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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 859(Pt 2): 160154, 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375548

RESUMO

In alpine systems, cushion plants act as foundation species by ameliorating local environmental conditions. Empirical studies indicate that contrasting phenotypes of alpine cushion species have different effects on understory plant species, either facilitative or competitive. Furthermore, dependent species within each community type might also exhibit different responses to each cushion phenotype, which can be clustered into several "response groups". Additionally, these species-groups specific responses to alpine cushion species phenotypes could alter community assembly. However, very few studies have assessed responses of dependent communities at species-group levels, in particular for both above- and below-ground communities. Here, we selected a loose and a tight phenotype of the alpine cushion species Thylacospermum caespitosum in two sites of northwest China, and use the relative intensity of interactions index to quantify cushion plant effects on subordinate communities of plants and soil fungi and bacteria. We assessed variations in responses of both above- and below-ground organisms to cushion plant effects at species-group level. Species-group level analyses showed that the effects of the phenotype varied among groups of each of the three community types, and different species-groups were composed by unique taxa. Additionally, we found that loose cushions enhanced stochastic processes in community assembly, for plants and soil fungi but not for soil bacteria. These variations of phenotypic effects on different species-group induced contrasting taxonomic composition between groups, and alter community assembly thereby. Our study highlights the occurrence of contrasting effects of two phenotypes of a foundation cushion plant on understory plants, soil fungi and bacteria community composition, but not necessarily on their richness. We also showed that assessing responses of understory species at the species-group level allows a more realistic and mechanistic understanding of biotic interactions both for above- and below-ground communities.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Plantas , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Solo , Fenótipo , China , Ecossistema
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237527, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810170

RESUMO

Endemic and restricted-range species are considered to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of environmental change, which makes assessing likely climate change effects on geographic distributions of such species important to the development of integrated conservation strategies. Here, we determined distributional patterns for an endemic species of Dianthus (Dianthus polylepis) in the Irano-Turanian region using a maximum-entropy algorithm. In total, 70 occurrence points and 19 climatic variables were used to estimate the potential distributional area under current conditions and two future representative concentration pathway (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5) scenarios under seven general circulation models for 2050. Mean diurnal range, iso-thermality, minimum temperature of coldest quarter, and annual precipitation were major factors that appeared to structure the distribution of the species. Most current potential suitable areas were located in montane regions. Model transfers to future-climate scenarios displayed upward shifts in elevation and northward shifts geographically for the species. Our results can be used to define high-priority areas in the Irano-Turanian region for conservation management plans for this species and can offer a template for analyses of other endangered and threatened species in the region.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Dianthus/fisiologia , Altitude , Caryophyllaceae/classificação , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Demografia , Dianthus/classificação , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Geografia , Irã (Geográfico) , Análise Espacial , Turcomenistão
3.
New Phytol ; 225(2): 754-768, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489634

RESUMO

Understanding the strategies employed by plant species that live in extreme environments offers the possibility to discover stress tolerance mechanisms. We studied the physiological, antioxidant and metabolic responses to three temperature conditions (4, 15, and 23°C) of Colobanthus quitensis (CQ), one of the only two native vascular species in Antarctica. We also employed Dianthus chinensis (DC), to assess the effects of the treatments in a non-Antarctic species from the same family. Using fused LASSO modelling, we associated physiological and biochemical antioxidant responses with primary metabolism. This approach allowed us to highlight the metabolic pathways driving the response specific to CQ. Low temperature imposed dramatic reductions in photosynthesis (up to 88%) but not in respiration (sustaining rates of 3.0-4.2 µmol CO2  m-2  s-1 ) in CQ, and no change in the physiological stress parameters was found. Its notable antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial cytochrome respiratory activity (20 and two times higher than DC, respectively), which ensure ATP production even at low temperature, was significantly associated with sulphur-containing metabolites and polyamines. Our findings potentially open new biotechnological opportunities regarding the role of antioxidant compounds and respiratory mechanisms associated with sulphur metabolism in stress tolerance strategies to low temperature.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Citocromos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Enxofre/metabolismo , Regiões Antárticas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Geografia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194783

RESUMO

Climate change has altered the global distribution of many species. Accordingly, we have assessed here the potential shift in the distribution of Gypsophila bermejoi G. López under distinct scenarios of future climate change, this being a species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. For strict gypsophiles, climatic changes affecting their potential area of distribution could be critical if the new range is not overlapped with suitable soils. Thus, the narrow bioclimatic niche and the endemic nature of this plant could make this species particularly vulnerable to climate change. We used the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method to study the potential distribution of this taxon under four different scenarios of climate change, pin-pointing relevant changes in the potential distribution of this plant and enabling possible future areas of refuge to be assessed. Such scenarios are defined according to four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) [, which represent different trends in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. As a result, we predict notable changes in the potential distribution of G. bermejoi, and the overlap between soil and bioclimatic suitability would be affected. We also used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to model the bioclimatic niche of this species, comparing it with that of its parental taxa. The evolution of bioclimatic suitability was assessed at the current locations of G. bermejoi and as this plant is a strict gypsophile, we generated suitability maps for sites with gypsum soils. Ultimately, this study identifies relevant changes in the potential distribution of G. bermejoi under specific climatic scenarios, observing remarkable differences in the outcomes of the different climate change scenarios. Interestingly, in some scenarios the bioclimatic suitability of G. bermejoi will be enhanced at many locations and even in the worst scenario some possible refuge areas were identified. G. bermejoi behaves more like a hardy survivor than as early victim.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Solo , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
Physiol Plant ; 167(2): 205-216, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467866

RESUMO

Leaf respiration and photosynthesis will respond differently to an increase in temperature during night, which can be more relevant in sensitive ecosystems such as Antarctica. We postulate that the plant species able to colonize the Antarctic Peninsula - Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. and Deschampsia antarctica Desv. - are able to acclimate their foliar respiration and to maintain photosynthesis under nocturnal warming to sustain a positive foliar carbon balance. We conducted a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effect of time of day (day and night) and nocturnal warming on dark respiration. Short (E0 and Q10 ) and long-term acclimation of respiration, leaf carbohydrates, photosynthesis (Asat ) and foliar carbon balance (R/A) were evaluated. The results suggest that the two species have differential thermal acclimation respiration, where D. antarctica showed more thermosensitivity to short-term changes in temperature than C. quitensis. Experimental nocturnal warming affected respiration at daytime differentially between the two species, with a significant increase of R10 and Asat in D. antarctica, while no changes on respiration were observed in C. quitensis. Long thermal treatments of the plants indicated that nocturnal but not diurnal respiration could acclimate in both species, and to a greater extent in C. quitensis. Non-structural carbohydrates were related with respiration in C. quitensis but not in D. antarctica, suggesting that respiration in the former species is likely controlled by total soluble sugars and starch during day and night, respectively. Finally, foliar carbon balance was differentially improved under warming conditions in Antarctic plants by different mechanisms, with C. quitensis deploying respiratory acclimation, while D. antarctica increased its Asat.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Carbono/metabolismo , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Escuridão , Ecossistema , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Temperatura
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(3): 954-962, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430704

RESUMO

Under global warming, the survival of many populations of sedentary organisms in seasonal environments will largely depend on their ability to cope with warming in situ by means of phenotypic plasticity or adaptive evolution. This is particularly true in high-latitude environments, where current growing seasons are short, and expected temperature increases large. In such short-growing season environments, the timing of growth and reproduction is critical to survival. Here, we use the unique setting provided by a natural geothermal soil warming gradient (Hengill geothermal area, Iceland) to study the response of Cerastium fontanum flowering phenology to temperature. We hypothesized that trait expression and phenotypic selection on flowering phenology are related to soil temperature, and tested the hypothesis that temperature-driven differences in selection on phenology have resulted in genetic differentiation using a common garden experiment. In the field, phenology was related to soil temperature, with plants in warmer microsites flowering earlier than plants at colder microsites. In the common garden, plants responded to spring warming in a counter-gradient fashion; plants originating from warmer microsites flowered relatively later than those originating from colder microsites. A likely explanation for this pattern is that plants from colder microsites have been selected to compensate for the shorter growing season by starting development at lower temperatures. However, in our study we did not find evidence of variation in phenotypic selection on phenology in relation to temperature, but selection consistently favoured early flowering. Our results show that soil temperature influences trait expression and suggest the existence of genetically based variation in flowering phenology leading to counter-gradient local adaptation along a gradient of soil temperatures. An important implication of our results is that observed phenotypic responses of phenology to global warming might often be a combination of short-term plastic responses and long-term evolutionary responses, acting in different directions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Solo , Temperatura , Caryophyllaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/fisiologia , Islândia , Reprodução
7.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206043, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403709

RESUMO

Several species of the Gypsophila genus are endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, including gypsophytes of particular ecological, evolutionary and biochemical interest, and taxa that have undergone both sympatric and allopatric genetic differentiation. The niche shift among these taxa has been assessed using ecological niche modelling and ordination techniques, adopting a niche overlap approach to compare the similarity and equivalency of the ecological niches. We used the Maximum Entropy method to study the potential distribution of these taxa in different eras: the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Mid Holocene and the current conditions. We present evidence of niche shift during the speciation of G. bermejoi, with a strong niche overlap between the parental taxa (G. struthium subsp. struthium and G. tomentosa), yet both overlap much more weakly with the hybrid species. This phenomenon may be explained by genetic and epigenetic interactions, and it has been described in other species. We also studied the sister subspecies G. struthium subsp. struthium and G. struthium subsp. hispanica, with mostly allopatric distributions and with the Iberian System mountain range acting as a geographical barrier. The Iberian System and other mountain ranges may have favored differences in the climatic conditions on either side of the mountain range, which is consistent with an incipient process of bioclimatic ecological speciation. These results seem to indicate that niche shift can occur over very different timespans. In the case of G. bermejoi, speciation may have produced significant niche shifting in one or two generations due to its alloploid nature. By contrast, G. struthium subsp. struthium and G. struthium subsp. hispanica seem to have undergone a more gradual process of allopatric genetic differentiation driven by bioclimatic factors. Both these processes are relatively recent and they will have been strongly influenced by the climate change at the end of LGM.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Simpatria/fisiologia , Geografia , Camada de Gelo , Modelos Teóricos , Análise de Componente Principal , Solo , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 225, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum (L.)) is a dicot broadleaf weed that is widespread in winter fields in China, and has evolved serious resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides. RESULTS: We identified a M. aquaticum population exhibiting moderate (6.15-fold) resistance to tribenuron-methyl (TM). Target-site ALS gene sequencing revealed no known resistance mutations in these plants, and the in vitro ALS activity assays showed no differences in enzyme sensitivity between susceptible and resistant populations; however, resistance was reversed by pretreatment with the cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase inhibitor malathion. An RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis was performed to identify candidate genes involved in metabolic resistance, and the unigenes obtained by de novo transcriptome assembly were annotated across seven databases. In total, 34 differentially expressed genes selected by digital gene expression analysis were validated by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. Ten consistently overexpressed contigs, including four for CYP, four for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, and two for peroxidase were further validated by qRT-PCR using additional plants from resistant and susceptible populations. Three CYP genes (with homology to CYP734A1, CYP76C1, and CYP86B1) and one ABC transporter gene (with homology to ABCC10) were highly expressed in all resistant plants. CONCLUSION: The mechanism of TM resistance in M. aquaticum is controlled by NTSR rather than TSR. Four genes, CYP734A1, CYP76C1, CYP86B1, and ABCC10 could play essential role in metabolic resistance to TM and justify further functional studies. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of genes associated with NTSR in M. aquaticum using the Illumina platform. Our data provide resource for M. aquaticum biology, and will facilitate the study of herbicide resistance mechanism at the molecular level in this species as well as in other weeds.


Assuntos
Sulfonatos de Arila/farmacologia , Caryophyllaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Essenciais , Resistência a Herbicidas/fisiologia , Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Malation/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(29): 28998-29005, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109682

RESUMO

As alpine plants, cushion species are particularly susceptible to environment changes. Thus, understanding population structure and community diversity variation of cushion plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their response to predicted climate changes. In this study, Thylacospermum caespitosum populations from three elevations (low, medium, and high) in three climate zones of China (the Kunlun, Qilian, and Tianshan Mountains) were selected to evaluate the effect of elevation on the structure of T. caespitosum populations and species diversity of cushion communities. Results showed that elevation substantially influenced T. caespitosum populations (size structure, density, and death rate), as well as richness (α-diversity) and microhabitat species pool (species pool) of cushion communities. In the low elevations, T. caespitosum populations were in decline due to a lower ratio of small plants and higher mortality compared with populations at medium and high elevations. The α-diversity and species pool in cushion communities were significantly increased with decreased elevation, but the importance value of T. caespitosum decreased accordingly. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between elevation and relative importance value (the importance of one species in the community) of T. caespitosum (r = 0.883; P < 0.01). Elevation was significantly negatively correlated with the mortality rate of T. caespitosum (r = - 0.855; P < 0.01), α-diversity (r = - 0.933; P < 0.001), and species pool (r = - 0.885; P < 0.01). The declining characters of T. caespitosum population structure were obvious in low elevation populations. This decline may directly or indirectly relate to environmental change. Effects of elevation can provide an early indication of range contractions and population declines of cushion species with future climate warming. We call for more mechanistic studies of climate change impacts on cushion populations, particularly in alpine systems near the snow line.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Altitude , Biodiversidade , China , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Plantas
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11049, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038328

RESUMO

Colobanthus quitensis is one of the two vascular plants inhabiting the Antarctic. In natural habitats, it grows in the form of a cushion or mats, commonly observed in high latitudes or alpine vegetation. Although this species has been investigated over many years to study its geographical distribution and physiological adaptations to climate change, very limited genetic information is available. The high-throughput sequencing with a de novo assembly analysis yielded 47,070 contigs with blast-hits. Through the functional classification and enrichment analysis, we identified that photosynthesis and phenylpropanoid pathway genes show differential expression depending on the habitat environment. We found that the known 'plant core environmental stress response (PCESR)' genes were abundantly expressed in Antarctic samples, and confirmed that their expression is mainly induced by low-temperature. In addition, we suggest that differential expression of thermomorphogenesis-related genes may contribute to phenotypic plasticity of the plant, for instance, displaying a cushion-like phenotype to adapt to harsh environments.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regiões Antárticas , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Ecossistema , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180875, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water influences various physiological and ecological processes of plants in different ecosystems, especially in desert ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response of physiological and morphological acclimation of two shrubs Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicunl to variations in irrigation intervals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The irrigation frequency was set as 1-, 2-, 4-, 8- and 12-week intervals respectively from March to October during 2012-2014 to investigate the response of physiological and morphological acclimation of two desert shrubs Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicunl to variations in the irrigation system. The irrigation interval significantly affected the individual-scale carbon acquisition and biomass allocation pattern of both species. Under good water conditions (1- and 2-week intervals), carbon assimilation was significantly higher than other treatments; while, under water shortage conditions (8- and 12-week intervals), there was much defoliation; and under moderate irrigation intervals (4 weeks), the assimilative organs grew gently with almost no defoliation occurring. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Both studied species maintained similar ecophysiologically adaptive strategies, while C. mongolicunl was more sensitive to drought stress because of its shallow root system and preferential belowground allocation of resources. A moderate irrigation interval of 4 weeks was a suitable pattern for both plants since it not only saved water but also met the water demands of the plants.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Amaranthaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Caryophyllaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Clima Desértico , Água/farmacologia , Aclimatação , Amaranthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Amaranthaceae/fisiologia , Biomassa , Caryophyllaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , China , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo , Água/análise
12.
New Phytol ; 213(3): 1533-1542, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079938

RESUMO

Shifts in pollination may drive adaptive diversification of reproductive systems within plant lineages. The monophyletic genus Schiedea is a Hawaiian lineage of 32 extant species, with spectacular diversity in reproductive systems. Biotic pollination is the presumed ancestral condition, but this key element of the life history and its role in shaping reproductive systems has remained undocumented. We observed floral visitors to two species of Schiedea and conducted field experiments to test pollinator effectiveness. We used choice tests to compare attraction of pollinators to species hypothesized to be biotically vs wind-pollinated. Pseudoschrankia brevipalpis (Erebidae), a recently described moth species known only from O'ahu, visited hermaphroditic Schiedea kaalae and S. hookeri and removed nectar from their unique tubular nectary extensions. Pseudoschrankia brevipalpis effectively pollinates S. kaalae; single visits to emasculated flowers resulted in pollen transfer. In choice tests, P. brevipalpis strongly preferred these hermaphroditic species over two subdioecious species capable of wind pollination. A shift from biotic to abiotic pollination is clearly implicated in the diversification of reproductive systems within Schiedea. Abundant pollination by a previously unknown native moth in experimental and restored populations suggests the potential for restoration to re-establish native plant-pollinator interactions critical for production of outcrossed individuals with high fitness.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Alimentar , Pólen/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Autofertilização/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Cryo Letters ; 38(6): 419-427, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734437

RESUMO

  BACKGROUND: Maintenance of in vitro collections of ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Cal.) is cumbersome and costly in an ex-situ genebank. An alternative method for long term preservation which is safe and cost-effective is required. OBJECTIVE: To apply a novel cryopreservation procedure using the cryo-plate system to improve the long-term conservation of ulluco. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially V and D cryo-plate methods were tested, subsequently the D cryo-plate method was selected for ulluco cryopreservation. The D cryo-plate procedures were optimized for post-LN regrowth procedures including cold-hardening, sucrose addition in alginate gel, and duration of LS treatment. Optimized procedures were tested with 11 ulluco lines. RESULTS: Shoot tips were isolated from cold-hardened shoots for 3-4 weeks at 5 degree C were excised to 1.0-1.5 mm long and 0.5 mm wide and precultured for 16h at 25 degree C on MS with 0.3 M sucrose. The shoot tips were attached on the cryo-plates by alginate gel with 0.4M sucrose. The cryo-plates with attached shoot tips were treated with 2.0 M glycerol and 1.0 M sucrose solution for 90 min at 25 degree C and dehydrated on filter paper in a Petri dish by air current flow at 25 degree C for 45 min before direct immersion in LN. This optimized procedure was applied to shoot tips of 11 ulluco lines, resulting regrowth ranging from 73 % to 97 %, with an average of 90 % post-LN regrowth. CONCLUSION: D cryo-plate is a practical and simple procedure for cryo-storage of in vitro grown ulluco shoot tips in an ex situ genebank.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Criopreservação/instrumentação , Criopreservação/métodos , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Alginatos/farmacologia , Caryophyllaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Ácido Glucurônico/farmacologia , Glicerol/farmacologia , Ácidos Hexurônicos/farmacologia , Osmose , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Vitrificação
14.
Photosynth Res ; 131(3): 241-253, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27757688

RESUMO

Plants are known for their high capacity to acclimatise to fluctuating environmental conditions. A wide range of environmental conditions can lead to suboptimal physiological efficiency. However, recent studies have shown that plants can withstand repeated periods of stress. To find out how they do it, we studied photosynthetic adjustments to repeated water stress in Aptenia cordifolia: a facultative, invasive CAM species. Plants were subjected to three cycles of water deficit, and photosynthetic parameters and chloroplast antioxidants were quantified to gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which they cope with repeated stress periods. Significant modification of the photosystems' antenna and reaction centres was observed in plants subjected to previous water stress cycles, and this led to higher PSII efficiency than in plants challenged with drought for the first time. These findings underline the biological significance of stress memory and show how plants can adjust their photosynthetic apparatus to fluctuating environmental conditions and thus optimise photosynthesis and photoprotection under drought conditions.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Secas , Espécies Introduzidas , Fotossíntese , Estresse Fisiológico , Caryophyllaceae/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Tocoferóis/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164844, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776181

RESUMO

Most climate and environmental change models predict significant increases in temperature and precipitation by the end of the 21st Century, for which the current functional output of certain symbioses may also be altered. In this context we address the following questions: 1) How the expected changes in abiotic factors (temperature, and water) differentially affect the ecophysiological performance of the plant Colobanthus quitensis? and 2) Will this environmental change indirectly affect C. quitensis photochemical performance and biomass accumulation by modifying its association with fungal endophytes? Plants of C. quitensis from King George Island in the South Shetland archipelago (62°09' S), and Lagotellerie Island in the Antarctic Peninsula (65°53' S) were put under simulated abiotic conditions in growth chambers following predictive models of global climate change (GCC). The indirect effect of GCC on the interaction between C. quitensis and fungal endophytes was assessed in a field experiment carried out in the Antarctica, in which we eliminated endophytes under contemporary conditions and applied experimental watering to simulate increased precipitation input. We measured four proxies of plant performance. First, we found that warming (+W) significantly increased plant performance, however its effect tended to be less than watering (+W) and combined warming and watering (+T°+W). Second, the presence of fungal endophytes improved plant performance, and its effect was significantly decreased under experimental watering. Our results indicate that both biotic and abiotic factors affect ecophysiological performance, and the directions of these influences will change with climate change. Our findings provide valuable information that will help to predict future population spread and evolution through using ecological niche models under different climatic scenarios.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Biomassa , Caryophyllaceae/química , Caryophyllaceae/microbiologia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura
16.
Ann Bot ; 118(3): 529-39, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27390354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate warming has major impacts on seed germination of several alpine species, hence on their regeneration capacity. Most studies have investigated the effects of warming after seed dispersal, and little is known about the effects a warmer parental environment may have on germination and dormancy of the seed progeny. Nevertheless, temperatures during seed development and maturation could alter the state of dormancy, affecting the timing of emergence and seedling survival. Here, the interplay between pre- and post-dispersal temperatures driving seed dormancy release and germination requirements of alpine plants were investigated. METHODS: Three plant species inhabiting alpine snowbeds were exposed to an artificial warming treatment (i.e. +1·5 K) and to natural conditions in the field. Seeds produced were exposed to six different periods of cold stratification (0, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 20 weeks at 0 °C), followed by four incubation temperatures (5, 10, 15 and 20 °C) for germination testing. KEY RESULTS: A warmer parental environment produced either no or a significant increase in germination, depending on the duration of cold stratification, incubation temperatures and their interaction. In contrast, the speed of germination was less sensitive to changes in the parental environment. Moreover, the effects of warming appeared to be linked to the level of (physiological) seed dormancy, with deeper dormant species showing major changes in response to incubation temperatures and less dormant species in response to cold stratification periods. CONCLUSIONS: Plants developed under warmer climates will produce seeds with changed germination responses to temperature and/or cold stratification, but the extent of these changes across species could be driven by seed dormancy traits. Transgenerational plastic adjustments of seed germination and dormancy shown here may result from increased seed viability, reduced primary and secondary dormancy state, or both, and may play a crucial role in future plant adaptation to climate change.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Asteraceae/fisiologia , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas , Veronica/fisiologia , Clima , Temperatura Baixa , Germinação , Estações do Ano , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Temperatura
17.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 18 Suppl 1: 83-90, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25786499

RESUMO

Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land-use management are the main causes of their dramatic decline. However, besides the changes in land use, climate change may further challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Therefore, we investigated the response pattern of arable weeds to different water potential and temperature regimes during the phase of germination. We expected that endangered arable weeds would be more sensitive to differences in water availability and temperature than common arable weeds. To this end, we set up a climate chamber experiment where we exposed seeds of five familial pairs of common and endangered arable weed species to different temperatures (5/15, 10/20 °C) and water potentials (0.0 to -1.2 MPa). The results revealed a significant relationship between the reaction of arable weed species to water availability and their Red List status. The effects of reduced water availability on total germination, mean germination time and synchrony were significantly stronger in endangered than in common arable weeds. Therefore, global climate change may present a further threat to the survival of endangered arable weed species.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Água/fisiologia , Agricultura , Apiaceae/fisiologia , Asteraceae/fisiologia , Campanulaceae/fisiologia , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Clima , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Europa (Continente) , Papaver/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Chem Ecol ; 41(12): 1095-104, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26538282

RESUMO

The composition of flower scent and the timing of emission are crucial for chemical communication between plants and their pollinators; hence, they are key traits for the characterization of pollination syndromes. In many plants, however, plants are assigned to a syndrome based on inexpensive to measure flower traits, such as color, time of flower opening, and shape. We compared day and night scents from 31 Sileneae species and tested for quantitative and semi-quantitative differences in scent among species classified a priori as diurnal or nocturnal. As most Sileneae species are not only visited by either diurnal or nocturnal animals as predicted by their syndrome, we hypothesized that, even if flower scent were preferentially emitted during the day or at night, most species also would emit some scents during the opposing periods of the day. This phenomenon would contribute to the generalized assemblage of flower visitors usually observed in Sileneae species. We found that diel variations of scent often were not congruent with the syndrome definition, but could partially be explained by taxonomy and sampling times. Most species emitted compounds with attractive potential to insects during both the night and day. Our results highlight the current opinion that syndromes are not watertight compartments evolved to exclude some flower visitors. Thus, important information may be lost when scents are collected either during day- or night-time, depending on the a priori classification of the species as diurnal or nocturnal.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Odorantes/análise , Polinização , Animais , Caryophyllaceae/anatomia & histologia , Quimiotaxia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia
19.
Plant Physiol ; 168(4): 1636-47, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26091819

RESUMO

Protoxylem plays an important role in the hydraulic function of vascular systems of both herbaceous and woody plants, but relatively little is known about the processes underlying the maintenance of protoxylem function in long-lived tissues. In this study, embolism repair was investigated in relation to xylem structure in two cushion plant species, Azorella macquariensis and Colobanthus muscoides, in which vascular water transport depends on protoxylem. Their protoxylem vessels consisted of a primary wall with helical thickenings that effectively formed a pit channel, with the primary wall being the pit channel membrane. Stem protoxylem was organized such that the pit channel membranes connected vessels with paratracheal parenchyma or other protoxylem vessels and were not exposed directly to air spaces. Embolism was experimentally induced in excised vascular tissue and detached shoots by exposing them briefly to air. When water was resupplied, embolized vessels refilled within tens of seconds (excised tissue) to a few minutes (detached shoots) with water sourced from either adjacent parenchyma or water-filled vessels. Refilling occurred in two phases: (1) water refilled xylem pit channels, simplifying bubble shape to a rod with two menisci; and (2) the bubble contracted as the resorption front advanced, dissolving air along the way. Physical properties of the protoxylem vessels (namely pit channel membrane porosity, hydrophilic walls, vessel dimensions, and helical thickenings) promoted rapid refilling of embolized conduits independent of root pressure. These results have implications for the maintenance of vascular function in both herbaceous and woody species, because protoxylem plays a major role in the hydraulic systems of leaves, elongating stems, and roots.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/fisiologia , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Xilema/fisiologia , Apiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Apiaceae/ultraestrutura , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Caryophyllaceae/anatomia & histologia , Caryophyllaceae/ultraestrutura , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Hidrodinâmica , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie , Xilema/anatomia & histologia , Xilema/ultraestrutura
20.
Oecologia ; 179(2): 509-18, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085467

RESUMO

Bumble bee abundance in agricultural landscapes is known to decrease with increasing distance from seminatural grasslands, but whether the pollination of bumble-bee-pollinated wild plants shows a similar pattern is less well known. In addition, the relative effects of landscape composition (landscape heterogeneity) and landscape configuration (distance from seminatural grassland) on wild plant pollination, and the interaction between these landscape effects, have not been studied using landscape-level replication. We performed a field experiment to disentangle these landscape effects on the pollination of a native herb, the sticky catchfly (Lychnis viscaria), while accounting for the proportion of oilseed rape across landscapes and the local abundance of bee forage flowers. We measured pollen limitation (the degree to which seed set is pollen-limited), seed set, and seed set stability using potted plants placed in landscapes that differed in heterogeneity (composition) and distance from seminatural grassland (configuration). Pollen limitation and seed set in individual plants did not respond to landscape composition, landscape configuration, or proportion of oilseed rape. Instead, seed set increased with increasing local bee forage flower cover. However, we found within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to increase with increasing distance from seminatural pasture. Our results suggest that average within-plant levels of pollen limitation and seed set respond less swiftly than the within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to changes in landscape configuration. Although landscape effects on pollination were less important than predicted, we conclude that landscape configuration and local habitat characteristics play larger roles than landscape composition in the pollination of L. viscaria.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Polinização , Agricultura , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Flores/fisiologia , Pólen , Sementes
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