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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807936

RESUMO

The working conditions in a slaughterhouse are difficult because of the low temperatures, high humidity, and little natural light. Therefore, in these facilities, there is a high demand in the maintenance of strict hygiene rules. Lately, the new SARS-CoV-2 pandemic situation has brought new challenges in the meat industry, as this sector has to maintain its operability to supply the meat and meat products demanded by the consumers. In this challenging period, the safety of the workers is as important as keeping the high demands for the safety of the meat and meat products along with consumer confidence. This paper aims to give an overview of the risks associated with the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission between the workers in slaughterhouses and to evaluate the stability and infectivity in the working environment of these facilities. Considering the persistence of this virus on different surfaces and the environmental conditions affecting its stability (temperature, relative humidity, and natural light), in the study we proposed several short-, medium-, and long-term preventive measures for minimizing the potential threats of the actual pandemic.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Matadouros , Humanos , Carne
2.
Food Chem ; 352: 129398, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652197

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of ultrasonic treatment (400 W, 20 kHz, 45.52 W/L) and storage time (0 d, 3 d, 7 d and 10 d) on functional properties, structural changes and in vitro digestion of actomyosin complex isolated from vacuum-packed pork. As storage time increased, turbidity, surface hydrophobicity, active sulfhydryl and total sulfhydryl of actomyosin complex increased, while protein solubility decreased. Ultrasonic treatment increased surface hydrophobicity, protein solubility and active sulfhydryl content but decreased turbidity and total sulfhydryl content compared with the control. Ultrasonic treatment caused a reduction in α-helix content on 0 day and the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan and tyrosine residues. It increased pancreatin digestibility of actomyosin complex and the number of peptides of smaller than 1 kDa. However, it decreased the number of peptides. The findings provide a new insight into the application of appropriate ultrasonic treatment to promote meat digestibility.


Assuntos
Actomiosina/química , Digestão , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Animais , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Solubilidade , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Suínos
3.
Food Chem ; 352: 129380, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667923

RESUMO

Solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a common approach to analyze the volatile profile of cooked meat. The present study aims to investigate the combined effect of sample preparation, including meat presentation (minced and steak) and cooking method (stewed and grilled), and extraction temperature (30, 60 and 80 °C) and time (30 and 50 min) on the volatile composition of cooked deer meat. The statistical results indicated that extraction temperature was the most relevant factor affecting the meat volatile profile of cooked meat followed by the extraction time. Higher extraction temperatures improved the detection of heavy volatile compounds, while sample preparation had little influence on the meat volatile profile, probably due to the accurate control of the parameters used for meat presentation and cooking methods. The results of this work can assist in the standardization of analytical procedures for the characterization of volatile compounds in cooked meat.


Assuntos
Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras/métodos , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Análise de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109113, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652337

RESUMO

Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins that frequently occur as contaminants in agricultural commodities and foods, including dry-cured meats and cheeses. The fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae is frequently isolated from aged foods and can produce ochratoxin A (OTA). However, individual strains of the fungus can have one of two OTA production phenotypes (chemotypes): OTA production and OTA nonproduction. Monitoring and early detection of OTA-producing fungi in food are the most effective strategies to manage OTA contamination. Therefore, we examined genome sequence data from five A. westerdijkiae strains isolated from the surface of cheese from southern Italy to identify genetic markers indicative of the twoOTA chemotypes. This analysis revealed a naturally occurring deletion of the OTA regulatory gene, otaR, in an OTA-nonproducing isolate.We used this information to design a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that could identify A. westerdijkiae and distinguish between the two OTA chemotypes. In this method, the PCR primers were complementary to conserved sequences flanking otaR and yielded different-sized amplicons from strains with the different chemotypes. The primers did not yield ota-region-specific amplicons from other OTA-producing species. Because the method is specific to A. westerdijkiae and can distinguish between the two OTA chemotypes, it has potential to significantly improve OTA monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Alimentos em Conserva/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Ocratoxinas/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Primers do DNA/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Itália
5.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652771

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the number of freeze-thaw cycles (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7) on porcine longissimus protein and lipid oxidation, as well as changes in heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their precursors. We analyzed the relationship among HAAs, AGEs, oxidation, and precursors and found the following results after seven freeze-thaw cycles. The HAAs, Norharman and Harman, were 20.33% and 16.67% higher, respectively. The AGEs, Nε-carboxyethyllysine (CEL) and Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), were 11.81% and 14.02% higher, respectively. Glucose, creatine, and creatinine were reduced by 33.92%, 5.93%, and 1.12%, respectively after seven freeze-thaw cycles. Norharman was significantly correlated with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; r2 = 0.910) and glucose (r2 = -0.914). Harman was significantly correlated to TBARS (r2 = 0.951), carbonyl (r2 = 0.990), and glucose (r2 = -0.920). CEL was correlated to TBARS (r2 = 0.992) and carbonyl (r2 = 0.933). These changes suggest that oxidation and the Maillard reaction during freeze-thaw cycles promote HAA and AGE production in raw pork.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aminas/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Aminas/química , Animais , Galinhas , Culinária , Congelamento/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Carne/análise , Oxirredução , Carne de Porco/análise , Suínos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/química , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109110, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657496

RESUMO

Salmonella genus has foodborne pathogen species commonly involved in many outbreaks related to the consumption of chicken meat. Many studies have aimed to model bacterial inactivation as a function of the temperature. Due to the large heterogeneity of the results, a unified description of Salmonella spp. inactivation behavior is hard to establish. In the current study, by evaluating the root mean square errors, mean absolute deviation, and Akaike and Bayesian information criteria, the double Weibull model was considered the most accurate primary model to fit 61 datasets of Salmonella inactivation in chicken meat. Results can be interpreted as if the bacterial population is divided into two subpopulations consisting of one more resistant (2.3% of the total population) and one more sensitive to thermal stress (97.7% of the total population). The thermal sensitivity of the bacteria depends on the fat content of the chicken meat. From an adapted version of the Bigelow secondary model including both temperature and fat content, 90% of the Salmonella population can be inactivated after heating at 60 °C of chicken breast, thigh muscles, wings, and skin during approximately 2.5, 5.0, 9.5, and 57.4 min, respectively. The resulting model was applied to four different non-isothermal temperature profiles regarding Salmonella growth in chicken meat. Model performance for the non-isothermal profiles was evaluated by the acceptable prediction zone concept. Results showed that >80% of the predictions fell in the acceptable prediction zone when the temperature changes smoothly at temperature rates lower than 20 °C/min. Results obtained can be used in risk assessment models regarding contamination with Salmonella spp. in chicken parts with different fat contents.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Temperatura Alta , Carne/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/classificação
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109116, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676332

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common zoonotic pathogens originating from animals consumed as food, especially raw chicken meat (RCM). As far as we know, this might be the first report that explores the efficacy of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs), such as zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO2-NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) against multidrug resistant (MDR) and/or pandrug resistant (PDR) S. aureus strains with a strong biofilm-producing ability isolated from RCM and giblets. The overall prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci was 21%, with a contamination level range between 102 and 104 CFU/g. The incidence of virulence genes See (21/36), pvl (16/36), clfA (15/36), sec (12/36), tst (12/36), and sea (11/36) among S. aureus strains were relatively higher those of seb, sed, fnbA, and fnbB. For antimicrobial resistance gene distribution, most strains harbored the blaZ gene (25/36), aacA-aphD gene (24/36), mecA gene (22/36), vanA gene (20/36), and apmA gene (20/36) confirmed the prevalence of MDR among S. aureus of RCM products. However, cfr (11/36), spc (9/36), and aadE (7/36) showed a relatively lower existence. The data of antibiogram resistance profiles was noticeably heterogeneous (25 patterns) with 32 MDR and four PDR S. aureus strains. All tested strains had a very high MAR index value (>0.2) except the P11 pattern (GEN, MXF, PMB), which showed a MAR index of 0.19. Among the strong biofilm-producing ability (BPA), 14 (70%) strains were isolated from wet markets, while only six strong BPA strains were isolated from supermarkets. The mean values of BPA ranged from 2.613 ± 0.04 to 11.013 ± 0.05. Clearly, ZnO2-NPs show significant inhibitory activity against S. aureus strains compared with those produced by the action of ZnO-NPs and TiO2-NPs. The results of anti-inflammatory activity suggest ZnO2-NPs as a lead compound for designing an alternative antimicrobial agent against drug-resistant and strong biofilm-producing S. aureus isolates from retail RCM and giblets.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Titânio/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Virulência/genética
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109104, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676333

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil (TAEO). Moreover, the present study comparatively investigated TAEO in the forms of emulsion and Nano-emulsion in alginate-based edible coatings against inoculated Listeria monocytogenes in turkey fillets during 12 days in cold storage (at a temperature of 4 ± 1 °C). Alginate solutions with two levels of TAEO (in emulsion and Nano-emulsion forms) were prepared in this study. The bacterial count was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. Based on the obtained results of the current study, a comparison of different treatments with the blank samples (without any coating) showed that the highest considerable result was observed in the samples with Nano-emulsion coating (P < 0.05). Nano-emulsion loaded alginate coating prevented the growth of listeria in turkey fillets even after 12 days of cold storage. According to the findings of this study, the application of alginate edible coatings containing TAEO, especially in Nano-form, can be very effective in controlling the growth of L. monocytogenes, as a foodborne pathogen, during storage; therefore, it is a good choice to be applied in the meat industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Perus/microbiologia , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Apiaceae/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Filmes Comestíveis , Emulsões/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/microbiologia
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109109, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677191

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to characterize Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolated from chicken meat determining their clonal relationships with S. Infantis isolated from children with diarrhea. Fifteen meat-recovered S. Infantis were analyzed. Susceptibility levels to 14 antibacterial agents, the presence of ESBL and that of inducible plasmid-mediated AmpC (i-pAmpC) were determined by phenotypical methods. The presence of ESBL and pAmpC was confirmed by PCR, and detected ESBL-encoding genes were sequenced and their transferability tested by conjugation. The presence of gyrA mutations as well as Class 1 integrons was determined by PCR. Clonal relationships were established by REP-PCR and RAPD. In addition, 25 clinical isolates of S. Infantis were included in clonality studies. All meat-recovered S. Infantis were MDR, showing resistance to ampicillin, nitrofurans and quinolones, while none was resistant to azithromycin, ceftazidime or imipenem. ESBL (blaCTX-M-65) and i-pAmpC (blaDHA) were detected in 2 and 5 isolates respectively (in one case concomitantly), with blaCTX-M-65 being transferable through conjugation. In addition, 1 isolate presented a blaSHV gene. All isolates presented D87Y at GyrA, nalidixic acid active efflux pump and a Class 1 integron of ~1000 bp (aadA1). Clonal analysis showed that all isolates were related. Further they were identical to MDR blaCTX-M-65-producing S. Infantis isolates causing children diarrhea in Lima. The dissemination of MDR blaCTX-M-65-producing S. Infantis between marketed meat and children highlights a public health problem which needs be controlled at livestock level.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/transmissão , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Salmonella enterica/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Criança , Humanos , Integrons/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
10.
Waste Manag ; 125: 132-144, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684664

RESUMO

The 2030 Agenda of the United Nations includes the objective of setting up sustainable production patterns by pursuing several Sustainable Development Goals. Among them, the "Responsible production and consumption" is a key topic in the food production and is strictly connected with the "Climate action"; the crucial point, however, is how to jointly act on all these aspects and apply them in practice. The waste yearly produced in the food chain represent both an ethical, economic and environmental issue. In particular, as far as the recovery of packaged food waste from retailers is concerned, the valorisation of the wasted meat is an extremely relevant issue. Pet food industries could be interested in valorising this waste fraction to replace meat coming from slaughters in their product recipes. This article evaluates the environmental impact of valorising meat fraction from packaged food waste to produce two different recipes of high quality pet food, called Natura and Pâté. A life cycle assessment of the current scenario (traditional pet food production and landfilling of packaged food waste) and of a new one (pet food production using meat fraction from packaged food waste) is carried out applying the ReCiPe 2016 method of impact assessment. Real data have been taken from retailers and pet food manufacturer. The production of pet food using the meat fraction from packaged food waste generates on average lower environmental impacts if compared to the traditional process, in terms of GWP (-56.40%), water consumption (-22.62%), land use (-87.50%) and fossil resource scarcity (-21.78%). Benefits are interesting even if considering the production of Pâté (-14.66%), for which the traditional production process makes use of some slaughter by-products. The proposed industrial process is demonstrated to be sustainable from an environmental point of view and appears to be in line with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2, 12 and 13.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Indústria Alimentícia , Indústrias , Carne , Embalagem de Produtos
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20181091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759949

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the subjective, chemical and sensorial meat characteristics of ½ Santa Inês (SI) x ½ No Defined Racial Standard (NDRS) and ½ Brazilian Somalis (BS) x ½ No Defined Racial Standard (NDRS) crossbred lambs, finished in confinement. Sixteen uncastrated male lambs with initial weight of 19.7 ± 2.03 kg and approximately 90 days of age. A randomized block design was used, with blocks represented by the initial weight of each genetic group, with eight animals per group. There was a higher degree and distribution of marbling, percentage of lipids and meat color for ½ BS x ½ NDRS lambs. The conjugated linoleic acid profile was higher for ½ SI x ½ NDRS lambs. Considering the meat quality of the evaluated genetic groups, Santa Inês crossbred lambs have a better nutritional value for meat, especially taking into account the production of foods that are beneficial to human health.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Carneiro Doméstico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/análise , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Somália
12.
Animal ; 15(3): 100136, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785184

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content affects eating and nutritional quality of lamb meat. Muscle density measured by computer tomography is an in vivo proxy measure of IMF content that affects eating and nutritional quality of lamb meat. Lambs sired by high muscle density (HMD) or low muscle density (LMD) rams, selected for slaughter on commercial criteria were measured for meat quality and nutritional traits. A restricted maximum likelihood model was used to compare lamb traits. Additionally, regression analysis of sire estimated breeding value (EBV) for muscle density was performed for each meat quality trait. Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with IMF content (P < 0.001). For each unit increase in muscle density EBV, there was a significant decrease in loin (-1.69 mg/100 g fresh weight) and topside IMF (-0.03 mg/100 g fresh weight). Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with grouped saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids concentration (and monounsaturated proportion P < 0.001). Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with loin sensory traits tenderness, juiciness and overall liking and many novel tenderness sensory traits measured (P < 0.05). Selecting for LMD EBV increased IMF content and favourable meat eating quality traits. In contrast, sire muscle density EBV had a positive regression with loin polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio and grouped polyunsaturated proportion traits (including total polyunsaturated proportion, total omega-6 (n-6) and total omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (P < 0.001). This is explained by the fact that as sire muscle density EBV increases, polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion increases and the proportion of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content decreases. Muscle density EBV had a positive regression with shear force and the novel toughness sensory traits (P < 0.05). Selection for HMD EBV's increased shear force and toughness traits, which is unfavourable for the consumer. Low muscle density sired meat had higher meat colour traits chroma/saturation (+0.64, SD 2.30, P = 0.012), redness (+0.52, SD 1.91, P = 0.012) and yellowness (+0.31, SD 1.49, P = 0.08) compared to HMD sired meat. Selection for LMD could be used within a breeding programme to increase IMF content and enhance both meat colour and improve eating quality parameters.


Assuntos
Carne , Músculo Esquelético , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Masculino , Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
13.
Animal ; 15(3): 100139, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785186

RESUMO

Determination of the chemical composition in the body and carcass of ruminants is important for both nutritional requirement studies and the meat industry. This study aimed to develop equations to predict the body and carcass chemical composition of hair sheep using the chemical composition of body parts, carcass measurements and shrunk BW as predictors. A database containing 107 individual records for castrated male hair sheep ranging from 24 to 43 kg BW was gathered from two body composition studies. The empty body, carcass and body parts were analyzed for water, ash, fat and protein contents (%). The body parts used to estimate body and carcass composition were fore leg, hind leg and 9-11th rib section. The carcass measurements used were leg length, thoracic circumference, hind circumference, hind width, thoracic width, thoracic depth and chest width. Each model performance was evaluated using a leave-one-out cross-validation. Multiple regression analysis considering the study as a random effect revealed that body parts in association with carcass measurements were significant for predicting the chemical composition in the body of castrate male sheep. However, the use of the chemical composition of hind leg produced the best models for predicting the ash and fat contents in the empty body, whereas the water and protein contents in the empty body were better predicted when using the chemical compositions of 9-11th rib section and fore leg, respectively. Multiple regression analysis also revealed that most body parts were suitable for predicting the carcass composition, except for 9-11th rib section whose chemical composition did not produce significant prediction equations for ash and protein carcass contents. The use of the chemical composition of hind leg in association with carcass measurements produced the best models for predicting the water and fat contents in the carcass, while the ash and protein contents in the carcass were better predicted when using the chemical composition of fore leg. In conclusion, precision, accuracy and goodness-of-fit of the equations drove the selection of the chemical composition of hind leg and carcass measurements in a multivariate approach, as the most suitable predictors of the chemical composition of the body and carcass of hair sheep. However, the chemical composition of fore leg may be used as well. The developed equations could improve the accuracy of the empty body and carcass composition estimations in sheep, optimizing the estimation of nutrient requirements, as well as the carcass quality evaluation for this species.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Corpo Humano , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Masculino , Carne/análise , Análise de Regressão , Ovinos
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 378-383, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645141

RESUMO

In recent years, to solve the increasingly prominent problem of the contradiction between human social development and environmental resources, artificial meat has appeared in public view more and more. Generally speaking, the artificial meat can be divided into vegetable protein meat and cell cultured meat. Among them, vegetable protein meat has gradually begun to be commercialized, and cell cultured meat is cultured with animal cells, which is more similar to the real meat. Based on the analysis of the essence of cell cultured meat, we explore the positive significance of cell cultured meat technology for the meat production industry, consumer groups, and the sustainable development of mankind in the future. From the perspective of bioethics, the research, development and production of cell cultured meat can help ensure the sustainable development of human society, improve animal welfare, reduce resource demand, improve the nutritional function of meat products, and provide new growth points for the development of other industries. In addition, the ethical risks of food safety, technology abuse and technical supervision involved in cell cultured meat production are put forward for deep consideration, hoping to provide reference for the sustainable development of artificial meat industry from the perspective of bioethics.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
15.
J Anim Sci ; 99(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677583

RESUMO

In animal breeding and genetics, the ability to cope with disease, here defined as immune competence (IC), with minimal detriment to growth and fertility is a desired objective which addresses both animal production and welfare considerations. However, defining and objectively measuring IC phenotypes using testing methods which are practical to apply on-farm has been challenging. Based on previously described protocols, we measured both cell-mediated immune response (Cell-IR) and antibody-mediated immune response (Ab-IR) and combined these measures to determine an animal's IC. Using a population of 2,853 Australian Angus steers and heifers, we compared 2 alternative methods to combine both metrics into a single phenotype to be used as a tool for the genetic improvement of IC. The first method, named ZMEAN, is obtained by taking the average of the individual metrics after subjecting each to a Z-score standardization. The second, ImmuneDEX (IDEX), is a weighted average that considers the correlation between Cell-IR and Ab-IR, as well as the difference in ranking of individuals by each metric, and uses these as weights in the averaging. Both simulation and real data were used to understand the behavior of ZMEAN and IDEX. To further ascertain the relationship between IDEX and other traits of economic importance, we evaluated a range of traits related to growth, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics. We report estimates of heritability of 0.31 ± 0.06 for Cell-IR, 0.42 ± 0.06 for Ab-IR, 0.42 ± 0.06 for ZMEAN and 0.370 ± 0.06 for IDEX, as well as a unity genetic correlation (rg) between ZMEAN and IDEX. While a moderately positive rg was estimated between Cell-IR and Ab-IR (rg = 0.33 ± 0.12), strongly positive estimates were obtained between IDEX and Cell-IR (rg = 0.80 ± 0.05) and between IDEX and Ab-IR (rg = 0.85 ± 0.04). We obtained a moderately negative rg between IC traits and growth including an rg = -0.38 ± 0.14 between IDEX and weaning weight, and negligible with carcass fat measurements, including an rg = -0.03 ± 0.12 between IDEX and marbling. Given that breeding with a sole focus on production might inadvertently increase susceptibility to disease and associated antibiotic use, our analyses suggest that ImmuneDEX will provide a basis to breed animals that are both highly productive and with an enhanced ability to resist disease.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Carne , Animais , Austrália , Composição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Fenótipo , Desmame
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145342, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736416

RESUMO

Menus served at public services can be considered as a good opportunity for consumers to demand a service that ensures healthy and environmentally friendly food. It is especially in the sector of nurseries and schools, where these demands make the most sense since they call for the protection of particularly vulnerable population: children. The purpose of this study is to analyze the biweekly menus served at a public Spanish nursery canteen considering the link with the two most recognized environmental indicators: the consumptive water footprint (WF) and the carbon footprint (CF). The WF and CF of the menus vary considerably between menus (619-1359 L·menu-1 and 0.75-2.95 kg CO2eq·menu-1). The assessment has identified non-dairy sources of protein and dairy-based products as the key food categories in all menus. Menus with more meat (mostly beef) and dairy products (mainly cheese) were associated with higher impacts. That is, the average impact of menus with beef is about 2 times greater than the one of all other menus. The distribution and cooking stages presented negligible contributions in terms of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly due to the consumption of local/regional products and low-energy intensive cooking techniques. The most important strategy for reducing environmental impacts is based on reducing the frequency of consumption of beef, so that poultry and lean pork are consumed alternately. This reduction should not compromise the necessary protein intake for toddlers. Attention should also be paid to afternoon snacks that are rich in cold meat and dairy products. Considering these issues, significant reductions in WF and CF indicators could be achieved, up to 550 L·menu-1 and 0.70 kg CO2eq·menu-1. Since eating habits introduced at an early stage are more likely to develop into adult behaviour, children canteen services are an excellent opportunity to promote healthy eating habits in children and their families.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Dieta , Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento Alimentar , Carne , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Animal ; 15(2): 100088, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712207

RESUMO

Crude glycerin (CG) is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in beef production. After being absorbed, it is used in the liver to produce glucose, an important precursor of intramuscular fat in ruminants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CG (439 g/kg glycerol) on the performance and meat quality of crossbred heifers finished in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. Thirty-six heifers with an initial BW of 301.5 ±â€¯23.02 kg were used. They were supplemented for 154 days with the following levels of CG: mineral mixture (without CG), 33.3, 66.6 and 99.9 g/kg CG in the DM of the supplement. Supplement or pasture DM intakes, slaughter BW and carcass traits were not influenced (P > 0.05) by increasing levels of CG. The total fat content of the meat, the vaccenic (18:1 n-7t) and conjugated linoleic acid (18:2 c9-t11) increased with the addition of CG in the diet (P < 0.05). Crude glycerin can be included up to 99.9 g/kg of the total diet without changing the performance of crossbred heifers finished in the tropical pasture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Glicerol , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Carne/análise
18.
Animal ; 15(2): 100096, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712208

RESUMO

Rabbits are particularly sensitive to heat stress which can affect productive performance, with rabbit breed/line possibly playing a role on the response to this condition. The study aimed at evaluating the effect of different ambient temperatures on the live performance and carcass traits of growing rabbits divergently selected for total body fat content. The two genetic lines (Lean and Fat) were selected based on the total body fat content estimated by computer tomography during five generations. From birth to slaughter (13 weeks of age), the rabbits were housed in two rooms where the temperature was controlled with air conditioners: in the control room the average ambient temperature was 20 °C and in the high temperature room it was 28 °C. After weaning (35 d), 60 Lean and 60 Fat rabbits/room were housed by two in wire-mesh cages and fed ad libitum with commercial pellets. The BW and feed intake (FI) were measured at 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 weeks of age to calculate the daily weight gain (DWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Mortality was recorded daily. At the end of the experiment, rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were measured. Mortality was independent of temperature and line. The temperature significantly influenced the FI, DWG, BW and the fat deposits: they were lower at higher ambient temperature. The effect of temperature differed according to the rabbits' total body fat content. At control temperature, the FI (165 vs 155 g/day; P < 0.05) and FCR (4.67 vs 4.31; P < 0.05) were higher in Fat rabbits, which also had more perirenal (36.2 vs 23.1 g; P < 0.05) and scapular fat (10.8 vs 7.1 g; P < 0.05). At high temperature, no differences in fat depots (14.5 vs 9.8 g; 5.3 vs 3.5 g) were found between the two lines. It can be concluded that temperature × genetic line interaction had an important role in productive and carcass traits, as the effect of temperature differs between Lean and Fat rabbits.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Carne , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal , Carne/análise , Fenótipo , Coelhos , Temperatura
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540678

RESUMO

This study presents a system for assessing the freshness of meat with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the frequency range of 125 Hz to 128 kHz combined with an image classifier for non-destructive and low-cost applications. The freshness standard is established by measuring the aerobic plate count (APC), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and composition analysis (crude fat, crude protein, and moisture) values of the microbiological detection to represent the correlation between EIS and meat freshness. The EIS and images of meat are combined to predict the freshness with the Adaboost classification and gradient boosting regression algorithms. As a result, when the elapsed time of beef storage for 48 h is classified into three classes, the time prediction accuracy is up to 85% compared to prediction accuracy of 56.7% when only images are used without EIS information. Significantly, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of APC and TBARS value predictions with EIS and images datum achieves 0.890 and 0.678, respectively.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Análise de Alimentos , Carne , Algoritmos , Animais , Bovinos , Carne/análise
20.
Food Chem ; 351: 129295, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631611

RESUMO

The knowledge of the changes in the lipid species in irradiated goat meat is expected to clarify the beneficial effects of irradiation on meat preservation. This study explored the characteristic lipid composition and the changes in irradiated goat meat based on quantitative lipidomics strategy by LC-MS. Totally, 12 subclasses of 174 lipids were identified with significant differences (p < 0.05, VIP > 1), and the absolute quantitative analysis of characteristic lipids was achieved. Significant lipid variables were involved in the major pathways of glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism. Moreover, significant increases during irradiation were found in total TG, PC, PE, LPE, Cer, LPC and SPH, while the total DG, PS, PG, PI and SM decreased after irradiation. Noteworthily, DHA-enriched PC (18:4/22:6) + H, a core nutrient for human health, exhibited an increase in the irradiated group. These results provide a basis for lipid quantitative alterations in irradiated goat meat and application of irradiation in meat preservation.


Assuntos
Raios gama , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Conservação de Alimentos , Cabras , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Valor Nutritivo
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