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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9772-9781, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398019

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the response profiles of vitamin E and carotenoids on transcription and metabolic levels of sweet corn seedlings under temperature stress. The treated temperatures were set as 10 °C (low temperature, LT), 25 °C (control, CK), and 40 °C (high temperature, HT) for sweet corn seedlings. The gene expression profiles of vitamin E and carotenoids biosynthesis pathways were analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the composition profiles were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitamin E gradually accumulated in response to LT stress but was limited by HT stress. The increase of carotenoids was suppressed by LT stress whereas HT stress promoted it. The existing results elaborated the interactive and competitive relationships of vitamin E and carotenoids in sweet corn seedlings to respond to extreme temperature stress at transcriptional and metabolic levels. The present study would improve sweet corn temperature resilience with integrative knowledge in the future.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura Ambiente , Vitamina E/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9667-9682, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415166

RESUMO

This study assessed the feasibility of an NMR metabolomics approach coupled to multivariate data analysis to monitor the naturally present or stresses-elicited metabolites from a long-term (>170 days) culture of the dinoflagellate marine microalgae Amphidinium carterae grown in a fiberglass paddlewheel-driven raceway photobioreactor. Metabolic contents, in particular, in two members of the amphidinol family, amphidinol A and its 7-sulfate derivative amphidinol B (referred as APDs), and other compounds of interest (fatty acids, carotenoids, oxylipins, etc.) were evaluated by altering concentration levels of the f/2 medium nutrients and daily mean irradiance. Operating with a 24 h sinusoidal light cycle allowed a 3-fold increase in APD production, which was also detected by an increase in hemolytic activity of the methanolic extract of A. carterae biomass. The presence of APDs was consistent with the antitumoral activity measured in the methanolic extracts of the biomass. Increased daily irradiance was accompanied by a general decrease in pigments and an increase in SFAs (saturated fatty acids), MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids), and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), while increased nutrient availability lead to an increase in sugar, amino acid, and PUFA ω-3 contents and pigments and a decrease in SFAs and MUFAs. NMR-based metabolomics is shown to be a fast and suitable method to accompany the production of APD and bioactive compounds without the need of tedious isolation methods and bioassays. The two APD compounds were chemically identified by spectroscopic NMR and spectrometric ESI-IT MS (electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry) and ESI-TOF MS (ESI time-of-flight mass spectrometry) methods.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Microalgas/química , Análise Multivariada
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10185-10194, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423782

RESUMO

This research aimed to measure the impact of novel food processing techniques, i.e., pulsed electric field (PEF) and ohmic heating (OH), on carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 cell uptake from tomato juice and high-pressure processing (HPP) and PEF on the same attributes from kale-based juices, as compared with raw (nonprocessed) and conventional thermally treated (TT) juices. Lycopene, ß-carotene, and lutein were quantitated in juices and the micelle fraction using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection and in Caco-2 cells using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Tomato juice results were as follows: PEF increased lycopene bioaccessibility (1.5 ± 0.39%) by 150% (P = 0.01) but reduced ß-carotene bioaccessibility (28 ± 6.2%) by 44% (P = 0.02), relative to raw juice. All processing methods increased lutein uptake. Kale-based juice results were as follows: TT and PEF degraded ß-carotene and lutein in the juice. No difference in bioaccessibility or cell uptake was observed. Total delivery, i.e., the summation of bioaccessibility and cell uptake, of lycopene, ß-carotene, and lutein was independent of type of processing. Taken together, PEF and OH enhanced total lycopene and lutein delivery from tomato juice to Caco-2 cells as well as TT, and may produce a more desirable product due to other factors (i.e., conservation of heat-labile micronutrients, fresher organoleptic profile). HPP best conserved the carotenoid content and color of kale-based juice and merits further consideration.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Brassica/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Preparações de Plantas/química
4.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 486(1): 216-219, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367825

RESUMO

The direct action of singlet oxygen on the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) of light-harvesting complexes in the membranes of four species of purple non-sulfur and sulfur photosynthesizing bacteria with and without carotenoids was studied. It was found that BChl in carotenoidless samples is generally more resistant to the action of singlet oxygen compared to the control. It is assumed that carotenoids are not required to protect BChl of bacterial light-harvesting complexes from singlet oxygen, and in the classic work by Griffith et al. [1] the apoptosis process in carotenoidless mutant cells, which involves the destruction of complexes, the appearance of monomeric BChl, and the generation of singlet oxygen caused by BChl, followed by BChl oxidation, was mistakenly attributed to the protective function of carotenoids.


Assuntos
Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacterioclorofilas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111549, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302348

RESUMO

Light is a key factor influencing growth and development in plants. Specific irradiance and light quality can improve development and production of secondary compounds such as carotenoids during plant tissue culture. Bixin and norbixin, two apocarotenoids obtained from the seeds of Bixa orellana L. (annatto), are used as natural dyes in various industries. While annatto tissue culture has been successful, the effect of light in this species remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze for the first time the effect of irradiance regime (50, 150, 50 + 150, 200, 50 + 200 µmol m-2 s-1) and light spectral quality (fluorescent, white, blue/red LED) on in vitro development of apexes and bixin content in two contrasting bixin-producing varieties of B. orellana, namely 'Piave Vermelha' and 'UESB74'. The number of leaves per plant, stomatal density, leaf area, leaf expansion, chlorophylls and carotenoids content, malondialdehyde and bixin content were analyzed in the leaves of both cultivars. 'Piave Vermelha' produced 1.6-fold more bixin than 'UESB74'. Stomata cells of both cultivars had a paracytic arrangement with peltate trichomes along the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. 'Piave Vermelha' preferred blue/red LED light; whereas fluorescent light was optimal for 'UESB74'. Under fluorescent light, an irradiance of 50 µmol m-2 s-1 is indicated for both cultivars. LED light increased bixin content only in 'Piave Vermelha', suggesting that the dye biosynthetic pathway is genotype-dependent. The present findings suggest the possibility of using light to modulate the bixin biosynthetic pathway.


Assuntos
Bixaceae/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Luz , Bixaceae/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Fluorescência , Malondialdeído/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
6.
Food Chem ; 299: 125089, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319343

RESUMO

Synthesis of ß-ionone in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is limited by the efficiency of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases (CCD), membrane-tethered enzymes catalyzing the last step in the pathway. We performed in silico design and membrane affinity analysis, focused on single-point mutations of PhCCD1 to improve membrane anchoring. The resulting constructs were tested in a ß-carotene hyper-producing strain by comparing colony pigmentation against colonies transformed with native PhCCD1 and further analyzed by ß-ionone quantification via RP-HPLC. Two single-point mutants increased ß-ionone yields almost 3-fold when compared to native PhCCD1. We also aimed to improve substrate accessibility of PhCCD1 through the amino-terminal addition of membrane destination peptides directed towards the endoplasmic reticulum or plasma membrane. Yeast strains expressing peptide-PhCCD1 constructs showed ß-ionone yields up to 4-fold higher than the strain carrying the native enzyme. Our results demonstrate that protein engineering of CCDs significantly increases the yield of ß-ionone synthesized by metabolically engineered yeast.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Norisoprenoides/biossíntese , Engenharia de Proteínas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105225, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220755

RESUMO

Phenylurea herbicides are often present in the aquatic ecosystems and may be accumulated by the non-targeted organisms and impose a negative effect on the organism and the community. This study aims to investigate and compare the effects of two different isoproturon (IPU) pulse exposure scenarios on the non-targeted aquatic plant Lemna minor with effects observed in the standard test with continuous exposure. The obtained results showed that continuous IPU treatment causes significant reduction of photosynthetic pigment concentration and proteins as well as inhibition of L. minor growth. The activities of CAT, G-POX, and APX were significantly induced to diminish the accumulation of ROS under IPU treatment, but the induction of antioxidant enzymes was not sufficient to protect the plants from herbicide-induced oxidative stress. The growth of L. minor under pulse exposure to IPU recovers fast, but pulse treatment results in significant physiological changes in treated plants. The accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation products, alongside the reduced concentration of proteins and photosynthetic pigments in pulse treatment after a recovery period, indicates that IPU causes prolonged oxidative stress in L. minor plants. The recovery potential of L. minor plants after treatment with herbicides may have an important role in maintaining the population of essential primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, but IPU-induced physiological changes could potentially have a significant role in modulating the response of the plants to the next exposure event.


Assuntos
Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Araceae/fisiologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Food Chem ; 295: 412-422, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174776

RESUMO

Consumption of Brassica vegetables is linked to health benefits, as they contain high concentrations of the following secondary plant metabolites (SPMs): glucosinolate breakdown products, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds. Especially Brassica vegetables are consumed as microgreens (developed cotyledons). It was investigated how different ontogenetic stages (microgreens or leaves) of pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) differ in their SPM concentration. The impact of breadmaking on SPMs in microgreens (7 days) and leaves (14 days) in pak choi and kale as a supplement in mixed wheat bread was assessed. In leaves, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were higher compared to those of microgreens. Breadmaking caused a decrease of SPMs. Chlorophyll degradation was observed, leading to pheophytin and pyropheophytin formation. In kale, sinapoylgentiobiose, a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, concentration increased. Thus, leaves of Brassica species are suitable as natural ingredients for enhancing bioactive SPM concentrations in bread.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Pão , Alimentos Fortificados , Triticum , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Nitrilos , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
9.
Food Chem ; 297: 125016, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253287

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding concerning factors underlying carotenoid metabolism in banana pulp we investigated the carotenoid profile, metabolome, proteome and relative expression levels of carotegenesis-associated genes of fruit pulp in the two banana varieties ON and GN, with ON being characterized of high carotenoid accumulation. Results showed that high carotenoid content in banana pulp was well correlated with the relative expression of carotenogenesis-associated genes and the abundance of the corresponding proteins. An elevated accumulation of sugar metabolism-related compounds and a decreased amino acid accumulation were also observed in ON. Additionally proteins involved in the glycolytic pathway were more highly abundant in ON suggesting that this supports the higher accumulation of carotenoid in this genotype. We suggest that up-regulated expression of carotenogenesis-associated genes alongside elevated carbohydrate accumulation contribute to high carotenoid content in banana pulp, implying that a multi-target approach is necessary in order to improve carotenoid content in banana.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Musa/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicólise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(6): 647-658, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154655

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Found a trans-splicing of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 1 alters tomato fruit color by map-based cloning, functional complementation and RACE providing an insight into fruit color development. Color is an important fruit quality trait and a major determinant of the economic value of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Fruit color inheritance in a yellow-fruited cherry tomato (cv. No. 22), named yellow-fruited tomato 2 (yft2), was shown to be controlled by a single recessive gene, YFT2. The YFT2 gene was mapped in a 95.7 kb region on chromosome 3, and the candidate gene, PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 1 (PSY1), was confirmed by functional complementation analysis. Constitutive over expression of PSY1 in yft2 increased the accumulation of carotenoids and resulted in a red fruit color, while no causal mutation was detected in the YFT2 allele of yft2, compared with red-fruited SL1995 cherry tomato or cultivated variety (cv. M82). Expression of YFT2 3' region in yft2 was significantly lower than in SL1995, and further studies revealed a difference in YFT2 post-transcriptional processing in yft2 compared with SL1995 and cv. M82, resulting in a longer YFT2 transcript. The alternatively trans-spliced allele of YFT2 in yft2 is predicted to encode a novel LT-YFT2 protein of 432 amino acid (AA) residues, compared to the 412 AA YFT2 protein of SL1995. The trans-spliced event also resulted in significantly down regulated expression of YFT2 in yft2 tomato, and the YFT2 allele suppressed expression of the downstream genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and carotenoids synthesis by a mechanism of the feed-forward regulation. In conclusion, we found that trans-splicing of YFT2 alters tomato fruit color, providing new insights into fruit color development.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Clonagem Molecular , Cor , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Teste de Complementação Genética , Genótipo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Trans-Splicing
11.
Food Chem ; 297: 124964, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253313

RESUMO

Broccoli undergoes yellowing in unfavorable conditions, thereby diminishing the sensory quality and commodity value. This study aimed to investigate systematically cellular and/or biomolecular changes involved in broccoli yellowing by analyzing changes in microstructural integrity, pigment content, and gene expression. On day-5 of storage at 20 °C, the buds turned yellow without blooming and showed structural damage; ultrastructural analysis revealed plastid transformation and abnormal chloroplast development. Genes regulating pigment content and chloroplast structure directly were identified. More specifically, BoCAO and BoNYC1 regulated chlorophyll turnover, affecting chlorophyll a and b contents. Changes in the ß-cryptoxanthin content were influenced by the combined action of up- (BoHYD) and downstream (BoZEP) genes. BoZEP and BoVDE were activated after cold-temperature induction. High BoHO1 expression delayed yellowing at low temperature, inducing BoZEP expression. Color intensity correlated significantly with the chlorophyll b, ß-cryptoxanthin, and ß-carotene contents, which were associated with increased yellowing of plant tissues.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , beta-Criptoxantina/genética , beta-Criptoxantina/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassica/ultraestrutura , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plastídeos/genética , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 98, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Farnesol is an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol present in the essential oils of various plants in nature. It has been reported to be valuable in medical applications, such as alleviation of allergic asthma, gliosis, and edema as well as anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory effects. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential cofactor in the aerobic respiratory electron transport chain, has attracted growing interest owing to its clinical benefits and important applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and health industries. In this work, co-production of (E,E)-farnesol (FOH) and CoQ10 was achieved by combining 3 different exogenous terpenes or sesquiterpene synthase with the RNA interference of psy (responsible for phytoene synthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides GY-2). RESULTS: FOH production was significantly increased by overexpressing exogenous terpene synthase (TPS), phosphatidylglycerophosphatase B (PgpB), and sesquiterpene synthase (ATPS), as well as RNAi-mediated silencing of psy coding phytoene synthase (PSY) in R. sphaeroides strains. Rs-TPS, Rs-ATPS, and Rs-PgpB respectively produced 68.2%, 43.4%, and 21.9% higher FOH titers than that of the control strain. Interestingly, the CoQ10 production of these 3 recombinant R. sphaeroides strains was exactly opposite to that of FOH. However, CoQ10 production was almost unaffected in R. sphaeroides strains modified by psy RNA interference. The highest FOH production of 40.45 mg/L, which was twice as high as that of the control, was obtained from the TPS-PSYi strain, where the exogenous TPS was combined with the weakening of the phytoene synthesis pathway via psy RNA interference. CoQ10 production in TPS-PSYi, ATPS-PSYi, and PgpB-PSYi was decreased and lower than that of the control strain. CONCLUSIONS: The original flux that contributed to phytoene synthesis was effectively redirected to provide precursors toward FOH or CoQ10 synthesis via psy RNA interference, which led to weakened carotenoid synthesis. The improved flux that was originally involved in CoQ10 production and phytoene synthesis was redirected toward FOH synthesis via metabolic modification. This is the first reported instance of FOH and CoQ10 co-production in R. sphaeroides using a metabolic engineering strategy.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Farneseno Álcool/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/genética , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/genética , Interferência de RNA , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/enzimologia , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/genética , Ubiquinona/biossíntese , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
13.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 485(1): 135-137, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201634

RESUMO

Singlet fission of carotenoid excitation is studied in purple phototrophic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum. Using time-resolved EPR and magnetic field-induced modulation of fluorescence yield it is shown that the concept of intramolecular excitation fission developed in a number of publications is not supported by the experimental results. The obtained data favor intermolecular fission mechanism involving two carotenoid molecules.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/química , Chromatiaceae/química , Fluorescência , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Chromatiaceae/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica
14.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159386

RESUMO

The utilization of microalgae as a source of carotenoid productions has gained increasing popularity due to its advantages, such as a relatively fast turnaround time. In this study, a newly discovered Coelastrum sp. TISTR 9501RE was characterized and investigated for its taxonomical identity and carotenoid profile. To the best of our knowledge, this report was the first to fully investigate the carotenoid profiles in a microalga of the genus Coelastrum. Upon use of limited nutrients as a stress condition, the strain was able to produce astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein, as the major carotenoid components. Additionally, the carotenoid esters were found to be all astaxanthin derivatives, and ß-carotene was not significantly present under this stress condition. Importantly, we also demonstrated that this practical stress condition could be combined with simple growing factors, such as ambient sunlight and temperature, to achieve even more focused carotenoid profiles, i.e., increased overall amounts of the aforementioned carotenoids with fewer minor components and chlorophylls. In addition, this green microalga was capable of tolerating a wide range of salinity. Therefore, this study paved the way for more investigations and developments on this fascinating strain, which will be reported in due course.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075966

RESUMO

Despite an increase in life expectancy that indicates positive human development, a new challenge is arising. Aging is positively associated with biological and cognitive degeneration, for instance cognitive decline, psychological impairment, and physical frailty. The elderly population is prone to oxidative stress due to the inefficiency of their endogenous antioxidant systems. As many studies showed an inverse relationship between carotenoids and age-related diseases (ARD) by reducing oxidative stress through interrupting the propagation of free radicals, carotenoid has been foreseen as a potential intervention for age-associated pathologies. Therefore, the role of carotenoids that counteract oxidative stress and promote healthy aging is worthy of further discussion. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of carotenoids involved in the prevention of ARD. Collectively, understanding the role of carotenoids in ARD would provide insights into a potential intervention that may affect the aging process, and subsequently promote healthy longevity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Doença , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/efeitos adversos , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dieta , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 179-184, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082582

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are necessary mineral nutrients for human body but millions of people have an inadequate intake of them, and eat food enriched with Se and Zn may minimize these problems. Chinese cabbage is an important food in people's daily life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of single Se, Zn and their combination treatment in soil on their accumulation, antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves of Chinese cabbage using soil pot culture experiment. When 0.5 mg kg-1 Se +30 mg kg-1 Zn and 1.0 mg kg-1 Se +30 mg kg-1 Zn were spiked in soils, Zn concentrations in roots and leaves of Chinese cabbage were significantly increased (p < 0.05) by 20.2%, 37.8% and 17.9%, 34.1% respectively compared to the treatment of 30 mg kg-1 Zn added, and the latter was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of former, indicating Se significantly promoted Zn accumulation. Almost all physiological indexes including POD, SOD, CAT, APX, GR, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Carotenoids, MDA and Free proline in the treatments of Se or Zn spiked were significantly improved (p < 0.05) or basically unaffected compared to the control without Se or Zn added. The biomass change trends were similar with these indexes either. These results showed that the addition in soil of Se and Zn significantly increased their accumulation in Chinese cabbage without affected its formal growth. Particularly, the addition of Se promoted Zn accumulation. The conclusions were more important reference for the production practice of cash crop enriched of Se and Zn either.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Solo , Zinco/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/enzimologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067703

RESUMO

Pummelo (Citrus maxima) is one of important fruit trees, which belongs to Citrus species. The fruits of different pummelo cultivars have different colors and differ in the contents of carotenoid. Our results clearly showed that 'Huangjinmiyou' (HJMY) has the highest content of ß-carotene, followed by 'Hongroumiyou' (HRMY) and 'Guanximiyou' (GXMY). Lycopene is dominantly accumulated in HRMY. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the carotenoid accumulation in pummelo flesh is not fully understood. In this study, we used the RNA-Seq technique to investigate the candidate genes of carotenoid metabolism in the flesh of pummelo cv. GXMY and its mutants HRMY and HJMY in three development periods of fruit. After data assembly and bioinformatic analysis, a total of 357 genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were isolated, of which 12 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Among these 12 DEGs, phytoene synthase (PSY2), lycopene ß-cyclase (LYCB2), lycopene Ɛ-cyclase (LYCE), carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD4), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED2), aldehyde oxidase 3 (AAO3), and ABA 8'-hydroxylases (CYP707A1) are the most distinct DEGs in three pummelo cultivars. The co-expression analysis revealed that the expression patterns of several transcription factors such as bHLH, MYB, ERF, NAC and WRKY are highly correlated with DEGs, which are involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. In addition, the expression patterns of 22 DEGs were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the results are highly concordant with the RNA-Seq results. Our results provide a global vision of transcriptomic profile among three pummelo cultivars with different pulp colors. These results would be beneficial to further study the molecular mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in pummelo flesh and help the breeding of citrus with high carotenoid content.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Citrus/genética , Genes de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Carotenoides/genética , Citrus/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052234

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to establish an efficient protocol for the large-scale propagation of Mertensia maritima (L.) Gray, and evaluate the carotenoid, fatty acid, and tocopherol contents in the leaves of in vitro regenerated shoots. Surface-disinfected node and shoot tip explants were placed on semisolid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 0-16 µM N6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin, (KN), and thidiazuron (TDZ) alone, or in combination with, 1 or 2 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Of the three different cytokinins employed, TDZ elicited the best results for axillary shoot proliferation. A maximum frequency of shoot initiation above 84%, with a mean of 8.9 and 4.8 shoots per node and shoot tip, respectively, was achieved on the culture medium supplemented with 4 µM TDZ. A combination of TDZ + NAA significantly increased the percentage of multiple shoot formation and number of shoots per explant. The best shoot induction response occurred on MS medium with 4 µM TDZ and 1 µM NAA. On this medium, the node (93.8%) and shoot tip (95.9%) explants produced an average of 17.7 and 8.6 shoots, respectively. The highest root induction frequency (97.4%) and number of roots per shoot (25.4), as well as the greatest root length (4.2 cm), were obtained on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 4 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The presence of six carotenoids and α-tocopherol in the leaf tissues of M. maritima was confirmed by HPLC. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of 10 fatty acids, including γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid in the leaf tissues of M. maritima. All-E-lutein (18.49 µg g-1 fresh weight, FW), α-tocopherol (3.82 µg g-1 FW) and α-linolenic acid (30.37%) were found to be the significant compounds in M. maritima. For the first time, a successful protocol has been established for the mass propagation of M. maritima with promising prospects for harnessing its bioactive reserves.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/química , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocoferóis/metabolismo
19.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 49(8): 767-774, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050593

RESUMO

The cell wall of carotenoids producing yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus was broken through five different methods: acid-heating method, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) method, enzymatic method, high-pressure homogenization (HPH) method, and cell autolysis method. HPH method not only brought the optimum breaking effect (wall-breaking extent of 72.3%) and the highest carotenoid extraction rate (67.2%), but also had the advantages of short-time, simple process, safe, and pollution-free. After optimization, the wall-breaking extent and the carotenoid extraction rate were enhanced to 78.3% and 82.5%, respectively. And the optimum conditions of HPH were obtained as homogenization pressure 80 MPa, bacterial liquid concentration 8% and homogenization for three times. Moreover, cell experiments demonstrated that all of the four carotenoids (ß-carotene, γ-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin) purified from intracellular products of S. pararoseus. had the effect of resistance to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide on SK-HEP-1 cells, and torulene showed the most notable effect among them.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dimetil Sulfóxido/metabolismo , Calefação , Humanos , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão , Leveduras/metabolismo
20.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(4): 431-438, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046430

RESUMO

1. The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of an unsaturated or saturated fat source and the effects of different dietary energy levels in laying hen diets on the carotenoid content of the egg yolk. 2. Seventy-two ISA Brown laying hens aged 22 weeks old were allocated, for a 10 week period, to three treatments: control diet (HE group) with a 3.4% supplemented fat containing 2.1% soybean and 1.3% palm oil as fat sources and a ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid (u/s) of 3.33; a lowered energy diet with 2.4% supplemented fat containing 1.4% soybean and 1.0% palm oil and u/s of 3.41 (LE+high u/s); a lowered energy diet with 2.4% supplemented fat containing 0.5% soybean and 1.9% palm oil and a u/s of 2.39 (LE+low u/s). A marigold plant extract supplement was used as a source of lutein. 3. Performance parameters (feed consumption, feed conversion, body weight), egg production rate and egg quality parameters were similar between treatments. Dietary fat digestibility at the middle of the study period was not different. Egg yolk total fat content was similar in all treatments at the middle and at the end of the study period. 4. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cis-lutein and total carotenoids content were significantly lower in eggs produced from the LE+low u/s group compared to those from the HE and the LE+high u/s groups (P < 0.01 for all parameters). 5. It was concluded that feeding laying hens with a diet containing 1% less supplemented fat and a lower u/s ratio compared to a control diet and to a diet with 1% less supplemented fat with a higher u/s ratio resulted in a significant reduction of carotenoid expression in the egg yolk at the end of experimental period. Performance and egg quality parameters were not affected by treatments.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/química , Luteína/metabolismo , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/classificação , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória
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