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1.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 55, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849454

RESUMO

Why females engage in social polygyny remains an unresolved question in species where the resources provided by males maximize female fitness. In these systems, the ability of males to access several females, as well as the willingness of females to mate with an already mated male, and the benefits of this choice, may be constrained by the socio-ecological factors experienced at the local scale. Here, we used a 19-year dataset from an individual-monitored population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) to establish local networks of breeding pairs. Then, we examined whether the probability of becoming socially polygynous and of mating with an already mated male (thus becoming a secondary female) is influenced by morphological and sexual traits as proxies of individual quality relative to the neighbours. We also evaluated whether social polygyny is adaptive for females by examining the effect of females' mating status (polygamously-mated vs monogamously-mated) on direct (number of recruits in a given season) and indirect (lifetime number of fledglings produced by these recruits) fitness benefits. The phenotypic quality of individuals, by influencing their breeding asynchrony relative to their neighbours, mediated the probability of being involved in a polygynous event. Individuals in middle-age (2-3 years), with large wings and, in the case of males, with conspicuous sexual traits, started to breed earlier than their neighbours. By breeding locally early, males increased their chances of becoming polygynous, while females reduced their chances of mating with an already mated male. Our results suggest that secondary females may compensate the fitness costs, if any, of sharing a mate, since their number of descendants did not differ from monogamous females. We emphasize the need of accounting for local breeding settings (ecological, social, spatial, and temporal) and the phenotypic composition of neighbours to understand individual mating decisions.


Assuntos
Casamento , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Probabilidade , Reprodução
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807845

RESUMO

The aims of this online survey study were to examine the associations of demographic characteristics (gender, age, and sexual orientation), mental health status, and point in time of the survey (i.e., the beginning of the social debates on legalizing same-sex marriage vs. the end of the social debates) with people's perception of the attitudes of the general population in Taiwan toward homosexuality. A two-wave internet survey was conducted using Facebook to gather information regarding people's perception of the population's attitudes toward homosexuality among 4562 participants. The five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale was used for assessing mental health status. The results indicated that participants perceived the population as having a lower acceptance at the end of the social debates on legalizing same-sex marriage than at the beginning of the social debates; gender moderated the decline in perceived acceptance. The results also indicated that poor mental health and heterosexual orientation were significantly associated with a lower perception of the population's homosexuality acceptance in both waves of the survey. The factors related to perceived homosexuality acceptance need to be considered in developing programs to increase the population's homosexuality acceptance.


Assuntos
Casamento , Saúde Mental , Atitude , Feminino , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Taiwan
3.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 52, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM/C) in traditional African societies is grounded in traditions of patriarchy that subjugate women. It is widely assumed that approaches to eradicating the practice must therefore focus on women's empowerment and changing gender roles. METHODS: This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of the FGM/C beliefs and opinions of men and women in Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana. Data are analyzed from 22 focus group panels of young women, young men, reproductive age women, and male social leaders. RESULTS: The social systemic influences on FGM/C decision-making are complex. Men represent exogenous sources of social influence on FGM/C decisions through their gender roles in the patriarchal system. As such, their FGM/C decision influence is more prominent for uncircumcised brides at the time of marriage than for FGM/C decisions concerning unmarried adolescents. Women in extended family compounds are relatively prominent as immediate sources of influence on FGM/C decision-making for both brides and adolescents. Circumcised women are the main source of social support for the practice, which they exercise through peer pressure in concert with co-wives. Junior wives entering a polygynous marriage or a large extended family are particularly vulnerable to this pressure. Men are less influential and more open to suggestions of eliminating the practice of FGM/C than women. CONCLUSION: Findings attest to the need for social research on ways to involve men in the promotion of FGM/C abandonment, building on their apparent openness to social change. Investigation is also needed on ways to marshal women's social networks for offsetting their extended family familial roles in sustaining FGM/C practices.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina , Tomada de Decisões , Genitália Feminina/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Circuncisão Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 102, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) with anxiety, depression, corona disease anxiety, sexual function (SF), and marital satisfaction (MS) in married women during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study involving n = 296 married women. We used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and coronary disease anxiety questionnaire, as determinants of QoL for data collection. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and path analysis. RESULTS: There was a relationship between the components of QoL with SF, anxiety, depression, MS, general health, and contamination obsessions. The results of path analysis also showed that that SF, MS, anxiety, general health, and corona-related anxiety have a direct effect on women's QoL. General health has a more direct effect on QoL. CONCLUSION: The results of this study could help in a plan to improve the QoL of women during the coronavirus epidemic.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Casamento , Qualidade de Vida , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Saúde Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(1): 40-52, 2021.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686014

RESUMO

The alcohol dependence of a family member redraws familiar relationships and creates a dysfunctional network. Therefore, the relationship between the individual and the family, the interactions and processes that occur must be examined during the therapy in order to understand the behavior of an alcoholic. The observations obtained in stu - dying the role of family members in the development and maintenance of pathological alcohol use disorders provide the scientific basis for this. Living in a family is realized by fulfilling role expectations related to the role based on the family status. In the case of discrepancy between the role expectation associated with the status and the individual's ability to fulfill the role, a dysfunctional situation is seen. In the present work, the relationships in the families of two alcohol de - pendent patients were analyzed. In both families, it was possible to identify the conspirator/looking away family member, who was either the spouse or the mother, sometimes both. The dysfunctional fathers were also recognized and there was a self-sacrificing family member in both families, who was the daughter in both cases. As the relatives themselves con - tribute to the survival of both alcohol dependence and the alcoholic game, efforts should be made to involve the family in therapy. Since the most important relationship of a married man is optimally his wife, the interaction between them is decisive for the survival of addiction. This led to the birth of the "wife of alcoholic" technical term. But this approach probably needs to change, as the male/female ratio for drinking began to decline as early as the 1980s. Thus, presumably the "partner of alcoholic" concept better describes today's reality. The involvement of family members in the therapy is necessary for the recovery of addict patient. However, there is a serious difficulty, the alienation of family members from the addict. In addition, the available services are often insufficient for recovery, as already pointed out by Hungarian authors. And further, statistics indicate a decrease in the patient retention capacity of the care system. Therefore, it would be important to rethink the role and possibilities of the addiction care network, and modify its financing.


Assuntos
Alcoólicos , Alcoolismo , Saúde da Família , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento
6.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 48, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contraceptive use among adolescent girls is low in many sub-Saharan African countries including Kenya. Attitude and perspectives about contraception of community members including adolescent girls themselves may be likely to limit contraceptive use among adolescent girls. This study was conducted to explore and compare adults'/parents' and adolescent girls' narratives and perspectives about contraception in Narok and Homa Bay counties, Kenya. METHODS: Qualitative data from 45 in-depth-interviews conducted with purposively selected consenting adolescent girls aged 15-19 was used. Additionally, twelve focus group discussions were held with 86 consenting adults conveniently recruited from the two counties. All discussions were conducted in the local language and audio recorded following consent of the study participants. Female moderators were engaged throughout the study making it appropriate for the study to solicit feedback from the targeted respondents. RESULTS: Findings highlighted adults' perceptions on adolescents' sexuality and the presence of stringent conceptions about the side-effects of contraception in the study communities. Some participants underscored the need for open contraceptive talk between parents and their adolescent girls. Four main themes emerged from the discussions; (i) Perceptions about adolescents' sexuality and risk prevention, (ii) Conceptions about contraception among nulligravida adolescents: fear of infertility, malformation and sexual libertinism, (iii) Post-pregnancy contraceptive considerations and (iv) Thinking differently: divergent views regarding contraceptives and parent/adolescent discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the need for increased attention towards adolescents and their caregivers particularly in demystifying contraceptive misconceptions. Programmatic responses and models which include the provision of comprehensive sexuality education and increased access to and utilization of SRH information, products and services through a well-informed approach need to be well executed. Programmatic efforts like SRH community education should further seek to enhance the capacity of parents to discuss sexuality with their adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Casamento , Relações Pais-Filho , Percepção , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546134

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that marriage is related with people's health. Based on data from the Volume A of China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS_A) in 2017 (N = 127,829), this study attempted to document the degree of educational assortative mating in Chinese internal migrants, as well as how it evolves over time, and further analyze the relationship between educational assortative mating and people's self-rated health (SRH). The results indicated that the proportion of educational homogamy kept increasing and gradient marriage kept decreasing over time both in male and female. "Educational homogamy" (58.8%) and "male more educated" (27.2%) were still the main marital education matching patterns in first-married couples of Chinese internal migrants. Educational homogamy was beneficial to promote people's SRH and educational hypogamy would impair their SRH, and the negative effects of educational hypogamy on SRH was stronger in female than in male. The gender equality of educational opportunities increases the degree of educational assortative mating in Chinese internal migrants. Educational attainment is playing a more and more important role in "love" marriages. "Likes attract likes" is not just about love, but also an important part of health.


Assuntos
Casamento , Reprodução , China , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cônjuges
10.
Med Anthropol ; 40(2): 116-128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508969

RESUMO

Temporalities of care shape the lives of families raising children with Down syndrome in Jordan. As they age, parents grapple with the future's uncertainties and often circle back to questions of marriage. Marriage is a key symbol of adulthood, shaping futures and actualities of care by distributing gendered and generational labor among kin. Over time, children with Down syndrome depart from the normative trajectories embedded in these kinship- and marriage-based systems of care, leaving them stuck. While parents worry about care futures, they and their grown children contend with constricting opportunities in the present.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Síndrome de Down , Família , Casamento/etnologia , Adulto , Antropologia Médica , Criança , Síndrome de Down/etnologia , Síndrome de Down/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/etnologia , Masculino
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435308

RESUMO

Prenatal depression is an important factor in predicting postpartum depression. Most studies have assessed factors affecting prenatal depression by focusing on pregnant wives. However, the emotional and psychological aspects of both expectant parents need to be considered. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of spouse-related stress in expectant couples on prenatal depression and investigate the mediating effects of marital intimacy on this relationship. A total of 120 expectant couples from two cities in Korea at more than 15 weeks of completed pregnancy participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, we assessed the general characteristics of the participants, spouse-related stress, prenatal depression, and marital intimacy. The results revealed that four actor effects and one partner effect were significant. Marital intimacy and prenatal depression among expectant parents were affected by spouse-related stress. Moreover, spouse-related stress in the husbands completely mediated marital intimacy in pregnant wives, demonstrating partner effects on prenatal depression in pregnant wives. Therefore, it was observed that paternal factors affect prenatal depression in pregnant wives. This warrants the inclusion of husbands in marital interventions and strategies to improve marital intimacy in pregnant wives.


Assuntos
Depressão , Cônjuges , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Satisfação Pessoal , Gravidez , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494231

RESUMO

The present study extends prior research on the link between neighborhood disorder and health by testing an integrated model that combines various social and biological factors. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 325 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). As expected, inflammatory burden was the biophysiological mechanism that mediated much of the association between neighborhood physical disorder and perceived physical health. This finding provided additional support for the view that global self-ratings of health are powerful predictors of morbidity because, in large measure, they are indicators of chronic, systemic inflammation. Further, both genetic variation and marital status served to moderate the association between neighborhood disorder and health. Finally, being married largely eliminated the probability that neighborhood disorder would combine with genetic vulnerability to increase inflammatory burden and perceived illness. Overall, the findings demonstrate the value of constructing integrated models that specify various biophysiological mechanisms that link social conditions to physical health.


Assuntos
Casamento , Características de Residência , Afro-Americanos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Condições Sociais
15.
J Homosex ; 68(1): 88-111, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241421

RESUMO

In June 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court made a landmark decision to legalize marriage for same-sex couples amid nationwide debate and media coverage of this controversial issue. Using a content analysis of newspaper articles and television transcripts (N = 286) from top news outlets, this study examines the frames used in news coverage of same-sex marriage before and after the decision and tone of coverage by frame and medium. Findings suggest that frames and tone differed by medium, with television generally presenting more negative coverage and print more positive coverage. Results also suggest that some coverage frames were more negative than others and that the dominant frames of coverage differed from pre- to post-decision. This study helps improve our understanding of how the public was informed before and after a historic decision and illuminates the differences between frame and tone of coverage by medium, and by medium over time.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Casamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Decisões da Suprema Corte , Direitos Civis , Características da Família , Humanos , Política , Religião e Sexo , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 103-116, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In many South Asian communities, the majority of women are married during adolescence and reproduce before 20 years. Early reproduction may adversely affect maternal nutrition and linear growth, however whether early marriage has similar effects is unknown. Shorter women might also be preferentially chosen for earlier marriage. We hypothesized that early marriage and early pregnancy may each be associated with women's shorter height, independent of any selection effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data on 7,146 women aged 20-30 years from rural lowland Nepal. Linear regression models tested associations of early marriage and early reproduction with height, adjusting for women's education and husbands' characteristics (education and wealth) that might index preferential selection of short young women for marriage. RESULTS: Median ages at marriage and first pregnancy were 15 and 18 years, respectively, with 20% pregnant <16 years. Both early marriage and early pregnancy were independently associated with shorter stature, accounting for a decrement of 1.4 cm, which decreased to 1 cm after adjusting for women's education. Effects of early marriage and reproduction persisted after adjusting for the tendency of poorer and less educated men to marry young and short women, indicating a role for social selection. DISCUSSION: The decrements in height associated with early marriage and reproduction are indicative of broader adverse effects on maternal metabolism during a "critical period" of growth and maturation in the life-course of women. Although the magnitudes of effect are relatively small, they affect large numbers of women in this population.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378386

RESUMO

Within the span of almost ten years, phone dating apps have transformed the dating scene by normalizing and, according to some voices, gamifying the digital quest for a partner. Despite amplified discussion on how swipe-based apps damage the fabric of intimate ties, scientific accounts on whether they have led to different relationship patterns are missing. Using 2018 survey data from Switzerland, this study provides a rich overview of couples who met through dating apps by addressing three main themes: 1) family formation intentions, 2) relationship satisfaction and individual well-being, and 3) assortative mating. The data indicate that in Switzerland, dating apps have recently taken over as main online dating context. Results further show that couples formed through mobile dating have stronger cohabiting intentions than those formed in non-digital settings. Women who found their partner through a dating app also have stronger fertility desires and intentions than those who found their partner offline. Generally, there are no differences between couples initiated through dating apps and those initiated elsewhere regarding relationship and life satisfaction. Though more data are needed to capture the full range of users' romantic and sexual experiences, current results mitigate some of the concerns regarding the short-term orientation or the poor quality of relationships formed through mobile dating. Findings finally suggest that dating apps play an important role in altering couple composition by allowing for more educationally diverse and geographically distant couples.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, divorce is a common phenomenon in couples' marital life. As a result, many divorced couples and their children face several social, economic, and health problems after dissolution. There is little information on the magnitude and determinants of divorce in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of divorce from the first union and its predictors among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used the 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey data for this analysis. The survey was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted from January 18 to June 27, 2016. The survey employed a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 11,646 ever-married women were included in the analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistics regression was done to identify the determinants of divorce from the first marriage. A p-value < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: About 25% (95%CI: 23.4% - 26.6%) ever-married women were divorced from their first marital relationship. Women who were married at age < 15 years (AOR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.68), urban women (AOR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.22-2.35), women who did not attend formal education (AOR = 4.36; 95%CI: 3.14-6.05), women who were employed (AOR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.31-1.73), and being childless (AOR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.69) had higher odds of experiencing a divorce. Similarly, women who experienced partner violence, women with no house ownership, and women in the Amhara region had higher odds of divorce from their first marital union. Conversely, women in Oromia, SNNPR, the metropolis, and the pastoral regions had lower odds of divorce from their first marital union. CONCLUSION: Divorce from the first marriage is high in Ethiopia. Preventing early marriage and partner violence and promoting girls' education would reduce the divorce rate in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Etiópia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370321

RESUMO

This paper examines recent changes in the life trajectories of Indian women. We use data from four major national population surveys that span the years 1998-2016. We look at several cohorts of women across the states and regions. We compare decisions related to education, marriage, childbearing and participation in the labor force. Though there is considerable diversity across states and regions, as well as religious groups, we find some consistent patterns that emerge everywhere. First, educational attainment and the age at marriage have been steadily increasing. Women who do not complete secondary school are more likely to marry early. Second, caste and religion (rather than education) play a significant role in decisions after marriage, such as the timing of births, the use of contraception and labor force participation. Third, women from disadvantaged communities continue to have very different life trajectories than other social groups. They are more likely to use contraception and participate in the labor force. Lower levels of schooling also appear to exacerbate the disadvantages of social identity. The pace of these changes varies sharply across states as well as regions of the country.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Religião , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
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