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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0271373, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048836

RESUMO

Globally, 21 percent of young women are married before their 18th birthday. Despite some progress in addressing child marriage, it remains a widespread practice, in particular in South Asia. While household predictors of child marriage have been studied extensively in the literature, the evidence base on macro-economic factors contributing to child marriage and models that predict where child marriage cases are most likely to occur remains limited. In this paper we aim to fill this gap and explore region-level indicators to predict the persistence of child marriage in four countries in South Asia, namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. We apply machine learning techniques to child marriage data and develop a prediction model that relies largely on regional and local inputs such as droughts, floods, population growth and nightlight data to model the incidence of child marriages. We find that our gradient boosting model is able to identify a large proportion of the true child marriage cases and correctly classifies 77% of the true marriage cases, with a higher accuracy in Bangladesh (92% of the cases) and a lower accuracy in Nepal (70% of cases). In addition, all countries contain in their top 10 variables for classification nighttime light growth, a shock index of drought over the previous and the last two years and the regional level of education, suggesting that income shocks, regional economic activity and regional education levels play a significant role in predicting child marriage. Given the accuracy of the model to predict child marriage, our model is a valuable tool to support policy design in countries where household-level data remains limited.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Casamento , Bangladesh , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 376, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to sexual and reproductive health information enables young women to make appropriate decisions. We examined the association between exposure to family panning messages on different mass media and the use of modern contraceptives among young women in Sierra Leone. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the 2019 Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey data of young women aged 15-24 years. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select study participants in the survey. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between exposure to family panning messages on different types mass media channels and utilization of modern contraceptives. All our analyses were done using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: Out of 6055 young women, 1506 (24.9%, 95% CI 24.0-26.2) were utilizing a modern contraceptive method with the prevalence higher among urban women (26.5%) compared to rural women (23.1%). Less than half (45.6%) had been exposed to family planning messages on mass media (radio 28.6%, television 10.6%, mobile phones 4.2% and newspapers or magazines 2.2%). Young women who had exposure to family planning messages on radio (AOR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.50) and mobile phones (AOR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.25-2.69) had higher odds of using modern contraceptives compared to their counterparts without the same exposure. Furthermore, having access to internet (AOR: 1.45, 95% CI 1.19-1.78), working (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.27-1.74), being older (20-24 years) (AOR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.46-2.10), being married (AOR: 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.42), having visited a health facility within the last 12 months (AOR: 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63), having secondary (AOR: 2.83, 95% CI 2.20-3.64) and tertiary levels of education (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI 1.83-6.13), higher parity (having above one child) AOR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.08) and residing in the southern (AOR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.61-2.79), northwestern (AOR: 1.87, 95% CI 1.39-2.52), northern (AOR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.59-2.82) and eastern (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI 1.27-2.22) regions of residence were associated with higher odds of modern contraceptives utilization. CONCLUSION: In Sierra Leon, only one in four young women were using modern contraception and more than half of them had not had any exposure to family planning messages on the different types of mass media channels. Behavior change communicators can prioritize family planning messages using radio, mobile phones and the internet. In order to publicize and encourage young women to adopt healthy behaviours and increase uptake of modern contraceptive.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Criança , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Casamento , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Gravidez , Serra Leoa
3.
Diagn. tratamento ; 27(3): 91-3, jul-set. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380677

RESUMO

A população mundial tem vivido mais e deve manter uma boa saúde durante o processo de envelhecimento. Idosos expressam o desejo de preservar a vida sexual ativa, porém, mesmo com evidências de que o bem-estar sexual desempenha papel importante no sucesso dessa etapa de vida, os elementos facilitadores dessa condição têm sido pouco estudados. A diminuição e a interrupção dessa atividade entre as mulheres estão associadas à presença de disfunção erétil e/ou adoecimento do parceiro, entre outros fatores. Considerando a importância da satisfação sexual de mulheres em processo de envelhecimento, esse texto tem como objetivo discutir os elementos facilitadores dessa satisfação, na população idosa, visto que a manutenção da satisfação sexual é um forte preditor do envelhecimento saudável, assim como a atividade social e a saúde geral. Os estereótipos sociais, os preconceitos de familiares e pessoas com quem convivem, a falta de privacidade e a crença de que a viuvez encerra a vida sexual são algumas das barreiras à expressão do desejo sexual dessas mulheres. A maioria das mulheres mais velhas gostariam de permanecer sexualmente ativas, inclusive aquelas sem parceria. Por isso, os profissionais de saúde precisam estar conscientes da importância de novas referências sobre a sexualidade das mulheres em qualquer fase da vida. A diversidade de possibilidades de função e desempenho sexual ao longo do envelhecimento deve ser discutida para incentivá-las a serem sexualmente ativas e fortalecerem a resposta aos estímulos sexuais.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Casamento , Saúde do Idoso , Viuvez , Saúde Sexual
4.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e7, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a growing concern in Nigeria and globally. Although women are at greater risk of IPV, men are also affected, but this is less reported. AIM:  This study sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of IPV among the respondents and to compare the pattern of IPV among the male and female respondents. SETTING:  The study was conducted in six towns (local government headquarters) across the three senatorial districts in Edo State, Southern Nigeria. METHODS:  The study was a descriptive, cross-sectional, community-based study. A multistage sampling technique was used in selecting 1227 respondents from Edo State, Southern Nigeria. A semistructured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and the Extended Hurt, Insult, Threaten, Scream (E-HITS) tool were used to collect data, which were analysed with Epi Info version 7.1.2.0. RESULTS:  The study found an IPV prevalence of 37.7% among the respondents (confidence interval [CI]: 95%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.169-0.294). The mean age was 38 ± 12 and respondents were mostly female (725, 59.1%), married (770, 62.8%) and unemployed (406, S33.1%), with a tertiary level of education (766, 62.4%). Intimate partner violence was significantly higher among women compared with men (95% CI: 4.474, OR: 3.425-5.846). The pattern of IPV showed a lower OR between sexual and physical IPV (95% CI: 0.276, OR: 0.157-0.485). There was a higher likelihood of IPV among married women (95% CI: 1.737, OR: 1.279-2.358). CONCLUSION:  There is a need to improve the socio-economic status of the Nigerian populace, especially women. Healthy, nonviolent and safe relationships should be promoted in communities by signalling what is socially unacceptable and strengthening sanctions against perpetrators.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e062811, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between baseline union status (ie, including marriage and cohabitation) and mortality, paying attention to gender differentials, through an 11-year follow-up of a large cohort in Thailand. DESIGN: Cohort data from Thai Cohort Study (TCS) were linked official death records over an 11-year follow-up period. SETTING: Community-based adults in Thailand. PARTICIPANTS: 87 151 Thai adults participated in TCS cohort. METHOD: Cox regression models measured longitudinal associations between union status and 11-year mortality. RESULTS: From 2005 (baseline) to 2016, persons who cohabited and lived with a partner, married persons but not living with a partner and separated/divorced/widowed people were more likely to die compared with those married and living together with a partner. Those who did not have good family support had a higher death risk than those having good family support.Single or cohabiting women had higher risks of mortality than women who were married and living together with a partner throughout follow-up, while separated/divorced/widowed men had higher risks of mortality than counterpart males. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the protective effect of marriage and living together on mortality in Thailand, an understudied setting where institutionalisation of cohabitation is low leading to a limited mortality protection. Public policies for moderating mortality should thus be gender nuanced, culturally and institutionally specific. Also, we demonstrate that in settings such as Thailand, where marital status is not always defined in the same way as in western cultures, the need to measure cohabitation in locally relevant terms is important.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Casamento , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Tailândia/epidemiologia
6.
J Clin Nurs ; 31(19-20): 2706-2715, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065148

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To consolidate and synthesise the current available literature regarding the experiences of endometriosis-associated infertility among women and their partners. BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is highly associated with infertility which in turn affects many women and their partners in their prime reproductive age. DESIGN: A qualitative systematic review and meta-synthesis was conducted using the PRISMA checklist. METHODS: Seven electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses) were searched until October 2020. Qualitative studies exploring the experiences of women and/or their partners aged 18 years and above with endometriosis-associated infertility regardless of marital or co-inhabitation status and sexual orientation were included. Studies examining women and/or partners without clinical diagnosis of endometriosis and studies which only focused on the psychosocial experiences of endometriosis were excluded. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist was used to conduct quality appraisal while the Sandelowski and Barroso's two-step approach was used to meta-summarise and meta-synthesise the data from the included studies. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included. Five themes (1) Emotional response to the diagnosis, (2) Influence on family planning, (3) Desperation to gradual acceptance, (4) Revision of expected life trajectories and (5) Altered dynamics within the couple unit were derived. CONCLUSION: Endometriosis causes great psychological distress among women and their partners. Family planning decisions were especially challenging to make for the couples. Unsuccessful attempts at conceiving were extremely distressing but some couples eventually accepted their situation, with some opting for hysterectomy for health reasons. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Current findings highlight the need for psychosocial support, in-depth fertility counselling and couple-based therapies to support the women with endometriosis and their partners.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Infertilidade , Endometriose/complicações , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Infertilidade/etiologia , Masculino , Casamento
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078727

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to widen the scope of the social component of family sustainability. The fundamental goal of this non-experimental, quantitative study was to look at the links between parenting correlates, personality characteristics, marital satisfaction, and well-being in couples, as well as to construct explanatory prediction models for relational and marital satisfaction. The study focused on the effects of personality traits, parental self-efficacy, and attachment to marital and relational satisfaction. The test instruments applied were: the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Marital Adjustment Test, Couple Satisfaction Index, Relationship Satisfaction Scale, Family Distress Index, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (adapted to the role of a parent), Mowen's Personality Scale, and demographic data. A total of 238 Romanians answered the online survey, recruited based on a convenience sampling method. Participants in this research were individuals who were both married and had at least one child. The main findings show that agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, anxious and avoidant attachment, and marital adjustment predict the satisfaction in the relationship, and openness partially mediates the association between marital adjustment and relationship satisfaction. Parental self-efficacy appears to influence the association between relationship satisfaction and marital satisfaction. An increased parental self-efficacy score predicts an increased relationship satisfaction and marital satisfaction. The higher the parental self-efficacy, the higher the satisfaction in the relationship, which leads to an increase in satisfaction in the couple. These results show that marital adjustment and adaptation are related to relational satisfaction, and these relationship are partially mediated by an individual's openness. Despite some limitations, the current study significantly contributes to couples therapies and interventions in terms of physical and mental health, and the study provides insight into the experiences and perspectives of married individuals with children in Romania.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Satisfação Pessoal , Criança , Humanos , Casamento , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Cônjuges , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Stud Fam Plann ; 53(3): 549-565, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045566

RESUMO

Research on the timing of events during the transition to adulthood, such as first union, sex, and birth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), focused predominantly on measures of central tendency, notably median or mean ages. In this report, we adopt a different perspective on this topic by examining disparities in the timing of these events in 46 LMICs spanning four decades. Using Demographic and Health Surveys, we estimate ages at which 25 percent, 50 percent, and 75 percent of women have first union, birth, and sex. We compute interquartile ranges to measure within-country variation and disparities in the timing of sexual initiation and family formation. Variation in the timing of first union, birth, and sex generally increases as the median ages at these events increase. Disparities in the timing of first union and birth grew in West Africa and Latin America, and women who experience these events relatively early increasingly lag behind women who experience them relatively late. Documenting trends in measures of central tendency is insufficient to capture the complexity of ongoing changes because they mask growing disparities in the timing of family formation across many LMICs. These results are important for assessing progress toward the achievement of sustainable development goals related to the reduction of early marriages and pregnancies and highlight a need for more holistic approaches to measure the timing of family formation.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Renda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Pobreza , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 602, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression affects about 3.8% of the world's population. Although marriage may contribute to subjective well-being, some marital variables could increase women's risk for depression. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their correlates among married females attending primary healthcare facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of 371 married women at the primary healthcare centers, Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt. In this study, an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and marital satisfaction using the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMS). Standardized measurements of weight and height were performed. RESULTS: According to the PHQ-9 diagnostic criteria, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the studied married females was 30.2%. The significant predictors of depressive symptoms were advanced husbands' ages, living with an extended family, exposure to spousal verbal violence, high body weight, and low marital satisfaction levels. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of married Egyptian women experienced depressive symptoms. In addition to high body weight, some social and marital factors contributed to the increase in women's vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Egyptian primary healthcare physicians should be trained to identify females with depressive symptoms and refer them to specialists if need be. To combat depression in women, it may be helpful to construct qualified marital counseling centers. This may improve marital satisfaction, decrease the negative consequences of spousal violence, and ensure the value of independence for new families.


Assuntos
Depressão , Casamento , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento/psicologia , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde
10.
Theor Popul Biol ; 147: 1-15, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973448

RESUMO

By providing additional opportunities for coalescence within families, the presence of consanguineous unions in a population reduces coalescence times relative to non-consanguineous populations. First-cousin consanguinity can take one of six forms differing in the configuration of sexes in the pedigree of the male and female cousins who join in a consanguineous union: patrilateral parallel, patrilateral cross, matrilateral parallel, matrilateral cross, bilateral parallel, and bilateral cross. Considering populations with each of the six types of first-cousin consanguinity individually and a population with a mixture of the four unilateral types, we examine coalescent models of consanguinity. We previously computed, for first-cousin consanguinity models, the mean coalescence time for X-chromosomal loci and the limiting distribution of coalescence times for autosomal loci. Here, we use the separation-of-time-scales approach to obtain the limiting distribution of coalescence times for X-chromosomal loci. This limiting distribution has an instantaneous coalescence probability that depends on the probability that a union is consanguineous; lineages that do not coalesce instantaneously coalesce according to an exponential distribution. We study the effects on the coalescence time distribution of the type of first-cousin consanguinity, showing that patrilateral-parallel and patrilateral-cross consanguinity have no effect on X-chromosomal coalescence time distributions and that matrilateral-parallel consanguinity decreases coalescence times to a greater extent than does matrilateral-cross consanguinity.


Assuntos
Família , Casamento , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
11.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271288, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921280

RESUMO

This paper draws on individual-level data from the National Study of Family Growth (NSFG) to identify likely underreporters of abortion and miscarriage and examine their characteristics. The NSFG asks about abortion and miscarriage twice, once in the computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) part of the questionnaire and the other in the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) part. We used two different methods to identify likely underreporters of abortion and miscarriage: direct comparison of answers obtained from CAPI and ACASI and latent class models. The two methods produce very similar results. Although miscarriages are just as prone to underreporting as abortions, characteristics of women underreporting abortion differ somewhat from those misreporting miscarriages. Underreporters of abortions tended to be older, poorer, less likely to be Hispanic or Black, and more likely to have no religion. They also reported more traditional attitudes toward sexual behavior. By contrast, underreporters of miscarriage also tended to be older, poorer, and more likely to be Hispanic or Black, but were also more likely to have children in the household, had fewer pregnancies, and held less traditional attitudes toward marriage.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual
12.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2167726, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36034630

RESUMO

The body is not only a physical body but also a communicative body which constructs meaning through communication, and the human body health exerts a considerable influence on self-identity and society. The most fundamental power contained in the communicative body of human constitutes our concept and existing culture. Through in-depth interviews, this paper attempts to analyze the daily microphysical practice of Hui'an women of Xuehua Village in Southeastern China and analyze the meaning of symbol which generates from the body of Hui'an women coming and returning between the husbands' and the natal family. Because of the marriage customs of "extended natal residence marriage," how the interaction of the human body health continues this special marriage custom and preserves the face of women in this community is shown.


Assuntos
Corpo Humano , Casamento , China , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Cônjuges
13.
Can Rev Sociol ; 59(S1): 48-73, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971902

RESUMO

Multiple studies examine how couples organize their economic resources, but most focus on wages, with little attention to assets. This paper helps to fill this research gap in Québec (Canada) by asking what proportion of married and cohabiting different-sex couples of working age jointly own their primary residence, instead of remaining in more independent arrangements regarding this asset-either through individual ownership of the home by the man or the woman or by not owning one at all. Also, drawing on transaction cost and institutional approaches to economic organization, we explore variation on several relationship characteristics. Individual ownership is uncommon, especially by the woman, but it is more prevalent among couples with little time together and who do not have children. Individual ownership is also more common among income-unequal couples than equal ones, because, we argue, it allows primary earners to cover housing costs without transferring wealth. Those results advance knowledge on both within-household wealth inequality and conjugal redistributive practices.


De nombreuses études examinent la façon dont les couples organisent leurs ressources économiques, mais la plupart d'entre elles se concentrent sur les salaires, et accordent peu d'attention aux actifs. Cet article comble cette lacune dans le contexte du Québec (Canada), en abordant la question suivante : dans quelle proportion les couples mariés et en union de fait de sexes différents et en âge de travailler sont-ils conjointement propriétaires de leur résidence principale? Et dans quelle proportion optent-ils plutôt pour un arrangement offrant davantage d'indépendance, par exemple la propriété individuelle de la maison par l'un des partenaires ou encore la location de la résidence plutôt que sa propriété? De plus, en nous appuyant sur les théories transactionnelles et institutionnelles de l'organisation économique conjugale, nous explorons la variation des arrangements en fonction de plusieurs caractéristiques des couples. La propriété individuelle par l'un des conjoints est peu commune, surtout par la femme, mais elle est plus répandue chez les couples en début de relation et chez ceux qui n'ont pas d'enfants. La propriété individuelle est également plus commune chez les couples à revenus inégaux, car cet arrangement permet à la personne gagnant leplus haut revenu de couvrir les coûts d'habitation sans transférer de richesse à l'autre partenaire. Ces résultats font progresser les connaissances sur les inégalités de richesse au sein des ménages et sur les pratiques de redistribution conjugale.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Renda , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cônjuges
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272908, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Marriage is one of the most important phenomena in human life. The survival of the marriage and the impact of various competing factors on the survival is of high importance. This study aimed at utilizing competing risks survival analysis to investigate the marriage survival of new couples in Tabriz. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, a number of 386 individuals who were married and divorced from 1991 to 2017, were selected by random sampling. The registered information was attained from the general registry office of Tabriz. Data analysis was carried out using the Lunn-McNeil procedure and the results were presented using an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR). RESULTS: The average age of marriage was about 23.9 (SD 6.6) years. The results of multivariate Lunn-McNeil models indicated that for the competing cause of having a relationship with another person (AHRs range: 1.12 to 2.03), the traditional mode of being familiar (AHRs range: 1.55 to 3.39), family weak role in choosing a wife/spouse (AHRs range: 0.25 to 3.25) and the role of moral-religious commitment (AHRs range: 0.37 to 0.47), along with other causes severed the risk of marriage survival reduction. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study in assessing competing risks, we conclude that the decline in marriage survival is a multifactorial phenomenon. Examining the survival of marriage in order to better understand all the dimensions and factors affecting this phenomenon and providing information to counselors and officials can play an important role in increasing marriage survival.


Assuntos
Casamento , Cônjuges , Adulto , Divórcio , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br Dent J ; 233(3): 169-170, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962071
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011751

RESUMO

The incidence of short marital duration due to the demise of a husband that often exposes young widows to in-laws' exploitation of the asset of the deceased spouses, without regard for negative health consequences and potential vulnerability to poverty has not been exhaustively investigated, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where 16% of adult women are widows. The study examined the coping mechanisms among the young widow (aged ≤ 40) who have experienced short conjugal relationships (≤5 years) and burdensome from in-laws. The research design followed a qualitative approach with the aid of semi-structured in-depth interviews among 13 young widows selected through snowballing and informant-led approaches in the purposively selected communities. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and a thematic approach. The findings, among others, shows the median age of young widow as 29 years. All participants, except one, have faced exploitation from their in-laws over their husbands' assets. All the participants desired to re-marry in order to: have a father figure for their children, have their own children or have more children. There is an absence of government support, but a few have received support from religious organisations. The author proposed attitudinal-change campaigns targeting the in-laws through accessible media and legislature that could challenge the exploitation of widows and unhealthy widowhood rites.


Assuntos
Viuvez , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Pobreza
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 342, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Power inequality within the household and sexual relationships is linked to poor reproductive health. Malawi Government through National Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights policy is committed to women empowerment as well fertility reduction. However, there is limited evidence in Malawi regarding whether women's autonomy in the household is an independent determinant of fertility. With this background, the aim of this study is to investigate whether women's autonomy in the household is a determinant of fertility in a poor socioeconomic and cultural setting. METHODS: This study used Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, 2015-2016. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to investigate if women's autonomy in the household in Malawi determines fertility. The outcome measure, children ever born, was used as a measure of fertility. Women's autonomy was measured with two dimensions, such as women's household related decision makings and women's sexual autonomy. The individual recode and household recode were merged for the analysis. The final study sample was 15,952 women who were cohabiting or married at the time of the survey. RESULTS: The level of autonomy among women in the household related decisions and sexual autonomy was 49.1% and 64.0% respectively. Controlling for covariates, the study found no significant association between women's autonomy dimensions in the household and number of children ever born. On the other hand, living in urban area (IRR = 0.91, CI 0.88-0.93); having less than tertiary education thus, no education (IRR = 1.83, CI 1.67-1.99) or primary education (IRR = 1.55, CI 1.42-1.69) or secondary education (IRR = 1.23, CI 1.13-1.33); poor households (IRR = 1.05, CI 1.01-1.09), starting cohabiting at the age of 19 years or less (AIRR = 1.15, CI 1.13-1.18) and not using modern contraceptive methods (AIRR = 1.17, CI 1.15-1.19) were significantly associated with fertility. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Though women's autonomy does not have independent effect on fertility, it may be interacting with other sociocultural norms prevailing in the society. The study recommends that the Government of Malawi should come up with economic hardship emancipation policy for poor households. The government should also come up with a girl-child secondary school completion policy. Furthermore, the government should accelerate the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of National Gender Policy to ensure the women empowerment/autonomy is having positive effect at all level including the household.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Fertilidade , Adulto , Anticoncepção , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Casamento , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Afghanistan is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of spousal violence (56%) and a low prevalence of contraceptive use (23%), yet there is no study assessing how spousal violence is related to contraceptive use, and what methods are most used by women. Therefore, this study examined the association between the number of types of spousal violence and contraceptive use. METHOD: Using data from 18,985 Afghan married women, aged 15 to 49, who responded to the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey, the current contraceptive method was grouped into five categories: male-involved methods, pills, injectables, long-acting reversible contraception, female sterilization, and Lactation Amenorrhea Method. The number of types of spousal violence in the past 12 months was categorized as none, one type, or two or more types, based on women's experiences with verbal, physical, and sexual violence. For analysis, binary and multinomial logistic regression were used. RESULTS: After adjusting for the covariates, the experience of any spousal violence was associated with contraception use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.64-2.27, p = 0.0001). Among those using contraception, experiencing two or three types of spousal violence was associated with using pills (adjusted risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.63-2.77, p = 0.0001), injections (aRRR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26-2.41, p = 0.001), and LAM (aRRR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.05-5.20, p = 0.0001), compared to male-involved methods. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study may inform policymakers and program implementers in designing interventions to address the pervasive problem of violence against women, and make pills and injectables more accessible to Afghan women, since these methods are under women's control and more often used in Afghanistan.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Casamento , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Violência
19.
Fam Process ; 61(3): 966-969, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000213

RESUMO

The focus of this special section is impact studies that were conducted as part of the Administration for Children and Families' Healthy Marriage and Responsible Fatherhood initiative. This initiative has led to more than 2 million people receiving relationship education and fatherhood programs across the United States over the last two decades. Community organizations develop these programs, select their curricula and content, and run these programs in their local communities. Many programs funded in the 2015-2020 cohort of grantees included randomized controlled trials of program effectiveness; some of these studies are presented in this issue, with the goal of marrying the field of program evaluation and family science.


Assuntos
Casamento , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos
20.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 5760662, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35966242

RESUMO

Introduction: The primary effect of the fertility process is the birth of the first child. The ages at which women establish marital union and give their first birth depend on and result in varying demographic features. This research demonstrates how to examine the effect of numerous factors on married women's delay to first birth in Ethiopia using Bayesian parametric models with gamma shared frailty distribution. Methods: This study analyzed data from the 2016 EDHS on factors related to the time of married women to first birth. A sample of 8810 married women from all parts of Ethiopia participated in the study. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were used to compare several parametric models with gamma shared frailty distributions to find the best model (BIC). Finally, when the prior data was taken into account, the chosen model was proven to be accurate (Bayesian approach). Results: The median survival time for the first birth after marriage is 24 years (95% CI; 23.4, 25.3). The result shows that the place of residence, the access to media, the level of education of the mother, the education level of the husband, the use of the head of the contraceptives, and the sex of the household are statistically associated with the time to first birth of married women. The Weibull-gamma shared frailty model under the Bayesian approach was found to be the best model that fit the time to first birth data in this study. The result also showed that there is heterogeneity between regions of married women. Conclusion: To slow the increase in the Ethiopian population, families must be taught how to use contraception, and rural populations must be educated on the necessity of increasing the length of the first birth gap rather than encouraging early marriage. In general, attempts to reduce fertility by raising the age of the first marriage must consider the social and cultural settings in which marriage takes place. On the other hand, the campaign against early marriage should focus on the sociocultural, physiological, and psychological effects, as well as the reduction of reproduction.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Casamento , Parto , Teorema de Bayes , Ordem de Nascimento , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento/psicologia
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