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1.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 58, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Karst caves serve as natural laboratories, providing organisms with extreme and constant conditions that promote isolation, resulting in a genetic relationship and living environment that is significantly different from those outside the cave. However, research on cave creatures, especially Opiliones, remains scarce, with most studies focused on water, soil, and cave sediments. RESULTS: The structure of symbiotic bacteria in different caves were compared, revealing significant differences. Based on the alpha and beta diversity, symbiotic bacteria abundance and diversity in the cave were similar, but the structure of symbiotic bacteria differed inside and outside the cave. Microorganisms in the cave play an important role in material cycling and energy flow, particularly in the nitrogen cycle. Although microbial diversity varies inside and outside the cave, Opiliones in Beijing caves and Hainan Island exhibited a strong similarity, indicating that the two environments share commonalities. CONCLUSIONS: The karst cave environment possesses high microbial diversity and there are noticeable differences among different caves. Different habitats lead to significant differences in the symbiotic bacteria in Opiliones inside and outside the cave, and cave microorganisms have made efforts to adapt to extreme environments. The similarity in symbiotic bacteria community structure suggests a potential similarity in host environments, providing an explanation for the appearance of Sinonychia martensi in caves in the north.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Cavernas , Ecossistema , Simbiose , Cavernas/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , China , Microbiota/fisiologia , Biodiversidade
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(2): e20230194, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747785

RESUMO

Similarly to other animal communities, the diversity of subterranean aquatic fauna is influenced by several factors and processes, such as habitat fragmentation, dispersion, environmental heterogeneity, and physical and chemical water characteristics. Here, we studied cave aquatic communities of the Alto Ribeira hydrographic basin, regarding troglobitic and non-troglobitic species, located in a single karst area to evaluate the influence of sub-basins in fauna differentiation. We investigated how abiotic variables (flow, electrical conductivity, temperature, pH, and substrate) influence the fauna composition and the contribution of beta diversity components (nestedness and turnover) in explaining communities' dissimilarities. Fauna composition differed between sub-basins, as most species did not co-occur in different caves. Caves with higher flow and substrate diversity were the richest. In addition, each cave community was influenced by a unique set of abiotic variables. Dissimilarity among caves was mainly explained by turnover, and our findings suggest the restricted species distribution could be due to ecological (e.g., limited dispersion capacity, tolerance to abiotic variables), hydrogeological (e.g., dispersion barriers, isolation of sub-basins), and historical (e.g., colonization, paleoclimatic events) factors and processes. Therefore, different elements are responsible for determining the composition of cave aquatic communities in different sub-basins, reflecting the variability within a single karst area.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Cavernas , Ecossistema , Brasil , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos
3.
Trends Genet ; 40(1): 24-38, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707509

RESUMO

How genotype determines phenotype is a well-explored question, but genotype-environment interactions and their heritable impact on phenotype over the course of evolution are not as thoroughly investigated. The fish Astyanax mexicanus, consisting of surface and cave ecotypes, is an ideal emerging model to study the genetic basis of adaptation to new environments. This model has permitted quantitative trait locus mapping and whole-genome comparisons to identify the genetic bases of traits such as albinism and insulin resistance and has helped to better understand fundamental evolutionary mechanisms. In this review, we summarize recent advances in A. mexicanus genetics and discuss their broader impact on the fields of adaptation and evolutionary genetics.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Characidae , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Characidae/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Evolução Biológica , Fenótipo , Genótipo , Evolução Molecular , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Peixes/genética
4.
Geobiology ; 22(3): e12594, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700397

RESUMO

Lehman Caves is an extensively decorated high desert cave that represents one of the main tourist attractions in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Although traditionally considered a water table cave, recent studies identified abundant speleogenetic features consistent with a hypogenic and, potentially, sulfuric acid origin. Here, we characterized white mineral deposits in the Gypsum Annex (GA) passage to determine whether these secondary deposits represent biogenic minerals formed during sulfuric acid corrosion and explored microbial communities associated with these and other mineral deposits throughout the cave. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), scanning electron microscopy with electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and electron microprobe analyses (EPMA) showed that, while most white mineral deposits from the GA contain gypsum, they also contain abundant calcite, silica, and other phases. Gypsum and carbonate-associated sulfate isotopic values of these deposits are variable, with δ34SV-CDT between +9.7‰ and +26.1‰, and do not reflect depleted values typically associated with replacement gypsum formed during sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Petrographic observations show that the sulfates likely co-precipitated with carbonate and SiO2 phases. Taken together, these data suggest that the deposits resulted from later-stage meteoric events and not during an initial episode of sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Most sedimentary and mineral deposits in Lehman Caves have very low microbial biomass, with the exception of select areas along the main tour route that have been impacted by tourist traffic. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that microbial communities in GA sediments are distinct from those in other parts of the cave. The microbial communities that inhabit these oligotrophic secondary mineral deposits include OTUs related to known ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosococcales and Thaumarchaeota, as well as common soil taxa such as Acidobacteriota and Proteobacteria. This study reveals microbial and mineralogical diversity in a previously understudied cave and expands our understanding of the geomicrobiology of desert hypogene cave systems.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Cavernas , Minerais , Cavernas/microbiologia , Minerais/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Nevada , Archaea/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Parques Recreativos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácidos Sulfúricos , Filogenia , Microbiota , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
5.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13245, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643985

RESUMO

Cueva del Viento, located in the Canary Islands, Spain, is the Earth's sixth-longest lava tube, spanning 18,500 m, and was formed approximately 27,000 years ago. This complex volcanic cave system is characterized by a unique geomorphology, featuring an intricate network of galleries. Despite its geological significance, the geomicrobiology of Cueva del Viento remains largely unexplored. This study employed a combination of culture-dependent techniques and metabarcoding data analysis to gain a comprehensive understanding of the cave's microbial diversity. The 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding approach revealed that the coloured microbial mats (yellow, red and white) coating the cave walls are dominated by the phyla Actinomycetota, Pseudomonadota and Acidobacteriota. Of particular interest is the high relative abundance of the genus Crossiella, which is involved in urease-mediated biomineralization processes, along with the presence of genera associated with nitrogen cycling, such as Nitrospira. Culture-dependent techniques provided insights into the morphological characteristics of the isolated species and their potential metabolic activities, particularly for the strains Streptomyces spp., Paenarthrobacter sp. and Pseudomonas spp. Our findings underscore the potential of Cueva del Viento as an ideal environment for studying microbial diversity and for the isolation and characterization of novel bacterial species of biotechnological interest.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Espanha , Cavernas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Biodiversidade
6.
Mol Ecol ; 33(9): e17339, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556927

RESUMO

Copy number variation is a common contributor to phenotypic diversity, yet its involvement in ecological adaptation is not easily discerned. Instances of parallelly evolving populations of the same species in a similar environment marked by strong selective pressures present opportunities to study the role of copy number variants (CNVs) in adaptation. By identifying CNVs that repeatedly occur in multiple populations of the derived ecotype and are not (or are rarely) present in the populations of the ancestral ecotype, the association of such CNVs with adaptation to the novel environment can be inferred. We used this paradigm to identify CNVs associated with recurrent adaptation of the Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus) to cave environment. Using a read-depth approach, we detected CNVs from previously re-sequenced genomes of 44 individuals belonging to two ancestral surfaces and three derived cave populations. We identified 102 genes and 292 genomic regions that repeatedly diverge in copy number between the two ecotypes and occupy 0.8% of the reference genome. Functional analysis revealed their association with processes previously recognized to be relevant for adaptation, such as vision, immunity, oxygen consumption, metabolism, and neural function and we propose that these variants have been selected for in the cave or surface waters. The majority of the ecotype-divergent CNVs are multiallelic and display copy number increases in cavefish compared to surface fish. Our findings suggest that multiallelic CNVs - including gene duplications - and divergence in copy number provide a fast route to produce novel phenotypes associated with adaptation to subterranean life.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Characidae , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Animais , Characidae/genética , Genética Populacional , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Ecótipo , México
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299292, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630666

RESUMO

Recent advances in interdisciplinary archaeological research in Arabia have focused on the evolution and historical development of regional human populations as well as the diverse patterns of cultural change, migration, and adaptations to environmental fluctuations. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of cultural developments such as the emergence and lifeways of Neolithic groups has been hindered by the limited preservation of stratified archaeological assemblages and organic remains, a common challenge in arid environments. Underground settings like caves and lava tubes, which are prevalent in Arabia but which have seen limited scientific exploration, offer promising opportunities for addressing these issues. Here, we report on an archaeological excavation and a related survey at and around Umm Jirsan lava tube in the Harrat Khaybar, north-western Saudi Arabia. Our results reveal repeated phases of human occupation of the site ranging from at least the Neolithic through to the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age. Pastoralist use of the lava tube and surrounding landscape is attested in rock art and faunal records, suggesting that Umm Jirsan was situated along a pastoral route linking key oases. Isotopic data indicates that herbivores primarily grazed on wild grasses and shrubs rather than being provided with fodder, while humans had a diet consistently high in protein but with increasing consumption of C3 plants through-time, perhaps related to the emergence of oasis agriculture. While underground and naturally sheltered localities are globally prominent in archaeology and Quaternary science, our work represents the first such combined records for Saudi Arabia and highlight the potential for interdisciplinary studies in caves and lava tubes.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Arábia , Arábia Saudita , Arqueologia/métodos , Ocupações
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300962, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573919

RESUMO

While extensive research on traditional model species has significantly advanced the biological sciences, the ongoing search for new model organisms is essential to tackle contemporary challenges such as human diseases or climate change, and fundamental phenomena including adaptation or speciation. Recent methodological advances such as next-generation sequencing, gene editing, and imaging are widely applicable and have simplified the selection of species with specific traits from the wild. However, a critical milestone in this endeavor remains the successful cultivation of selected species. A historically overlooked but increasingly recognized group of non-model organisms are cave dwellers. These unique animals offer invaluable insights into the genetic basis of human diseases like eye degeneration, metabolic and neurological disorders, and basic evolutionary principles and the origin of adaptive phenotypes. However, to take advantage of the beneficial traits of cave-dwelling animals, laboratory cultures must be established-a practice that remains extremely rare except for the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. For most cave-dwelling organisms, there are no published culturing protocols. In this study, we present the results of our multi-year effort to establish laboratory cultures for a variety of invertebrate groups. We have developed comprehensive protocols for housing, feeding, and husbandry of cave dwellers and their surface relatives. Our recommendations are versatile and can be applied to a wide range of species. Hopefully our efforts will facilitate the establishment of new laboratory animal facilities for cave-dwelling organisms and encourage their greater use in experimental biology.


Assuntos
Characidae , Animais , Humanos , Characidae/genética , Invertebrados/genética , Evolução Biológica , Fenótipo , Edição de Genes , Cavernas
9.
Zoolog Sci ; 41(2): 210-215, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587916

RESUMO

Protocobitis species are typical cave-dwelling fish, exhibiting distinctive morphological adaptations such as colorless body, lack of eyes, and reduced scales and ribs in response to their extreme cave habitats. Distinct from the recorded species, P. anteroventris, P. polylepis, and P. typhlops, a new species, Protocobitis longicostatus sp. nov., is described from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Protocobitis longicostatus sp. nov. can easily be distinguished from all known congeners by the following characteristics: whole body covered by scales except head, 12 branched caudal fin rays, and long ribs. These species face threats from habitat degradation, hydrological changes, and environmental pollution. Thus, the conservation of cavefish in China has become an urgent issue.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes , Animais , Cipriniformes/anatomia & histologia , China , Cavernas , Olho , Ecossistema
10.
J Anim Ecol ; 93(5): 619-631, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556757

RESUMO

Bats are known for their gregarious social behaviour, often congregating in caves and underground habitats, where they play a pivotal role in providing various ecosystem services. Studying bat behaviour remains an underexplored aspect of bat ecology and conservation despite its ecological importance. We explored the costs and impacts of overcrowding on bat social behaviour. This study examined variations in bat behavioural patterns between two distinct groups, aggregated and non-aggregated male Rousettus amplexicaudatus, within the Monfort Bat Cave Sanctuary on Mindanao Island, Philippines. We found significant variations in the incident frequencies of various bat behavioural activities, particularly aggression and movement, between these two groups. The increase in aggregation was closely related to negative social behaviour among bats. In contrast, sexual behaviour was significantly related to the positive behaviour of individual bats and was headed in less crowded areas. The disparities in bat behaviour with an apparent decline in bat social behaviour because of overcrowding, with more aggressive behaviours emerging, align with the 'behavioural sink' hypothesis. Our study underscores the importance of considering habitat quality and resource availability in the management and conservation of bat colonies, as these factors can reduce the occurrence of aggressive and negative social behaviours in colonies with high population density by providing alternative habitats.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Quirópteros , Comportamento Social , Animais , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Masculino , Agressão , Comportamento Animal , Filipinas , Aglomeração , Ecossistema , Comportamento Sexual Animal
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9775, 2024 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684693

RESUMO

This comprehensive study examines fossil remains from Niedzwiedzia Cave in the Eastern Sudetes, offering detailed insights into the palaeobiology and adversities encountered by the Pleistocene cave bear Ursus spelaeus ingressus. Emphasising habitual cave use for hibernation and a primarily herbivorous diet, the findings attribute mortality to resource scarcity during hibernation and habitat fragmentation amid climate shifts. Taphonomic analysis indicates that the cave was extensively used by successive generations of bears, virtually unexposed to the impact of predators. The study also reveals that alkaline conditions developed in the cave during the post-depositional taphonomic processes. Mortality patterns, notably among juveniles, imply dwindling resources, indicative of environmental instability. Skeletal examination reveals a high incidence of forelimb fractures, indicating risks during activities like digging or confrontations. Palaeopathological evidence unveils vulnerabilities to tuberculosis, abscesses, rickets, and injuries, elucidating mobility challenges. The cave's silts exhibit a high zinc concentration, potentially derived from successive bear generations consuming zinc-rich plants. This study illuminates the lives of late cave bears, elucidating unique environmental hurdles faced near their species' end.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Fósseis , Ursidae , Animais , Polônia , Ursidae/fisiologia , Paleopatologia , Ecossistema , Paleontologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3611, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684677

RESUMO

The emergence of Homo sapiens in Eastern Asia is a topic of significant research interest. However, well-preserved human fossils in secure, dateable contexts in this region are extremely rare, and often the subject of intense debate owing to stratigraphic and geochronological problems. Tongtianyan cave, in Liujiang District of Liuzhou City, southern China is one of the most important fossils finds of H. sapiens, though its age has been debated, with chronometric dates ranging from the late Middle Pleistocene to the early Late Pleistocene. Here we provide new age estimates and revised provenience information for the Liujiang human fossils, which represent one of the most complete fossil skeletons of H. sapiens in China. U-series dating on the human fossils and radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating on the fossil-bearing sediments provided ages ranging from ~33,000 to 23,000 years ago (ka). The revised age estimates correspond with the dates of other human fossils in northern China, at Tianyuan Cave (~40.8-38.1 ka) and Zhoukoudian Upper Cave (39.0-36.3 ka), indicating the geographically widespread presence of H. sapiens across Eastern Asia in the Late Pleistocene, which is significant for better understanding human dispersals and adaptations in the region.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Datação Radiométrica , Humanos , China , Cavernas , Esqueleto , História Antiga , Sedimentos Geológicos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(18): 27117-27135, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503956

RESUMO

The anthropogenic impact of the water and CO2 exhaled by visitors was studied in the show caves of the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic), especially in the Balcarka and Výpustek Caves. Two alternative models based on (1) the known/presumed composition of the breathed air and physical activity of visitors and (2) the detailed monitoring microclimatic data were proposed. The CO2 fluxes of 2.4 × 10-4 and (2.0-3.9) × 10-4 mol person-1 s-1 and the water vapor fluxes of (3.2-8.9) × 10-3 and (0.6-1.2) × 10-2 g person-1 s-1 were found for a slightly increased physical load. The total attendance and cave tour duration were the main driving factors. For the available data on attendance and accessibility periods, the total mass of water vapor exhaled by visitors in all show caves in the Moravian Karst was estimated between 9.6 × 106 and 4.3 × 108 g with significant seasonality. According to the geochemical model, this mass of water is capable of dissolving 1280 to 59,038 g of calcite, assuming a mean winter and summer CO2 concentration in the cave air of 1000 and 3000 ppmv. The larger extent of water condensation can lead to the so-called condensation corrosion, whereas the lower extent of condensation probably causes a recrystallization of calcite on the surface of speleothems and rocks.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , República Tcheca , Água/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estações do Ano
14.
J Hered ; 115(3): 311-316, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513109

RESUMO

Animals living in caves are of broad relevance to evolutionary biologists interested in understanding the mechanisms underpinning convergent evolution. In the Eastern Andes of Colombia, populations from at least two distinct clades of Trichomycterus catfishes (Siluriformes) independently colonized cave environments and converged in phenotype by losing their eyes and pigmentation. We are pursuing several research questions using genomics to understand the evolutionary forces and molecular mechanisms responsible for repeated morphological changes in this system. As a foundation for such studies, here we describe a diploid, chromosome-scale, long-read reference genome for Trichomycterus rosablanca, a blind, depigmented species endemic to the karstic system of the department of Santander. The nuclear genome comprises 1 Gb in 27 chromosomes, with a 40.0× HiFi long-read genome coverage having an N50 scaffold of 40.4 Mb and N50 contig of 13.1 Mb, with 96.9% (Eukaryota) and 95.4% (Actinopterygii) universal single-copy orthologs (BUSCO). This assembly provides the first reference genome for the speciose genus Trichomycterus, serving as a key resource for research on the genomics of phenotypic evolution.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Cavernas , Genoma , Genômica , Animais , Peixes-Gato/genética , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Genômica/métodos , Colômbia , Evolução Biológica , Fenótipo , Filogenia
15.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 53, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507071

RESUMO

Castañar is a cave with strict visitor control measures since it was open to public visits in 2003. However, in recent years, the cave suffered two fungal outbreaks, the first in 2008 and controlled by cleaning the contaminated sediments and subsequent closure of the cave until 2014. The cave was reopened but limited to a maximum of 450 visitors/year. Despite these restrictions on visit, the cave experienced a second outbreak in 2021, originating from the installation of a steel grating walkway, aiming at protecting the ground sediments from the visitors' footsteps. Here, we conducted an analysis using Next-Generation Sequencing and culture-dependent techniques to investigate the fungal communities related to the second outbreak and compare with those present before the cave suffered the outbreak. The results show that the most abundant fungi involved in the 2021 outbreak were already detected in 2020, and even in 2008 and 2009, although the main species that originating both outbreaks were different, likely due to the different carbon sources introduced into the cave.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fungos , Fungos/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cavernas/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças
16.
J Nat Prod ; 87(4): 1084-1091, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517947

RESUMO

Investigation of the secondary metabolites of Streptomyces virginiae CMB-CA091 isolated from the quartz-rich (tepui) soil of a cave in Venezuela yielded two new dimeric phenazine glycosides, tepuazines A and B (1 and 2); three new monomeric phenazine glycosides, tepuazines C-E (3-5); and a series of known analogues, baraphenazine G (6), phenazinolin D (7), izumiphenazine C (8), 4-methylaminobenzoyl-l-rhamnopyranoside (9), and 2-acetamidophenol (10). Structures were assigned to 1-10 on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and biosynthetic considerations, with 1 and 2 featuring a rare 2-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-like ring C/D bridge shared with only a handful of known Streptomyces natural products. We propose a plausible convergent biosynthetic relationship linking all known members of this structure class that provides a rationale for the observed ring C/D configuration.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos , Fenazinas , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces , Streptomyces/química , Fenazinas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Venezuela , Cavernas , Quartzo/química
17.
Open Vet J ; 14(2): 699-706, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38549568

RESUMO

Background: The discovery of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in wild animals is an indication of their potential for wildlife as a reservoir. Bats are natural reservoir hosts and a source of infection for several microorganisms and have the potential to become vectors for the spread of zoonotic diseases. Aim: A study was conducted based on these characteristics to identify and detect the blaTEM gene in Eschericia coli isolated from bat excrements in Tanjung Ringgit Cave, East Lombok. Methods: Bat fecal samples were firstly inoculated onto eosin methylene blue agar media. Recovered bacterial isolates were further characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. blaTEM gene detection was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Out of the 150 bat fecal samples obtained from Tanjung Ringgit cave, Lombok Island, Indonesia, 56 (37%) were positive for E. coli. Eight (8) out of the 56 E. coli isolates that underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method were confirmed to be multidrug-resistant as they exhibited resistance to at least three different classes of antibiotics. Out of the eight (8) multidrug resistance E. coli isolates recovered from fecal samples of bats, 2 (two) harbored the blaTEM gene. Conclusion: The discovery of the blaTEM gene in bat fecal samples indicates the potential for wild animals, especially bats, to spread ESBL resistance genes to the environment and to humans.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Humanos , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Cavernas , beta-Lactamases/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
18.
Zootaxa ; 5405(2): 246-264, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480387

RESUMO

This paper contributes further studies Chinese cave crickets and describes seven new species and the female sex of Rhaphidophora longitabula Bian, Zhu & Shi, 2017. All the specimens are deposited in Guangxi Normal University.


Assuntos
Araceae , Ortópteros , Animais , Feminino , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cavernas , China , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
PeerJ ; 12: e16957, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435987

RESUMO

Background: Telomeres are non-coding DNA repeats at the chromosome ends and their shortening is considered one of the major causes of aging. However, they also serve as a biomarker of environmental exposures and their length and attrition is affected by various stressors. In this study, we examined the average telomere length in Astyanax mexicanus, a species that has both surface-dwelling and cave-adapted populations. The cave morph descended from surface ancestors and adapted to a markedly different environment characterized by specific biotic and abiotic stressors, many of which are known to affect telomere length. Our objective was to explore whether telomere length differs between the two morphs and whether it serves as a biological marker of aging or correlates with the diverse environments the morphs are exposed to. Methods: We compared telomere length and shortening between laboratory-reared Pachón cavefish and Rio Choy surface fish of A. mexicanus across different tissues and ages. Results: Astyanax mexicanus surface fish exhibited longer average telomere length compared to cavefish. In addition, we did not observe telomere attrition in either cave or surface form as a result of aging in adults up to 9 years old, suggesting that efficient mechanisms prevent telomere-mediated senescence in laboratory stocks of this species, at least within this time frame. Our results suggest that telomere length in Astyanax may be considered a biomarker of environmental exposures. Cavefish may have evolved shorter and energetically less costly telomeres due to the absence of potential stressors known to affect surface species, such as predator pressure and ultra-violet radiation. This study provides the first insights into telomere dynamics in Astyanax morphs and suggests that shorter telomeres may have evolved as an adaptation to caves.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Telômero , Animais , Telômero/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Biomarcadores
20.
Zootaxa ; 5415(1): 181-192, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480208

RESUMO

The South American palpimanid genus Fernandezina Birabn currently comprises 15 described species, all known from epigean environments. Representatives of Fernandezina are easily recognized by the unexpanded femora I in both sexes and by the dorsally extended opisthosomal scutum in males. Herein, F. fernandoi sp. nov. is described based on males and females from hypogean environments and F. angeloi sp. nov. is described based on a single male from a nearby epigean environment, both in Brazil. Additionally, we provide an identification key for the species of the genus.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Brasil , Distribuição Animal , Cavernas , Ecossistema
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