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1.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731424

RESUMO

Climate change, which causes periods with relatively high temperatures in winter in Poland, can lead to a shortening or interruption of the cold hardening of crops. Previous research indicates that cold acclimation is of key importance in the process of acquiring cereal tolerance to stress factors. The objective of this work was to verify the hypothesis that both natural temperature fluctuations and the plant genotype influence the content of metabolites as well as proteins, including antioxidant enzymes and photosystem proteins. The research material involved four winter triticale genotypes, differing in their tolerance to stress under controlled conditions. The values of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and antioxidant activity were measured in their seedlings. Subsequently, the contribution of selected proteins was verified using specific antibodies. In parallel, the profiling of the contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and proteins was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. The obtained results indicate that a better PSII performance along with a higher photosystem II proteins content and thioredoxin reductase abundance were accompanied by a higher antioxidant activity in the field-grown triticale seedlings. The Raman studies showed that the cold hardening led to a variation in photosynthetic dyes and an increase in the phenolic to carotenoids ratio in all DH lines.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Plântula , Análise Espectral Raman , Triticale , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticale/genética , Triticale/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Temperatura , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Estações do Ano , Clorofila A/metabolismo
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10586, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719951

RESUMO

Carotenoids play essential roles in plant growth and development and provide plants with a tolerance to a series of abiotic stresses. In this study, the function and biological significance of lycopene ß-cyclase, lycopene ε-cyclase, and ß-carotene hydroxylase, which are responsible for the modification of the tetraterpene skeleton procedure, were isolated from Lycium chinense and analyzed. The overexpression of lycopene ß-cyclase, lycopene ε-cyclase, and ß-carotene hydroxylase promoted the accumulation of total carotenoids and photosynthesis enhancement, reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, and proline content of tobacco seedlings after exposure to the salt stress. Furthermore, the expression of the carotenoid biosynthesis genes and stress-related genes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase) were detected and showed increased gene expression level, which were strongly associated with the carotenoid content and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. After exposure to salt stress, the endogenous abscisic acid content was significantly increased and much higher than those in control plants. This research contributes to the development of new breeding aimed at obtaining stronger salt tolerance plants with increased total carotenoids and vitamin A content.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycium , Nicotiana , Proteínas de Plantas , Tolerância ao Sal , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Nicotiana/genética , Nicotiana/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Lycium/genética , Lycium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo
3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(6): 126, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727833

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The gene controlling pink flesh in watermelon was finely mapped to a 55.26-kb region on chromosome 6. The prime candidate gene, Cla97C06G122120 (ClPPR5), was identified through forward genetics. Carotenoids offer numerous health benefits; while, they cannot be synthesized by the human body. Watermelon stands out as one of the richest sources of carotenoids. In this study, genetic generations derived from parental lines W15-059 (red flesh) and JQ13-3 (pink flesh) revealed the presence of the recessive gene Clpf responsible for the pink flesh (pf) trait in watermelon. Comparative analysis of pigment components and microstructure indicated that the disparity in flesh color between the parental lines primarily stemmed from variations in lycopene content, as well as differences in chromoplast number and size. Subsequent bulk segregant analysis (BSA-seq) and genetic mapping successfully narrowed down the Clpf locus to a 55.26-kb region on chromosome 6, harboring two candidate genes. Through sequence comparison and gene expression analysis, Cla97C06G122120 (annotated as a pentatricopeptide repeat, PPR) was predicted as the prime candidate gene related to pink flesh trait. To further investigate the role of the PPR gene, its homologous gene in tomato was silenced using a virus-induced system. The resulting silenced fruit lines displayed diminished carotenoid accumulation compared with the wild-type, indicating the potential regulatory function of the PPR gene in pigment accumulation. This study significantly contributes to our understanding of the forward genetics underlying watermelon flesh traits, particularly in relation to carotenoid accumulation. The findings lay essential groundwork for elucidating mechanisms governing pigment synthesis and deposition in watermelon flesh, thereby providing valuable insights for future breeding strategies aimed at enhancing fruit quality and nutritional value.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citrullus , Frutas , Fenótipo , Pigmentação , Proteínas de Plantas , Citrullus/genética , Citrullus/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Genes Recessivos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Licopeno/metabolismo
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 197, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722384

RESUMO

Physiological and environmental cues prompt microbes to synthesize diverse carotenoids, including dihydroxy xanthophylls, facilitating their adaptation and survival. Lutein and its isomeric counterpart, zeaxanthin, are notable dihydroxy xanthophylls with bioactive properties such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective effects, particularly beneficial for human ocular health. However, global natural resources for co-producing lutein and zeaxanthin are scarce, with zeaxanthin lacking commercial sources, unlike lutein sourced from marigold plants and microalgae. Traditionally, dihydroxy xanthophyll production primarily relies on petrochemical synthetic routes, with limited biological sourcing reported. Nonetheless, microbiological synthesis presents promising avenues as a commercial source, albeit challenged by low dihydroxy xanthophyll yield at high cell density. Strategies involving optimization of physical and chemical parameters are essential to achieve high-quality dihydroxy xanthophyll products. This overview briefly discusses dihydroxy xanthophyll biosynthesis and highlights recent advancements, discoveries, and industrial benefits of lutein and zeaxanthin production from microorganisms as alternative biofactories.


Assuntos
Luteína , Xantofilas , Zeaxantinas , Luteína/biossíntese , Luteína/metabolismo , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , Xantofilas/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Vias Biossintéticas
5.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 469, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745121

RESUMO

Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) enzymes play a vital role in plant growth and development through the synthesis of apocarotenoids and their derivative. These chemicals are necessary for flower and fruit coloration, as well as the manufacture of plant hormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones, which control a variety of physiological processes. The CCOs gene family has not been characterized in Arachis hypogaea. Genome mining of A. hypogaea identifies 24 AhCCO gene members. The AhCCO gene family was divided into two subgroups based on the recent study of the Arabidopsis thaliana CCO gene family classification system. Twenty-three AhCCO genes, constituting 95.8% of the total, were regulated by 29 miRNAs, underscoring the significance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in governing gene expression in peanuts. AhCCD19 is the only gene that lacks a miRNA target site. The physicochemical characteristics of CCO genes and their molecular weights and isoelectric points were studied further. The genes were then characterized regarding chromosomal distribution, structure, and promoter cis-elements. Light, stress development, drought stress, and hormone responsiveness were discovered to be associated with AhCCO genes, which can be utilized in developing more resilient crops. The investigation also showed the cellular location of the encoded proteins and discovered that the peanut carotenoid oxygenase gene family's expansion was most likely the result of tandem, segmental, and whole-genome duplication events. The localization expresses the abundance of genes mostly in the cytoplasm and chloroplast. Expression analysis shows that AhCCD7 and AhCCD14 genes show the maximum expression in the apical meristem, lateral leaf, and pentafoliate leaf development, while AhNCED9 and AhNCED13 express in response to Aspergillus flavus resistance. This knowledge throws light on the evolutionary history of the AhCCO gene family and may help researchers better understand the molecular processes behind gene duplication occurrences in plants. An integrated synteny study was used to find orthologous carotenoid oxygenase genes in A. hypogaea, whereas Arabidopsis thaliana and Beta vulgaris were used as references for the functional characterization of peanut CCO genes. These studies provide a foundation for future research on the regulation and functions of this gene family. This information provides valuable insights into the genetic regulation of AhCCO genes. This technology could create molecular markers for breeding programs to develop new peanut lines.


Assuntos
Arachis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Oxigenases , Estresse Fisiológico , Arachis/genética , Arachis/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Filogenia , Genoma de Planta , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(6): 245, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702537

RESUMO

Production of carotenoids by yeast fermentation is an advantaged technology due to its easy scaling and safety. Nevertheless, carotenoid production needs an economic culture medium and other efficient yeast stains. The study aims to isolate and identify a yeast strain capable of producing carotenoids using a cost-effective substrate. A new strain was identified as Rhodotorula toruloides L/24-26-1, which can produce carotenoids at different pretreated and unpretreated sugarcane molasses concentrations (40 and 80 g/L). The highest biomass concentration (18.6 ± 0.6 g/L) was reached in the culture using 80 g/L of hydrolyzed molasses. On the other hand, the carotenoid accumulation reached the maximum value using pretreated molasses at 40 g/L (715.4 ± 15.1 µg/g d.w). In this case, the ß-carotene was 1.5 times higher than that on the control medium. The yeast growth in molasses was not correlated with carotenoid production. The most outstanding production of The DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP tests demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the obtained carotenogenic extracts. This research demonstrated the R. toruloides L/24-26-1 strain biotechnological potential for carotenoid compounds. The yeast produces carotenoids with antioxidant activity in an inexpensive medium, such as sulfuric acid pretreated and unpretreated molasses.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Melaço , Rhodotorula , Saccharum , beta Caroteno , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/genética , Rhodotorula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação , Rhodotorula/classificação , Saccharum/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/biossíntese , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura/química , Filogenia
7.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14327, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716559

RESUMO

Our goal was to determine whether anthocyanin-producing species (red) use different photoprotective strategies to cope with excess light during fall senescence compared with non-anthocyanin-producing species (yellow). In a previous study, we found that a yellow species retained the photoprotective PsbS protein in late autumn, while a red species did not. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that red species make less use of zeaxanthin and PsbS-mediated thermal dissipation, as they rely on anthocyanins for photoprotection. We monitored four red (Acer ginnala, Rhus typhnia, Parenthocissus quinquefolia, Viburnum dentatum) and four yellow species (Acer negundo, Ostrya virginiana, Vitis riparia, Zanthoxylum americanum) throughout autumn senescence and analyzed pigments, protein content, and chlorophyll fluorescence. We found yellow species retained the PsbS protein at higher levels, and had higher dark retention of zeaxanthin in late autumn relative to red species. All species retained lutein and the pool of xanthophyll cycle pigments in higher amounts than other carotenoids in late autumn. Our data support the hypothesis that red species use anthocyanins as a photoprotective strategy during autumn senescence, and therefore make less use of PsbS and zeaxanthin-mediated thermal dissipation. We also found species-specific variation in the particular combination of photoprotective strategies used.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Clorofila , Folhas de Planta , Estações do Ano , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Senescência Vegetal , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Luz , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Xantofilas/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 369, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing demand for saffron metabolites in various commercial industries, including medicine, food, cosmetics, and dyeing, is driven by the discovery of their diverse applications. Saffron, derived from Crocus sativus stigmas, is the most expensive spice, and there is a need to explore additional sources to meet global consumption demands. In this study, we focused on yellow-flowering crocuses and examined their tepals to identify saffron-like compounds. RESULTS: Through metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches, our investigation provides valuable insights into the biosynthesis of compounds in yellow-tepal crocuses that are similar to those found in saffron. The results of our study support the potential use of yellow-tepal crocuses as a source of various crocins (crocetin glycosylated derivatives) and flavonoids. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that yellow-tepal crocuses have the potential to serve as a viable excessive source of some saffron metabolites. The identification of crocins and flavonoids in these crocuses highlights their suitability for meeting the demands of various industries that utilize saffron compounds. Further exploration and utilization of yellow-tepal crocuses could contribute to addressing the growing global demand for saffron-related products.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Crocus , Flores , Metabolômica , Crocus/genética , Crocus/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Metaboloma
9.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 424, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The measurement of the skin carotenoids using the Veggie Meter® has emerged as a rapid objective method for assessing fruit and vegetable intake, highly recommended by the Mediterranean Diet (MD), which represents one of the healthiest dietary patterns, worldwide. This study aimed to examine differences in skin carotenoid content and degree of adherence to the MD pattern between two adult populations from Southern Italy and the Dominican Republic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled a total of 995 adults, 601 subjects from Italy and 394 from the Dominican Republic. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements and skin carotenoid assessment by Veggie Meter®. Adherence to the MD and lifestyle were evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and the Mediterranean Lifestyle Index (MEDLIFE) questionnaires. Correlations between the skin carotenoid and MEDAS score were estimated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Multiple linear regression models were created to determine variables that affect skin carotenoid score for both populations. RESULTS: Mean total skin carotenoids were higher in the Italian compared to the Dominican Republic population (342.4 ± 92.4 vs 282.9 ± 90.3; p < 0.005) regardless of sex (women: 318.5 ± 88.9 vs 277.3 ± 91.9, p < 0.005 and men: 371.7 ± 88.3 vs 289.5 ± 88.1, p < 0.005), and remaining statistically significant after age-adjustment of the Dominican Republic sample. Using the MEDAS questionnaire, we found a higher MD adherence score in the Italian than in the Dominican Republic population also after age-adjusting data (7.8 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 3.7; p < 0.005) and even when categorized by sex (Italian vs age-adjusted Dominican Republic women: 7.9 ± 2.1 vs 6.3 ± 2.6; Italian vs age-adjusted Dominican Republic men: 7.7 ± 2.2 vs 6.0 ± 4.7; p < 0.005). Using the MEDLIFE test, total Italians presented a lower score with respect to the age-adjusted Dominican Republic population (3.2 ± 1.2 vs 3.4 ± 1.4; p < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis, skin carotenoids were associated with sex and negatively associated with BMI in the Italian population (sex: ß: 54.95; 95% CI: 40.11, 69.78; p < 0.0001; BMI: ß: - 1.60; 95% CI: - 2.98,0.86; p = 0.03), while they resulted associated with age and sex in the Dominican Republic population (age: ß: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.92, 3.56; p < 0.001; sex: ß: 23.29; 95% CI: 5.93, 40.64; p = 0.009). Interestingly, skin carotenoids were positively correlated with MEDAS score in both populations (Italy: r = 0.03, p < 0.0001, Dominican Republic: r = 0.16, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the assessment of the adherence to the MD and skin carotenoid content in adults living in Southern Italy and the Dominican Republic, showing a higher MD adherence score and a skin carotenoid content in inhabitants from the Mediterranean region. Our findings highlight the need to globally encourage fruit and vegetable intake, particularly in non-Mediterranean area.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Dieta Mediterrânea , Pele , Humanos , Itália , República Dominicana , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pele/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303264, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758743

RESUMO

Saffron, the "golden spice" derived from Crocus sativus L., is renowned for its richness in secondary metabolites such as crocin and safranal, contributing to its unique properties. Facing challenges like decreasing global production, optimizing cultivation techniques becomes imperative for enhanced yields. Although the impact of factors like planting density, planting depth, spacing, and corm size on saffron growth has been studied, the interaction between corm size and planting depth remains underexplored. This study systematically investigates the interactive effects of corm size and planting depth on saffron growth and yield, providing evidence-based guidelines for optimizing cultivation. A factorial experiment, employing a completely randomized design, was conducted to assess the influence of corm size (05-10g, 10.1-15g, 15.1-20g) and planting depth (10cm, 15cm, 20cm) on saffron yield. Uniform-sized corms were obtained, and a suitable soil mixture was prepared for cultivation. Morphological and agronomic parameters were measured, and statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The study revealed that planting depth significantly affected saffron emergence. The corms sown under 15cm depth showed 100% emergence regardless of corm size (either 05-10g, 10.1-15g, 15.1-20g) followed by 10cm depth corms. Corm dry weight exhibited a complex interaction, where larger corms benefited from deeper planting, while intermediate-sized corms thrived at shallower depths. Similar patterns were observed in shoot fresh weight and dry weight. Specifically, the largest corm size (t3, 15.1-20g) produced the greatest fresh-weight biomass at the deepest planting depth of 20cm (T3), while intermediate-sized corms (t2, 10.1-15g) were superior at the shallowest 10cm depth (T1). The total plant biomass demonstrated that larger corms excelled in deeper planting, while intermediate-sized corms were optimal at moderate depths. This research highlights the intricate interplay between corm size and planting depth in influencing saffron growth. Larger corms generally promote higher biomass, but the interaction with planting depth is crucial. Understanding these dynamics can aid farmers in tailoring cultivation practices for optimal saffron yields. The study emphasizes the need for a coordinated approach to corm selection and depth placement, providing valuable insights for sustainable saffron production and economic growth.


Assuntos
Crocus , Crocus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crocus/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Solo/química , Biomassa , Carotenoides/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302541, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696430

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of Rhizoctonia solani J.G. Kühn infestation on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and biochemical composition of ten cultivars of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium /Ramat./ Hemsl.) to bring new insights for future disease management strategies and the development of resistant chrysanthemum cultivars. The chrysanthemum plants were propagated vegetatively and cultivated in a greenhouse under semi-controlled conditions. VOCs emitted by the plants were collected using a specialized system and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Biochemical analyses of the leaves were performed, including the extraction and quantification of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The emission of VOCs varied among the cultivars, with some cultivars producing a wider range of VOCs compared to others. The analysis of the VOC emissions from control plants revealed differences in both their quality and quantity among the tested cultivars. R. solani infection influenced the VOC emissions, with different cultivars exhibiting varying responses to the infection. Statistical analyses confirmed the significant effects of cultivar, collection time, and their interaction on the VOCs. Correlation analyses revealed positive relationships between certain pairs of VOCs. The results show significant differences in the biochemical composition among the cultivars, with variations in chlorophyll, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds content. Interestingly, R. solani soil and leaf infestation decreased the content of carotenoids in chrysanthemums. Plants subjected to soil infestation were characterized with the highest content of phenolics. This study unveils alterations in the volatile and biochemical responses of chrysanthemum plants to R. solani infestation, which can contribute to the development of strategies for disease management and the improvement of chrysanthemum cultivars with enhanced resistance to R. solani.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732065

RESUMO

The research investigates the influence of different lighting conditions and soil treatments, in particular the application of food polymers separately and in combination with spores of Trichoderma consortium, on the growth and development of herbs-Thymus vulgaris and Thymus serpyllum. The metabolic analysis focuses on detecting changes in the levels of biologically active compounds such as chlorophyll a and b, anthocyanins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds (including flavonoids), terpenoids, and volatile organic compounds with potential health-promoting properties. By investigating these factors, the study aims to provide insights into how environmental conditions affect the growth and chemical composition of selected plants and to shed light on potential strategies for optimising the cultivation of these herbs for the improved quality and production of bioactive compounds. Under the influence of additional lighting, the growth of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum seedlings was greatly accelerated, resulting in an increase in shoot biomass and length, and in the case of T. vulgaris, an increase in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Regarding secondary metabolites, the most pronounced changes were observed in total antioxidant capacity and flavonoid content, which increased significantly under the influence of additional lighting. The simultaneous or separate application of Trichoderma and food polymers resulted in an increase in flavonoid content in the leaves of both Thymus species. The increase in terpenoid content under supplemental light appears to be related to the presence of Trichoderma spores as well as food polymers added to the soil. However, the nature of these changes depends on the thyme species. Volatile compounds were analysed using an electronic nose (E-nose). Eight volatile compounds (VOCs) were tentatively identified in the vapours of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum: α-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene; 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol. Tendencies to increase the percentage of thymol and γ-terpinene under supplemental lighting were observed. The results also demonstrate a positive effect of food polymers and, to a lesser extent, Trichoderma fungi on the synthesis of VOCs with health-promoting properties. The effect of Trichoderma and food polymers on individual VOCs was positive in some cases for thymol and γ-terpinene.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Luz , Thymus (Planta) , Trichoderma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta)/química , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8081, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582923

RESUMO

Astaxanthin, a versatile C40 carotenoid prized for its applications in food, cosmetics, and health, is a bright red pigment with powerful antioxidant properties. To enhance astaxanthin production in Corynebacterium glutamicum, we employed rational pathway engineering strategies, focused on improving precursor availability and optimizing terminal oxy-functionalized C40 carotenoid biosynthesis. Our efforts resulted in an increased astaxanthin precursor supply with 1.5-fold higher ß-carotene production with strain BETA6 (18 mg g-1 CDW). Further advancements in astaxanthin production were made by fine-tuning the expression of the ß-carotene hydroxylase gene crtZ and ß-carotene ketolase gene crtW, yielding a nearly fivefold increase in astaxanthin (strain ASTA**), with astaxanthin constituting 72% of total carotenoids. ASTA** was successfully transferred to a 2 L fed-batch fermentation with an enhanced titer of 103 mg L-1 astaxanthin with a volumetric productivity of 1.5 mg L-1 h-1. Based on this strain a pathway expansion was achieved towards glycosylated C40 carotenoids under heterologous expression of the glycosyltransferase gene crtX. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time astaxanthin-ß-D-diglucoside was produced with C. glutamicum achieving high titers of microbial C40 glucosides of 39 mg L-1. This study showcases the potential of pathway engineering to unlock novel C40 carotenoid variants for diverse industrial applications.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Corynebacterium glutamicum , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolismo , Xantofilas/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos
14.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 448, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605243

RESUMO

Carotenoids are hydrophobic pigments binding to diverse carotenoproteins, many of which remain unexplored. Focusing on yellow gregarious locusts accumulating cuticular carotenoids, here we use engineered Escherichia coli cells to reconstitute a functional water-soluble ß-carotene-binding protein, BBP. HPLC and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that recombinant BBP avidly binds ß-carotene, inducing the unusual vibronic structure of its absorbance spectrum, just like native BBP extracted from the locust cuticles. Bound to recombinant BBP, ß-carotene exhibits pronounced circular dichroism and allows BBP to withstand heating (T0.5 = 68 °C), detergents and pH variations. Using bacteria producing distinct xanthophylls we demonstrate that, while ß-carotene is the preferred carotenoid, BBP can also extract from membranes ketocarotenoids and, very poorly, hydroxycarotenoids. We show that BBP-carotenoid complex reversibly binds to chitin, but not to chitosan, implying the role for chitin acetyl groups in cuticular BBP deposition. Reconstructing such locust coloration mechanism in vitro paves the way for structural studies and BBP applications.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , beta Caroteno , Animais , Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Xantofilas , Quitina
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 272, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. are both original plants of 'Gan Cao' in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and G. uralensis is currently the mainstream variety of licorice and has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these species have shown some degree of tolerance to salinity, G. inflata exhibits higher salt tolerance than G. uralensis and can grow on saline meadow soils and crusty saline soils. However, the regulatory mechanism responsible for the differences in salt tolerance between different licorice species is unclear. Due to land area-related limitations, the excavation and cultivation of licorice varieties in saline-alkaline areas that both exhibit tolerance to salt and contain highly efficient active substances are needed. The systematic identification of the key genes and pathways associated with the differences in salt tolerance between these two licorice species will be beneficial for cultivating high-quality salt-tolerant licorice G. uralensis plant varieties and for the long-term development of the licorice industry. In this research, the differences in growth response indicators, ion accumulation, and transcription expression between the two licorice species were analyzed. RESULTS: This research included a comprehensive comparison of growth response indicators, including biomass, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and total flavonoids content, between two distinct licorice species and an analysis of their ion content and transcriptome expression. In contrast to the result found for G. uralensis, the salt treatment of G. inflata ensured the stable accumulation of biomass and total flavonoids at 0.5 d, 15 d, and 30 d and the restriction of Na+ to the roots while allowing for more K+ and Ca2+ accumulation. Notably, despite the increase in the Na+ concentration in the roots, the MDA concentration remained low. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the regulatory effects of growth and ion transport on the two licorice species were strongly correlated with the following pathways and relevant DEGs: the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the photosynthetic carbon fixation pathway involved in carbon metabolism; Casparian strip formation (lignin oxidation and translocation, suberin formation) in response to Na+; K+ and Ca2+ translocation, organic solute synthesis (arginine, polyamines, GABA) in response to osmotic stresses; and the biosynthesis of the nonenzymatic antioxidants carotenoids and flavonoids in response to antioxidant stress. Furthermore, the differential expression of the DEGs related to ABA signaling in hormone transduction and the regulation of transcription factors such as the HSF and GRAS families may be associated with the remarkable salt tolerance of G. inflata. CONCLUSION: Compared with G. uralensis, G. inflata exhibits greater salt tolerance, which is primarily attributable to factors related to carbon metabolism, endodermal barrier formation and development, K+ and Ca2+ transport, biosynthesis of carotenoids and flavonoids, and regulation of signal transduction pathways and salt-responsive transcription factors. The formation of the Casparian strip, especially the transport and oxidation of lignin precursors, is likely the primary reason for the markedly higher amount of Na+ in the roots of G. inflata than in those of G. uralensis. The tendency of G. inflata to maintain low MDA levels in its roots under such conditions is closely related to the biosynthesis of flavonoids and carotenoids and the maintenance of the osmotic balance in roots by the absorption of more K+ and Ca2+ to meet growth needs. These findings may provide new insights for developing and cultivating G. uralensis plant species selected for cultivation in saline environments or soils managed through agronomic practices that involve the use of water with a high salt content.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Transcriptoma , Lignina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Carbono/metabolismo , Solo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 265, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf variegation is an intriguing phenomenon observed in many plant species. However, questions remain on its mechanisms causing patterns of different colours. In this study, we describe a tomato plant detected in an M2 population of EMS mutagenised seeds, showing variegated leaves with sectors of dark green (DG), medium green (MG), light green (LG) hues, and white (WH). Cells and tissues of these classes, along with wild-type tomato plants, were studied by light, fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. We also measured chlorophyll a/b and carotene and quantified the variegation patterns with a machine-learning image analysis tool. We compared the genomes of pooled plants with wild-type-like and mutant phenotypes in a segregating F2 population to reveal candidate genes responsible for the variegation. RESULTS: A genetic test demonstrated a recessive nuclear mutation caused the variegated phenotype. Cross-sections displayed distinct anatomy of four-leaf phenotypes, suggesting a stepwise mesophyll degradation. DG sectors showed large spongy layers, MG presented intercellular spaces in palisade layers, and LG displayed deformed palisade cells. Electron photomicrographs of those mesophyll cells demonstrated a gradual breakdown of the chloroplasts. Chlorophyll a/b and carotene were proportionally reduced in the sectors with reduced green pigments, whereas white sectors have hardly any of these pigments. The colour segmentation system based on machine-learning image analysis was able to convert leaf variegation patterns into binary images for quantitative measurements. The bulk segregant analysis of pooled wild-type-like and variegated progeny enabled the identification of SNP and InDels via bioinformatic analysis. The mutation mapping bioinformatic pipeline revealed a region with three candidate genes in chromosome 4, of which the FtsH-like protein precursor (LOC100037730) carries an SNP that we consider the causal variegated phenotype mutation. Phylogenetic analysis shows the candidate is evolutionary closest to the Arabidopsis VAR1. The synonymous mutation created by the SNP generated a miRNA binding site, potentially disrupting the photoprotection mechanism and thylakoid development, resulting in leaf variegation. CONCLUSION: We described the histology, anatomy, physiology, and image analysis of four classes of cell layers and chloroplast degradation in a tomato plant with a variegated phenotype. The genomics and bioinformatics pipeline revealed a VAR1-related FtsH mutant, the first of its kind in tomato variegation phenotypes. The miRNA binding site of the mutated SNP opens the way to future studies on its epigenetic mechanism underlying the variegation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , MicroRNAs , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Cloroplastos/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Metaloendopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108589, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593485

RESUMO

Carotenoids are important pigmented nutrients synthesized by tomato fruits during ripening. To reveal the molecular mechanism underlying carotenoid synthesis during tomato fruit ripening, we analyzed carotenoid metabolites and transcriptomes in six development stages of tomato fruits. A total of thirty different carotenoids were detected and quantified in tomato fruits from 10 to 60 DPA. Based on differential gene expression profiles and WGCNA, we explored several genes that were highly significant and negatively correlated with lycopene, all of which encode fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs). The FLAs are involved in plant signal transduction, however the functional role of these proteins has not been studied in tomato. Genome-wide analysis revealed that cultivated and wild tomato species contained 18 to 22 FLA family members, clustered into four groups, and mainly evolved by means of segmental duplication. The functional characterization of FLAs showed that silencing of SlFLA1, 5, and 13 were found to contribute to the early coloration of tomato fruits, and the expression of carotenoid synthesis-related genes was up-regulated in fruits that changed phenotypically, especially in SlFLA13-silenced plants. Furthermore, the content of multiple carotenoids (including (E/Z)-phytoene, lycopene, γ-carotene, and α-carotene) was significantly increased in SlFLA13-silenced fruits, suggesting that SlFLA13 has a potential inhibitory function in regulating carotenoid synthesis in tomato fruits. The results of the present study broaden the idea of analyzing the biological functions of tomato FLAs and preliminary evidence for the inhibitory role of SlFLA13 in carotenoid synthesis in fruit, providing the theoretical basis and a candidate for improving tomato fruit quality.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Frutas , Proteínas de Plantas , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Galactanos/metabolismo , Galactanos/biossíntese , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Mucoproteínas/genética
18.
J Exp Biol ; 227(9)2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634224

RESUMO

In many species of animals, red carotenoid-based coloration is produced by metabolizing yellow dietary pigments, and this red ornamentation can be an honest signal of individual quality. However, the physiological basis for associations between organism function and the metabolism of red ornamental carotenoids from yellow dietary carotenoids remains uncertain. A recent hypothesis posits that carotenoid metabolism depends on mitochondrial performance, with diminished red coloration resulting from altered mitochondrial aerobic respiration. To test for an association between mitochondrial respiration and red carotenoids, we held wild-caught, molting male house finches in either small bird cages or large flight cages to create environmental challenges during the period when red ornamental coloration is produced. We predicted that small cages would present a less favorable environment than large flight cages and that captivity itself would decrease both mitochondrial performance and the abundance of red carotenoids compared with free-living birds. We found that captive-held birds circulated fewer red carotenoids, showed increased mitochondrial respiratory rates, and had lower complex II respiratory control ratios - a metric associated with mitochondrial efficiency - compared with free-living birds, though we did not detect a difference in the effects of small cages versus large cages. Among captive individuals, the birds that circulated the highest concentrations of red carotenoids had the highest mitochondrial respiratory control ratio for complex II substrate. These data support the hypothesis that the metabolism of red carotenoid pigments is linked to mitochondrial aerobic respiration in the house finch, but the mechanisms for this association remain to be established.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Tentilhões , Mitocôndrias , Animais , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Masculino , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Tentilhões/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Consumo de Oxigênio
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108622, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677187

RESUMO

Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination poses a significant threat to global food security and the environment. Astaxanthin (AX), a potent biological antioxidant belonging to the carotenoid group, has been demonstrated to confer tolerance against diverse abiotic stresses in plants. This study investigated the potential of AX in mitigating Cd-induced damage in wheat seedlings. Morpho-physiological, ultrastructural, and biochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of AX on Cd-exposed wheat seedlings. Illumina-based gene expression profiling was employed to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of AX. The addition of 100 µM AX alleviated Cd toxicity by enhancing various parameters: growth, photosynthesis, carotenoid content, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), while reducing Cd accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. RNA sequencing analysis revealed differentially expressed genes associated with Cd uptake and carotenoid metabolism, such as zinc/iron permease (ZIP), heavy metal-associated protein (HMA), 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3-beta-HSD), and thiolase. These findings suggest that AX enhances Cd tolerance in wheat seedlings by promoting the expression of detoxification and photosynthesis-related genes. This research offers valuable insights into the potential use of AX to address Cd contamination in agricultural systems, highlighting the significance of antioxidant supplementation in plant stress management.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cádmio , Carotenoides , Triticum , Xantofilas , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/genética , Xantofilas/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo
20.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(5): 119, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632145

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Mutants lacking functional HYD2 homoeologs showed improved seedling growth, but comparable or increased susceptibility to salt stress in tillering plants, suggesting a developmentally restricted role of HYD2 in salt response. Salinity stress threatens global food security by reducing the yield of staple crops such as wheat (Triticum ssp.). Understanding how wheat responds to salinity stress is crucial for developing climate resilient varieties. In this study, we examined the interplay between carotenoid metabolism and the response to salt (NaCl) stress, a specific form of salinity stress, in tetraploid wheat plants with mutations in carotenoid ß-hydroxylase 1 (HYD1) and HYD2. Our investigation encompassed both the vulnerable seedling stage and the more developed tillering stage of wheat plant growth. Mutant combinations lacking functional HYD2 homoeologs, including hyd-A2 hyd-B2, hyd-A1 hyd-A2 hyd-B2, hyd-B1 hyd-A2 hyd-B2, and hyd-A1 hyd-B1 hyd-A2 hyd-B2, had longer first true leaves and slightly enhanced root growth during germination under salt stress compared to the segregate wild-type (control) plants. Interestingly, these mutant seedlings also showed decreased levels of neoxanthin and violaxanthin (xanthophylls derived from ß-carotene) and an increase in ß-carotene in roots. However, tillering hyd mutant and segregate wild-type plants generally did not differ in their height, tiller count, and biomass production under acute or prolonged salt stress, except for decreases in these parameters observed in the hyd-A1 hyd-B1 hyd-A2 hyd-B2 mutant that indicate its heightened susceptibility to salt stress. Taken together, these findings suggest a significant, yet developmentally restricted role of HYD2 homoeologs in salt-stress response in tetraploid wheat. They also show that hyd-A2 hyd-B2 mutant plants, previously demonstrated for possessing enriched nutritional (ß-carotene) content, maintain an unimpaired ability to withstand salt stress.


Assuntos
Estresse Salino , Plântula , Triticum , beta Caroteno , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Tetraploidia , Triticum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
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