramatically increased only in the TNi group compared with the other treatment groups. Our results showed that exposing broiler chickens to HS can mitigate the disruptive effect of E. maxima on the ileal digestibility and absorption by limiting the parasite-induced tissue injury and suppressing the enterocytic inducible oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Eimeria , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Eimeria/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Íleo/metabolismo , Carne , Nutrientes , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 466, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654948

RESUMO

Cell-cultured meat offers the potential for a more sustainable, ethical, resilient, and healthy food system. However, research and development has been hindered by the lack of serum-free media that enable the robust expansion of relevant cells (e.g., muscle satellite cells) over multiple passages. Recently, a low-cost serum-free media (B8) was described for pluripotent stem cells. Here, B8 is adapted for bovine satellite cells through the addition of a single component, recombinant albumin, which renders it suitable for long-term satellite cell expansion without sacrificing myogenicity. This new media (Beefy-9) maintains cell growth over the entire period tested (seven passages), with an average doubling time of 39 h. Along with demonstrated efficacy for bovine cells, Beefy-9 offers a promising starting-point for developing serum-free media for other meat-relevant species. Ultimately, this work offers a foundation for escaping cultured meat research's reliance on serum, thereby accelerating the field.


Assuntos
Carne , Mioblastos , Animais , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro
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