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1.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 327-331, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615747

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular protozoa that can cause neurological disease or death in fetuses and even in immunocompromised human adults. Ticks are recognized as vectors of many microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. Recent studies detected T. gondii in various tick species in many countries. In this study, we performed PCR detection of the T. gondii B1 gene from Haemaphysalis ticks collected from vegetation in 4 localities, Wonju, Gunsan, Miryang, and Yangsan, in Korea. We analyzed DNA from 314 ticks (268 Haemaphysalis longicornis and 46 Haemaphysalis flava) and the B1 gene of T. gondii was detected in 13 of these. The detection of T. gondii in ticks differed significantly by region (P=0.021). T. gondii was detected in the following percentages of collected ticks: 3.7% (7 of 189) in Gunsan, 10% (5 of 50) in Wonju, 16.7% (1 of 6) in Yangsan, and 0% (0 of 69) in Miryang. The detection of T. gondii in ticks was not associated with tick species or development stage. This is the first report of T. gondii detection in ticks in Korea. Our results provide important information necessary to understand toxoplasmosis transmission.


Assuntos
Carrapatos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , República da Coreia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e012220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667504

RESUMO

In this commentary, the authors highlight the importance of basic research in the field of public health regarding the recent pandemic Covid-19, using tick-borne rickettsioses as an example. In addition, they alert politicians, government officials and managers of research funding agencies to increase the allocated financial resources to enhance basic research on public health in Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Brasil
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 458, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplasmosis is an emerging acute febrile disease that is caused by a bite of an Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected hard tick. As for healthy patients, reports on asymptomatic anaplasmosis resulting from such tick bites are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old female patient visited the hospital with a tick bite in the right infraclavicular region. The tick was suspected to have been on the patient for more than 10 days. PCR and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) were performed to identify tick-borne infectious diseases. The blood sample collected at admission yielded a positive result in nested PCR targeting Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific genes groEL and ankA. Subsequent sequencing confirmed the presence of A. phagocytophilum, and seroconversion was confirmed by the IFA involving an A. phagocytophilum antigen slide. PCR detected no Rickettsia-specific genes [outer membrane protein A (ompA) or surface cell antigen 1 (sca1)], but seroconversion of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis was confirmed by an IFA. CONCLUSIONS: This study genetically and serologically confirmed an asymptomatic A. phagocytophilum infection. Although SFG rickettsiosis was not detected genetically, it was detected serologically. These findings indicate the possibility of an asymptomatic coinfection: anaplasmosis plus SFG rickettsiosis. It is, therefore, crucial for clinicians to be aware of potential asymptomatic anaplasmosis following a tick bite.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/imunologia , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Infecções Assintomáticas , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Rickettsia/imunologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Animais , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Picadas de Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos
4.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(2): 326-333, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723287

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease that can be presented with fever, fatigue, generalized joint/body pain, diarrhea and bleeding in various parts of the body. The risk of developing a severe fatal disease in humans, the possibility of being infected with aerosols and the risk of being used as a biological weapon make the disease still an important health problem all over the world as there is no a specific treatment and vaccine that has proven effective againt the virus today. The pathogenesis of the disease is not known, but vascular endothelial damage is prominent. Therefore, it progresses with thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia and this hematological findings can be confused with hematological malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy included in differential diagnoses and occurs as a result of mutations occuring at a stage of differentiation in the lymphoid precursor cells in the bone marrow. In this study, we present a case of ALL who was diagnosed with CCHF simultaneously. A 43-year old female patient who works in the library and does not have a chronic disease other than asthma and thyroid disorder, has admitted to our hospital with the complaints of intermittent fever, weakness, generalized joint and body pain for about 3 weeks. She had fever and the physical examination revealed bilateral cervical and right postauricular lymphadenopathies. Her aspartate aminotransferase: 77 U/L, alanine aminotransferase: 117 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase: 616 U/L, hemoglobin: 8.27 g/dl, leukocyte count: 15.690/mm3 , neutrophil count: 550/mm3 (%3.5), lymphocyte count: 6690/mm3 (%42.6), platelet count: 102.100/mm3 , C-reactive protein: 163.6 mg/L was detected and the patient was hospitalized on 5 August 2019 for further examination and treatment. Considering that the patient may have viral infection in the foreground the requested test results were detected as; anti-CMV IgM negative, anti-CMV IgG positive, anti-toxoplasma IgM negative, anti-toxoplasma IgG positive, anti-rubella IgM negative, anti-rubella IgG positive, HBsAg negative, anti-HBc IgM negative, antiHBs positive, anti-HAV IgM negative, anti-HAV IgG positive, anti-HCV negative, anti-HIV negative, EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) VCA IgM negative, EBV VCA IgG positive, EBV EBNA IgG positive. Brucella Rose Bengal and Coombs tube agglutination was found be negative. As the cytopenia of the patient deepened, the patient was accepted to have neutropenic fever and it was planned to start piperacillin-tazobactam 4 x 4.5 g/day and two units of erythrocyte replacement therapy. When the patient's history was questioned again, it was learned that she had a tick on her neck about three weeks ago and she had removed the tick herself; 4-5 days later she had the complaints of fever and flu like symptoms and also diarrhea complaints lasting for 3-4 days. Considering the current anamnesis and laboratory findings, the patient was thought to have CCHF and the patient was isolated. The serum sample taken from patient with an initial diagnosis of CCHF and sent to Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory Public Health Agency of Turkey. The patient was referred to the Antalya Training and Research Hospital. The patient's CCHF serum result was positive. Ribavirin treatment was not initiated in the patient who was accepted to be in the convalescence period, piperacillin-tazobactam 4 x 4.5 g/day treatment was continued and supportive treatment was given. In the follow-up, as the patient's neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and lymphocytopenia still continuing, she was transferred to hematology clinic for malignancy examination and bone marrow biopsy performed by hematology and B cell ALL was diagnosed. She was accepted to be convalescent in terms of CCHF and chemotherapy was started for ALL treatment by hematology. The patient is still being followed up by the hematology clinic and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell tranplantation is planned for the patient. As a result, CCHF is a disease that can be confused with many differential diagnosis. With this case, it is aimed to draw attention to the diagnostic difficulties of CCHF and ALL and to be the first case in the literature.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/complicações , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Carrapatos/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(6): 781-791, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478654

RESUMO

Ticks are the most important vectors of human pathogens, leading to increased public health burdens worldwide. Tick-borne pathogens include viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan); bacteria, such as the causative agents of Lyme disease, spotted fever rickettsiosis and human anaplasmosis; and malaria-like protozoan parasites causing babesiosis. Tick-borne diseases are emerging due to the geographical expansion of their tick vectors, especially in the northern hemisphere. Two examples of this phenomenon are Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum, which have expanded their ranges in the USA in recent decades and are responsible for the continuous emergence of Lyme disease and human ehrlichiosis, respectively. This phenomenon is also occurring worldwide and is reflected by the increasing number of tick-borne encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever cases in Europe and Asia. In this review, we provide a concise synopsis of the most medically important tick-borne pathogen worldwide, with a particular emphasis on emerging public health threats.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/etiologia , Animais , Humanos , Controle de Insetos , Insetos Vetores , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/virologia , Carrapatos
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e292-e295, jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1116975

RESUMO

La entidad llamada tick-borne lymphadenopathy, también conocida como dermacentor-borne necrosis eritema lymphadenopathy, se incluye dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de enfermedades transmitidas por garrapatas, que han aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años debido a una mayor observación clínica-epidemiológica y mejoría diagnóstica. Es una zoonosis causada por Rickettsia slovaca y transmitida por la picadura de la garrapata Dermacentor marginatus. Los pacientes afectados tienen una escara necrótica rodeada de un halo eritematoso en el cuero cabelludo y adenopatías regionales dolorosas. Se presenta a un varón de siete años que mostró, tras la extracción de una garrapata, una escara necrótica en el cuero cabelludo, con adenopatías y febrícula. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y el cultivo de la lesión confirmaron la presencia de Rickettsia slovaca. El paciente recibió azitromicina oral con buena respuesta. En Atención Primaria, es importante el seguimiento de las picaduras de garrapatas para detectar posibles enfermedades transmitidas por estas.


The entity called tick-borne lymphadenopathy, also known as dermacentor-borne necrosis eritema lymphadenopathy, is included in the differential diagnosis of diseases transmitted by ticks, which have increased considerably in recent years due to greater clinical-epidemiological observation and diagnostic improvement. It is a zoonosis caused by Rickettsia slovaca and transmitted by the bite of the Dermacentor marginatus tick. Affected patients have a necrotic eschar surrounded by an erythematous halo in the scalp, as well as painful regional lymphadenopathy. Linfadenopatía transmitida por garrapata. Un caso pediátrico de rickettsiosis en atención primaria Lymphadenopathy transmitted by tick. A pediatric case of rickettsiosis in primary care We present a seven-year-old male who shows, after the extraction of a tick, a necrotic eschar on the scalp, accompanied by lymphadenopathy and low-grade fever. The study of polymerase chain reaction and culture of the lesion confirm the presence of Rickettsia slovaca. The patient received oral azithromycin with a good response. In Primary Care, it is important to monitor the tick bites, to detect possible diseases transmitted by them.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Picadas de Carrapatos , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , Carrapatos , Zoonoses , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Lesão por Pressão , Linfadenopatia , Necrose
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008342, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497120

RESUMO

Tick-borne rickettsioses are world-spreading infectious zoonoses. Ticks serve as reservoirs and vectors for Rickettsia and play a key role in transmission of rickettsioses. Most of the Chinese rickettsiosis patients are reported from Northeastern China but the distribution of tick and tick-borne Rickettsia species in Northeastern China remain poorly studied. In this study, a total of 1,286 ticks were captured from the seven counties of Harbin, an area in Northeastern China, and the tick-borne Rickettsia species were identified by PCR and sequencing of rrs, gltA, groEL, ompA and 17-kDa antigen-encoding genes. Of the 5 identified tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes persulcatus were the predominant tick species in the livestock and vegetation, respectively. Rickettsia raoultii and "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae" were the two detectable Rickettsia species in the ticks with a 28.8% positive rate but no rickettsiae were found in ticks of Haemaphysalis concinna. R. raoultii detected in 37.6% of the Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and H. longicornis ticks while "Ca. R. tarasevichiae" was only present in 22.8% of the I. persulcatus ticks. In particular, the positive rate of both R. raoultii and "Ca. R. tarasevichiae" in ticks from the livestock (40.7%) was significantly higher than that from the vegetation (19.5%). The results indicate that the tick and tick-borne Rickettsia species are diverse in different regions of Harbin due to geographic difference and the ticks from livestock may play a more important role in transmission of rickettsioses to human.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos/genética , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , China , Humanos , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
9.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1759-1767, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435856

RESUMO

A total of 1,337 serum and plasma specimens (939, 393 and 15 from cattle, sheep and goats, respectively) were collected monthly for one a year from ruminant species slaughtered in three Turkish cities endemic for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Samsun, Sivas and Tokat. The serum samples were tested by commercial indirect ELISA to detect CCHFV antibodies, and positive or equivocal samples were later confirmed by a virus neutralization test (VNT). The seroprevalence in cattle, sheep, and goats was 36.21% (340/939), 6.27% (24/383), and 6.67% (1/15), respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was employed to detect viraemic animals at slaughter time. The percentage of CCHFV-viraemic animals was 0.67% (9/1337). The virus load varied between 4.1 x 101 and 2.4 x 103 RNA equivalent copies/mL in viraemic animals. The plasma samples that were positive for CCHFV genomic RNA were collected between April and May, when Hyalomma ticks are active. This study presents quantitative CCHFV load data in ruminant species at slaughter and interprets the likelihood of transmission for employees working in slaughterhouses in CCHFV-endemic regions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Matadouros , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops/virologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/imunologia , Ruminantes/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carrapatos/imunologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Células Vero
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2047-2057, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382991

RESUMO

Bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia are known as causative agents of vector-borne zoonotic diseases, such as spotted fevers, epidemic typhus and endemic typhus. Different species of ticks, mites and fleas could act as reservoirs and arthropod vectors of different pathogenic Rickettsia species. The aim of this work was to establish active surveillance of Rickettsia spp. in mites, ticks and fleas collected from small mammals (rodents and shrews) in Eastern Slovakia. A total of 964 animal ear biopsies, 871 mites, 667 ticks and 743 fleas were collected from small mammals in the Kosice region, Eastern Slovakia. All specimens were identified using specialized taxonomic keys, and were conserved in ethanol until DNA extraction was performed. After DNA extraction, identification of Rickettsia species was performed by PCR-based methods. The total prevalence of rickettsiae from ear biopsies was 4.6% (95% CI, 3.2-5.9), in tested mites 9.3% (95% CI, 7.4-11.2), 17.2% (95% CI, 14.3-20.1) in I. ricinus ticks and 3.5% (95% CI, 2.2-4.8) in fleas. Sequence analysis of the partial gltA gene and Rickettsia helvetica-, Rickettsia slovaca-, Rickettsia raoultii- species specific real-time PCR tests revealed the presence of R. helvetica, R. slovaca, unidentified Rickettsia and rickettsial endosymbionts. These pathogenic and symbiotic species were confirmed in the following ectoparasite species-Laelaps jettmari, Haemogamasus nidi, Laelaps agilis and Eulaelaps stabularis mites, Ixodes ricinus ticks, Ctenophthalmus solutus, C. assimilis and Megabothris turbidus fleas infesting host-Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus small mammals. These results confirm the circulation of R. helvetica, R. slovaca, unidentified Rickettsia and rickettsial endosymbionts in mites, ticks and fleas collected on small mammals in the Kosice region, Eastern Slovakia.


Assuntos
Ácaros/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/transmissão , Roedores/parasitologia , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ectoparasitoses/microbiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e020219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267390

RESUMO

Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), for which humans and dogs are both susceptible. Dogs are sentinels in serological surveys, however, canine disease is rarely reported. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate natural infection by spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in dogs and ticks collected from domiciles close to forest fragments, featuring domestic-wildlife interface areas. Samples from 115 dogs and 135 ixodids were assessed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting the gltA gene for Rickettsia spp. and the ompA gene for the SFG rickettsial species. One dog (0.87%; 1/115) was positive for R. rickettsii. This dog presented nonspecific laboratory and clinical abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, lymph node enlargement, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy). Rickettsia parkeri was identified in 2.96% (4/135) of the ticks (Amblyomma sculptum, A. aureolatum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). This study confirmed the presence of SFG bacteria in non-endemic and preserved locations, where domestic and wild populations interact. We reinforce the fact that the dog is susceptible to natural R. rickettsii infection. Although this is a rare finding, preventive measures should be taken against BSF in the studied areas. Finally, R. parkeri infection is possibly being demonstrated in A. sculptum for the first time.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e017119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294720

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterize the importance of the Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in the genesis of cattle tick fever (CTF) among dairy calves in the northwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 300 calves were collected, followed by DNA extraction and nested PCR using oligonucleotide primers to amplify fragments of the semi-nested for the msp5 gene (A. marginale), sbp-4 (B. bovis) and rap-1a (B. bigemina) Among the examined calves, the prevalence of A. marginale was 55.6% (n=167/300), B. bovis was 4.0% (n=12/300) and B. bigemina was 15.3% (n=46/300), by PCR techniques. Parasitic forms of A. marginale and B. bigemina were found in 36,3% and 2,6% of the blood smears while B. bovis was not detected. There was a statistical difference between the positivity of infected animals in the age groups 1 (10-70 days) and (>70-300 days) for A. marginale and B. bigemina. A total of 15 calves with the classic symptoms of disease were examined, and the samples obtained were confirmed as a simple infection by A. marginale through semi-nested PCR. These results confirm bovine anaplasmosis as the primary cause of CTF among the calves of dairy cattle within the studied area.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/genética , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 281, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that commonly has a lethal course caused by the tick-borne Huaiyangshan banyang virus [former SFTS virus (SFTSV)]. The viral load in various body fluids in SFTS patients and the best infection control measure for SFTS patients have not been fully established. CASE PRESENTATION: A 79-year-old man was bitten by a tick while working in the bamboo grove in Nagasaki Prefecture in the southwest part of Japan. Due to the occurrence of impaired consciousness, he was referred to Nagasaki University Hospital for treatment. The serum sample tested positive for SFTSV-RNA in the genome amplification assay, and he was diagnosed with SFTS. Furthermore, SFTSV-RNA was detected from the tick that had bitten the patient. He was treated with multimodal therapy, including platelet transfusion, antimicrobials, antifungals, steroids, and continuous hemodiafiltration. His respiration was assisted with mechanical ventilation. On day 5, taking the day on which he was hospitalized as day 0, serum SFTSV-RNA levels reached a peak and then decreased. However, the cerebrospinal fluid collected on day 13 was positive for SFTSV-RNA. In addition, although serum SFTSV-RNA levels decreased below the detectable level on day 16, he was diagnosed with pneumonia with computed tomography. SFTSV-RNA was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on day 21. By day 31, he recovered consciousness completely. The pneumonia improved by day 51, but SFTSV-RNA in the sputum remained positive for approximately 4 months after disease onset. Strict countermeasures against droplet/contact infection were continuously conducted. CONCLUSIONS: Even when SFTSV genome levels become undetectable in the serum of SFTS patients in the convalescent phase, the virus genome remains in body fluids and tissues. It may be possible that body fluids such as respiratory excretions become a source of infection to others; thus, careful infection control management is needed.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/virologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Pneumonia/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Idoso , Animais , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Terapia Combinada , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Escarro/virologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 201, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have demonstrated the presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genomic material in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks feeding primarily on tortoises belonging to the genus Testudo. This raises the question if these ticks and their hosts play a role in the natural transmission dynamics of CCHFV. However, the studies are limited, and assessing the relevance of H. aegyptium in perpetuating the virus in nature, and a potential spillover to humans remains unknown. This study aimed to detect CCHFV in H. aegyptium ticks and their tortoise hosts in the East Thrace region of Turkey, where H. aegyptium is the most common human-biting tick and where a high density of tortoises of the genus Testudo can be found. METHODS: During the study period, 21 blood samples from different tortoises (2 T. hermanni and 19 T. graeca), 106 tick pools (containing 448 males, 152 females, 93 nymphs and 60 larvae) collected from 65 tortoises (5 T. hermanni and 60 T. graeca), 38 adult unfed questing ticks (25 males and 13 females, screened individually) and 14 pools (containing 8 nymphs and 266 larvae) of immature unfed questing ticks collected from the ground were screened for CCHFV genome by nested PCR and partial genomes sequenced. RESULTS: As a result of the screening of these 179 samples, 17 (9.5%) were detected as positive as follows: 2 of 21 blood samples (9.52%), 13 (containing 18 nymphs in 3 pools, and 52 males and 8 females in 10 pools) of 106 tick pools from tortoises (12.26%), and 2 of 38 adult questing ticks (5.26%). No positive result was determined in 14 pools of immature questing ticks. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies have shown that reptiles can participate in the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses, but they may contribute to different aspects of the disease ecology and evolution of tick-borne viral pathogens. Our results indicate the presence of CCHFV in questing and feeding H. aegyptium ticks as well as tortoise hosts. This may indicate that CCHFV circulates in a cryptic transmission cycle in addition to the primary transmission cycle that could play a role in the natural dynamic of the virus and the transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/transmissão , Carrapatos/virologia , Tartarugas/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/virologia , DNA Viral , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Turquia/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
15.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(1): 51-58, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246381

RESUMO

Pulau Tioman is a popular tourist island off the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia, known for its vast areas of intact vegetation. Six tick species have been recorded on the island but little is known about their local ecology or public health importance. To facilitate studies of the tick fauna of Pulau Tioman, a checklist of all species and host associations is presented with the first host records, from Pulau Tioman, of Amblyomma helvolum from the Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator) and Amblyomma varanense from the keeled rat snake (Ptyas carinata). A pictorial key is also presented for all tick species known from the island.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Carrapatos/classificação , Animais , Lagartos/parasitologia , Malásia , Serpentes/parasitologia
16.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(1): 37-50, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246382

RESUMO

Haemaphysalis longicornis is one of the most prevalent tick species across eastern Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, and has been implicated as a vector of several pathogenic agents. This study evaluated the in vitro acaricidal efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil on unfed H. longicornis using the adult and nymph immersion test, and the larval packet test. Six concentrations with three replications each of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg/mL (adults and nymphs) were used, and 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/mL (larvae), with control group (50% ethanol). The adult and nymph mortality rates were 98 and 100% at 50 mg/mL, and 95 and 100% at 60 mg/mL, respectively, whereas the larval mortality rate was 94 and 96% at 40 and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Mortality of adult, nymph and larva increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The LC50 for adult, nymph, and larva, were 29.21 (95% confidence interval 25.90-32.58), 28.18 (23.78-32.25), and 28.06 (25.57-30.90) mg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy revealed a disjointed sensilla base from the sockets, cuticular cracks, blocked aeropyles, and shrinking of the midgut. These results showed that C. citratus essential oil could be a good eco-friendly alternative control strategy against ectoparasites like ticks due to its high acaricidal efficacy.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/química , Cymbopogon/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Carrapatos , Animais , Larva , Ninfa
17.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(1): 1-35, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291551

RESUMO

Ticks are obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites and notorious as vectors of a great diversity of, in many instances, zoonotic pathogens which can cause considerable damage to animal and human health. The most commonly used approach for the control of ticks is the application of synthetic acaricides. However, the negative impacts of synthetic acaricides on the treated animals and the environment, in addition to its documented role in the development of resistance has led to the search for safer and more environmentally friendly alternative methods without compromising efficacy. An emerging promising approach for the control of ticks which has attracted much attention in recent years is the use of botanicals. Indeed, botanicals have been widely reported to show diverse effects and great potential as tick repellent and control. Although several excellent reviews have previously focused on this topic, studies on the exploration and application of botanicals to control ticks have expanded rapidly. Herein, we provide an update on the current understanding and status of botanical acaricides and repellents in tick control using recently published articles between 2017 and 2019. We also discuss the challenges and future directions in the application of botanicals in tick control, with a view of providing important clues for designing new integrated tick control methods.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Preparações de Plantas , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos
18.
Acta Trop ; 206: 105443, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173315

RESUMO

Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii that most commonly infects not only a variety of mammals but also arthropods and in particularly ticks. The aim of this study was to detect C. burnetii infection in camels including ixodid ticks using serological and molecular assays. Between July 2018 to June 2019, blood samples from 184 male and female camels (Camelus dromedarius) were collected from 3 regions of South-East Algeria and serum samples were tested for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The positive sera and a total of 60 ticks were tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection of C. burnetii with primers and probes specific to the transposon-like repetitive region (IS1111 gene). Positive samples were genotyped by amplification and sequencing of partial sequences based on the IS1111 gene. The seroprevalence of antibodies against C. burnetii was 75.5%. Statistical analysis pointed out three potential risk factors associated with Q fever infection: geographic location, age class and season. No positive DNA of camel blood sample was observed. However, five Hyalomma dromedarii, one H. impeltatum and one H. excavatum tick species were detected positive for Coxiella burnetii DNA by qPCR, with an overall prevalence rate of 11.66% (7/60). The revealed Algerian strains by phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the IS1111 nucleotide sequences were clustered with several pathogenic C. burnetii strains isolated from ticks, human, and cattle located in Tunisia, Greece and in some Mediterranean countries, respectively. The study results clearly indicate that camels and their ticks in Algeria may play an important role as a reservoir for C. burnetii and can be considered as a significant source of Q fever transmission to other animal species and humans.


Assuntos
Camelus/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 1173-1176, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140779

RESUMO

Babesia is tick-transmitted protozoan parasites that infect mammalian hosts and have a major impact on farm and pet health-associated costs worldwide. This study aimed to test the prevalence of Babesia spp. infection in a small cohort of dogs at a veterinary hospital and to perform molecular characterization of the Babesia species causing the infection. For the PCR assay, 5 mL of blood was collected by venipuncture of the cephalic or radial veins in 300 dogs of different ages, sex, and breeds, which were presented to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia between March 2015 and April 2016. In addition, a drop of blood was collected from the marginal blood vessels of the ear of dogs included in this study. Ninety-two (30.67%) were positive for Babesia spp., as determined by microscopic observation of the blood smear, revealing the presence of intra-erythrocyte merozoites. For molecular characterization by PCR, 17 samples were chosen from dogs who were tested positive for Babesia spp. by blood smears. Among them, B. vogeli was found to infect all 17 dogs, as determined by 99-100% sequence identity (closest GenBank match KT246307) using primers PIRO A/PIRO B. Our results indicate that the species observed in these dogs was B. vogeli.


Assuntos
Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Primers do DNA , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Carrapatos/parasitologia
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 1: 79-87, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174035

RESUMO

The infection and treatment (ITM) procedure remains the only available method of immunization against Theileria parva infection. One constraint to deployment is the perception that the carrier state induced by ITM could result in enhanced disease problems. More than one million cattle have been ITM vaccinated in pastoralist systems in Tanzania over the last 2 decades. We present the results of a longitudinal study of six groups of cattle in Maasai villages in northern Tanzania exposed to natural tick challenge for between 2 weeks and 14 years post-vaccination. The p104 nested PCR revealed a higher frequency of T. parva carriers among vaccinates (30%) compared with controls (8%) (OR = 4.89, p = .000), with the highest frequency of carriers found in calves vaccinated 6 months previously, although carrier state was also detected in cattle vaccinated >10 years prior to the study. Variable number tandem repeat genotype analysis revealed 6 MS7 alleles with sizes ranging from 150 bp to 500 bp, but only two alleles were detected in cattle vaccinated >4 years earlier, relative to five alleles detected in recently vaccinated cattle and controls. In terms of heterozygosity, diversity was maximal in calves vaccinated within the last 2 weeks (h = 0.776) but lowest in cattle vaccinated 4 years earlier (h = 0.375). The analysis suggested close genetic relatedness of parasites in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups and up to 96% of variation was within rather than between the groups. These results confirm that ITM leads to a long-term T. parva carrier state in cattle and the detection of vaccine component VNTR in co-grazing unvaccinated cattle suggests potential vaccine transmission by ticks. However, vaccination stocks did not totally replace local genotypes, at least in cattle populations. These findings should mitigate concerns that ITM modifies T. parva field populations in a way that enhances disease in the medium term.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Theileria parva/imunologia , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Portador Sadio , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Theileriose/transmissão , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
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