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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760141

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a major foodborne disease and an important public health concern. Contamination of meat with L. monocytogenes occurs frequently at the slaughterhouse. Our aims were; 1) to investigate the distribution of L. monocytogenes in the processing areas of four swine slaughterhouses; 2) to describe the diversity of L. monocytogenes strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; 3) to identify persistent L. monocytogenes strains and describe their distribution; 4) to investigate the associations between persistence of strains and their following characteristics: detection in food isolates, detection in human clinical isolates, and the presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) resistance genes. Various operation areas within the four swine slaughterhouses were sampled on four occasions. A total of 2496 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes was successfully isolated from 243 samples. The proportion of positive samples ranged from 32 to 58% in each slaughterhouse and from 24 to 68% in each operation area. Fifty-eight different pulsotypes were identified and eight pulsotypes, present in samples collected during 4 visits, were considered persistent. The persistent pulsotypes were significantly more likely to be detected in food (P < 0.01, exact χ²) and human clinical cases (P < 0.01, exact χ²), respectively. Among pulsotypes harboring the BAC bcrABC resistance cassette or the emrE multidrug transporter gene, 42.8% were persistent compared to 4.5% for pulsotypes without these resistance genes (P < 0.01, exact χ²). Our study highlights the importance of persistent L. monocytogenes strains in the environmental contamination of slaughterhouses, which may lead to repeated contamination of meat products. It also shows that the presence of disinfectants resistance genes is an important contributing factor.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeriose/diagnóstico , Carne/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sorogrupo , Suínos
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4544-4554, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618559

RESUMO

The taxonomic status of six strains of Acinetobacter obtained from meat samples, collected from supermarkets in Porto, Portugal, was investigated using polyphasic analysis. Partial rpoB sequence similarities lower than 95 % to other Acinetobacter species with validly published names led to the hypothesis that these strains represented novel species. This was confirmed based on comparative multilocus sequence analysis, which included the gyrB, recA and 16S rRNA genes, revealing that these strains represented two coherent lineages that were distinct from each other and from all known species. The names Acinetobacter portensis sp. nov. (comprising four strains) and Acinetobacter guerrae sp. nov. (comprising two strains) are proposed for these novel species. The species status of these two groups was confirmed by low (below 95 %) whole-genome sequence average nucleotide identity values and low (below 70 %) digital DNA-DNA hybridization similarities between the whole-genome sequences of the proposed type strains of each novel species and the representatives of the known Acinetobacter species. Phylogenomic treeing from core genome analysis supported these results. The coherence of each new species lineage was supported by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry differentiation of the species at the protein level, by cellular fatty acid profiles, and by unique and differential combinations of metabolic and physiological properties shared by each novel species. The type strain of A. portensis sp. nov. is AC 877T (=CCUG 68672T=CCM 8789T) and the type strain of A. guerrae sp. nov. is AC 1271T (=CCUG 68674T=CCM 8791T).


Assuntos
Acinetobacter/classificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Filogenia , Acinetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Portugal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127375, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622189

RESUMO

Biopolymer films based on chitosan/potato protein/linseed oil/ZnO NPs were developed to maintain the storage quality of raw meat. Results indicated that the incorporation of ZnO NPs could effectively improve the transparency and tensile strength of the films, while addition of linseed oil could make the composite film maintain good elastic property. Films blended with chitosan/potato protein/linseed oil/ZnO NPs (Fcpzl) exhibited an excellent moisture barrier capability. SEM showed that ZnO NPs could harmoniously exist in various polymers matrix. FTIR analysis demonstrated that different components were bound together by intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, among which hydrogen bonds were the main force. Raw meat samples were wrapped with different films to evaluate the preservative effect during 4 °C storage. Results indicated that Fcpzl possessed best protective effect of raw meat with excellent acceptable sensory properties during 7 days storage, which could reduce the speed of increasing pH and total bacterial counts.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Carne , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Resistência à Tração
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108715, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554040

RESUMO

Ground beef contamination with Escherichia coli is usually a result of carcass faecal contamination during the slaughter process. Carcasses are contaminated when they come into contact with soiled hides or intestinal leakage content during dressing and the evisceration processes. A more recent and compelling hypothesis is that, when lymph nodes are present in manufacturing beef trimmings, they can be a potential source of Enterobacteriaceae contamination of ground beef. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of E. coli in lymph nodes from beef carcasses used for ground meat production, in six slaughter plants situated in central Italy A total of 597 subiliac (precrural) lymph nodes were obtained from 597 cattle carcasses and screened for E. coli by culture. Furthermore, E. coli isolates (one per positive carcass) were tested for stx1, stx2 eaeA and hlyA genes that are commonly used to identify and characterise shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). In addition, the E. coli isolates were profiled for antimicrobial susceptibility. A proportion of 34.2% (204/597) carcasses were positive for E. coli. PCR revealed that 29% (59/204) of E. coli possessed stx1 or stx2 which corresponded to 9.9% of the cattle sampled. Moreover, a combination of stx1 or stx2 and eaeA was found in in 4 isolates (2% among E. coli positive samples and 1% among cattle sampled) and a combination of stx1 or stx2 and eaeA and hly in 1 isolate (0.5% and 0.2%). More than 95% of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, ceftriaxone, cyprofloxacin and cefotaxime while high rates of resistance were recorded for cephalotin, ampicillin, tetracycline, tripe sulfa and streptomycin. The multivariate analysis identified "age" as the factor most closely related to E. coli positivity (either generic E. coli or STEC) in bovine lymph nodes. In conclusion, subiliac lymph nodes represent a source of E. coli for ground beef. These results are of major importance for risk assessment and improving good manufacturing practices during animal slaughter and ground meat production.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/genética , Itália , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108750, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559710

RESUMO

For the first time, this study evaluates consumer exposure via poultry meat to Enterobacteriaceae with capacity to develop severe extraintestinal infections by either bacterial virulence and/or antibiotic resistance traits. The characterization of 256 isolates and the assessment of five parameters, showed that 96 of 100 poultry meat samples from supermarkets of northwest Spain posed ≥ one potential risk: i) 96% carried Enterobacteriaceae resistant to antimicrobials of categories A (64% to monobactams) or B (95% to cephalosporins 3rd and 4rd- generation, quinolones and/or polymixins) of the new categorization of EMA. ii) More than one extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae species were recovered from 28% of poultry meat. iii) High-risk lineages of E. coli, including multidrug-resistant ST131-H22, were present in 62% of samples. iv) E. coli recovered from 25% of samples conformed the ExPEC status. v) E. coli from 17% of samples satisfied the UPEC status. Of note, the recovery from different samples of two E. coli CC10-A (CH11-54) carrying mcr-1.1-bearing IncX4 plasmids, and four E. coli CC10-A (eae-beta1) of the hybrid pathotype aEPEC/ExPEC. (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae were isolated from 27% of samples. In summary, poultry meat microbiota is a source of genetically diverse Enterobacteriaceae, resistant to relevant antimicrobials and potentially pathogenic for consumers.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Perus , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/isolamento & purificação
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559209

RESUMO

In meat processing, antimicrobial treatment applied during slaughter and deboning may not control pathogens and spoilage organisms during subsequent transportation and storage. "Functional Ice" (FICE), an innovation over traditional ice, was investigated for its effects on food safety, shelf life, and quality of raw poultry thigh meat during refrigerated storage. FICE was prepared by freezing aqueous solutions of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (2.5% and 5% w/v) and sodium lactate-sodium diacetate (SL-SD) (1% and 2.5% v/v). Potable water was used to prepare ice for the control treatment. Thigh meat inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (108 CFU/sample) was placed in FICE treatments, stored at 4 °C and sampled at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h (n = 375). Weight pick-up was recorded for the uninoculated thighs. Additionally, shelf life and quality were evaluated for 8 days on tray-packed thighs that were stored in FICE treatments for 48 h (STPP 5%, and SL-SD 2.5%). Differences among treatments were determined using ANOVA with LSMeans (p ≤ 0.05). Results indicated that inoculated thighs stored in individual STPP 5%, and SL-SD 2.5% treatments lead to a significant reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05) after 48 h of storage. FICE treated thighs showed higher yields, lower cook loss, and an extended shelf life of 1-2 days, without any color changes. FICE has the potential to improve food safety and shelf life while improving the yields and quality during storage and transportation of raw poultry meat.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Polifosfatos/química , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactato de Sódio/química , Lactato de Sódio/farmacologia
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108668, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474228

RESUMO

Biofilms are comprised of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced matrix that normally adhere to a surface. In the food processing environment they are suggested to be a source of contamination leading to food spoilage or the transmission of food-borne pathogens. To date, research has mainly focused on the presence of (biofilm-forming) bacteria within food processing environments, without measuring the associated biofilm matrix components. Here, we assessed the presence of biofilms within a meat processing environment, processing pork, poultry and beef, by the detection of microorganisms and at least two biofilm matrix components. Sampling included 47 food contact surfaces and 61 non-food contact surfaces from eleven rooms within an Austrian meat processing plant, either during operation or after cleaning and disinfection. The 108 samples were analysed for the presence of microorganisms by cultivation and targeted quantitative real-time PCR based on 16S rRNA. Furthermore, the presence of the major matrix components carbohydrates, extracellular DNA and proteins was evaluated. Overall, we identified ten biofilm hotspots, among them seven of which were sampled during operation and three after cleaning and disinfection. Five biofilms were detected on food contact surfaces (cutters and associated equipment and a screw conveyor) and five on non-food contact surfaces (drains and water hoses) resulting in 9.3 % of the sites being classified as biofilm positive. From these biofilm positive samples, we cultivated bacteria of 29 different genera. The most prevalent bacteria belonged to the genera Brochothrix (present in 80 % of biofilms), Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter (isolated from 70 % biofilms). From each biofilm we isolated bacteria from four to twelve different genera, indicating the presence of multi-species biofilms. This work ultimately determined the presence of multi-species biofilms within the meat processing environment, thereby identifying various sources of potential contamination. Especially the identification of biofilms in water hoses and associated parts highlights the need of a frequent monitoring at these sites. The knowledge gained about the presence and composition of biofilms (i.e. chemical and microbiological) will help to prevent and reduce biofilm formation within food processing environments.


Assuntos
Brochothrix/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Psychrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Áustria , Biofilmes/classificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Desinfecção/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108669, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497922

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections and staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and enterotoxigenicity of MRSA in broiler chicken meat and giblets. A total of 5.5% (8/144) of the examined samples were contaminated with mecA positive/mecC negative MRSA, with staphylococcal counts of approximately 102 colony forming units (CFU)/g in breast, leg and gizzard samples and approximately 3.3 × 103 CFU/g in frozen liver samples. Most MRSA isolates (75%, 6/8) harboured the staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb) gene. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that MRSA isolates initiated SEB production in experimentally contaminated chicken livers within 24 h of storage at temperatures over 8 °C. SEB was maximally produced at 24 °C when the MRSA counts reached 7.3 × 103 ± 1.2 × 103 CFU/g sample homogenate. The current study concludes that the main broiler chicken MRSA isolates in Egypt harbour the seb gene. To mitigate possible SEB production, especially in broiler chicken livers, a maximum "out of refrigeration" time limit should be implemented for cold chain poultry products.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/genética , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fígado/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Refrigeração , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008866, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530914

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is mostly a commensal of birds and mammals, including humans, where it can act as an opportunistic pathogen. It is also found in water and sediments. We investigated the phylogeny, genetic diversification, and habitat-association of 1,294 isolates representative of the phylogenetic diversity of more than 5,000 isolates from the Australian continent. Since many previous studies focused on clinical isolates, we investigated mostly other isolates originating from humans, poultry, wild animals and water. These strains represent the species genetic diversity and reveal widespread associations between phylogroups and isolation sources. The analysis of strains from the same sequence types revealed very rapid change of gene repertoires in the very early stages of divergence, driven by the acquisition of many different types of mobile genetic elements. These elements also lead to rapid variations in genome size, even if few of their genes rise to high frequency in the species. Variations in genome size are associated with phylogroup and isolation sources, but the latter determine the number of MGEs, a marker of recent transfer, suggesting that gene flow reinforces the association of certain genetic backgrounds with specific habitats. After a while, the divergence of gene repertoires becomes linear with phylogenetic distance, presumably reflecting the continuous turnover of mobile element and the occasional acquisition of adaptive genes. Surprisingly, the phylogroups with smallest genomes have the highest rates of gene repertoire diversification and fewer but more diverse mobile genetic elements. This suggests that smaller genomes are associated with higher, not lower, turnover of genetic information. Many of these genomes are from freshwater isolates and have peculiar traits, including a specific capsule, suggesting adaptation to this environment. Altogether, these data contribute to explain why epidemiological clones tend to emerge from specific phylogenetic groups in the presence of pervasive horizontal gene transfer across the species.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Evolução Molecular , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Austrália , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Tamanho do Genoma , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 326: 108641, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371295

RESUMO

Thermotolerant Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness in humans worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence and to identify and characterize potential sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in broilers on farms and at the slaughterhouse; to evaluate the clonal relationship among thermotolerant Campylobacter isolates from different stages of the broiler meat supply chain, and to analyze the presence of virulence genes in different sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter. A total of 1210 samples were collected from three broiler meat supply chains in Santa Fe, Argentina. At the farms, the sampling collection included broilers one week prior to slaughter, wild-living birds, domestic dogs, wild rodents, farm workers' boots, litter, feed, drinking water, flies, and darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus). At the slaughtering line, the samples taken were from the evisceration zone (broiler cecum, working surfaces, evisceration knives and workers' hands), from the chiller zone (surfaces and direct supply water) and from the packing zone (work surfaces, workers' hands and broiler carcasses). The samples taken along each supply chain were in the same batch. The isolates obtained were identified to the species level (C. jejuni and C. coli) by multiplex PCR and were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare different profiles according to the source. Finally, the presence of 11 virulence genes was examined (cadF, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, ciaB, flaA, flhA, iam, wlaN, virB11, racR). From 254 isolates, 128 (50.4%) were Campylobacter jejuni and 126 (49.6%) Campylobacter coli. C. jejuni was the species most prevalent in farm and C. coli the species most prevalent at the slaughterhouse. We detected thermotolerant Campylobacter in samples of wild birds, darkling beetles, farm workers' boots, flies and litter. At the slaughterhouse, the prevalence varied along the process line. By analyzing PFGE results, C. jejuni showed 21 profiles with three predominant genotypes, while C. coli showed 14 profiles with four predominant genotypes. A high genotype diversity was found; however, relationships between isolates from different stages of the broiler meat chain, between broiler and potential sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination and between strains in the farm and in the slaughterhouse were detected. Furthermore, there was evidence of cross-contamination at the slaughterhouse. FlaA, flhA genes were detected in all strains, and the third most prevalent virulence gene was cadF. Only those strains obtained from flies, wild-living birds and broiler carcass samples harbored 10 of 11 pathogenic genes. The prevalence of some pathogenic genes between C. jejuni and C. coli was different. This evidence should contribute the scientific basis to implement risk management measures in public health.


Assuntos
Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Argentina , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter coli/patogenicidade , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Besouros/microbiologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Cães , Água Potável/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Flagelina/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Prevalência , Roedores/microbiologia , Termotolerância , Virulência/genética
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108660, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450393

RESUMO

Salmonella (S.) Infantis is currently the most common serovar in broilers and boiler meat in the European Union. In the field, eradication of S. Infantis in affected poultry flocks is considered extremely difficult. Despite stringent cleaning and disinfection measures between the placement of flocks, recurrent infections are often reported. So far, the efficacy of disinfectants on S. Infantis has rarely been studied. Therefore, in the present in-vitro study the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of ten commercial disinfectants were tested against seven S. Infantis field isolates. Combinations of aldehyde and quarternary ammonium were the active compounds of five, peroxygen of three, cresol and alkylamines of one disinfectant, respectively. Investigations were performed according to standard protocols and regulations. Different concentrations of disinfectants were used to test the bacteriostatic efficacy. Different temperatures and low and high protein exposures were applied as variables to investigate the bactericidal efficacy. Following neutralization of the disinfectants an additional incubation step was introduced to investigate the revitalisation potential of S. Infantis. The bacteriostatic efficacy could be assessed for seven disinfectants. For three disinfectants a bacteriostatic effect was observed when the recommended concentration was used, whereas with four disinfectants only increased concentrations led to this effect. The bactericidal efficacy was not influenced by temperature, whereas high protein exposure decreased the efficacy of nine disinfectants. Furthermore, reactivation of S. Infantis was revealed after application of disinfectants for the majority of products. Interestingly, the strain of S. Infantis influenced the efficacy of the disinfectants. Overall, products based on aldehydes and quarternary ammonium compounds proved most efficient, followed by peroxgen, cresol and alkylamines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Cresóis/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1945-1955, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462213

RESUMO

In this study, in situ-expressed metabolic routes of Brochothrix (B.) thermosphacta and Carnobacterium (C.) divergens were evaluated based on a metatranscriptomic dataset from bacteria growing on MAP chicken meat (O2/CO2; N2/CO2). Both species exhibited no (C. divergens) or minor transcription regulation (B. thermosphacta) within their main metabolic routes in response to different atmospheres. Both employ pathways related to glucose and ribose. Gluconeogenesis from lipid-borne glycerol is active in the progressing lack of carbohydrates. Pyruvate fates in both species comprise lactate, ethanol, acetate, CO2, formate, C4-compounds and H2O2 (only B. thermosphacta). Both species express genes for a minimal aerobic respiratory chain, but do not possess the genetic setting for a functional citric acid cycle. While products of carbohydrate and glycerol metabolism display mild to medium sensorial off-characteristics, predicted end products of their amino acid metabolism comprise, e.g., isobutyrate and isovalerate (B. thermosphacta) or cadaverine and tyramine (C. divergens) as potent spoilage compounds.


Assuntos
Brochothrix/fisiologia , Carnobacterium/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Carne/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Atmosfera , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0216914, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterise antibiotics resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from the formal meat sector (FMS) and informal meat sectors (INMS). METHOD: A total of 162 and 102 E. coli isolates from the FMS, and INMS respectively were isolated by standard culture-based, and biochemical reactions. The isolates were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disc diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial susceptibility against 19 different antibiotics. The presence of class 1-2 integrons in each E. coli isolates was assessed using 3'-CS and 5'-CS regions specific primers. RESULT: Among the 19 antimicrobials, resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, and nitrofurans were found to be more frequent than carbapenems and chloramphenicol. The number of multi-drug resistance ranged from three to ten antimicrobials. The resistant determinants with the highest prevalence in the FMS and INMS were; [aminoglycosides: aadA (40.6%; 31.9%), and strA (6.5%; 9.4%)], [ß-lactams: ampC (20%; 45%),], [Chloramphenicol: catI (1.7%; 1.7%), and [tetracyclines: tetB (11.5%; 24%),], and [sulfonamides: sul1 (22.2%; 26.7%),]. CONCLUSION: Higher phenotypic resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems were found in the FMS than in INMS. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexes for FMS and INMS ranged from 0.2-0.5. The results reveal a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates and resistance determinants, suggesting that consumers and handlers of such meat are at risk of contracting antibiotic-resistant E. coli-related foodborne disease.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , África do Sul , Suínos/microbiologia
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108640, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344254

RESUMO

Although a nation-wide microbiological screening program of chicken carcasses after chilling in Taiwanese chicken abattoirs has been undertaken since 2006, little is known regarding the potential sources of the Salmonella during the slaughter process. The present study provides data on the detection and serotypes of Salmonella isolated from broilers during processing and from the environment in six abattoirs in Taiwan. Overall, Salmonella were detected in 156 of 622 samples (25.1%; 95% CI: 21.7-28.7) collected. The prevalence of Salmonella varied between sampling sites with 5.8, 17.6, 31.3 and 35.5% of cloacal swabs, environmental samples prior to processing, environmental samples during processing and carcass rinse fluid, respectively, being positive (χ2 = 51.3, p < 0.0001). A total of 15 serotypes were identified from the 156 Salmonella isolates with S. Albany (41.7%) S. Schwarzengrund (20.5%), S. Kentucky (12.8%) and S. Tennessee (5.1%) being the most commonly isolated serotypes. Characterization of 156 isolates by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 50 PFGE types. Typing confirmed the presence of the same PFGE type at multiple stages during processing including plucking, evisceration, chilling and post-chilling. The abattoir environment and intestinal contents of chickens are important sources of Salmonella in broiler chicken abattoirs, with the same PFGE types detected at different stages of processing both before and during slaughtering. It is concluded that Salmonella isolates present in the environment and intestinal contents of processed birds survived in the abattoir environment resulting in subsequent carcass contamination along the processing chain including plucking, evisceration, chilling and post-chilling.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Matadouros , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Sorogrupo , Taiwan
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287295

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the motivations of Brazilian dog owners and their knowledge about the risks related to raw meat-based diets (RMBD) as well as to evaluate important enteropathogens such as Salmonella spp., C. perfringens, and C. difficile, in feces of dogs fed different diets. The majority of the pet owners (69.3%) reported to have chosen this diet for their dogs, considering it to be more "natural". A large number of owners declared that RMBD do not pose health risks for their animals (87.9%) or humans (98.8%), even though almost one third of the respondents (34.8%) declared having at least one individual at high risk of infection in contact with RMBD-fed dogs. Stool samples from 46 RMBD-fed dogs and 192 dogs fed commercial dry feed were collected. The present study revealed that dogs fed raw meat diets were almost 30 times more likely to be positive for Salmonella spp. than dogs on a conventional diet. Some of the serovars detected were commonly associated with human salmonellosis, such as S. Typhimurium and S. Saintpaul, and were multidrug resistant. RMBD-fed dogs were more likely to be positive for C. perfringens type A (p = 0.008) and one C. perfringens type F was isolated from these animals. Two toxigenic strains (4.3%) of C. difficile were isolated only from raw meat-fed dogs, all of which were under antibiotic therapy. These toxigenic C. difficile isolates were classified as RT106/ST54 and RT600/ST149, previously associated with infection in dogs and humans. The present work revealed that the owners have a tendency to ignore or are unaware of the risks associated with raw meat diets for dogs. Also, the higher fecal shedding of important enteropathogens in dogs fed RMBD suggests that this diet poses a risk for the animals and the people in contact with them.


Assuntos
Derrame de Bactérias , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Dieta/veterinária , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/psicologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Motivação , Propriedade
16.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(4): 303-312, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118486

RESUMO

Herein we describe a highly structured, filamentous growth phenotype displayed by an isolate of the food spoilage microorganism Brochothrix thermosphacta. The growth morphology of this B. thermosphacta strain (strain BII) was dependent on environmental factors such as the growth media, incubation temperatures, and the inoculum concentration. Inoculation of cultures in highly dilute suspensions resulted in the formation of isolated, tight aggregates resembling fungal growth in liquid media. This same strain also formed stable, mesh-like structures in 6-well tissue culture plates under specific growth conditions. The complex growth phenotype does not appear to be unique to strain BII but was common among B. thermosphacta strains isolated from chicken. Light and electron micrographs showed that the filaments of multiple BII cells can organize into complex, tertiary structures resembling multistranded cables. Time-lapse microscopy was employed to monitor the development of such aggregates over 18 h and revealed growth originating from short filaments into compact ball-like clusters that appeared fuzzy due to protruding filaments or cables. This report is the first to document this complex filamentous growth phenotype in a wild-type bacterial isolate of B. thermosphacta.


Assuntos
Brochothrix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Animais , Brochothrix/classificação , Brochothrix/isolamento & purificação , Brochothrix/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/microbiologia , Temperatura
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 336, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is the most commonly reported causative agent of foodborne bacterial infection in Germany, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of this zoonotic agent. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge of consumers in Germany about Campylobacter, Salmonella and Toxoplasma and their transmissibility via meat. In addition, we investigated the level of knowledge between selected consumer groups and whether the results coincided with those of international studies. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1008 consumers in Germany via an online panel to record, analyse and evaluate the state of knowledge about Campylobacter, Salmonella and Toxoplasma. The participants were selected according to age, gender and federal states to be representative of the German population. RESULTS: Overall, 68.3% of the respondents had never heard of Campylobacter, 20.2% had heard of Campylobacter but did not know how to protect themselves, and only 11.5% knew how to protect themselves from Campylobacter infections. Slightly more than half (52.2%) of the respondents who had at least heard of Campylobacter knew that Campylobacter was transmissible via meat. Knowledge increased significantly with age. Participants over 60 years old knew about Campylobacter almost three times as often as the 16- to 19-year-old comparison group (OR = 2.982). Consumers who had at least a secondary school certificate were almost twice as likely to know about Campylobacter as those who had no school certificate or a lower secondary school certificate (OR = 1.899). Participants who were not actors in the food chain were significantly less frequently informed about Campylobacter than were those who were actors in the food chain. Consumer knowledge of Toxoplasma was better than that of Campylobacter. Consumers have the most knowledge about Salmonella. CONCLUSIONS: Consumers in Germany are predominantly poorly informed about Campylobacter and the transmission route via meat. General knowledge of Toxoplasma is better than that of Campylobacter. Among the three pathogens, consumers are best informed about Salmonella. This finding highlights the importance of making existing information materials more accessible to consumers in the future to increase their knowledge, with the objective of reducing the incidence of Campylobacter infections.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Salmonella , Toxoplasma , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Campylobacter/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1788-1796, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111339

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to investigate the meat quality characteristics, bioactive compound content, and antioxidant activity during refrigerated storage of breast meat of Arbor Acres broilers (carcass weight: 1.1 kg, raised for 35 D) obtained from a conventional farm (BCF, n = 30) and an animal welfare farm (BAF, n = 30) in Korea. The BCF and BAF did not differ in their proximate composition, color, water-holding capacity, creatine, creatinine, and carnosine contents. However, the shear force value was significantly higher in BAF than in BCF (P < 0.05). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels in BCF on days 7 and 9 were significantly higher than those in BAF (P < 0.001). During storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content of BAF was significantly lower, except on day 1. The fatty acid composition of samples was not affected by the storage period, however, saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid contents did differ among the types of farm systems (P < 0.05). Although the creatine, creatinine, and carnosine contents in BAF and BCF did not differ significantly, the carnosine and creatinine contents decreased with the increase in storage period (P < 0.05). The anserine content of BAF was significantly higher than that of BCF throughout storage. Superoxide dismutase activity was not affected by the type of farm system but was affected by storage period. Overall, BAF showed lower pH, microorganism, TBARS, and VBN values, and higher anserine contents than BCF. These findings can serve as reference data for the evaluation of chicken meat quality of broilers raised in animal welfare farm and conventional farm.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anserina/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/microbiologia , Músculos Peitorais , Refrigeração , República da Coreia , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
19.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 568-575, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221560

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica at meat processing plants poses a potential risk of meat product contamination. Many common sanitizers are unable to completely eradicate biofilms formed by these foodborne pathogens because of the three-dimensional biofilm structure and the presence of bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). A novel multifaceted approach combining multiple chemical reagents with various functional mechanisms was used to enhance the effectiveness of biofilm control. We tested a multicomponent sanitizer consisting of a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), hydrogen peroxide, and the accelerator diacetin for its effectiveness in inactivating and removing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica biofilms under meat processing conditions. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella biofilms on common contact surfaces were treated with 10, 20, or 100% concentrations of the multicomponent sanitizer solution for 10 min, 1 h, or 6 h, and log reductions in biofilm mass were measured. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to directly observe the effect of sanitizer treatment on biofilm removal and bacterial morphology. After treatment with the multicomponent sanitizer, viable E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella biofilm cells were below the limit of detection, and the prevalence of both pathogens was low. After treatment with a QAC-based control sanitizer, surviving bacterial cells were countable, and pathogen prevalence was higher. SEM analysis of water-treated control samples revealed the three-dimensional biofilm structure with a strong EPS matrix connecting bacteria and the contact surface. Treatment with 20% multicomponent sanitizer for 10 min significantly reduced biofilm mass and weakened the EPS connection. The majority of the bacterial cells had altered morphology and compromised membrane integrity. Treatment with 100% multicomponent sanitizer for 10 min dissolved the EPS matrix, and no intact biofilm structure was observed; instead, scattered clusters of bacterial aggregates were detected, indicating the loss of cell viability and biofilm removal. These results indicate that the multicomponent sanitizer is effective, even after short exposure with dilute concentrations, against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli O157 , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella/fisiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Prevalência , Sorogrupo
20.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219928

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to perform comparison studies of the chemical, physical, technological, and microbiological characteristics, including biogenic amines (BAs) and volatile compounds (VC), of the European roe deer (RDM), boar (BoM), red deer (ReDM), and beaver (BM) hunted wild game meat (HWGM). The outcome of this study showed a significant effect (p < .05) of animal species on protein content, pH, drip loss, shear force, cooking loss, color coordinates, total count of enterobacteria, and most of the VC. ReDM had the highest protein content (23.15%), cooking loss, L* and b* values. The lowest protein and cholesterol content and L* value and the highest pH, shear force, drip loss, and fat content were established in BM having the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (64.12% from total FA). The total UFA content in ReDM and BM was almost twofold higher, compared with saturated FA. Small amounts of main BAs (<7.8 mg/kg) were found in ReDM and BM, while a higher content of putrescine in RDM and BoM was established. The main VCs in HWGM were acetoin, pelargonic, and acetic acid. These findings provide a valuable data about the HWGM quality characteristics and might aid food manufacturers to improve and enhance the processing of the HWGM.


Assuntos
Cervos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Roedores , Sus scrofa , Aminas/análise , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Colesterol/análise , Combinação de Medicamentos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Carne/análise , Carne/microbiologia , Óleos , Fenóis , Proteínas/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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