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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 278-282, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187932

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the association of dietary pattern and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. Methods: In 2013, 3 747 participants from 87 coalmine branches of a large coal mine group in Datong City, Shanxi Province were selected by using a two-stage cluster stratified sampling method. Data on demographic characteristics, smoking, drinking, and family history of diabetes were collected by using a self-made questionnaire, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess the level of physical activity. Physical, glucose and lipid metabolism indicators were measured and subjects were divided into high-risk groups and low-risk groups of T2DM according to the T2DM risk score. Dietary data were collected by using Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived by using the exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis. The unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the association of dietary patterns and T2DM risk. Results: The age of the subjects was(41.48±8.62) years old, and 2 843 of them were males (84.31%). A total of 1 819 subjects were in the high-risk group and 1 553 in the low-risk group. Four dietary patterns, healthy diet, high-salt diet, meats diet, and carbohydrate-rich diet, were identified in this study. The unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that compared with the healthy diet pattern, after the adjustment of demographic characteristics, smoking, and drinking, the OR (95%CI) of T2DM risk in high-salt diet, carbohydrate-rich diet and meats diet patterns was 1.54 (1.26-1.88), 1.80 (1.43-2.28) and 1.20 (0.99-1.46), respectively. Conclusion: High-salt diet and carbohydrate-rich diet were positively associated with T2DM risk, whereas there was no association of meats diet and T2DM risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Carboidratos da Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 122953, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087541

RESUMO

Wastewater with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 mg/L free chlorine was biologically treated using co-immobilized microalgae/bacteria. In contrast, non-pretreated wastewater was treated with beads (control) and blank beads (blank) under the same operating condition. Results showed that NaClO pretreatment removed 8-33% total nitrogen (TN), 31-45% true color and 0.7-2.5 log CFU/mL aerobic-bacteria. At the end of treatment, maximum algal biomass (2,027 dry weight mg/L) was achieved with 0.2 mg/L free chlorine. Bacterial growth in wastewater was decreased by NaClO pretreatment before reaching 7.2-7.7 log CFU/mL on the fifth day. Beads with microorganisms (control) removed 15% more chemical-oxygen-demand (COD), 16% more TN, and 13% more total phosphate (PO43-) than blank. Pretreatment with 0.2 mg/L free chlorine increased TN removal from 75% to 80% while pollutants removal was substantially decreased with 0.4-1.0 mg/L free chlorine. Considering algal biomass growth and pollutants removal, 0.2 mg/L free chlorine pretreatment was recommended for microalgae/bacteria co-immobilized system.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Bactérias , Biomassa , Carne , Nitrogênio , Hipoclorito de Sódio
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2506-2515, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013414

RESUMO

Thiol groups of cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins react with quinones, oxidation products of polyphenols, to form protein-polyphenol adducts. The aim of the present work was to quantify the amount of adduct formed between Cys residues and 4-methylcatechol (4MC) in minced beef. A Cys-4MC adduct standard was electrochemically synthesized and characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) as well as NMR spectroscopy. Cys-4MC adducts were quantified after acidic hydrolysis of myofibrillar protein isolates (MPIs) and LC-MS/MS analysis of meat containing either 500 or 1500 ppm 4MC and stored at 4 °C for 7 days under a nitrogen or oxygen atmosphere. The concentrations of Cys-4MC were found to be 2.2 ± 0.3 nmol/mg MPI and 8.1 ± 0.9 nmol/mg MPI in meat containing 500 and 1500 ppm 4MC, respectively, and stored for 7 days under oxygen. The formation of the Cys-4MC adduct resulted in protein thiol loss, and ca. 62% of the thiol loss was estimated to account for the formation of the Cys-4MC adduct for meat containing 1500 ppm 4MC. Furthermore, protein polymerization increased in samples containing 4MC as evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the polymerization was found to originate from protein-polyphenol interactions as evaluated by a blotting assay with staining by nitroblue tetrazolium.


Assuntos
Cisteína/química , Guaiacol/química , Carne/análise , Fenol/química , Animais , Bovinos , Proteínas Musculares/química , Oxirredução , Quinonas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Food Chem ; 313: 126027, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923865

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are commonly used as brominated flame retardants in large volumes, and accumulate in plants and animals in the environment, and people are exposed to them when consuming food. As many countries are monitoring them in food, it is necessary to develop a method to analyze them simultaneously for cost efficiency. A method was developed and optimized under different conditions using accelerated solvent extraction to extract the lipids from the samples, acid silica column to clean the samples and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to determine TBBPA and HBCDs. The method was validated in different kinds of food. Uncertainty of measurement was calculated by combining all uncertainties of contributors. Intermediate precision (reproducibility) was the most influential contributor to uncertainty. 5 food categories with 115 samples were analyzed with the method, and mackerels containing high level of fat were highly contaminated by TBBPA and HBCDs.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/química , Carne/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136385, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955074

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence and levels of Salmonella contamination of retail raw poultry meat in China, and examined serovar distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the recovered isolates. In total, 664 poultry meat samples were collected from retail markets in 39 cities across China. Salmonella was isolated from 249 (37.5%) samples, including 190 (36.7%) chicken, 48 (40.7%) duck and 11 (39.2%) pigeon samples. The most probable number (MPN) values of 36.1% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 10 MPN/g, with three samples exceeding 110 MPN/g. Among the 667 Salmonella isolates, 35 serovars and 42 multilocus sequence typing patterns were identified. Predominant serovars included Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (32.7%), Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana (14.2%) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (11.9%), while two novel STs were identified (ST7352 and ST7612). Except for one unnamed strain (4,12:d:-), all of the identified serovars have previously been linked to human infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the 318 non-duplicate isolates revealed that only 5 (1.6%) were susceptible to all 22 tested antimicrobials, while 191 (60.1%) exhibited resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The highest levels of resistance were observed for nalidixic acid (72.3%), followed by ampicillin (55.3%) and streptomycin (48.7%). Of particular concern was the detection of highly multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, most (84.1%) of which showed co-resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Overall, our findings showed a high prevalence of Salmonella contamination of retail raw poultry meat, which could expose consumers to multidrug-resistant isolates. This study provides comprehensive data for evaluation of new control measures for Salmonella contamination of poultry.


Assuntos
Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Carne , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Sorogrupo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18235, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have been reported that dietary meat intake may be associated with the risk of asthma in children, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of meat on the risk of asthma in children. METHODS: The databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with random-effect model using Stata software. RESULTS: A total of 9 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Results from our study suggest that dietary meat intake 3 or more times per week compared with never/occasionally intake has no significant association with asthma risk among children (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.80-2.01, P = .308). Similarly, daily intake of meat did not affect the risk of asthma in children when compared with never/occasionally intake (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.93-1.37, P = 0.234). In addition, no publication biases were detected in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Dietary meat intake most probably is not a risk factor for asthma in children. Due to some limitations that exist in our study, more studies are needed to further assess the association between meat intake and asthma risk in children.


Assuntos
Asma/induzido quimicamente , Carne/efeitos adversos , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Medição de Risco
7.
Food Microbiol ; 87: 103367, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948615

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen, causative agent of listeriosis. The epidemiology and persistence of this bacterium in meat processing plants may be related to its serotype, so it is of utmost importance to carry out a correct differentiation of L. monocytogenes serotypes. The objective of this study was to develop a unique quadruplex real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method able to differentiate the four most predominant and worrying L. monocytogenes serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c and 4b) in isolates from meat processing plants and ready-to-eat (RTE) dry-cured meat products. The design of specific primers and probes was based on the lmo0737, lmo0308, ORFC (locus genomically equivalent to gltA-gltB) and ORF2110 genes. A qPCR based on a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was used to ensure the amplification of Listeria spp. genomic DNA. The standard curves showed efficiency values ranging between 92.3% and 105.8% and, R2 values > 0.98. The specificity of the method was also confirmed by the comparison of the results with those obtained by a previously reported conventional multiplex PCR. In addition, none of the strains which were not ascribed to L. monocytogenes amplified any of the target genes related to the four major serotypes of this pathogenic species. The qPCR, therefore, provides a sensitive, specific and rapid tool for identifying the L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c and 4b. This method could be very useful for identifying sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in the meat industry or for epidemiological monitoring of persistent strains throughout the processing of RTE meat products.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sorogrupo
8.
Food Microbiol ; 87: 103390, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948631

RESUMO

Carcass chilling is a critical step in broiler processing. Understanding the effect of chilling on the bacterial communities of broilers is important, as these communities may be largely responsible for the spoilage process. This study examined the effect of chilling systems (air chilling [AC] and water chilling [WC]) and subsequent aerobic storage on the microbiota of yellow-feathered broiler carcasses using a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S RNA gene. Evidence of the clear differences in the microbiota structures between AC and WC carcasses was illustrated by principle coordinates and heat map clustered analyses. The distinctions between the AC and WC carcass bacterial communities were more pronounced during the later storage stages. The major genera on the spoiled AC carcasses were Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Shewanella, whereas the major genera on the spoiled WC carcasses were Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas and Carnobacterium. These data suggest that the chilling method has a marked effect on the microbiota composition of yellow-feathered broilers along the entire storage period. The chilling method was also of great importance for surface color. However, there was no significant difference in the sensorial shelf-life of chicken when comparing the chilling methods.


Assuntos
Carne/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Humanos , Paladar , Água/química
9.
Anim Genet ; 51(1): 58-69, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696970

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the main meat quality traits for breeding programmes in livestock species. The main objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with IMF content comparing two rabbit populations divergently selected for this trait, and to generate a list of putative candidate genes. Animals were genotyped using the Affymetrix Axiom OrcunSNP Array (200k). After quality control, the data involved 477 animals and 93 540 SNPs. Two methods were used in this research: single marker regressions with the data adjusted by genomic relatedness, and a Bayesian multiple marker regression. Associated genomic regions were located on the rabbit chromosomes (OCU) OCU1, OCU8 and OCU13. The highest value for the percentage of the genomic variance explained by a genomic region was found in two consecutive genomic windows on OCU8 (7.34%). Genes in the associated regions of OCU1 and OCU8 presented biological functions related to the control of adipose cell function, lipid binding, transportation and localisation (APOLD1, PLBD1, PDE6H, GPRC5D and GPRC5A) and lipid metabolic processes (MTMR2). The EWSR1 gene, underlying the OCU13 region, is linked to the development of brown adipocytes. The findings suggest that there is a large component of polygenic effect behind the differences in IMF content in these two lines, as the variance explained by most of the windows was low. The genomic regions of OCU1, OCU8 and OCU13 revealed novel candidate genes. Further studies would be needed to validate the associations and explore their possible application in selection programmes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Coelhos/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Marcadores Genéticos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Carne/análise , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 314: 108360, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678600

RESUMO

Due to a higher probability for violation of hygiene measures, reconstruction work is a substantial food safety challenge for food business operators (FBOs). Here, we monitored a Listeria monocytogenes contamination scenario during a timely enduring reconstruction period that aimed at an expansion of the main building of a leading meat processing facility. Reconstruction took place while food production was ongoing. We used a longitudinal sampling scheme targeting 40 floor water drains distributed over the food processing environment (FPE) over a five year period. The population structure of L. monocytogenes was determined by PCR-serogrouping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). While the first sampling deciphered a baseline of contamination (45%), intensified sanitation measures decreased L. monocytogenes prevalence before commencement of work (5%). The reconstruction activities increased the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the FPE (20.5%) and changed the population structure to a higher proportion of disease-associated genotypes (61%). During the first sampling ST121 was prevalent throughout the FPE, even in the packaging area. After the second and third sampling, following increased application of hypochlorite during sanitation, ST121 was only present in the raw material preparation area. A resilient flora was detected during three sampling events (ST8, ST9 and ST37) which might have not been exposed to daily cleaning in the floor drains. After the accomplishment of reconstruction work, the L. monocytogenes population structure shifted to the condition initially found (45% and 20.5% during the first and sixth sampling event). This paper indicates that reconstruction phases are high risk episodes for food safety in FPEs. Special precautions must be taken to avoid cross-contamination of products since reconstruction is usually ongoing for extended periods of time.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Genótipo , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/genética
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107808, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765613

RESUMO

There is a plethora of meat-borne hazards - including parasites - for which there may be a need for surveillance. However, veterinary services worldwide need to decide how to use their scarce resources and prioritise among the perceived hazards. Moreover, to remain competitive, food business operators - irrespective of whether they are farmers or abattoir operators - are preoccupied with maintaining a profit and minimizing costs. Still, customers and trade partners expect that meat products placed on the market are safe to consume and should not bear any risks of causing disease. Risk-based surveillance systems may offer a solution to this challenge by applying risk analysis principles; first to set priorities, and secondly to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. The latter is done through a focus on the cost-effectiveness ratio in sampling and prioritisation. Risk-based surveillance was originally introduced into veterinary public health in 2006. Since then, experience has been gathered, and the methodology has been further developed. Guidelines and tools have been developed, which can be used to set up appropriate surveillance programmes. In this paper, the basic principles are described, and by use of a surveillance design tool called SURVTOOLS (https://survtools.org/), examples are given covering three meat-borne parasites for which risk-based surveillance is 1) either in place in the European Union (EU) (Trichinella spp.), 2) to be officially implemented in December 2019 (Taenia saginata) or 3) only carried out by one abattoir company in the EU as there is no official EU requirement (Toxoplasma gondii). Moreover, advantages, requirements and limitations of risk-based surveillance for meat-borne parasites are discussed.


Assuntos
Carne/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Animais , Prioridades em Saúde/classificação , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Gestão de Riscos/tendências , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Teníase/transmissão , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/prevenção & controle , Triquinelose/transmissão
12.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(2): 119-127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpha-gal syndrome is a complex allergy with high clinical relevance regarding mammalian-derived food and drugs and is characterized by the presence of IgE antibodies directed at the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose. As not all alpha-gal sIgE-positive individuals pre-sent clinical symptoms upon consumption of mammalian meat, the diagnostic value of alpha-gal sIgE has yet to be clarified. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of alpha-gal-sIgE positivity among allergy patients, examine the impact of tick bites as associated risk factors and determine the diagnostic value of alpha-gal-sIgE positivity. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating patients in the Allergy Unit was performed. Alpha-gal-sIgE levels were assessed by ImmunoCAP assay. Exposure to tick bites was assessed by a questionnaire. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic value of alpha-gal sIgE for the diagnosis of alpha-gal syndrome. RESULTS: In the study population (n = 1369), the overall prevalence of alpha-gal-sIgE-positive (≥0.10 kUA/L) individuals was 19.9%, and the highest prevalence (30.2%) was found in patients with insect venom allergies. A reported tick bite within the 12 months prior to blood sampling significantly increased the risk of alpha-gal-sIgE positivity (OR 2.084). The ROC curve analysis indicated alpha-gal sIgE ≥0.54 kUA/L as the optimal cutoff point for assessing the diagnostic value of alpha-gal syndrome in allergy patients. CONCLUSIONS: In allergy care settings, alpha-gal-sIgE positivity is a common finding. Alpha-gal sIgE is a sensitive marker in the diagnosis of alpha-gal syndrome but has limited predictive value for the characteristics or severity of this allergy.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Picadas de Carrapatos/imunologia , Carrapatos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1038-1047, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aquafeed sector has been replacing conventional dietary ingredients with more economic and eco-friendly ingredients. Insects embody a promising alternative as a result of being highly nutritious and showing traits leading to a circular bioeconomy. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at the sea-water stage were fed diets with a partial or complete substitution of fishmeal with meal of Hermetia illucens larvae reared on a media containing Ascophyllum nodosum mixed with organic wastes (60:40). The present study aimed to assess the quality of fillets by characterizing its physico-chemical traits with conventional and innovative methods, such as the proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer technique, allowing the analysis of samples at room temperature. Finally, steamed fillets underwent a consumer test to investigate the liking of consumers and their intention of re-consumption. RESULTS: The main findings showed that a complete dietary substitution of fishmeal with H. illucens larvae meal did not impair the physico-chemical quality of A. salmon fillets. Notably, neutral n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) slightly but significantly increased in the fillets of A. salmon fed H. illucens, also as a result of the additional fish oil present in the diets containing insect. The volatile organic profile was not altered by the different diets. The consumer-liking test revealed that Italian consumers appreciated the tested salmon irrespective of the administered feed. CONCLUSION: Tailoring the insect fatty acid profile by rearing the larvae on a PUFA-rich substrate, coupled with a dietary modulation of the oily source, can successfully maintain or even increase the cardioprotective characteristics of fillets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Larva/química , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Pesqueiros , Larva/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simuliidae/química , Simuliidae/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 969-977, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This work aimed to compare raw fresh meat (minced bovine and pork in pieces) preserved by hyperbaric storage (HS) at room-like temperature (75 MPa/25 °C) and HS at cold temperatures (60 MPa/10 °C) for up to 60 days, being both compared to refrigeration (RF, 4 °C). RESULTS: HS conditions showed microbial load reductions over 60 days of storage, leading to a possible shelf-life extension when compared to samples at RF. Moreover, between both HS conditions similar results were found at the 60th day, reaching in some cases values < 1.00 log CFU g-1 . Overall, pH presented an increase with storage for both HS conditions (e.g. over 30 days, from 5.51 ± 0.02 to 5.70 ± 0.01 and 5.85 ± 0.03, for 60 MPa/10 °C and 75 MPa/25 °C, respectively, on pork meat in pieces, PP) contrary to RF where pH values decreased (from 5.51 ± 0.02 to 5.33 ± 0.03). Regarding moisture content and drip loss, lower and higher values were found, respectively at 75 MPa/25 °C, mainly in bovine minced meat. Overall, colour ΔE* did not present considerable differences for both samples under all storage conditions. Lipid oxidation presented an increase tendency over time, with both HS conditions showing the higher values (1.795 ± 0.217 and 2.169 ± 0.117 for 60 MPa/10 °C and 75 MPa/25 °C, respectively, compared to 0.895 ± 0.084 µg MDA g-1 in PP samples at the 30th day). CONCLUSION: Although several advantages were found further studies should be carried out in order to optimize the HS conditions for raw fresh meat and assess the impact of this preservation methodology on other meat quality parameters as for instance sensorial aspects. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Refrigeração/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Temperatura Baixa , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução , Refrigeração/instrumentação , Suínos
15.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1333-1345, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525258

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between red and white meat subtypes, processed meat (divided into traditional "Khlii, Kaddid" and industrially processed meat) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, considering CRC subsites, in Moroccan adults. A case-control study was conducted including 2,906 matched case-control pairs recruited from the five largest university hospitals in Morocco. Dietary data were collected through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), for the association of CRC risk with meat consumption (high vs. low intake), were estimated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables. Overall, consumption of red meat was positively associated with colon cancer and CRC risk (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.05-1.44; OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02-1.27), respectively. In contrast, no significant association was observed between the consumption of red meat and rectal cancer risk (OR = 1.05, 95% = 0.90-1.23). Interestingly, while processed meat from industrial processes was positively associated with colon cancer, rectal cancer and CRC (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.27-2.04; OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.34-2.23; OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.41-1.98), processed meat prepared using traditional methods was inversely associated with colon cancer and CRC risk (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.98; OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.93), respectively. Furthermore, positive associations were observed between poultry intake and colon cancer risk among men (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.01-1.59). Our study showed similar associations between the consumption of red meat and CRC risk in Morocco as in developed countries, while inverse associations were found for traditionally processed meat products. This is the first study to investigate the differential effects of traditional vs. westernized processed meat products in a developing country. Other studies are needed to confirm these findings and to understand the physiological pathways underlying these associations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Produtos da Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1609: 460517, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521380

RESUMO

Poly(N-acryloyl-glucosamine-co-methylenebisacrylamide) (poly(AGA-co-MBA))-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared via simple aqueous surface polymerization. The resultant Fe3O4@poly(AGA-co-MBA) nanoparticles were used as hydrophilic magnetic solid phase extraction sorbents. Ten aminoglycosides were selected as model analytes to evaluate the extraction performance and mechanism of the sorbents. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, a vibrating sample magnetometer, and so on. The sorbents exhibited efficient extraction towards model analytes in hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Only 10.0 mg of sorbent was needed to adsorb analytes from 10.0 mL of a sample solution within a short time (5.0 min). Under optimized conditions, Fe3O4@poly(AGA-co-MBA) nanoparticles were applied in the sample preparation for the analysis of 10 aminoglycosides in meat samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 10 aminoglycosides were in the range of 0.6-23.6 µg kg-1. Satisfactory recoveries of spiked meat samples from 84.6-98.3% with acceptable relative standard deviations from 3.1% to 7.8% were achieved. Compared to other reported methods for the analysis of aminoglycosides, the present work had comparable or higher sensitivities with a simple extraction procedure. The proposed hydrophilic interaction extraction sorbents are promising as powerful alternatives for extracting and enriching aminoglycosides in animal-derived food samples.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/química , Aminoglicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Carne/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Adsorção , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1311-1319, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fat (IMF) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been thought to play a crucial role in improving meat quality. Considering the ability of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) to deposit fat, and the anti-stress capability of chromium methionine (CrMet), we combined these compounds to produce higher quality meat in poultry. A total of 3000 female chickens were divided into four groups (five replicates, each with 150 chickens): control, control plus15 mg·kg-1 PGZ, control plus 200 µg·kg-1 CrMet, and control plus15 mg·kg-1 PGZ plus 200 µg·kg-1 CrMet. The experiment lasted for 28 days. RESULTS: Compared to the control group and the PGZ group, the average daily gain (ADG) was significantly increased in the PGZ plus CrMet group, whereas the feed-to-gain ratio (F/G) was decreased from 0 to 14 days. Meanwhile, the redness value of breast muscle and IMF of thigh muscle increased in the PGZ plus CrMet group compared with the control group and these detections in the PGZ plus CrMet group exhibited highest value among the four groups. The cooking loss decreased in the breast muscle and thigh muscle after PGZ combined with CrMet in diets. The percentages of C16:1, C18:2n-6 and PUFAs increased in the PGZ plus CrMet group. The mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPAR coactivator 1 α, and fatty acid binding protein 3 was significantly enhanced with PGZ plus CrMet supplementation. CONCLUSION: Collectively, dietary supplementation with PGZ plus CrMet improved growth performance and meat quality by decreasing the cooking loss and increasing the IMF and PUFA levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Cromo/administração & dosagem , Culinária , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/química , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 418-425, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829625

RESUMO

For quick, noninvasive, and high-sensitivity surface analysis of foods and agricultural products, a touch sensor was developed and applied to sheath-flow probe electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (sfPESI/MS). Upon making contact with the sample, the probe stopped by detecting the current flowing through the circuit and analytes on the sample surface were extracted in the solvent preloaded in the plastic capillary. By lifting up the probe to the default position, an electrospray ionization mass spectrum of the sample was obtained. By scanning the sample stage using a programming tool, a point analysis of targeted positions of biological samples with a spot diameter of ≤0.3 mm was achieved. It took less than 10 s for one sample spot. This method was applied to various plants and animal tissues.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Decapodiformes/química , Peixes , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Carne/análise , Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/instrumentação
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1735-1740, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidation of food lipids occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in potential adverse health effects. Rosemary extract (RE), as one of the most popular naturally sourced antioxidants, is widely used in the food industry. However, the effect of RE on lipid oxidation during gastrointestinal digestion has not been well investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of RE on lipid oxidation of cooked pork during simulated gastric digestion. RESULTS: Results showed that RE at 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 pork effectively decreased the formation of malondialdehyde during simulated gastric digestion of cooked pork. RE also effectively mitigated the decline of fatty acids during the simulated gastric digestion of pork. The total phenolic content in RE was calculated to be 170.67 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g-1 . RE dissolved in distilled water (pH 6.5) or potassium hydrogen phthalate-hydrochloric acid buffer solution (0.2 mol L-1 , pH 3.0) both exhibited strong 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activities as well as ferric reducing capacity. The inhibitory effects of RE on lipid oxidation of cooked pork during simulated gastric digestion may be attributed to the phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. CONCLUSION: The results lend support to the possible application of rosemary or RE as a rich source of natural antioxidants to inhibit the oxidation of food lipids during gastrointestinal digestion. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Rosmarinus/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Culinária , Digestão , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Suínos
20.
Meat Sci ; 159: 107922, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470198

RESUMO

The physical quality changes (pH, purge loss, cooking loss, drip loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force and CIE Lab colour) of vacuum-packaged longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were determined for male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) eland during a 35-day post-mortem ageing period at 4 °C. The BF and LTL muscles reached maximum tenderness (57 to 67 N) at Day 17 and 21, respectively, but could still be considered tough after ageing. Purge losses increased throughout ageing for the two muscles, respectively; however, cooking loss decreased. Meat surface colour turned brighter, more red and yellow with ageing. Initially the BF muscle was more tender, had less purge loss and higher CIE a* and b* values than the LTL, however as the ageing period progressed the differences between the muscles became less apparent. Thus, ageing improved uniformity between muscles as well as tenderness, with minor influences of sex thereon.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Antílopes , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
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