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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 227, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822932

RESUMO

In yeast metabolic engineering, there is a need for technologies that simultaneously suppress and regulate the expression of multiple genes and improve the production of target chemicals. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel technology that simultaneously suppresses the expression of multiple genes by combining RNA interference with global metabolic engineering strategy. Furthermore, using ß-carotene as the target chemical, we attempted to improve its production by using the technology. First, we developed a technology to suppress the expression of the target genes with various strengths using RNA interference. Using this technology, total carotenoid production was successfully improved by suppressing the expression of a single gene out of 10 candidate genes. Then, using this technology, RNA interference strain targeting 10 candidate genes for simultaneous suppression was constructed. The total carotenoid production of the constructed RNA interference strain was 1.7 times compared with the parental strain. In the constructed strain, the expression of eight out of the 10 candidate genes was suppressed. We developed a novel technology that can simultaneously suppress the expression of multiple genes at various intensities and succeeded in improving carotenoid production in yeast. Because this technology can suppress the expression of any gene, even essential genes, using only gene sequence information, it is considered a useful technology that can suppress the formation of by-products during the production of various target chemicals by yeast.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , beta Caroteno , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/biossíntese , Interferência de RNA
2.
Food Res Int ; 188: 114512, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823883

RESUMO

Several studies have linked the intake of lycopene and/or tomato products with improved metabolic health under obesogenic regime. The aim was to evaluate the differential impact of supplementations with several tomato genotypes differing in carotenoid content and subjected to different irrigation levels on obesity-associated disorders in mice. In this study, 80 male C57BL/6JRj mice were assigned into 8 groups to receive: control diet, high fat diet, high fat diet supplemented at 5 % w/w with 4 tomato powders originating from different tomato genotypes cultivated under control irrigation: H1311, M82, IL6-2, IL12-4. Among the 4 genotypes, 2 were also cultivated under deficit irrigation, reducing the irrigation water supply by 50 % from anthesis to fruit harvest. In controlled irrigation treatment, all genotypes significantly improved fasting glycemia and three of them significantly lowered liver lipids content after 12 weeks of supplementation. In addition, IL6-2 genotype, rich in ß-carotene, significantly limited animal adiposity, body weight gain and improved glucose homeostasis as highlighted in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. No consistent beneficial or detrimental impact of deficit irrigation to tomato promoting health benefits was found. These findings imply that the choice of tomato genotype can significantly alter the composition of fruit carotenoids and phytochemicals, thereby influencing the anti-obesogenic effects of the fruit. In contrast, deficit irrigation appears to have an overall insignificant impact on enhancing the health benefits of tomato powder in this context, particularly when compared to the genotype-related variations in carotenoid content.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Genótipo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Animais , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Camundongos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas , Água , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Adiposidade
3.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 230, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829459

RESUMO

ß-Carotene is an attractive compound and that its biotechnological production can be achieved by using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a previous study, we developed a technique for the efficient establishment of diverse mutants through the introduction of point and structural mutations into the yeast genome. In this study, we aimed to improve ß-carotene production by applying this mutagenesis technique to S. cerevisiae strain that had been genetically engineered for ß-carotene production. Point and structural mutations were introduced into ß-carotene-producing engineered yeast. The resulting mutants showed higher ß-carotene production capacity than the parental strain. The top-performing mutant, HP100_74, produced 37.6 mg/L of ß-carotene, a value 1.9 times higher than that of the parental strain (20.1 mg/L). Gene expression analysis confirmed an increased expression of multiple genes in the glycolysis, mevalonate, and ß-carotene synthesis pathways. In contrast, expression of ERG9, which functions in the ergosterol pathway competing with ß-carotene production, was decreased in the mutant strain. The introduction of point and structural mutations represents a simple yet effective method for achieving mutagenesis in yeasts. This technique is expected to be widely applied in the future to produce chemicals via metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , beta Caroteno , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/biossíntese , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Mutação , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Mutação Puntual , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Farnesil-Difosfato Farnesiltransferase
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13091, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849601

RESUMO

The aim of current study was to prepared zinc oxide nanofertilzers by ecofriendly friendly, economically feasible, free of chemical contamination and safe for biological use. The study focused on crude extract of Withania coagulans as reducing agent for the green synthesis of ZnO nano-particles. Biosynthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR and GC-MS analysis. However, zinc oxide as green Nano fertilizer was used to analyze responses induced by different doses of ZnO NPs [0, 25, 50,100, 200 mg/l and Zn acetate (100 mg/l)] in Triticum aestivum (wheat). The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of foliar application of ZnO NPs were studied on wheat (Triticum aestivum) with aspect of biomass accumulation, morphological attributes, biochemical parameters and anatomical modifications. Wheat plant showed significant (p < 0.01) enhancement of growth parameters upon exposure to ZnO NPs at specific concentrations. In addition, wheat plant showed significant increase in biochemical attributes, chlorophyll content, carotenoids, carbohydrate and protein contents. Antioxidant enzyme (POD, SOD, CAT) and total flavonoid content also confirmed nurturing impact on wheat plant. Increased stem, leaf and root anatomical parameters, all showed ZnO NPs mitigating capacity when applied to wheat. According to the current research, ZnO NPs application on wheat might be used to increase growth, yield, and Zn biofortification in wheat plants.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Oxirredução , Triticum , Óxido de Zinco , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Food Res Int ; 189: 114495, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876585

RESUMO

The texture of tomato products can be modified by choice of variety, their growing conditions and/or processing method, but no clear explanation exists of the mechanisms that transform fruit tissue, how they act on texture, or whether genetics and processing impact the same physical parameters. We therefore conducted a study that processed 4 varieties produced under low/high nitrogen supply, into puree using both hot and cold break processes. No specific rheological signature allows discrimination between cultivar-induced or process-induced textural changes, but that they can be distinguished by sensory analysis. Growth conditions impacted but was not sensory distinguished. Both caused significant variations in 7 of 11 physico-chemical parameters, but the order of importance of these traits controlling texture varied, depending on whether the cause was genetic or process-related. Analysis of alcohol insoluble solids revealed a specific signature in pectin composition and conformation that could be linked to particle aggregation in the presence of lycopene-rich particles.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas , Reologia , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/química , Viscosidade , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Pectinas/química , Licopeno/análise , Paladar , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/química , Humanos
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108783, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824694

RESUMO

Cimicifuga dahurica (C. dahurica) is an important medicinal plant in the northern region of China. The best supplemental light environment helps plant growth, development, and metabolism. In this study, we used two-year-old seedlings as experimental materials. The white light as the control (CK). The different ratios of red (R) and blue (B) combined light were supplemented (T1, 2R: 1B, 255.37 µmol m-2·s-1; T2, 3R: 1B, 279.69 µmol m-2·s-1; T3, 7R: 1B, 211.16 µmol m-2·s-1). The growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and primary metabolite content were studied in seedlings. The results showed that: 1) The fresh weight from shoot, root, and total fresh weight were significantly (P < 0.05) increased under T2 and T3 treatment. 2) The contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and total chlorophyll (Chl) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased under T2 treatment, and carotenoid (car) content was reduced. 3) The photochemical quenching (qP), the actual photosynthetic efficiency of PSII (Y(II)), and the photosynthetic electron transfer rate (ETR) from leaves were significantly (P < 0.05) increased under T1 treatment. The Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased under T2 and T3 treatments. 4) A total of 52 primary metabolites were detected in C. dahurica leaves. Compared with CK, 14, 15, and 18 differential metabolites were screened under T1, T2, and T3 treatments. In addition, D-xylose, D-glucose, glycerol, glycolic acid, and succinic acid were significantly (P < 0.05) accumulated under the T2 treatment, which could regulate the TCA cycle metabolism pathway. The correlation analysis suggested that plant growth was promoted by regulating the change of D-mannose content in galactinol metabolism and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. In summary, the growth of C. dahurica was improved under T2 treatment.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Cimicifuga , Luz , Fotossíntese , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cimicifuga/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila A/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 550, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Boron (B) is a micronutrient, but excessive levels can cause phytotoxicity, impaired growth, and reduced photosynthesis. B toxicity arises from over-fertilization, high soil B levels, or irrigation with B-rich water. Conversely, silicon (Si) is recognized as an element that mitigates stress and alleviates the toxic effects of certain nutrients. In this study, to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Si on maize under boron stress conditions, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications in a hydroponic system. The experiment utilized a nutrient solution for maize var. Merit that contained three different boron (B) concentrations (0.5, 2, and 4 mg L-1) and three Si concentrations (0, 28, and 56 mg L-1). RESULTS: Our findings unveiled that exogenous application of B resulted in a substantial escalation of B concentration in maize leaves. Furthermore, B exposure elicited a significant diminution in fresh and dry plant biomass, chlorophyll index, chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoids, and membrane stability index (MSI). As the B concentration augmented, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity exhibited a concomitant increment. Conversely, the supplementation of Si facilitated an amelioration in plant fresh and dry weight, total carbohydrate, and total soluble protein. Moreover, the elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes culminated in a decrement in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and MDA content. In addition, the combined influence of Si and B had a statistically significant impact on the leaf chlorophyll index, total chlorophyll (a + b) content, Si and B accumulation levels, as well as the enzymatic activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and H2O2 levels. These unique findings indicated the detrimental impact of B toxicity on various physiological and biochemical attributes of maize, while highlighting the potential of Si supplementation in mitigating the deleterious effects through modulation of antioxidant machinery and biomolecule synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the potential of Si supplementation in alleviating the deleterious effects of B toxicity in maize. Increased Si consumption mitigated chlorophyll degradation under B toxicity, but it also caused a significant reduction in the concentrations of essential micronutrients iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). While Si supplementation shows promise in counteracting B toxicity, the observed decrease in Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations warrants further investigation to optimize this approach and maintain overall plant nutritional status.


Assuntos
Boro , Clorofila , Hidroponia , Silício , Zea mays , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/fisiologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Boro/toxicidade , Boro/metabolismo , Silício/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12716, 2024 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830933

RESUMO

To explore the molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and identify potential therapeutic targets, we performed transcriptome sequencing of lung tissue from mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Our Gene Ontology analysis revealed that "extracellular matrix organization" ranked high in the biological process category, and matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs) and other proteases also played important roles in it. Moreover, compared with those in the normoxia group, we confirmed that MMPs expression was upregulated in the hypoxia group, while the hub gene Timp1 was downregulated. Crocin, a natural MMP inhibitor, was found to reduce inflammation, decrease MMPs levels, increase Timp1 expression levels, and attenuate hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice. In addition, analysis of the cell distribution of MMPs and Timp1 in the human lung cell atlas using single-cell RNAseq datasets revealed that MMPs and Timp1 are mainly expressed in a population of fibroblasts. Moreover, in vitro experiments revealed that crocin significantly inhibited myofibroblast proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix deposition. Furthermore, we demonstrated that crocin inhibited TGF-ß1-induced fibroblast activation and regulated the pulmonary arterial fibroblast MMP2/TIMP1 balance by inhibiting the TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling pathway. In summary, our results indicate that crocin attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice by inhibiting TGF-ß1-induced myofibroblast activation.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hipóxia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1 , Animais , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/genética , Camundongos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 272: 106970, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838503

RESUMO

As well-known, microalgae have a pivotal role in aquatic environments, being the primary producer. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) analogues on cell ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and photosynthetic pigment responses in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Microalgae were exposed during both exponential and stationary growth phases to an environmental relevant concentration (300 ng/L) of three differing BPA analogues (BPAF, BPF, and BPS) and their mixture (100 ng/L of each compound). Bioaccumulation of such compounds in microalgae was also analysed. During the stationary growth phase, a significant increase in the percentage of cells with hydrogen peroxide production was recorded after exposure to both BPS and MIX. Conversely, no significant effects on total chlorophylls and carotenoids were observed. During exponential growth phase we observed that control cultures had chloroplasts with well-organized thylakoid membranes and a central pyrenoid. On the contrary, the culture cells treated with BPA analogues and MIX showed chloroplasts characterized by evident dilation of thylakoid membranes. The presence of degeneration areas in the cytoplasm was also recorded. During the stationary growth phase, control and culture cells were characterized by chloroplasts with a regular thylakoid system, whereas BPA analogues-exposed cells were characterized by a deep degradation of the cytoplasm but showed chloroplasts without evident alterations of the thylakoid system. Lipid bodies were visible in treated microalgae. Lastly, microalgae bioaccumulated mainly BPS and BPF, alone or in the MIX. Overall, results obtained revealed that BPA analogues can affect some important biochemical and ultrastructure features of microalgae, promoting ROS production. Lastly, the capability of microalgae to bioaccumulate bisphenols suggest a potential ecotoxicological risk for filter-feeders organisms.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diatomáceas , Microalgas , Fenóis , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fenóis/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Food Funct ; 15(11): 5921-5928, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738496

RESUMO

Crocins are bioactive glucosylated apocarotenoids that confer a yellow pigmentation. In addition to their coloring ability, crocins offer potential health benefits because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These compounds are present in the flowers and fruits of a few plant species, including saffron, gardenia, Buddleja and Verbascum species. Saffron extracts have been used for the formulation of functional foods. However, there is no evidence of the use of the other plants producing crocins in the food industry. This study evaluated the effect of the addition of ground dry flowers of two Verbascum species, with antioxidant activity, as well as dry fruit powder, from a recently engineered tomato plant producing fruits that accumulate high levels of crocins, as functional ingredients during the processing of rice, wheat cous-cous and maize noodles, providing a yellow pigmentation. Correlation analyses revealed that the increased antioxidant activity in the three food matrices was due to the presence of crocins, which showed no toxicity. Furthermore, in vitro digestion showed that crocins were more bioaccessible from rice than from cous-cous or maize noodles, inferring the importance of the food matrix in bio accessibility. The obtained results showed the commercial potential of Verbascum's flowers, as a source of crocins, natural pigments with antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Carotenoides , Flores , Extratos Vegetais , Verbascum , Flores/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Verbascum/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Frutas/química
11.
New Phytol ; 243(1): 111-131, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708434

RESUMO

Leaf traits are essential for understanding many physiological and ecological processes. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models with leaf spectroscopy are widely applied for trait estimation, but their transferability across space, time, and plant functional types (PFTs) remains unclear. We compiled a novel dataset of paired leaf traits and spectra, with 47 393 records for > 700 species and eight PFTs at 101 globally distributed locations across multiple seasons. Using this dataset, we conducted an unprecedented comprehensive analysis to assess the transferability of PLSR models in estimating leaf traits. While PLSR models demonstrate commendable performance in predicting chlorophyll content, carotenoid, leaf water, and leaf mass per area prediction within their training data space, their efficacy diminishes when extrapolating to new contexts. Specifically, extrapolating to locations, seasons, and PFTs beyond the training data leads to reduced R2 (0.12-0.49, 0.15-0.42, and 0.25-0.56) and increased NRMSE (3.58-18.24%, 6.27-11.55%, and 7.0-33.12%) compared with nonspatial random cross-validation. The results underscore the importance of incorporating greater spectral diversity in model training to boost its transferability. These findings highlight potential errors in estimating leaf traits across large spatial domains, diverse PFTs, and time due to biased validation schemes, and provide guidance for future field sampling strategies and remote sensing applications.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Clorofila/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Modelos Biológicos , Água , Carotenoides/metabolismo
12.
Microbes Environ ; 39(5)2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811235

RESUMO

The extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica accumulates the C50 carotenoid, bacterioruberin (BR). To reveal the BR biosynthetic pathway, unidentified phytoene desaturase candidates were functionally characterized in the present study. Two genes encoding the potential phytoene desaturases, c0507 and d1086, were found from the Ha. japonica genome sequence by a homology search using the Basic Local Align Search Tool. Disruption mutants of c0507 and d1086 and their complemented strains transformed with expression plasmids for c0507 and d1086 were subsequently constructed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ana-lyses of carotenoids produced by these strains revealed that C0507 and D1086 were both bifunctional enzymes with the same activities as both phytoene desaturase (CrtI) and 3,4-desaturase (CrtD). C0507 and D1086 complemented each other during BR biosynthesis in Ha. japonica. This is the first study to identify two distinct enzymes with both CrtI and CrtD activities in an extremely halophilic archaeon.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Haloarcula , Oxirredutases , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Haloarcula/genética , Haloarcula/enzimologia , Haloarcula/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Proteínas Arqueais/genética , Proteínas Arqueais/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Filogenia
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10586, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719951

RESUMO

Carotenoids play essential roles in plant growth and development and provide plants with a tolerance to a series of abiotic stresses. In this study, the function and biological significance of lycopene ß-cyclase, lycopene ε-cyclase, and ß-carotene hydroxylase, which are responsible for the modification of the tetraterpene skeleton procedure, were isolated from Lycium chinense and analyzed. The overexpression of lycopene ß-cyclase, lycopene ε-cyclase, and ß-carotene hydroxylase promoted the accumulation of total carotenoids and photosynthesis enhancement, reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, and proline content of tobacco seedlings after exposure to the salt stress. Furthermore, the expression of the carotenoid biosynthesis genes and stress-related genes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase) were detected and showed increased gene expression level, which were strongly associated with the carotenoid content and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. After exposure to salt stress, the endogenous abscisic acid content was significantly increased and much higher than those in control plants. This research contributes to the development of new breeding aimed at obtaining stronger salt tolerance plants with increased total carotenoids and vitamin A content.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycium , Nicotiana , Proteínas de Plantas , Tolerância ao Sal , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Nicotiana/genética , Nicotiana/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Lycium/genética , Lycium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo
14.
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 87: 103129, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703526

RESUMO

Fat-soluble antioxidants play a vital role in protecting the body against oxidative stress and damage. The rapid advancements in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have offered a promising avenue for economically producing fat-soluble antioxidants by engineering microbial chassis. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in engineering yeast microbial factories to produce three main groups of lipophilic antioxidants: carotenoids, vitamin E, and stilbenoids. In addition to discussing the classic strategies employed to improve precursor availability and alleviate carbon flux competition, this review delves deeper into the innovative approaches focusing on enzyme engineering, product sequestration, subcellular compartmentalization, multistage fermentation, and morphology engineering. We conclude the review by highlighting the prospects of microbial engineering for lipophilic antioxidant production.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Engenharia Metabólica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Vitamina E/biossíntese , Estilbenos/metabolismo
15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(6): 126, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727833

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The gene controlling pink flesh in watermelon was finely mapped to a 55.26-kb region on chromosome 6. The prime candidate gene, Cla97C06G122120 (ClPPR5), was identified through forward genetics. Carotenoids offer numerous health benefits; while, they cannot be synthesized by the human body. Watermelon stands out as one of the richest sources of carotenoids. In this study, genetic generations derived from parental lines W15-059 (red flesh) and JQ13-3 (pink flesh) revealed the presence of the recessive gene Clpf responsible for the pink flesh (pf) trait in watermelon. Comparative analysis of pigment components and microstructure indicated that the disparity in flesh color between the parental lines primarily stemmed from variations in lycopene content, as well as differences in chromoplast number and size. Subsequent bulk segregant analysis (BSA-seq) and genetic mapping successfully narrowed down the Clpf locus to a 55.26-kb region on chromosome 6, harboring two candidate genes. Through sequence comparison and gene expression analysis, Cla97C06G122120 (annotated as a pentatricopeptide repeat, PPR) was predicted as the prime candidate gene related to pink flesh trait. To further investigate the role of the PPR gene, its homologous gene in tomato was silenced using a virus-induced system. The resulting silenced fruit lines displayed diminished carotenoid accumulation compared with the wild-type, indicating the potential regulatory function of the PPR gene in pigment accumulation. This study significantly contributes to our understanding of the forward genetics underlying watermelon flesh traits, particularly in relation to carotenoid accumulation. The findings lay essential groundwork for elucidating mechanisms governing pigment synthesis and deposition in watermelon flesh, thereby providing valuable insights for future breeding strategies aimed at enhancing fruit quality and nutritional value.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citrullus , Frutas , Fenótipo , Pigmentação , Proteínas de Plantas , Citrullus/genética , Citrullus/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Genes Recessivos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Licopeno/metabolismo
16.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114354, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763639

RESUMO

Carotenoids, versatile natural pigments with numerous health benefits, face environmental concerns associated with conventional petrochemical-based extraction methods and limitations of their synthetic equivalents. In this context, this study aims to introduce eco-friendly approaches using ultrasound-based strategies (probe and bath) for the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae, initially focusing on Microchloropsis gaditana and subsequently evaluating the versatility of the method by applying it to other microalgae species of interest (Tisochrysis lutea, Porphyridium cruentum, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and defatted microalgal residues. Among the approaches evaluated, the 5-min ultrasonic probe system with ethanol showed comparable carotenoid recovery efficiency to the reference method (agitation, 24 h, acetone) (9.4 ± 2.5 and 9.6 ± 3.2 mg g-1 carotenoids per dry biomass, for the green and the reference method, respectively). Moreover, the method's sustainability was demonstrated using the AGREEprep™ software (scored 0.62 out of 1), compared to the traditional method (0.22 out of 1). The developed method yielded high carotenoid contents across species with diverse cell wall compositions (3.1 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.3, and 4.1 ± 0.1 mg g-1 carotenoid per dry biomass for T. lutea, P. cruentum, and P. tricornutum, respectively). Moreover, the application of the method to defatted biomass showed potential for microalgal valorization with carotenoid recovery rates of 41 %, 60 %, 61 %, and 100 % for M.gaditana, P. tricornutum, T. lutea, and P. cruentum, compared to the original biomass, respectively. Furthermore, by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), we reported the carotenoid and chlorophyll profiles of the different microalgae and evaluated the impact of the eco-friendly methods. The carotenoid and chlorophyll profiles varied depending on the species, biomass, and method used. In summary, this study advances a green extraction method with improved environmental sustainability and shorter extraction time, underscoring the potential of this approach as a valuable alternative for the extraction of microalgal pigments.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Microalgas , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Microalgas/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Ultrassom/métodos , Biomassa , Química Verde
17.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114402, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763657

RESUMO

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia huayllabambana) oil is a food matrix that contains more than 80 % of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acids. The objective of this study was to develop blends of sacha inchi oil (P. huayllabambana) enriched with aguaje oil (Mauritia flexuosa L.f.) and evaluate the induction period, total carotenoid content, nutritional quality indices and oxidative stability from the fatty acid composition. The analytical tests were conducted for oil blends that had the following proportions: sacha inchi oil enriched with aguaje oil at 5, 10 and 20 %. The results prove that the enrichment of sacha inchi oil with aguaje oil (SIO-PH-AO) leads to an improvement in oxidative stability and nutritional and physical properties. For example, the oxidative stability index (OSI) varied from 0.87 to 2.53 h. The content of total carotenoids produces an increase from 0.35 to 99.90 mg/kg, while total polyphenols from 47.45 to 126.90 mg GAE/g, and chroma from 39.91 to 69.02 units. Regarding the fatty acid profile, the oxidizability value improves with the addition of aguaje oil. Reduces levels of PUFA, PUFA/SFA, and hypo-and hypercholesterolemic ratio (h/H). Additionally, an increase in SFA and MUFA levels, while the ω6/ω3 ratio remained constant. Finally, it can be noted that the enrichment of sacha inchi oil with aguaje oil (rich in carotenoids) provides better stability and can be used for commercial applications as a mechanism to establish new vegetable oils with better properties.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Oxirredução , Óleos de Plantas , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/química , Óleos de Plantas/química , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 722: 150154, 2024 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795456

RESUMO

Azospirillum brasilense is a non-photosynthetic α-Proteobacteria, belongs to the family of Rhodospirillaceae and produces carotenoids to protect itself from photooxidative stress. In this study, we have used Resonance Raman Spectra to show similarity of bacterioruberins of Halobacterium salinarum to that of A. brasilense Cd. To navigate the role of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, we used mutational analysis to inactivate putative genes predicted to be involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in A. brasilense Cd. We have shown that HpnCED enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of squalene (C30), which is required for the synthesis of carotenoids in A. brasilense Cd. We also found that CrtI and CrtP desaturases were involved in the transformation of colorless squalene into the pink-pigmented carotenoids. This study elucidates role of some genes which constitute very pivotal role in biosynthetic pathway of carotenoid in A. brasilense Cd.


Assuntos
Azospirillum brasilense , Carotenoides , Esqualeno , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Azospirillum brasilense/metabolismo , Azospirillum brasilense/genética , Esqualeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Análise Espectral Raman
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108732, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761546

RESUMO

Carotenoid oxidative cleavage is a significant factor contributing to the color changes of shredded carrots and treatment with calcium chloride (CaCl2, 1% w/v) has been observed to alleviate the whitening symptom and color loss. However, the specific mechanism by which CaCl2 treatment suppresses carotenoid degradation remains unclear. In this study, the effect of CaCl2 and EGTA (calcium ion chelating agent) treatment on carotenoid biosynthesis and degradation in shredded carrots and the mechanism involved was investigated. CaCl2 treatment promoted the expression and activity of carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme (phytoene synthase, PSY), but inhibited the increases of the degradative enzyme activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) and down-regulated the corresponding transcripts, thus delayed the degradation of total carotenoid and maintaining higher levels of major carotenoid compounds including ß-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, and lutein in shredded carrots during storage. However, EGTA treatment promoted the gene expression and enzyme activity of CCD and increased the degradation of carotenoid compounds in shredded carrots during storage. Furthermore, the CaCl2 treatment induced DcCAMTA4, identified as a calcium decoder in shredded carrots, which, in turn, suppressed the expressions of DcCCD1 and DcCCD4 by interacting with their promoters. The transient overexpression of DcCAMTA4 in tobacco leaves led to reduced expression of NtCCD1 and NtCCD4, maintaining a higher content of carotenoids. Thus, CaCl2 alleviated the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids in shredded carrots through the DcCAMTA4-mediated carotenoid degradation pathway.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio , Carotenoides , Daucus carota , Proteínas de Plantas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Daucus carota/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108739, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772168

RESUMO

Zostera marina, a critical keystone marine angiosperm species in coastal seagrass meadows, possesses a photosensitive oxygen evolving complex (OEC). In harsh environments, the photoinactivation of the Z. marina OEC may lead to population declines. However, the factors underlying this photosensitivity remain unclear. Therefore, this study was undertaken to elucidate the elements contributing to Z. marina OEC photosensitivity. Our results demonstrated a gradual decrease in photosystem II performance towards shorter wavelengths, especially blue light and ultraviolet radiation. This phenomenon was characterized by a reduction in Fv/Fm and the rate of O2 evolution, as well as increased fluorescence at 0.3 ms on the OJIP curve. Furthermore, exposure to shorter light wavelengths and longer exposure durations significantly reduced the relative abundance of the OEC peripheral proteins, indicating OEC inactivation. Analyses of light-screening substances revealed that carotenoids, which increased most notably under 420 nm light, might primarily serve as thermal dissipators instead of efficient light filters. In contrast, anthocyanins reacted least to short-wavelength light, in terms of changes to both their content and the expression of genes related to their biosynthesis. Additionally, the levels of aromatically acylated anthocyanins remained consistent across blue-, white-, and red-light treatments. These findings suggest that OEC photoinactivation in Z. marina may be linked to inadequate protection against short-wavelength light, a consequence of insufficient synthesis and aromatic acylation modification of anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Luz , Oxigênio , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Zosteraceae , Zosteraceae/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo
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