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1.
Gene ; 806: 145929, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461150

RESUMO

The body color of Neocaridina denticulate sinensis is a compelling phenotypic trait, in which a cascade of carotenoid metabolic processes plays an important role. The study was conducted to compare the transcriptome of cephalothoraxes among three pigmentation phenotypes (red, blue, and chocolate) of N. denticulate sinensis. The purpose of this study was to explore the candidate genes associated with different colors of N. denticulate sinensis. Nine cDNA libraries in three groups were constructed from the cephalothoraxes of shrimps. After assembly, 75022 unigenes were obtained in total with an average length of 1026 bp and N50 length of 1876 bp. There were 45977, 25284, 23605, 21913 unigenes annotated in the Nr, Swissprot, KOG, and KEGG databases, respectively. Differential expression analysis revealed that there were 829, 554, and 3194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RD vs BL, RD vs CH, and BL vs CH, respectively. These DEGs may play roles in the absorption, transport, and metabolism of carotenoids. We also emphasized that electron transfer across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) was a key process in pigment metabolism. In addition, a total of 6328 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also detected in N. denticulate sinensis. The results laid a solid foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of integument pigmentation in the crustacean and contributed to developing more attractive aquatic animals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Decápodes/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Proteínas de Artrópodes/classificação , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cor , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Decápodes/anatomia & histologia , Decápodes/metabolismo , Água Doce , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130571, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284185

RESUMO

Plant cell cultures from cloudberry (CL), lingonberry (LI), stone berry (ST), arctic bramble (AB), and strawberry (SB) were studied in terms of their polyphenol and carotenoid composition, antioxidant activity, antihemolytic activity and cytotoxicity effects on cancerous cells. High-resolution mass spectrometry data showed that LI, presented the highest antioxidant activity, contained the highest contents of flavones, phenolic acids, lignans, and total carotenoids, while CL, ST and SB presented the opposite behavior. AB and SB presented the lowest FRAP and CUPRAC values, while AB and CL presented the lowest reducing power. SB presented the lowest antioxidant activity measured by single electron transfer assays and the lowest content of lignans, phenolic acids, and flavones. CL and LI decreased the viability of in vitro mammary gland adenocarcinoma while only LI decreased the viability of in vitro lung carcinoma and showed protective effects of human erythrocytes against mechanical hemolysis.


Assuntos
Frutas , Fenóis , Antioxidantes , Carotenoides , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Frutas/química , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130632, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311235

RESUMO

The roles of total soluble polyphenols (TSP) and insoluble tannins (IST) in the enzymatic browning during the storage of dried persimmon slices packaged by different methods was studied. The color evolution was comprehensively evaluated within 18 weeks of storage, as well as determination the content variation of TSP, IST, and carotenoids. A series of simulated reactions were conducted to investigate the involvement of TSP and IST in PPO-catalyzed reaction. The results showed that N2-opaque packaging was a good way to alleviate this browning issue. The IST contributed preponderantly to the browning during the whole storage, while the contribution of TSP was little. And the degradation of carotenoids might be related to the color deterioration in the early storage. The IST participated in PPO-catalyzed reaction directly with the insoluble state. By contrast, only a small amount of TSP participated in PPO-catalyzed browning reaction, since it preferentially interacted with IST.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Carotenoides , Frutas , Reação de Maillard , Taninos
4.
Food Chem ; 366: 130602, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314934

RESUMO

The effect of cinnamaldehyde (CA) on the structure and properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. The resultant WPI/CA complex was used as stabilizer to form emulsions and emulsion gels, which were used for the delivery and protection of ß-carotene. The particle size and hydrophobicity of WPI solution increased and then decreased with the addition of CA. Circular dichroism showed that CA mainly changed the secondary structure of WPI, with increasing ß-fold content from 47.2% to 72.9%. The fluorescence spectra showed that both tryptophan and tyrosine in WPI were involved in the interaction with CA. WPI/CA complex as the stabilizer could form the stable emulsions and emulsion gels, which showed better protection effect on ß-carotene, and helped enhance its bioaccessibility. The knowledge provides insights into the development of new multifunctional food ingredients and the enhancement of protein modification in food system.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , beta Caroteno , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Emulsões , Géis , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
5.
Food Chem ; 367: 130710, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343802

RESUMO

The levels of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in pumpkin (C. maxima) slices as affected by hot air drying (60-100 °C, 6-17 h) were assessed via an HPLC-MS/MS method. Among the 25 carotenoids and carotenoid esters identified in pumpkin flesh, xanthophyll diesters (including (all-E)-violaxanthin dipalmitate, lutein 3-O-myristate-3'-O-laurate, lutein 3-O-palmitate-3'-O-laurate, lutein 3-O-myristate-3'-O-palmitate, lutein 3-O-stearate-3'-O-myristate and lutein 3-O-stearate-3'-O-palmitate) accounted for 43% of the total carotenoids (853.6 ± 18.5 µg/g, dried weight). Dihydroxy xanthophylls, especially those containing 5,6-epoxy group, were more heat-labile than carotenes, while xanthophylls were less heat stable than their diester counterparts. The degradation rates (first-order reactions, R2 = 0.983-0.992) for lutein diesters (rate constant: 0.002-0.049 h-1) in pumpkin slices were only 10-20% of that for lutein (rate constant: 0.020-0.243 h-1) during hot air drying, and 76-98% of lutein diesters could be retained in the final dried products.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Cucurbita , Ésteres , Luteína , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Food Chem ; 367: 130726, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352698

RESUMO

The impact of different complexes on the properties of ß-carotene-loaded emulsions was investigated by measuring the droplet size, encapsulation efficiency, droplet morphology, and physical stability. The photo and thermal stability of ß-carotene and its bioaccessibility during digestion were also analyzed. Comparing to the emulsions stabilized by other complexes, the emulsion stabilized by the high methoxyl pectin-rhamnolipid-pea protein isolate-curcumin (HMP-Rha-PPI-Cur) complex had the smallest droplet size (17.53 ± 0.15 µm) and the maximum encapsulation efficiency for curcumin (90.33 ± 0.03 %) and ß-carotene (92.16 ± 0.01 %). The emulsion stabilized by the HMP-Rha-PPI-Cur complex exhibited better physical stability against creaming. The retention rate of ß-carotene in the HMP-Rha-PPI-Cur complex-stabilized emulsion was 17.75 ± 0.02 and 33.64 ± 0.02 % after UV irradiation and thermal treatment. The HMP-Rha-PPI-Cur complex-stabilized emulsion also had a higher level of free fatty acid released (43.67 %) and higher bioaccessibility of ß-carotene (32.35 ± 0.02 %).


Assuntos
Curcumina , Proteínas de Ervilha , Carotenoides , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Pectinas , Tensoativos , beta Caroteno
7.
Food Chem ; 367: 130701, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388635

RESUMO

Carotenoids are colored compounds with important physiological functions. The Haida golden scallop, which has an orange adductor muscle, is a carotenoid-enriched variety of scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis, an important aquaculture shellfish. In this study, we investigated the tissue distribution of the carotenoids, pectenolone and pectenoxanthin, in both Haida golden scallop and normal Yesso scallop. Both carotenoids were detected in all the sampled tissues of the two scallops, except in the adductor muscle of normal scallop. There were significantly more carotenoids in Haida golden scallop than in normal scallop, in the tissues of the mantle, female gonad, kidney, and adductor muscle. Increased carotenoid concentrations were detected in Haida golden scallop adductor muscle during the spring spawning season, indicating the effects of reproduction on muscle carotenoids accumulation. This study was the first systematic investigation of carotenoid distribution in Yesso scallop tissues and will benefit future research on carotenoid accumulation and function in scallops.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Pectinidae , Animais , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Distribuição Tecidual
8.
Food Chem ; 367: 130725, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390908

RESUMO

Grains of three specialty maize varieties and one conventional maize variety cultivated in China were collected and dissected to obtain the germ, endosperm, and pericarp fraction, and the distribution pattern of phosphorus, carotenoids, and tocochromanols was determined. The results showed that phytochemical contents varied significantly among different maize fractions. The germ fraction accounted for 78.3 to 86.5% of the total phosphorus present in the maize kernels. Over 86.9% of carotenoids were located in the endosperm. Except for waxy maize, 64.5 to 74.8% of the tocochromanols were contributed by the germ. Considerable differences in phytochemical contents were observed between the genotypes. Waxy maize contained the highest content of tocopherols, tocotrienols and tocochromanols meanwhile waxy maize had the lowest carotenoid and phytate phosphorus content. High lysine maize contained the highest levels in carotenoids and lowest tocochromanols. Over all, total carotenoids were significantly inversely associated with total tocochromanols.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Zea mays , Carotenoides/análise , China , Fósforo , Tocoferóis , Zea mays/genética
9.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 151: 109913, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649686

RESUMO

Dunaliella bardawil, a unicellular green alga, can accumulate a large amount of lutein and ß-carotene under stresses. Using chemical inducers combined with abiotic stress to promote the accumulation of high value-added products such as lipids and carotenoids in microalgae has attracted more and more attention. In this study, creatinine was added into autotrophic medium to investigate its effects on the growth, chlorophyll content, and the ingredients and content of carotenoids in D. bardawil. The results showed that creatinine alone could significantly increase the biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of D. bardawil, among which the contents of lutein and ß-carotene were further increased, while the content of zeaxanthin was decreased. In order to further improve the content of the two carotenoids, different light intensities combined with creatinine have been adopted. Under 6.589 W/m2 light intensity, creatinine could effectively increase the production of lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and ß-carotene. Compared with the control, the content of lutein increased by 46 % and the content of ß-carotene increased by 77 % when the concentration of creatinine was 500 µg/mL. In conclusion, creatinine can effectively improve the production lutein and ß-carotene in D. bardawil, which is more conducive under lower light intensity.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , beta Caroteno , Carotenoides , Creatinina , Luteína
10.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112271, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474830

RESUMO

Folic acid (FA) is a crucial vitamin for all living creatures. However, it is susceptible to degradation under pH, heat, ultraviolet (UV) and day sunlight conditions, resulting in lowering its bioavailability. Therefore, a versatile protective encapsulation system for FA is highly required to overcome its inherent instability. We report the use of the robust Lycopodium clavatum sporopollenin (LCS) microcapsules, extracted from their natural micrometer-sized raw spores, for FA microencapsulation. The physico-chemical characterisation of the LCS microcapsules are comprehensively investigated before and after the microencapsulation using SEM, elemental, CLSM, FTIR, TGA/DTG and XRD analyses, revealing a successful FA encapsulation within the LCS in an amorphous form. The phenylpropanoid acids, responsible for the UV protection and the autofluorescence of the LCS, were found in the LCS as evidenced by FTIR analysis. TGA/DTG results revealed that the hemi-cellulose and cellulose are the major component of the LCS. A controlled and sustained release of FA from FA-loaded LCS were achieved where the release profile of FA-loaded LCS was found to be pH-dependent. The percentages of cumulative FA released after 10 h at 37 ± 0.5 °C were 45.5% and 76.1% in pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively, ensuring controlled and slow release in simulated physiological conditions. The FA release kinetic studies indicated the prevalence of the Fickian diffusion mechanism in pH 1.2, while anomalous non-Fickian transport was ascribed for FA release in pH 7.4. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that the obtained formulations were biocompatible against the human skin fibroblast (HSF) cell line. The versatile LCS microcapsules exhibited intriguing photostability for FA under UV or sunlight irradiation. Concretely, the obtained FA sustained delivery and photoprotection properties of these LCS microcapsules validate their multifunctional characteristics, opening up intriguing applications in oral and topical drug delivery as well as in food industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico , Vitaminas , Biopolímeros , Cápsulas , Carotenoides , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Cinética
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3091-3101, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467700

RESUMO

The flower of Polygonatum cyrtonema has good edible and medicinal values. In this study, four samples of P. cyrtonema flowers from different regions were selected as test materials. The contents, composition and antioxidant activities of lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components were determined under different light and temperature conditions, which help to reveal the discoloration reason and the composition variation patterns during storage. The results showed that light and temperature had different effects on the lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components in the dried flowers during storage. After storage for 4 weeks, the contents of total chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenols and saponins in the samples exposed to light respectively decreased by 62.62%, 66.4%, 68.7% and 43.4% compared with those in the dark. The decreases in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, lutein, ß-carotene and zeaxanthin were 64.64%, 56.74%, 59.2%, 77.7% and 45.4%, respectively. The contents of pigments and components in the samples stored at-20 ℃ were significantly higher than those at room temperature and 4 ℃, indicating that low temperature was conductive to the stability of lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components. The samples stored at low temperature and in the dark had the strongest free radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that P. cyrtonema dried flowers should be stored in low temperature environment without light, which can slow down the degradation of internal components. The study provides a theoretical basis for the production, processing and storage of P. cyrtonema flowers.


Assuntos
Polygonatum , Antioxidantes , Carotenoides , Clorofila A , Flores
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 416, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf color variation is a common trait in plants and widely distributed in many plants. In this study, a leaf color mutation in Camellia japonica (cultivar named as Maguxianzi, M) was used as material, and the mechanism of leaf color variation was revealed by physiological, cytological, transcriptome and microbiome analyses. RESULTS: The yellowing C. japonica (M) exhibits lower pigment content than its parent (cultivar named as Huafurong, H), especially chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid, and leaves of M have weaker photosynthesis. Subsequently, the results of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) exhibited that M chloroplast was accompanied by broken thylakoid membrane, degraded thylakoid grana, and filled with many vesicles. Furthermore, comparative transcriptome sequencing identified 3,298 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). KEGG annotation analysis results showed that 69 significantly enriched DEGs were involved in Chl biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. On this basis, we sequenced the microbial diversity of the H and M leaves. The sequencing results suggested that the abundance of Didymella in the M leaves was significantly higher than that in the H leaves, which meant that M leaves might be infected by Didymella. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we speculated that Didymella infected M leaves while reduced Chl and carotenoid content by damaging chloroplast structures, and altered the intensity of photosynthesis, thereby causing the leaf yellowing phenomenon of C. japonica (M). This research will provide new insights into the leaf color variation mechanism and lay a theoretical foundation for plant breeding and molecular markers.


Assuntos
Camellia/anatomia & histologia , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Cor , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , China , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma
14.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500552

RESUMO

The effect of singlet oxygen on light-harvesting (LH) complexes has been studied for a number of sulfur (S+) and nonsulfur (S-) photosynthetic bacteria. The visible/near-IR absorption spectra of the standard LH2 complexes (B800-850) of Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum (S+), Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides (S-), Rhodoblastus (Rbl.) acidophilus (S-), and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) palustris (S-), two types LH2/LH3 (B800-850 and B800-830) of Thiorhodospira (T.) sibirica (S+), and an unusual LH2 complex (B800-827) of Marichromatium (Mch.) purpuratum (S+) or the LH1 complex from Rhodospirillum (Rsp.) rubrum (S-) were measured in aqueous buffer suspensions in the presence of singlet oxygen generated by the illumination of the dye Rose Bengal (RB). The content of carotenoids in the samples was determined using HPLC analysis. The LH2 complex of Alc. vinosum and T. sibirica with a reduced content of carotenoids was obtained from cells grown in the presence of diphenylamine (DPA), and LH complexes were obtained from the carotenoidless mutant of Rba. sphaeroides R26.1 and Rps. rubrum G9. We found that LH2 complexes containing a complete set of carotenoids were quite resistant to the destructive action of singlet oxygen in the case of Rba. sphaeroides and Mch. purpuratum. Complexes of other bacteria were much less stable, which can be judged by a strong irreversible decrease in the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) absorption bands (at 850 or 830 nm, respectively) for sulfur bacteria and absorption bands (at 850 and 800 nm) for nonsulfur bacteria. Simultaneously, we observe the appearance of the oxidized product 3-acetyl-chlorophyll (AcChl) absorbing near 700 nm. Moreover, a decrease in the amount of carotenoids enhanced the spectral stability to the action of singlet oxygen of the LH2 and LH3 complexes from sulfur bacteria and kept it at the same level as in the control samples for carotenoidless mutants of nonsulfur bacteria. These results are discussed in terms of the current hypothesis on the protective functions of carotenoids in bacterial photosynthesis. We suggest that the ability of carotenoids to quench singlet oxygen (well-established in vitro) is not well realized in photosynthetic bacteria. We compared the oxidation of BChl850 in LH2 complexes of sulfur bacteria under the action of singlet oxygen (in the presence of 50 µM RB) or blue light absorbed by carotenoids. These processes are very similar: {[BChl + (RB or carotenoid) + light] + O2} → AcChl. We speculate that carotenoids are capable of generating singlet oxygen when illuminated. The mechanism of this process is not yet clear.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacterioclorofilas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Luz , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10974-10988, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510898

RESUMO

Although Blakeslea trispora has been used for industrial production of ß-carotene, the effects of light and oxidative stress on its synthesis have not been fully clarified. The present study focuses on the effects of light and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on carotenoid synthesis and their multilevel regulation in B. trispora. Blue light significantly influenced the intracellular ROS levels, carotenoid contents, and transcription of carotenoid structural genes, while ROS levels were positively correlated with intracellular carotenoid contents and transcriptional levels of carotenoid structural genes. Blue light and ROS were both significant factors affecting carotenoid synthesis with a significant interaction between them. Irradiation by pulsed blue light and (or) addition of generating agents for active oxygen could partially compensate for the inhibition derived from the transcription inhibitor (dactinomycin) and translation inhibitor (cycloheximide) on the multilevel phenotype. Therefore, blue light and ROS act on the transcription and translation of carotenoid structural genes to promote the accumulation of carotenoid in B. trispora.


Assuntos
Mucorales , Carotenoides , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , beta Caroteno
16.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500650

RESUMO

Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/química , Feófitas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sargassum/química , Alga Marinha/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Clorofila A/química , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Malásia , Minerais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verduras/química
17.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 72(3): 173-181, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587668

RESUMO

Some mycotoxins such as beauvericin (BEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) can cross the blood brain barrier, which is why we tested the anti-inflammatory action of a pumpkin carotenoid extract (from the pulp) against these mycotoxins and their combinations (OTA+ZEA and OTA+ZEA+BEA) on a blood brain barrier model with co-cultured ECV304 and C6 cells using an untargeted metabolomic approach. The cells were added with mycotoxins at a concentration of 100 nmol/L per mycotoxin and pumpkin carotenoid extract at 500 nmol/L. For control we used only vehicle solvent (cell control) or vehicle solvent with pumpkin extract (extract control). After two hours of exposure, samples were analysed with HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Metabolites were identified against the Metlin database. The proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolite eoxin (14,15-LTE4) showed lower abundance in ZEA and BEA+OTA+ZEA-treated cultures that also received the pumpkin extract than in cultures that were not treated with the extract. Another marker of inflammation, prostaglandin D2-glycerol ester, was only found in cultures treated with OTA+ZEA and BEA+OTA+ZEA but not in the ones that were also treated with the pumpkin extract. Furthermore, the concentration of the pumpkin extract metabolite dihydromorelloflavone significantly decreased in the presence of mycotoxins. In conclusion, the pumpkin extract showed protective activity against cellular inflammation triggered by mycotoxins thanks to the properties pertinent to flavonoids contained in the pulp.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Micotoxinas , Ocratoxinas , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11523-11533, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545740

RESUMO

Carotenoids are a group of tetraterpene pigments widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Torulene, torularhodin, and ß-carotene, three principal carotenoids synthesized by Rhodotorula glutinis ZHK, possess strong health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, provitamin A, and antitumor. Here, the effect of different salt conditions on carotenoids production of R. glutinisZHK was investigated. The results showed that the total carotenoids were significantly enhanced in 0.5 M (3.91 mg/L) and 0.75 M (5.41 mg/L) NaCl treatments than that in 1.0 M (0.35 mg/L) and control (1.42 mg/L) after 120 h of cultivation. Of which, the increase in torulene and torularhodin production acts as the main contributor to the enhancement of total carotenoids. Transcriptome profiling revealed that salt stress efficiently promotes the gene expression of crtI, which could explain the molecular mechanisms of the enhanced torulene and torularhodin production under salt stress. Further experiments indicated that torulene and torularhodin play an important role in quenching excrescent reactive oxygen species induced by salt stress. Together, the present study reports an effective strategy for simultaneously improving torulene and torularhodin production in R. glutinis ZHK.


Assuntos
Rhodotorula , Transcriptoma , Carotenoides , Rhodotorula/genética
19.
Plant Sci ; 311: 110996, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482908

RESUMO

Rubus chingii, is widely distributed in many Asian countries and well known for its medicinal and dietary properties. Diversity of fruit color in raspberry has been attributed to the presence of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. In this study, we investigated anthocyanins and carotenoids, and their biosynthesis by LC-MS/MS. Six anthocyanins mainly consisted of flavanol-anthocyanins while five carotenoids mainly consisted of ß-citraurin esters. Flavanol-anthocyanins were produced from an offshoot of the anthocyanin biosynthesis, which started with biosynthesis of flavanols and anthocyanidin by leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR)/anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS/LDOX) respectively. ß-citraurin esters were produced from cleavage of zeaxanthin and esterification by organic acid, which was an offshoot of the carotenoid biosynthesis. The offshoot started with biosynthesis of zeaxanthin and ß-citraurin by carotene ß-hydroxylase (CHYB/LUT5) and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) respectively. During fruit ripening, biosynthesis of flavanols and anthocyanins was down-regulated by genes/proteins involved in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, while biosynthesis of ß-citraurin esters was up-regulated by imbalanced expression of genes/proteins involved in ß,ß-ring and ß, ε-ring hydroxylation. Thus, ß-citraurin esters, instead of anthocyanins imparted reddish color to the ripe fruit. These pigments and their biosynthesis in R. chingii are totally different from what occurs in other raspberry species.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , China , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Pigmentação/genética , Rubus/anatomia & histologia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(39): 11626-11636, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554747

RESUMO

Crocetin, a high-value apocarotenoid in saffron, is widely applied to the fields of food and medicine. However, the existing method of obtaining crocetin through large-scale cultivation is far from meeting the market demand. Microbial synthesis of crocetin is a potential alternative to traditional resources, and it is found that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) is the critical enzyme to synthesize crocetin. So, in this study, we used "hybrid-tunnel" engineering to obtain variants of Crocus sativus-derived CsCCD2, essential for zeaxanthin conversion into crocetin, with a broader substrate specificity and higher catalytic efficiency. Variants including S323A, with a lower charge bias and a larger tunnel size than the wild-type, showed a 5-fold higher crocetin titer in yeast-based fermentations. S323A could also convert the ß-carotene substrate to crocetin dialdehyde and exhibited a 12.83-fold greater catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward zeaxanthin than the wild-type in vitro. This strategy enabled the production of 107 mg/L crocetin in 5 L fed-batch fermentation, higher than that previously reported. Our findings demonstrate that engineering access tunnels to expand the substrate profile by in silico protein design represents a viable strategy to refine the catalytic properties of enzymes across a range of applications.


Assuntos
Crocus , Dioxigenases , Carotenoides , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Zeaxantinas
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