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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127621, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738533

RESUMO

In the present study, the effects of blue LED light on the regreening of citrus fruit were investigated in an in vitro system of Valencia orange flavedos. The results showed that blue LED light irradiation induced regreening in the flavedos. After four-week culture in vitro, the flavedos exhibited obviously green color in the blue LED light treatment, while the flavedos in the control were still in orange color. During the regreening process, the blue LED light treatment induced chlorophyll accumulation, and substantially altered the carotenoid composition in the flavedos. Compared with the control, the content of 9-cis-violaxanthin was decreased, while the contents of lutein, ß-carotene, and all-trans-violaxanthin were increased by blue LED light. In addition, gene expression results showed that the up-regulation of CitLCYe and down-regulation of CitLCYb2 by blue LED light led to a shift from ß,ß-branch to ß,ε-branch of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Pigmentação/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Citrus/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Xantofilas/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5346, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093471

RESUMO

The mechanism that creates vitreous endosperm in the mature maize kernel is poorly understood. We identified Vitreous endosperm 1 (Ven1) as a major QTL influencing this process. Ven1 encodes ß-carotene hydroxylase 3, an enzyme that modulates carotenoid composition in the amyloplast envelope. The A619 inbred contains a nonfunctional Ven1 allele, leading to a decrease in polar and an increase in non-polar carotenoids in the amyloplast. Coincidently, the stability of amyloplast membranes is increased during kernel desiccation. The lipid composition in endosperm cells in A619 is altered, giving rise to a persistent amyloplast envelope. These changes impede the gathering of protein bodies and prevent them from interacting with starch grains, creating air spaces that cause an opaque kernel phenotype. Genetic modifiers were identified that alter the effect of Ven1A619, while maintaining a high ß-carotene level. These studies provide insight for breeding vitreous kernel varieties and high vitamin A content in maize.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/metabolismo , Endosperma/ultraestrutura , Genes de Plantas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plastídeos/genética , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Plastídeos/ultraestrutura , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/ultraestrutura
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5269, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077749

RESUMO

Azaleas (Ericaceae) comprise one of the most diverse ornamental plants, renowned for their cultural and economic importance. We present a chromosome-scale genome assembly for Rhododendron simsii, the primary ancestor of azalea cultivars. Genome analyses unveil the remnants of an ancient whole-genome duplication preceding the radiation of most Ericaceae, likely contributing to the genomic architecture of flowering time. Small-scale gene duplications contribute to the expansion of gene families involved in azalea pigment biosynthesis. We reconstruct entire metabolic pathways for anthocyanins and carotenoids and their potential regulatory networks by detailed analysis of time-ordered gene co-expression networks. MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors may collectively regulate anthocyanin accumulation in R. simsii, particularly at the initial stages of flower coloration, and with WRKY transcription factors controlling progressive flower coloring at later stages. This work provides a cornerstone for understanding the underlying genetics governing flower timing and coloration and could accelerate selective breeding in azalea.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rhododendron/genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Vias Biossintéticas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rhododendron/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhododendron/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(4-5): 529-548, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876816

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This research provides comprehensive insight into the molecular networks and molecular mechanisms underlying D. officinale flower development. Flowers are complex reproductive organs and play a crucial role in plant propagation, while also providing sustenance for insects and natural bioactive metabolites for humans. However, knowledge about gene regulation and floral metabolomes in flowers is limited. In this study, we used an important orchid species (Dendrobium officinale), whose flowers can be used to make herbal tea, to perform transcriptome sequencing and metabolic profiling of early- and medium-stage flower buds, as well as opened flowers, to provide comprehensive insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying flower development. A total of 8019 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 239 differentiated metabolites were found. The transcription factors that were identified and analyzed belong exclusively to the MIKC-type MADS-box proteins and auxin responsive factors that are known to be involved in flower development. The expression of genes involved in chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis strongly matched the metabolite accumulation patterns. The genes related to flavonoid and polysaccharide biosynthesis were active during flower development. Interestingly, indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid, whose trend of accumulation was inverse during flower development, may play an important role in this process. Collectively, the identification of DEGs and differentiated metabolites could help to illustrate the regulatory networks and molecular mechanisms important for flower development in this orchid.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dendrobium/genética , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881902

RESUMO

Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), a key enzyme in carotenoid metabolism, cleaves carotenoids to form apo-carotenoids, which play a major role in plant growth and stress responses. CCD genes had not previously been systematically characterized in Brassica napus (rapeseed), an important oil crop worldwide. In this study, we identified 30 BnCCD genes and classified them into nine subgroups based on a phylogenetic analysis. We identified the chromosomal locations, gene structures, and cis-promoter elements of each of these genes and performed a selection pressure analysis to identify residues under selection. Furthermore, we determined the subcellular localization, physicochemical properties, and conserved protein motifs of the encoded proteins. All the CCD proteins contained a retinal pigment epithelial membrane protein (RPE65) domain. qRT-PCR analysis of expression of 20 representative BnCCD genes in 16 tissues of the B. napus cultivar Zhong Shuang 11 ('ZS11') revealed that members of the BnCCD gene family possess a broad range of expression patterns. This work lays the foundation for functional studies of the BnCCD gene family.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/enzimologia , Dioxigenases/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Brassica napus/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Dioxigenases/classificação , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21796-21803, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817419

RESUMO

Plastids, the defining organelles of plant cells, undergo physiological and morphological changes to fulfill distinct biological functions. In particular, the differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts results in an enhanced storage capacity for carotenoids with industrial and nutritional value such as beta-carotene (provitamin A). Here, we show that synthetically inducing a burst in the production of phytoene, the first committed intermediate of the carotenoid pathway, elicits an artificial chloroplast-to-chromoplast differentiation in leaves. Phytoene overproduction initially interferes with photosynthesis, acting as a metabolic threshold switch mechanism that weakens chloroplast identity. In a second stage, phytoene conversion into downstream carotenoids is required for the differentiation of chromoplasts, a process that involves a concurrent reprogramming of nuclear gene expression and plastid morphology for improved carotenoid storage. We hence demonstrate that loss of photosynthetic competence and enhanced production of carotenoids are not just consequences but requirements for chloroplasts to differentiate into chromoplasts.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plastídeos/fisiologia , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Tabaco/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111024, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741747

RESUMO

Pontederia cordata can tolerate heavy metal toxicity and possesses great potential for phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated wetlands, yet how it copes with heavy metal stress has still not been determined. Hydroponic experiments were used to assess the effects of various levels of Cd2+ on the photosynthesis and activity of redox-regulatory systems in the plant leaves, and we also sought to elucidate the tolerance mechanism of the plant to Cd2+ by investigating Cd2+ enrichment characteristics and chemical forms. The plant can manage a low cadmium concentration (≤0.04 mM) with relatively stable biomass and photosynthetic performance. Cd2+ at the highest concentration (0.44 mM) decreased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities by 37.17% and 93.29%, respectively. Similar trends were demonstrated in the contents of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, lutein, glutathione, and non-protein thiol, as well as phytochelation in the leaves, exacerbating membrane peroxidation despite the significantly increased catalase activity observed. Moreover, the highest Cd2+ concentration disturbed the biosynthesis of chlorophyll precursors in the leaves, reduced chlorophyll a and b, as well as total chlorophyll contents by 60.47%, 67.47%, and 68.12%, respectively, which inhibited photosynthesis, leading to a decline in biomass. Compared with maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the potential activity (Fv/Fo) of photosystem II, the performance index for energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PIabs), and of PSI end acceptors (PItotal), can indicate Cd2+ toxicity to the photosynthetic apparatus in the leaves. 49.95%-76.90% of the Cd2+ was sequestered in the plant roots, restraining translocation from roots to shoots, which is considered a tolerance mechanism, probably resulting from disturbed transpiration in leaves and increased Cd2+ content with low activity. Pontederia cordata is a candidate plant for phytoremediation of heavy-metal -contaminated wetlands.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cádmio/toxicidade , Pontederiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Áreas Alagadas , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Pontederiaceae/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19914-19925, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747548

RESUMO

Apocarotenoids are important signaling molecules generated from carotenoids through the action of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). These enzymes have a remarkable ability to cleave carotenoids at specific alkene bonds while leaving chemically similar sites within the polyene intact. Although several bacterial and eukaryotic CCDs have been characterized, the long-standing goal of experimentally visualizing a CCD-carotenoid complex at high resolution to explain this exquisite regioselectivity remains unfulfilled. CCD genes are also present in some archaeal genomes, but the encoded enzymes remain uninvestigated. Here, we address this knowledge gap through analysis of a metazoan-like archaeal CCD from Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra (NdCCD). NdCCD was active toward ß-apocarotenoids but did not cleave bicyclic carotenoids. It exhibited an unusual regiospecificity, cleaving apocarotenoids solely at the C14'-C13' alkene bond to produce ß-apo-14'-carotenals. The structure of NdCCD revealed a tapered active site cavity markedly different from the broad active site observed for the retinal-forming Synechocystis apocarotenoid oxygenase (SynACO) but similar to the vertebrate retinoid isomerase RPE65. The structure of NdCCD in complex with its apocarotenoid product demonstrated that the site of cleavage is defined by interactions along the substrate binding cleft as well as selective stabilization of reaction intermediates at the scissile alkene. These data on the molecular basis of CCD catalysis shed light on the origins of the varied catalytic activities found in metazoan CCDs, opening the possibility of modifying their activity through rational chemical or genetic approaches.


Assuntos
Archaea/enzimologia , Proteínas Arqueais/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/química , Archaea/química , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Proteínas Arqueais/genética , Proteínas Arqueais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Synechocystis/química , Synechocystis/enzimologia , Synechocystis/genética
9.
Chemosphere ; 255: 127041, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679635

RESUMO

Microplastics pollution in farmlands has become a major concern. However, few studies have assessed the effects of microplastics on higher plants. In this study, we investigated the influence of polystyrene nanoplastics (PSNPs, 50 mg L-1), with four different particle sizes (100, 300, 500, and 700 nm), on the physiological and biochemical indexes of cucumber leaves. The biomass of cucumber plants significantly decreased after exposure to 300 nm PSNPs. Similarly, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, soluble sugar, carotenoid, and proline content, as well as the fluorescence of cucumber leaves were significantly reduced by 100 nm PSNPs. Malondialdehyde, proline, peroxidase gene expression and enzyme activity, and hydrogen peroxide content significantly increased in cucumber leaves exposed to 700 nm PSNPs. In addition, increasing PSNPs particle size led to decreased relative expression levels and activities of the major antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, while vitamin C and soluble protein content significantly increased. Overall, our results indicated that PSNPs affect the photosynthetic, antioxidant, and sugar metabolism systems of cucumber leaves, with the latter clearly affecting the total biomass of cucumber plants. The benzene ring resulting from the degradation of PSNPs in cucumber leaves may be the main factor affecting chlorophyll metabolism and sugar metabolism. Our findings provide a scientific basis for the risk assessment of PSNPs exposure in soil-plant systems.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/fisiologia , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17599-17606, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647063

RESUMO

Fossilized carotenoid hydrocarbons provide a window into the physiology and biochemistry of ancient microbial phototrophic communities for which only a sparse and incomplete fossil record exists. However, accurate interpretation of carotenoid-derived biomarkers requires detailed knowledge of the carotenoid inventories of contemporary phototrophs and their physiologies. Here we report two distinct patterns of fossilized C40 diaromatic carotenoids. Phanerozoic marine settings show distributions of diaromatic hydrocarbons dominated by isorenieratane, a biomarker derived from low-light-adapted phototrophic green sulfur bacteria. In contrast, isorenieratane is only a minor constituent within Neoproterozoic marine sediments and Phanerozoic lacustrine paleoenvironments, for which the major compounds detected are renierapurpurane and renieratane, together with some novel C39 and C38 carotenoid degradation products. This latter pattern can be traced to cyanobacteria as shown by analyses of cultured taxa and laboratory simulations of sedimentary diagenesis. The cyanobacterial carotenoid synechoxanthin, and its immediate biosynthetic precursors, contain thermally labile, aromatic carboxylic-acid functional groups, which upon hydrogenation and mild heating yield mixtures of products that closely resemble those found in the Proterozoic fossil record. The Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic transition in fossil carotenoid patterns likely reflects a step change in the surface sulfur inventory that afforded opportunities for the expansion of phototropic sulfur bacteria in marine ecosystems. Furthermore, this expansion might have also coincided with a major change in physiology. One possibility is that the green sulfur bacteria developed the capacity to oxidize sulfide fully to sulfate, an innovation which would have significantly increased their capacity for photosynthetic carbon fixation.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Enxofre/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas , Fotossíntese/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110856, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629202

RESUMO

To explore the mechanisms underlying the action of the heavy metals Cd and Zn on the photosynthetic function of plant leaves, the effects of 100 µmol L-1 Cd and 200 µmol L-1 Zn stress (the exposure concentrations of Cd and Zn in the culture medium were 2.24 mg kg-1 and 5.36 mg kg-1) on the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents as well as the photosynthetic function of tobacco leaves (Long Jiang 911) were studied. The key proteins in these physiological processes were quantitatively analyzed using a TMT-based proteomics approach. Cd stress was found to inhibit the expression of key enzymes during chlorophyll synthesis in leaves, resulting in a decrease of the Chl content. However, Zn stress did not significantly influence the chlorophyll content. Leaves adapted to Zn stress by upregulating CAO expression and increase the Chl b content. Although the Car content in leaves did not significantly change under either Cd or Zn stress, the expressions of ZE and VDE during Car metabolism decreased significantly under Cd stress. This was accompanied by damages to the xanthophyll cycle and the NPQ-dependent energy dissipation mechanism. In contrast, under Zn stress, leaves adapted to Zn stress by increasing the expression of VDE, thus improving NPQ. Under Cd stress, the expressions of three sets of proteins were significantly down-regulated, including PSII donor-side proteins (PPD3, PPD6, OEE1, OEE2-1, OEE2-2, OEE2-3, and OEE3-2), receptor-side proteins (D1, D2, CP43, CP47, Cyt b559α, Cyt b559ß, PsbL, PsbQ, PsbR, Psb27-H1, and Psb28), and core proteins of the PSI reaction center (psaA, psaB, psaC, psaD, psaE-A, PsaE-B, psaF, psaG, psaH-1, psaK, psaL, psaN, and psaOL). In comparison, only eight of the above proteins (PPD6, OEE3-2, PsbL, PsbQ, Psb27-H1, psaL, and psaOL) were significantly down-regulated by Zn stress. Under Cd stress, both the donor side and the receptor side of PSII were damaged, and PSII and PSI experienced severe photoinhibition. However, Zn stress did not decrease either PSII or PSI activities in tobacco leaves. In addition, the expression of electron transport-related proteins (cytb6/f complex, PC, Fd, and FNR), ATPase subunits, Rubisco subunits, and RCA decreased significantly in leaves under Cd stress. However, no significant changes were observed in any of these proteins under Zn stress. Although Cd stress was found to up-regulate the expressions of PGRL1A and PGRL1B and induce an increase of PGR5/PGRL1-CEF in tobacco leaves, NDH-CEF was significantly inhibited. Under Zn stress, the expressions of ndhH and PGRL1A in leaves were significantly up-regulated, but there were no significant changes in either NDH-CEF or PGR5/PGRL-CEF. Under Cd stress, the expressions of proteins related to Fd-dependent nitrogen metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging processes (e.g., FTR, Fd-NiR, and Fd-GOGAT) were significantly down-regulated in leaves. However, no significant changes of any of the above proteins were identified under Zn stress. In summary, Cd stress could inhibit the synthesis of chlorophyll in tobacco leaves, significantly down-regulate the expressions of photosynthesis-related proteins or subunits, and suppress both the xanthophyll cycle and NDH-CEF process. The expressions of proteins related to the Fd-dependent nitrogen metabolism and ROS scavenging were also significantly down-regulated, which blocked the photosynthetic electron transport, thus resulting in severe photoinhibition of both PSII and PSI. However, Zn stress had little effect on the photosynthetic function of tobacco leaves.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo
12.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1379-1392, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656704

RESUMO

Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments synthesized by all photosynthetic and some non-photosynthetic organisms. In plants, these lipophilic compounds are involved in photosynthesis, photoprotection, and phytohormone synthesis. In plants, carotenoid biosynthesis is induced by several environmental factors such as light including photoreceptors, such as phytochromes (PHYs) and negatively regulated by phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs). Daucus carota (carrot) is one of the few plant species that synthesize and accumulate carotenoids in the storage root that grows in darkness. Contrary to other plants, light inhibits secondary root growth and carotenoid accumulation suggesting the existence of new mechanisms repressed by light that regulate both processes. To identify genes induced by dark and repressed by light that regulate carotenoid synthesis and carrot root development, in this work an RNA-Seq analysis was performed from dark- and light-grown carrot roots. Using this high-throughput sequencing methodology, a de novo transcriptome model with 63,164 contigs was obtained, from which 18,488 were differentially expressed (DEG) between the two experimental conditions. Interestingly, light-regulated genes are preferably expressed in dark-grown roots. Enrichment analysis of GO terms with DEGs genes, validation of the transcriptome model and DEG analysis through qPCR allow us to hypothesize that genes involved in photomorphogenesis and light perception such as PHYA, PHYB, PIF3, PAR1, CRY2, FYH3, FAR1 and COP1 participate in the synthesis of carotenoids and carrot storage root development.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Daucus carota/genética , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Daucus carota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Pigmentação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589636

RESUMO

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is divided into yellow- and white-fleshed based on the difference in fruit color, and the variations in carotenoids accumulation are considered as the main reasons for this difference. Using RNA-seq technology, a transcriptome analysis was carried out on the flesh and peel of 'Baiyu' fruit during four different fruit development stages. A total of 172.53 Gb clean reads with an average of 6.33 Gb reads were detected for each library, and the percentage of Q30 was higher than 90.84%. We identified 16 carotenogenic and 13 plastid-lipid-associated protein (PAP) genes through RNA-seq. Of these, five carotenogenic and four PAP related genes exhibited remarkable differences in the expression patterns. Carotenoids biosynthetic genes, including DXS, PSY1 and VDE displayed higher expression levels in peel than that in the flesh. However, carotenoids decomposition gene, such as NCDE1, exhibited higher expression in flesh than that in the peel. Notably, all differentially expressed PAP genes showed higher expression levels in peel than flesh. We inferred that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in flesh and peel of 'Baiyu' is caused by the up- or down-regulation of the carotenogenic and PAP related genes. The functional analysis of these important genes will provide valuable information about underlying molecular mechanism of carotenoids accumulation in loquat.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Eriobotrya/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Eriobotrya/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Regulação para Cima
14.
Science ; 368(6496): 1270-1274, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527835

RESUMO

Sexual dichromatism, a difference in coloration between males and females, may be due to sexual selection for ornamentation and mate choice. Here, we show that carotenoid-based dichromatism in mosaic canaries, a hybrid phenotype that arises in offspring of the sexually dichromatic red siskin and monochromatic canaries, is controlled by the gene that encodes the carotenoid-cleaving enzyme ß-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2). Dichromatism in mosaic canaries is explained by differential carotenoid degradation in the integument, rather than sex-specific variation in physiological functions such as pigment uptake or transport. Transcriptome analyses suggest that carotenoid degradation in the integument might be a common mechanism contributing to sexual dichromatism across finches. These results suggest that differences in ornamental coloration between sexes can evolve through simple molecular mechanisms controlled by genes of major effect.


Assuntos
Canários/fisiologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Pigmentação/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Canários/anatomia & histologia , Canários/genética , Feminino , Tentilhões/anatomia & histologia , Tentilhões/genética , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Transcriptoma
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0230546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516347

RESUMO

Winter squash fruits (Cucurbita moschata D.) are among the best sources of vitamin A precursors and constitute sources of bioactive components such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Approximately 70% of C. moschata seed oil is made up of unsaturated fatty acids, with high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and components such as vitamin E and carotenoids, which represent a promising nutritional aspect in the production of this vegetable. C. moschata germplasm expresses high genetic variability, especially in Brazil. We assessed 91 C. moschata accessions, from different regions of Brazil, and maintained at the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) Vegetable Germplasm Bank, to identify early-flowering accessions with high levels of carotenoids in the fruit pulp and high yields of seed and seed oil. Results showed that the accessions have high variability in the number and mass of seeds per fruit, number of accumulated degree-days for flowering, total carotenoid content, and fruit productivity, which allowed selection for considerable gains in these characteristics. Analysis of the correlation between these characteristics provided information that will assist in selection to improve this crop. Cluster analysis resulted in the formation of 16 groups, confirming the variability of the accessions. Per se analysis identified accessions BGH-6749, BGH-5639, and BGH-219 as those with the earliest flowering. Accessions BGH-5455A and BGH-5598A had the highest carotenoid content, with averages greater than 170.00 µg g-1 of fresh mass. With a productivity of 0.13 t ha-1, accessions BGH-5485A, BGH-4610A, and BGH-5472A were the most promising for seed oil production. These last two accessions corresponded to those with higher seed productivity, averaging 0.58 and 0.54 t ha-1, respectively. This study confirms the high potential of this germplasm for use in breeding for promotion of earlier flowering and increase in total content of fruit pulp carotenoids and in seed and seed oil productivity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cucurbita/anatomia & histologia , Cucurbita/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110823, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540619

RESUMO

This study compared co-tolerance to salinity and cadmium and investigated its mechanisms in a facultative metallophyte Silene vulgaris originating from distinct habitats. Shoots of calamine (Cal) and non-metallicolous (N-Cal) ecotypes grown in vitro were exposed to 10 and 100 mM NaCl, 5 µM CdCl2 and their combinations. Stress effects were evaluated based on growth, oxidative stress parameters, and DNA content and damage. Tolerance mechanisms were assessed by analyzing non-enzymatic antioxidants, osmolytes and ion accumulation. Irrespective of the ecotype, Cd stimulated shoot proliferation (micropropagation coefficients MC = 15.2 and 12.1 for Cal and N-Cal, respectively, growth tolerance index GTI = 148.1 and 156.7%). In Cal ecotype this was attributed to an increase in glutathione content and reorganization of cell membrane structures under Cd exposure, whereas in N-Cal to enhanced synthesis of other non-enzymatic antioxidants, mainly carotenoids and ascorbate. Low salinity stimulated growth of Cal ecotype due to optimizing Cl- content. High salinity inhibited growth, especially in Cal ecotype, where it enhanced DNA damage and disturbed ionic homeostasis. Species-specific reaction to combined salinity and Cd involved a mutual inhibition of Na+, Cl- and Cd2+ uptake. N-Cal ecotype responded to combined stresses by enhancing its antioxidant defense, presumably induced by Cd, whereas the metallicolous ecotype triggered osmotic adjustment. The study revealed that in S. vulgaris Cd application ameliorated metabolic responses to simultaneous salinity exposure. It also shed a light on distinct strategies of coping with combined abiotic stresses in two ecotypes of the species showing high plasticity in environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Silene/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Ecótipo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Salinidade , Silene/genética , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/metabolismo , Solo/química
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555718

RESUMO

Heterotrophic cultures are the most effective approach to overcome low growth rate challenge in the most commercial microalgae. However, the mechanism through which heterotrophic condition regulates algae metabolism are not completely clear. Alternative Splicing (AS) is a common posttranscriptional process by which transcriptome and proteome plasticity increases at different environmental conditions. To identify and characterize of AS events in Auxenochlorella protothecoides microalga grown in autotrophic and heterotrophic, RNA-Seq data were analysed. We found that AS increased with the transition from autotrophic to heterotrophic condition. 705 and 660 differentially expressed (DEG) and spliced (DAS) genes were identified for A.protothecoides was transferred from autotrophic to heterotrophic condition, respectively. Moreover, there was slight coverage between DEG and DAS genes. Furthermore, functional analysis showed that the DAS genes are most frequently related to ion binding and stimulus response. The results also indicated that prevalence of Intron retention is associated with down-regulation of the genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides valuable insights into transcriptional and posttranscriptional plasticity of microalgae during growth mode change.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Processos Heterotróficos/genética , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Genômica , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3254, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591541

RESUMO

Robustness against environmental fluctuations within an adaptive state should preclude exploration of new adaptive states when the environment changes. Here, we study transitions between adaptive associations of feather structure and carotenoid uptake to understand how robustness and evolvability can be reconciled. We show that feather modifications induced by unfamiliar carotenoids during a range expansion are repeatedly converted into precise coadaptations of feather development and carotenoid accommodation as populations persist in a region. We find that this conversion is underlain by a uniform and coordinated increase in the sensitivity of feather development to local carotenoid uptake, indicative of cooption and modification of the homeostatic mechanism that buffers feather growth in the evolution of new adaptations. Stress-buffering mechanisms are well placed to alternate between robustness and evolvability and we suggest that this is particularly evident in adaptations that require close integration between widely fluctuating external inputs and intricate internal structures.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Plumas/fisiologia , Pigmentação , Análise de Regressão
19.
Protist ; 171(3): 125738, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544845

RESUMO

This paper represents a comprehensive study of two new thraustochytrids and a marine Rhodotorula red yeast isolated from Australian coastal waters for their abilities to be a potential renewable feedstock for the nutraceutical, food, fishery and bioenergy industries. Mixotrophic growth of these species was assessed in the presence of different carbon sources: glycerol, glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and sucrose, starch, cellulose, malt extract, and potato peels. Up to 14g DW/L (4.6gDW/L-day and 2.8gDW/L-day) of biomass were produced by Aurantiochytrium and Thraustochytrium species, respectively. Thraustochytrids biomass contained up to 33% DW of lipids, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, 124mg/g DW); up to 10.2mg/gDW of squalene and up to 61µg/gDW of total carotenoids, composed of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, echinenone, and ß-carotene. Along with the accumulation of these added-value chemicals in biomass, thraustochytrid representatives showed the ability to secrete extracellular polysaccharide matrixes containing lipids and proteins. Rhodotorula sp lipids (26% DW) were enriched in palmitic acid (C16:0, 18mg/gDW) and oleic acid (C18:1, 41mg/gDW). Carotenoids (87µg/gDW) were mainly represented by ß-carotene (up to 54µg/gDW). Efficient growth on organic and inorganic sources of carbon and nitrogen from natural and anthropogenic wastewater pollutants along with intracellular and extracellular production of valuable nutrients makes the production of valuable chemicals from isolated species economical and sustainable.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Quitridiomicetos , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Rhodotorula , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Quitridiomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitridiomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Quitridiomicetos/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Rhodotorula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Áreas Alagadas
20.
Food Chem ; 331: 127286, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562978

RESUMO

Nowadays, novel tools have been developed for efficient analysis and visualization of large-scale metabolite profile data associated with metabolic pathways. A high-throughput platform using PathVisio 3 combined with multivariate analysis is proposed for the first time. Additionally, this is the first analysis of the relationships among terpenoids monoterpene, sesquiterpene, triterpene, and tetraterpene during pepper fruit ripening, and their changes. This platform was successfully applied to interpret large-scale data related to 131 metabolites from mature and immature fruits of 13 pepper phenotypes. The carotenoid-derived volatiles, such as dihydroactinidiolide and ß-ionone were closely correlated with carotenoids, indicating that the synthesis and degradation of carotenoids occurred in pepper fruit mature stage. Using PathVisio 3, the metabolic changes in pathway could be presented quickly, revealing the accumulation of stress-related metabolites, such as proline, capsaicin, and phenylalanine, in the mature stage. This approach could provide useful information about comprehensive biochemical regulation of fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Metabolômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
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