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1.
Food Chem ; 399: 133948, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994855

RESUMO

M. oleifera known as "miracle tree" is increasingly used in nutraceuticals for the reported health effects and nutritional value of its leaves. This study presents the first metabolome profiling of M. oleifera leaves of African origin using different solvent polarities via HR-UPLC/MS based molecular networking followed by multivariate data analyses for samples classification. 119 Chemicals were characterized in both positive and negative modes belonging to 8 classes viz. phenolic acids, flavonoids, peptides, fatty acids/amides, sulfolipids, glucosinolates and carotenoids. New metabolites i.e., polyphenolics, fatty acids, in addition to a new class of sulfolipids were annotated for the first time in Moringa leaves. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-aging bioassays of the leaf extracts were assessed and in correlation to their metabolite profile via multivariate data analyses. Kaempferol, quercetin and apigenin-O/C-glycosides, fatty acyl amides and carotenoids appeared crucial for biological activities and leaves origin discrimination.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Amidas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Quimiometria , Ácidos Graxos , Metaboloma , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
2.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134605, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306703

RESUMO

Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, has attracted considerable attention owing to its unique molecular structure and excellent antioxidant properties. Due to its structural particularity, it has many geometrical and optical isomers in the diet; Interestingly, the human body has considerable quantity of Z- and optical isomers despite the intake of E- and (3S,3'S) isomers. However, there remains no systematic analysis and summary of astaxanthin and its isomers regarding health benefits and bioavailability. To address this need, this review details the latest research progress of biological activities related to oxidative damage, and these effects are more obvious in Z- and (3S,3'S)-isomers from the existing research. In addition, we outline a comprehensive analysis of the bioavailability of dietary astaxanthin and its isomers from the perspective of transporter-mediated process (e.g. SR-BI, CD36). Further nvestigation of astaxanthin and its isomers is expected to improve human health and promote their applications in future healthcare-related products.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Xantofilas , Humanos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Xantofilas/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dieta
3.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134194, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323007

RESUMO

This study sought to improve the biological fate of ß-carotene obtained from spinach, using in vitro digestion, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion, and in vivo approaches, to investigate the effects of excipient emulsions with medium- (MCT) and long-chain triglyceride (LCT) as a vehicle for improved health benefits of ß-carotene. Results showed that the bioavailability and bioactivity of ß-carotene were both significantly higher in the excipient emulsions relative to those without the emulsions. This was especially true when LCT was used as the vehicle. These results were confirmed by bioaccessibility, duodenal absorption, and in vivo absorption and metabolism. Furthermore, animal feeding studies revealed that LCT may have the potential to promote triglyceride and apo-B48 reconstitution and secretion. This suggested that LCT may facilitate the entry of carotenoids into circulation via the lymphatic pathway. These results highlight the importance of the optimization of excipient foods to improve the efficacy of lipophilic carotenoid.


Assuntos
Excipientes , beta Caroteno , Animais , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Excipientes/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Emulsões/metabolismo , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo
4.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 2266-2275, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36412560

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Zeaxanthin is a yellow­coloured dietary carotenoid widely recognized as an essential component of the macula. It exerts blue light filtering and antioxidant activities, offering eye health and vision benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the oral absorption and systemic disposition of zeaxanthin from biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic perspectives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo intravenous (5 and 10 mg/kg) and intraportal (5 mg/kg) pharmacokinetic studies were performed to determine intrinsic tissue­blood partition coefficient, elimination pathway, and hepatic clearance, of zeaxanthin in rats. Moreover, in vitro physicochemical property test, in situ closed loop study, in vivo oral pharmacokinetic study (20 and 100 mg/kg), and in vivo lymphatic absorption study (100 mg/kg) were conducted to investigate the gut absorption properties of zeaxanthin and assess the effects of several lipids on the lymphatic absorption of zeaxanthin in rats. RESULTS: Zeaxanthin exhibited poor solubility (≤144 ng/mL) and stability (6.0-76.9% of the initial amount remained at 24 h) in simulated gut luminal fluids. Gut absorption of zeaxanthin occurred primarily in the duodenum, but the major fraction (≥84.7%) of the dose remained unabsorbed across the entire gut tract. Considerable fractions of intravenous zeaxanthin accumulated in the liver, lung, and spleen (21.3, 11.7, and 2.0%, respectively). It was found that the liver is the major eliminating organ of zeaxanthin, accounting for 53.5-90.1% of the total clearance process (hepatic extraction ratio of 0.623). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study to report factors that determine the oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of zeaxanthin.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Carotenoides , Animais , Ratos , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431912

RESUMO

Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments, and sources of vitamin A in humans. The first metabolic pathway for their synthesis is mediated by the enzymes ß,ß-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase (BCO1) and ß,ß-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (BCO2), which cleave carotenoids into smaller compounds, called apocarotenoids. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the interaction of BCO1 and BCO2 with carotenoids, adding structural diversity and importance in the agro-food and/or health sectors. Homology modeling of BCO1 and BCO2, and the molecular dynamics of complexes with all carotenoids were performed. Interaction energy and structures were analyzed. For both enzymes, the general structure is conserved with a seven beta-sheet structure, and the ß-carotene is positioned at an optimal distance from the catalytic center. Fe2+ forms in an octahedral coordination sphere with four perfectly conserved histidine residues. BCO1 finds stability in a structure in which the ß-carotene is positioned ready for enzymatic catalysis at the 15-15' bond, and BCO2 in positioning the bond to be cleaved (C9-C10) close to the active site. In BCO1 the carotenoids interact with only seven residues with aromatic rings, while the interaction of BCO2 is much more varied in terms of the type of interaction, with more residues of different chemical natures.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases , beta-Caroteno 15,15'-Mono-Oxigenase , Humanos , beta-Caroteno 15,15'-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo
6.
Structure ; 30(12): 1647-1659.e4, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356587

RESUMO

STARD3, a steroidogenic acute regulatory lipid transfer protein, was identified as a key xanthophyll-binding protein in the human retina. STARD3 and its homologs in invertebrates are known to bind and transport carotenoids, but this lacks structural elucidation. Here, we report high-resolution crystal structures of the apo- and zeaxanthin (ZEA)-bound carotenoid-binding protein from silkworm Bombyx mori (BmCBP). Having a STARD3-like fold, BmCBP features novel elements, including the Ω1-loop that, in the apoform, is uniquely fixed on the α4-helix by an R173-D279 salt bridge. We exploit absorbance, Raman and dichroism spectroscopy, and calorimetry to describe how ZEA and BmCBP mutually affect each other in the complex. We identify key carotenoid-binding residues, confirm their roles by ZEA-binding capacity and X-ray structures of BmCBP mutants, and also demonstrate that markedly different carotenoid-binding capacities of BmCBP and human STARD3 stem from differences in the structural organization of their carotenoid-binding cavity.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Luteína , Animais , Humanos , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , Luteína/química , Luteína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Bombyx/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293018

RESUMO

ALFIN-like transcription factors (ALs) are involved in several physiological processes such as seed germination, root development and abiotic stress responses in plants. In carrot (Daucus carota), the expression of DcPSY2, a gene encoding phytoene synthase required for carotenoid biosynthesis, is induced after salt and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Interestingly, the DcPSY2 promoter contains multiple ALFIN response elements. By in silico analysis, we identified two putative genes with the molecular characteristics of ALs, DcAL4 and DcAL7, in the carrot transcriptome. These genes encode nuclear proteins that transactivate reporter genes and bind to the carrot DcPSY2 promoter in yeast. The expression of both genes is induced in carrot under salt stress, especially DcAL4 which also responds to ABA treatment. Transgenic homozygous T3 Arabidopsis thaliana lines that stably express DcAL4 and DcAL7 show a higher survival rate with respect to control plants after chronic salt stress. Of note is that DcAL4 lines present a better performance in salt treatments, correlating with the expression level of DcAL4, AtPSY and AtDXR and an increase in carotenoid and chlorophyll contents. Likewise, DcAL4 transgenic kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) lines show increased carotenoid and chlorophyll content and higher survival rate compared to control plants after chronic salt treatment. Therefore, DcAL4 and DcAL7 encode functional transcription factors, while ectopic expression of DcAL4 provides increased tolerance to salinity in Arabidopsis and Kiwi plants.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Arabidopsis , Daucus carota , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Daucus carota/genética , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Actinidia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Mar Drugs ; 20(10)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286467

RESUMO

Fucoxanthin is an oxygenated carotenoid component that has been reported to play important roles in anti-oxidation, anti-obesity and anti-cancer in the human body. Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein (FCP) complexes participate in light harvesting and photoprotection in diatom. In order to better understand the change of fucoxanthin content and its role in photoprotection, the growth, fucoxanthin biosynthesis and photosynthetic phenotypes were studied in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under the treatment of exogenous arachidonic acid (AA). Our results demonstrated that even low concentration of AA at 0.1 mg/L strongly induced fucoxanthin accumulation in algal cells to a maximum of 1.1 mg/g dry weight (DW), which was 36.6% higher than that in the untreated ones. By principal component analysis (PCA), we also identified a close correlation between fucoxanthin accumulation and the expression of genes involved in fucoxanthin biosynthesis, especially phytoene synthase (PSY), suggesting that AA change the metabolism of fucoxanthin by inducing carotenoid metabolic enzymes at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, we found that the exogenous application of AA affected non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and photoinhibition, which resulted from the changed diadinoxanthin (DD) and diatoxanthin (DT) cycle, and thus played an important role in photoprotection.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Humanos , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
9.
Curr Biol ; 32(19): R1005-R1007, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220085

RESUMO

The discovery of a new enzyme required for production of red carotenoid pigments in vertebrates provides insights for how shared biochemical pathways may be the key to understanding honest signaling via plumage coloration.


Assuntos
Plumas , Pigmentação , Animais , Carotenoides/metabolismo
10.
Planta ; 256(5): 100, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251100

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A new carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase NtCCD10 from tobacco was characterized. There is some difference between NtCCD10 and CCD1 in structure. NtCCD10 can cleave the C5-C6 (C5'-C6') and C9-C10 (C9'-C10') double bonds of carotenoids and has high catalytic activity. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) cleave carotenoids to produce a variety of apocarotenoids, which have important biological functions for organisms in nature. There are eleven CCDs subfamilies in the plant kingdom, many of which have been extensively characterized in their functions. However, as a newly classified subfamily, the function of CCD10 has rarely been studied. In this work, the function of an NtCCD10 gene from dicotyledonous Nicotiana tabacum was cloned and characterized, and its phylogeny, molecular structural modeling and protein structure were also systematically analyzed. Like other CCDs, NtCCD10 also possesses a seven bladed ß-propeller with Fe2+ cofactor in its center constituting the active site of the enzyme. The Fe2+ is also coordinated bonding with four conserved histidine residues. Meanwhile, NtCCD10 also has many unique features, such as its α1 and α3 helixes are not anti-parallel, a special ß-sheet and a longer access tunnel for substrates. When expressed in engineered Escherichia coli (producing phytoene, lycopene, ß-carotene, and zeaxanthin) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (producing ß-carotene), NtCCD10 could symmetrically cleave phytoene and ß-carotene at the C9-C10 and C9'-C10' positions to produce geranylacetone and ß-ionone, respectively. In addition, NtCCD10 could also cleave the C5-C6 and C5'-C6' double bonds of lycopene to generate 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one (MHO). NtCCD10 has higher catalytic activity than PhCCD1 in yeast, which provides a good candidate CCD for biosynthesis of ß-ionone and has potential applications in biotechnological industry. This study identified the taxonomic position and catalytic activity of the first NtCCD10 in dicotyledonous plants. This will provide a reference for the discovery and functional identification of CCD10 enzymes in dicotyledons.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Histidina/metabolismo , Licopeno/metabolismo , Norisoprenoides , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 498, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acer rubrum L. (red maple) is a popular tree with attractive colored leaves, strong physiological adaptability, and a high ornamental value. Changes in leaf color can be an adaptive response to changes in environmental factors, and also a stress response to external disturbances. In this study, we evaluated the effect of girdling on the color expression of A. rubrum leaves. We studied the phenotypic characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of leaves on girdled and non-girdled branches of A. rubrum. RESULTS: Phenotypic studies showed that girdling resulted in earlier formation of red leaves, and a more intense red color in the leaves. Compared with the control branches, the girdled branches produced leaves with significantly different color parameters a*. Physiological and biochemical studies showed that girdling of branches resulted in uneven accumulation of chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and other pigments in leaves above the band. In the transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, 28,432 unigenes including 1095 up-regulated genes and 708 down-regulated genes were identified, and the differentially expressed genes were mapped to various KEGG (kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways. Six genes encoding key transcription factors related to anthocyanin metabolism were among differentially expressed genes between leaves on girdled and non-girdled branches. CONCLUSIONS: Girdling significantly affected the growth and photosynthesis of red maple, and affected the metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and carbon metabolisms in the leaves. This resulted in pigment accumulation in the leaves above the girdling site, leading to marked red color expression in those leaves. A transcriptome analysis revealed six genes encoding anthocyanin-related transcription factors that were up-regulated in the leaves above the girdling site. These transcription factors are known to be involved in the regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and flavonoid biosynthesis. These results suggest that leaf reddening is a complex environmental adaptation strategy to maintain normal metabolism in response to environmental changes. Overall, the results of these comprehensive phenotype, physiological, biochemical, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses provide a deeper and more reliable understanding of the coevolution of red maple leaves in response to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Acer , Acer/genética , Acer/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cor
12.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 11034-11048, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193807

RESUMO

Torularhodin is a carotenoid with various functions, and carotenoids can be used by the gut microbiota. However, the effect of torularhodin on the gut microbiota is not yet clear. In this study, an octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) colon-targeted delivery system and an in vitro gut digestive system were used to explore the role of the gut microbiota in long-term dietary patterns rich in torularhodin. The results suggested that the gut microbiota was affected by the diet rich in torularhodin, mainly including Frisingicoccus, Butyricicoccus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Dialister, Lachnoclostridium, Streptococcus, and Ruminococcus torques. Torularhodin inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and transformed beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides into dominant bacteria under long-term dietary patterns. The functional analysis of the gut microbiota showed that differential genes were mainly enriched in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways. The metabolome results also demonstrated that torularhodin mainly regulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in the abovementioned pathway. Finally, the interaction network revealed that the gut microbiota (Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae, and Megasphaera), metabolites (D-glucose, citric acid, tartaric acid, and propionic acid), and metabolic functions (pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and pentose phosphate pathway) might be the key factors regulating the effect of torularhodin on the gut microbiota-metabolite-metabolism. Therefore, this study explored the mechanism of "torularhodin-gut microbiota-metabolite-metabolism" cross-feeding based on the bioinformatics methods, providing a theoretical basis for optimizing the gut microecology of a torularhodin-rich diet.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Anidridos Succínicos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Bacteroides
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(21): e0108322, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255243

RESUMO

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), so-called ER stress, leads to conversion of HAC1 mRNA to the spliced form (HAC1i), which is translated into a transcription factor that drastically changes the gene expression profile. This cellular response ultimately enhances ER functions and is named the unfolded protein response (UPR). Artificial evocation of the UPR is therefore anticipated to increase productivity of beneficial materials on and in the ER. However, as demonstrated here, cells constitutively expressing HAC1i mRNA (HAC1i cells), which exhibited a strong UPR even under nonstress conditions, grew considerably slowly and frequently yielded fast-growing and low-UPR progeny. Intriguingly, growth of HAC1i cells was faster in the presence of weak ER stress that was induced by low concentrations of the ER stressor tunicamycin or by cellular expression of the ER-located version of green fluorescent protein (GFP). HAC1i cells producing ER-localized GFP stably exhibited a strong UPR activity, carried a highly expanded ER, and abundantly produced triglycerides and heterogenous carotenoids. We therefore propose that our findings provide a basis for metabolic engineering to generate cells producing valuable lipidic molecules. IMPORTANCE The UPR is thought to be a cellular response to cope with the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. In S. cerevisiae cells, the UPR is severely repressed under nonstress conditions. The findings of this study shed light on the physiological significance of the tight regulation of the UPR. Constitutive UPR induction caused considerable growth retardation, which was partly rescued by the induction of weak ER stress. Therefore, we speculate that when the UPR is inappropriately induced in unstressed cells lacking aberrant ER client proteins, the UPR improperly impairs normal cellular functions. Another important point of this study was the generation of S. cerevisiae strains stably exhibiting a strong UPR activity and abundantly producing triglycerides and heterogenous carotenoids. We anticipate that our findings may be applied to produce valuable lipidic molecules using yeast cells as a potential next-generation technique.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293095

RESUMO

Ethylene is a key phytohormone that regulates the ripening of climacteric fruits, and methionine is an indirect precursor of ethylene. However, whether methionine synthase plays a role in fruit ripening in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is still unknown. In this study, we find that a tomato methionine synthase (named SlMS1), which could be repressed at the transcriptional level by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), acts as a positive regulator for tomato fruit ripening. By a bioinformatics analysis, it is found that SlMS1 and SlMS2 in tomato are highly homologous to methionine synthases in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression pattern of SlMS1 and SlMS2 is analyzed in tomato, and SlMS1 expression is up-regulated during fruit ripening, suggesting its potential role in regulating fruit ripening. A potential bipartite nuclear localization signal is found in the amino acid sequence of SlMS1; thus, SlMS1 is tagged with GFP and observed in the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Consistently, SlMS1-GFP shows strong nuclear localization and also cytoplasmic localization. The role of SlMS1 in regulating fruit ripening is investigated in tomato fruit by transient silencing (virus-induced gene silencing, VIGS) and transient overexpression. The results show that SlMS1 silencing causes delayed fruit ripening, evidenced by more chlorophyll and less carotenoid accumulation, while SlMS1 overexpression accelerates fruit ripening significantly compared with control. Further investigation shows that SlMS1 overexpression could up-regulate the expression of carotenoid-synthesis-related genes (PSY1, PDS, ZDS), chlorophyll-degradation-related genes (NYC1, PAO, PPH, SGR1), cell-wall-metabolism-related genes (CEL2, EXP, PG, TBG4, XTH5) and ethylene-synthesis-pathway-related genes (ACO1, ACO3, ACS2), while SlMS1 silencing causes the opposite results. The correlation analysis indicates that SlMS1 expression is negatively correlated with chlorophyll content and positively correlated with carotenoid and ripening-related gene expressions. Taken together, our data suggest that SlMS1 is a positive regulator of tomato fruit ripening and a possible target gene for the ripening-delaying effect of H2S.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Lycopersicon esculentum , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , 5-Metiltetra-Hidrofolato-Homocisteína S-Metiltransferase/genética , Sinais de Localização Nuclear/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293299

RESUMO

In plants, the accumulation of carotenoids can maintain the balance of the photosystem and improve crop nutritional quality. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms underlying carotenoid synthesis and accumulation should be further explored. In this study, carotenoid accumulation differed significantly among parental Brassica rapa. Genetic analysis was carried out using the golden inner leaf '1900264' line and the light-yellow inner leaf '1900262' line, showing that the golden inner leaf phenotype was controlled by a single dominant gene. Using bulked-segregant analysis sequencing, BraA09g007080.3C encoding the ORANGE protein was selected as a candidate gene. Sequence alignment revealed that a 4.67 kb long terminal repeat insertion in the third exon of the BrGOLDEN resulted in three alternatively spliced transcripts. The spatiotemporal expression results indicated that BrGOLDEN might regulate the expression levels of carotenoid-synthesis-related genes. After transforming BrGOLDEN into Arabidopsis thaliana, the seed-derived callus showed that BrGOLDENIns and BrGOLDENDel lines presented a yellow color and the BrGOLDENLdel line presented a transparent phenotype. In addition, using the yeast two-hybrid assay, BrGOLDENIns, BrGOLDENLdel, and Brgoldenwt exhibited strong interactions with BrPSY1, but BrGOLDENDel did not interact with BrPSY1 in the split-ubiquitin membrane system. In the secondary and 3D structure analysis, BrGOLDENDel was shown to have lost the PNFPSFIPFLPPL sequences at the 125 amino acid position, which resulted in the α-helices of BrGOLDENDel being disrupted, restricting the formation of the 3D structure and affecting the functions of the protein. These findings may provide new insights into the regulation of carotenoid synthesis in B. rapa.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica rapa , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Genes Dominantes , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Aminoácidos/genética , Ubiquitinas/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293402

RESUMO

Fruit color is one of the most critical characteristics of pepper. In this study, pepper (Capsicum baccatum L.) fruits with four trans-coloring periods were used as experimental materials to explore the color conversion mechanism of pepper fruit. By transcriptome and metabolome analysis, we identified a total of 307 flavonoid metabolites, 68 carotenoid metabolites, 29 DEGs associated with flavonoid biosynthesis, and 30 DEGs related to carotenoid biosynthesis. Through WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) analysis, positively correlated modules with flavonoids and carotenoids were identified, and hub genes associated with flavonoid and carotenoid synthesis and transport were anticipated. We identified Pinobanksin, Naringenin Chalcone, and Naringenin as key metabolites in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by the key genes chalcone synthase (CHS CQW23_29123, CQW23_29380, CQW23_12748), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H CQW23_16085, CQW23_16084), cytochrome P450 (CYP450 CQW23_19845, CQW23_24900). In addition, phytoene synthase (PSY CQW23_09483), phytoene dehydrogenase (PDS CQW23_11317), zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS CQW23_19986), lycopene beta cyclase (LYC CQW23_09027), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP CQW23_05387), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED CQW23_17736), capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (CCS CQW23_30321) are key genes in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the synthesis of key metabolites such as Phytoene, Lycopene, ß-carotene and ε-carotene. We also found that transcription factor families such as p450 and NBARC could play important roles in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and carotenoids in pepper fruits. These results provide new insights into the interaction mechanisms of genes and metabolites involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and carotenoids in pepper fruit leading to color changes in pepper fruit.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Licopeno/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293506

RESUMO

The accumulation of carotenoids in plants is a key nutritional quality in many horticultural crops. Although the structural genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes are well-characterized, little is known regarding photoperiod-mediated carotenoid accumulation in the fruits of some horticultural crops. Herein, we performed physiological and transcriptomic analyses using two cucumber genotypes, SWCC8 (XIS-orange-fleshed and photoperiod-sensitive) and CC3 (white-fleshed and photoperiod-non-sensitive), established under two photoperiod conditions (8L/16D vs. 12L/12D) at four fruit developmental stages. Day-neutral treatments significantly increased fruit ß-carotene content by 42.1% compared to short day (SD) treatments in SWCC8 at 40 DAP with no significant changes in CC3. Day-neutral condition elevated sugar levels of fruits compared to short-day treatments. According to GO and KEGG analyses, the predominantly expressed genes were related to photosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, plant hormone signaling, circadian rhythms, and carbohydrates. Consistent with ß-carotene accumulation in SWCC8, the day-neutral condition elevated the expression of key carotenoid biosynthesis genes such as PSY1, PDS, ZDS1, LYCB, and CHYB1 during later stages between 30 to 40 days of fruit development. Compared to SWCC8, CC3 showed an expression of DEGs related to carotenoid cleavage and oxidative stresses, signifying reduced ß-carotene levels in CC3 cucumber. Further, a WGCNA analysis revealed co-expression between carbohydrate-related genes (pentose-phosphatase synthase, ß-glucosidase, and trehalose-6-phosphatase), photoperiod-signaling genes (LHY, APRR7/5, FKF1, PIF3, COP1, GIGANTEA, and CK2) and carotenoid-biosynthetic genes, thus suggesting that a cross-talk mechanism between carbohydrates and light-related genes induces ß-carotene accumulation. The results highlighted herein provide a framework for future gene functional analyses and molecular breeding towards enhanced carotenoid accumulation in edible plant organs.


Assuntos
Celulases , Cucumis sativus , Frutas/química , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotoperíodo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pentoses/análise , Pentoses/metabolismo , Celulases/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6420, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307413

RESUMO

Orange Carotenoid protein (OCP) is the only known photoreceptor which uses carotenoid for its activation. It is found exclusively in cyanobacteria, where it functions to control light-harvesting of the photosynthetic machinery. However, the photochemical reactions and structural dynamics of this unique photosensing process are not yet resolved. We present time-resolved crystal structures at second-to-minute delays under bright illumination, capturing the early photoproduct and structures of the subsequent reaction intermediates. The first stable photoproduct shows concerted isomerization of C9'-C8' and C7'-C6' single bonds in the bicycle-pedal (s-BP) manner and structural changes in the N-terminal domain with minute timescale kinetics. These are followed by a thermally-driven recovery of the s-BP isomer to the dark state carotenoid configuration. Structural changes propagate to the C-terminal domain, resulting, at later time, in the H-bond rupture of the carotenoid keto group with protein residues. Solution FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy support the single bond isomerization of the carotenoid in the s-BP manner and subsequent thermal structural reactions as the basis of OCP photoreception.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Ciclismo , Isomerismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Luz
19.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 658, 2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183287

RESUMO

In this study, the acute toxicity effects of a fluorescent xanthene dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), widely used in textile, paper, and leather industries was investigated on a freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The acute toxicity of RhB on C. vulgaris was determined by examining the growth, cell morphology, pigment production, protein content, and the activities of oxidative stress enzymes. Based on the results of the toxicity study of 24-96 h, the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranged from 69.94 to 31.29 mg L-1. The growth of C. vulgaris was conspicuously inhibited by RhB exposure, and the cell surfaces appeared to be seriously shrunk in SEM analysis. The growth of C. vulgaris was hindered after exposure to graded concentrations (10-50 mg L-1) of RhB. A significant reduction in growth rate, pigment synthesis (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid), and protein content was recorded in a dose-dependent manner. After 96 h exposure of C. vulgaris to 50 mg L-1 RhB, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and protein contents were reduced by 71.59, 74.90, 65.84, and 74.20%, respectively. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of RhB. A notable effect was observed on oxidative enzymes catalase and peroxidase, indicating that oxidative stress may be the primary factor in the inhibition of growth and pigment synthesis. Consequently, the experimental acute toxicity data were compared to the QSAR prediction made by the ECOSAR programme. Results showed that the experimental acute toxicity values were 67.74-fold lower than the ECOSAR predicted values. The study provides convincing evidence for the metabolic disruption in the ubiquitous microalgae C. vulgaris due to the RhB dye toxicity.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Água Doce , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rodaminas/metabolismo , Rodaminas/farmacologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17033, 2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220848

RESUMO

Application of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) in agricultural production has piqued the interest of researchers. However, despite the enormous importance of CNMs in plant development, little is known about the effects of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) doses on plant physiological responses. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to check the effects of nanostructured carbon derived from oil fly ash (COFA), which was derived for the first time from high-energy ball-milling followed by a sonication process, on Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Cicer arietinum L. plants. We evaluated the plant physiological and biochemical parameters of the COFA-treated seedlings. Two different doses (4 mg L-1 and 8 mg L-1) of COFA and a control were studied. The results indicated that the germination rate (%), shoot length, root length, pod length, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight were increased with the addition of COFA. Likewise, COFA increased the contents of chlorophyll pigments (Chla, Chlb, carotenoids), proteins, and carbohydrates in both species compared to the control. Finally, these findings showed that a COFA treatment at 4 mg L-1 after ball milled-sonication in water (BMW4) constituted the best dose for growth and physiology. Our findings reveal that the novel strategy of COFA engineering led to a boost in the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cicer arietinum. Our results have high potential for agricultural research and provide an impact on food security.


Assuntos
Cicer , Nanoestruturas , Phaseolus , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cinza de Carvão/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
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