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1.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 168: 104108, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552808

RESUMO

The immune system of Manduca sexta has been well studied to understand molecular mechanisms of insect antimicrobial responses. While evidence supports the existence of major immune signaling pathways in this species, it is unclear how induced production of defense proteins is specifically regulated by the Toll and Imd pathways. Our previous studies suggested that diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycans (DAP-PG) from Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria, more than Lys-type peptidoglycans (Lys-PG) from other Gram-positive bacteria, triggers both pathways through membrane-bound receptors orthologous to Drosophila Toll and PGRP-LC. In this study, we produced M. sexta proSpätzle-1 and proSpätzle-2 in Sf9 cells, identified their processing enzymes, and used prophenoloxidase activating protease-3 to activate the cytokine precursors. After Spätzle-1 and -2 were isolated from the reaction mixtures, we separately injected the purified cytokines into larval hemocoel to induce gene transcription in fat body through the Toll pathway solely. On the other hand, we treated a M. sexta cell line with E. coli DAP-PG to only induce the Imd pathway and target gene expression. RNA-Seq analysis of the fat body and cultured cells collected at 0, 6, and 24 h after treatment indicated that expression of diapausin-4, -10, -12, -13, cecropin-2, -4, -5, attacin-5, -11, and lebocin D is up-regulated predominantly via Toll signaling, whereas transcription of cecropin-6, gloverin, lysozyme-1, and gallerimycin-2 is mostly induced by DAP-PG via Imd signaling. Other antimicrobial peptides are expressed in response to both pathways. Transcripts of most Toll-specific genes (e.g., lebocin D) peaked at 6 h, contrasting the gradual increase and plateauing of drosomycin mRNA level at 24-48 h in Drosophila. We also used T (oll)-I (md) ratios to estimate relative contributions of the two pathways to transcriptional regulation of other components of the immune system. The differences in pathway specificity and time course of transcriptional regulation call for further investigations in M. sexta and other insects.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Manduca , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Manduca/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano , Cecropinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo
2.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 152: 105111, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081402

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides are potential alternatives to traditional antibiotics in the face of increasing bacterial resistance. Insects possess many antimicrobial peptides and have become a valuable source of novel and highly effective antimicrobial peptides. Hermetia illucens as a resource insect, for example, has the highest number of antimicrobial peptides of any dipteran. However, most antimicrobial peptides, especially cecropin, have not been comprehensively identified and have not been evaluated for their antimicrobial ability. In this study, we analyzed the localization and gene structure of 33 cecropin molecules in the H. illucens genome and evaluated their activity against common human pathogens. The results showed that 32 cecropin molecules were concentrated on 1 chromosome, most with 2 exons. More importantly, most of the cecropins had a good antibacterial effect against Gram-negative bacteria, and were not hemolytic. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the cecropin designated H3 against E. coli was 4 µg/mL. The toxicity, killing time kinetics, and anti-biofilm activity of H3 were further investigated and confirmed its antimicrobial ability. Overall, H3 is a potential candidate for the development of new antimicrobials to treat severe infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens such as E. coli.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cecropinas , Dípteros , Animais , Humanos , Cecropinas/genética , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Insetos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Amino Acids ; 55(12): 1965-1980, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966500

RESUMO

Egypt has witnessed the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae, which has posed a serious healthcare challenge. The proper treatment choice for MDR-KP infections is not well determined which renders the problem more complicated, thus making the control of such infections a serious challenge for healthcare professionals. This study aims to encapsulate the cationic antimicrobial peptide; Cecropin-B (Cec-B), to increase its lifetime, drug targeting, and efficacy and study the antimicrobial effect of free and encapsulated recombinant rCec-B peptide on multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae (MDR-KP) isolates. Fifty isolates were collected from different clinical departments at Theodore Bilharz Research Institute. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rCec-B against MDR-KP isolates were determined by the broth microdilution test. In addition, encapsulation of rCec-B peptide into chitosan nanoparticles and studying its bactericidal effect against MDR-KP isolates were also performed. The relative expression of efflux pump and porin coding genes (ArcrB, TolC, mtdK, and Ompk35) was detected by quantitative PCR in treated MDR-KP bacterial isolates compared to untreated isolates. Out of 60 clinical MDR isolates, 50 were MDR-KP. 60% of the isolates were XDR while 40% were MDR. rCec-B were bactericidal on 21 isolates, then these isolates were subjected to treatment using free nanocapsule in addition to the encapsulated peptide. Free capsules showed a mild cytotoxic effect on MDR-KP at the highest concentration. MIC of encapsulated rCec-B was higher than the free peptide. The expression level of genes encoding efflux and porin (ArcrB, TolC, mtdK, and Ompk35) was downregulated after treatment with encapsulated rCec-B. These findings indicate that encapsulated rCec-B is a promising candidate with potent antibacterial activities against drug-resistant K. pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Quitosana , Infecções por Klebsiella , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Porinas/genética , Porinas/farmacologia , Porinas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(15)2023 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37569868

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium responsible for severe nosocomial infections and is considered a critical pulmonary pathogen for both immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. Planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa possess intrinsic and acquired resistances, inactivating several classes of conventional antibiotics. Additionally, this bacterium can grow, forming biofilms, and complex structures, further hampering the action of multiple antibiotics. Here, we report the biological properties of D-Q53 CecB, an all-D enantiomer of the silkworm natural peptide Q53 CecB. Compared to the L-variant, D-Q53 CecB was resistant to in vitro degradation by humans and P. aeruginosa elastases and showed an enhanced bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa planktonic bacteria. D-Q53 CecB was thermostable and maintained its antimicrobial activity at high salt concentrations and in the presence of divalent cations or fetal-bovine serum, although at reduced levels. Against different types of human cells, D-Q53 CecB showed cytotoxic phenomena at concentrations several folds higher compared to those active against P. aeruginosa. When L- and D-Q53 CecB were compared for their antibiofilm properties, both peptides were active in inhibiting biofilm formation. However, the D-enantiomer was extremely effective in inducing biofilm degradation, suggesting this peptide as a favorable candidate in an anti-Pseudomonas therapy.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Animais , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombyx , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Cecropinas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia
5.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 147: 104745, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37268262

RESUMO

Most mosquito-transmitted pathogens grow or replicate in the midgut before invading the salivary glands. Pathogens are exposed to several immunological factors along the way. Recently, it was shown that hemocytes gather near the periostial region of the heart to efficiently phagocytose pathogens circulating in the hemolymph. Nerveless, not all pathogens can be phagocyted by hemocytes and eliminated by lysis. Interestingly, some studies have shown that pericardial cells (PCs) surrounding periostial regions, may produce humoral factors, such as lysozymes. Our current work provides evidence that Anopheles albimanus PCs are a major producer of Cecropin 1 (Cec1). Furthermore, our findings reveal that after an immunological challenge, PCs upregulate Cec1 expression. We conclude that PCs are positioned in a strategic location that could allow releasing humoral components, such as cecropin, to lyse pathogens on the heart or circulating in the hemolymph, implying that PCs could play a significant role in the systemic immune response.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Cecropinas , Animais , Fagocitose , Imunidade , Pericárdio , Hemócitos
6.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 198: 107934, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37169329

RESUMO

Temperature is an important abiotic factor influencing the survival and fitness of pathogens as well as their hosts. We investigated the effect of three temperatures (18 °C, 27 °C and 37 °C) on survival and performance of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), Hermetia illucens L., upon infection by an entomopathogenic Gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5. The effect of different temperatures on pathogen fitness was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Pathogen performance under exposure to the insect antimicrobial peptide cecropin was investigated at the three temperatures using radial-diffusion plate assays. Higher rearing temperatures resulted in higher larval survival, increased larval weight, and higher inhibitory activity of cecropin against P. protegens Pf-5. At higher temperature, bacterial growth, both in vivo and in vitro, was reduced, resulting in increased BSFL survival. These observations collectively indicate the important effect of rearing temperature on host-pathogen interactions and the possibility to apply temperature treatment in reducing entomopathogen effects in BSFL.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Dípteros , Animais , Temperatura , Larva , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
7.
Protein Pept Lett ; 30(6): 477-485, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37183466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The creation of brand-new, potent, and less harmful medications to treat leukemia is urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have drawn a lot of interest as potential substitutes for chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE: In the present investigation, the anticancer activity of CM11, a short cationic AMP, was assessed on Jurkat and Raji leukemia cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: Different CM11 doses were applied to the Jurkat and Raji cell lines and PBMCs throughout a 24-hour period. The impact of the CM11 on cell viability and toxicity was assessed using an MTT assay. Flow cytometry and Real-Time PCR were used to analyze the effect of this peptide on apoptotic/necrosis pathways and assess the ratio expression of the P53 and Bcl-2 genes, respectively. RESULTS: Despite the fact that peptide toxicity was successful in a variety of cell lines, cancer cells were more sensitive to the medication. The survival of Jurkat and Raji cell lines treated with 32 µg/ml peptide was 47% and 51%, respectively, while the survival of normal PBMC cells was about 65%. According to flow cytometry, Jurkat and Raji cells exposed to peptide had much greater levels of apoptosis than PBMCs. Peptide-treated cells were associated with increased expression of P53 the gene and decreased expression of the Bcl-2 gene. CONCLUSION: These results revealed that the CM11 caused more cytotoxicity to leukemia Raji and Jurkat leukemia cells compared to the normal cells by apoptosis pathway. Our findings demonstrated the potential of CM11 peptide to develop as a new antileukemic agent.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Leucemia , Humanos , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Meliteno/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Apoptose , Células Jurkat , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 227: 786-794, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549616

RESUMO

Interactions between hyaluronan and the antimicrobial peptide cecropin B were studied in water and PBS using high-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. Although each technique is fundamentally different, they both gave identical results. It was found that the molecular weight of hyaluronan plays an important role in the interactions - in particular, the transition between the rod conformation and the random coil conformation. In water, interactions were saturated in a molar charge ratio of 1.5 and not 1.0 as expected. The later saturation of the interaction probably occurred either for steric reasons or due to the interaction between functional groups in the cecropin structure, which allowed complete dissociation of the antimicrobial peptide. In PBS, in contrast to water, no interactions were observed, irrespective of the molecular weight of hyaluronan. Thus, at a sufficiently high ionic strength, the interactions were suppressed.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Ácido Hialurônico , Calorimetria/métodos , Água/química , Reologia , Termodinâmica
9.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 24(8): 1070-1078, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant is considered one of the critical health challenges in the management of infectious diseases. Resistant bacterial strains to different antibacterial agents have been spread worldwide. Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, have a broad spectrum of activity and targeting even to multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, therefore, they have been extensively studied and developed as novel therapeutic antibacterial agents. OBJECTIVES: The study aims to design a novel SK4 hybrid peptide with improved characteristics compared with the BMAP-27 and Cecropin-A natural parents' peptides. METHODS: The bioinformatic analysis of the SK4 peptide compared with the parents BMAP-27 and Cecropin-A peptides was conducted and fully characterized using specialized software. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of SK4 was tested, followed by a synergistic study with five conventional antibiotics (Levofloxacin, Rifampicin, Chloramphenicol, Doxycycline, and Ampicillin). Finally, the cytotoxicity against horse erythrocytes and mammalian cells was assessed. RESULTS: The SK4 peptide demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both grampositive and gram-negative bacteria. The peptide also did not show any hemolytic activity even when used at concentrations ten folds higher than its MICs value. The SK4 peptide also showed a synergistic mode of action when combined with antibiotics, which resulted in a significant decrease in MIC values for both the peptide and the antibiotics. CONCLUSION: The SK4 peptide showed better activity, selectivity, and safety profile than the parent peptides, making it a novel potential treatment for MDR bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cecropinas , Animais , Cavalos , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mamíferos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(1)2023 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38203484

RESUMO

The prophenoloxidase (PPO) activation and Toll antimicrobial peptide synthesis pathways are two critical immune responses in the insect immune system. The activation of these pathways is mediated by the cascade of serine proteases, which is negatively regulated by serpins. In this study, we identified a typical serpin, BmSerpin-4, in silkworms, whose expression was dramatically up-regulated in the fat body and hemocytes after bacterial infections. The pre-injection of recombinant BmSerpin-4 remarkably decreased the antibacterial activity of the hemolymph and the expression of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) gloverin-3, cecropin-D, cecropin-E, and moricin in the fat body under Micrococcus luteus and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O: 3 (YP III) infection. Meanwhile, the inhibition of systemic melanization, PO activity, and PPO activation by BmSerpin-4 was also observed. Hemolymph proteinase 1 (HP1), serine protease 2 (SP2), HP6, and SP21 were predicted as the candidate target serine proteases for BmSerpin-4 through the analysis of residues adjacent to the scissile bond and comparisons of orthologous genes in Manduca sexta. This suggests that HP1, SP2, HP6, and SP21 might be essential in the activation of the serine protease cascade in both the Toll and PPO pathways in silkworms. Our study provided a comprehensive characterization of BmSerpin-4 and clues for the further dissection of silkworm PPO and Toll activation signaling.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Catecol Oxidase , Cecropinas , Precursores Enzimáticos , Serpinas , Animais , Serpinas/genética , Serina Endopeptidases , Serina Proteases/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona
11.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1290182, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38162646

RESUMO

Introduction: Cecropin AD (CAD), a renowned antimicrobial peptide, has shown promising potential in treating various bacterial infections. This study investigates the protective effects of CAD against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal adversities in chickens. Methods: Sixty SPF-grade chicks were divided into groups and exposed to different dosages of CAD, followed by LPS administration. The study assessed the impact of CAD on intestinal mucosal injury markers, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Results: LPS significantly increased Diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate (D-LA) levels, both indicators of intestinal mucosal injury. CAD treatment substantially attenuated these elevations, particularly at higher dosages. Additionally, CAD markedly reduced oxidative stress in intestinal tissues, as shown by normalized antioxidant levels and decreased reactive oxygen species. Histological analysis supported these findings, showing better-preserved villi structures in CAD-treated groups. Furthermore, CAD significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 expression post-LPS stimulation and effectively regulated the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, decreasing associated factors like NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1b, and IL-18. Discussion: The study demonstrates CAD's therapeutic potential in alleviating LPS-induced intestinal injuries. The protective effects are primarily attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions and modulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Galinhas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
12.
Integr Biol (Camb) ; 14(7): 151-161, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314040

RESUMO

Wound healing is an intrinsic process directed towards the restoration of damaged or lost tissue. The development of a dressing material having the ability to control the multiple aspects of the wound environment would be an ideal strategy to improve wound healing. Though natural silk proteins, fibroin, and sericin have demonstrated tissue regenerative properties, the efficacy of bioengineered silk proteins on wound healing is seldom assessed. Furthermore, silk proteins sans contaminants, having low molecular masses, and combining with other bioactive factors can hasten the wound healing process. Herein, recombinant silk proteins, fibroin and sericin, and their fusions with cecropin B were evaluated for their wound-healing effects using in vivo rat model. The recombinant silk proteins demonstrated accelerated wound closure in comparison to untreated wounds and treatment with Povidone. Among all groups, the treatment with recombinant sericin-cecropin B (RSC) showed significantly faster healing, greater than 90% wound closure by Day 12 followed by recombinant fibroin-cecropin B (RFC) (88.86%). Furthermore, histological analysis and estimation of hydroxyproline showed complete epithelialization, neovascularization, and collagenisation in groups treated with recombinant silk proteins. The wound healing activity was further verified by in vitro scratch assay using HADF cells, where the recombinant silk proteins induced cell proliferation and cell migration to the wound area. Additionally, wound healing-related gene expression showed recombinant silk proteins stimulated the upregulation of EGF and VEGF and regulated the expression of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß3. Our results demonstrated the enhanced healing effects of the recombinant silk fusion proteins in facilitating complete tissue regeneration with scar-free healing. Therefore, the recombinant silks and their fusion proteins have great potential to be developed as smart bandages for wound healing.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Fibroínas , Sericinas , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Seda/farmacologia , Fibroínas/farmacologia , Sericinas/farmacologia , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Cicatrização , Fibroblastos
13.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1614-1630, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121102

RESUMO

To investigate the role of adrenergic signalling (AS) in the host immune response and Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence, we compared norepinephrine (NE) and isoproterenol (ISO) responses in Galleria mellonella. P. gingivalis infection was evaluated by survival; humoral immune responses (i.e. melanization and cecropin and gloverin mRNA expression); cellular immune responses (i.e. haemocyte count, nodulation by histology); and P. gingivalis recovery (CFU/mL). P. gingivalis was cultivated in the presence of ISO (PgISO) or NE and injected into the larvae for survival evaluation. Finally, we co-injected ISO and PgISO to evaluate the concomitant effects on the immune response and bacterial virulence. None of the ligands were toxic to the larvae; ISO increased haemocyte number, even after P. gingivalis infection, by mobilizing sessile haemocytes in a ß-adrenergic-specific manner, while NE showed the opposite effect. ISO treatment reduced larval mortality and the number of recovered bacteria, while NE increased mortality and showed no effect on bacterial recovery. ISO and NE had similar effects on melanization and decreased the expression of cecropin. Although co-cultivation with NE and ISO increased the gene expression of bacterial virulence factors in vitro, only the injection of PgISO increased larval death, which was partially reversed by circulating ISO. Therefore, α- and ß-adrenergic signalling had opposite effects after P. gingivalis infection. Ultimately, the catecholamine influence on the immune response overcame the effect of more virulent strains. The effect of AS directly on the pathogen found in vitro did not translate to the in vivo setting.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Mariposas , Adrenérgicos , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Larva/microbiologia , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , RNA Mensageiro , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência
14.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889239

RESUMO

Cecropins (CECs) are insect venom-derived amphiphilic peptides with numerous pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor activities. Cecropins induce tumor cell death by disrupting phospholipid membrane integrity. However, non-specific cytotoxicity and in vivo rapid degradation limit clinical application. Nanotechnologies provide novel strategies for tumor eradication, including nanocarriers that can precisely target drugs to tumor tissue. We report the fabrication of CEC-encapsulated zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) nanoparticles (CEC@ZIF-8 NPs) via the preparation of CEC@ZIF-8 NPs in pure water by one-pot stirring. This method yielded morphologically uniform NPs with 20 wt% drug loading capacity and 9% loading efficiency. The NP formulation protected CECs from proteasome degradation, enhanced peptide bioavailability, promoted HeLa tumor cell uptake, and increased antitumor efficacy compared to free CECs. In conclusion, this ZIF-8 encapsulation strategy may enhance the clinical applicability of CECs and other antitumor peptides.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Zeolitas , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1864(10): 184003, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850261

RESUMO

Cecropin D is an antimicrobial peptide from Bombyx mori displaying anticancer and pro-apoptotic activities and, together with Cecropin XJ and Cecropin A, one of the very few peptides targeting esophageal cancer. Cecropin D displays poor similarity to other cecropins but a remarkable similarity in the structure and activity spectrum with Cecropin A and Cecropin XJ, offering the possibility to highlight key motifs at the base of the biological activity. In this work we show by NMR and MD simulations that Cecropin D is partially structured in solution and stabilizes its two-helix folding upon interaction with biomimetic membranes. Simulations show that Cecropin D strongly interacts with the surface of cancer cell biomimetic bilayers where it recognises the phosphatidylserine headgroup often exposed in the outer leaflet of cancerous cells by means of specific salt bridges. Cecropin D is also able to penetrate deeply in bilayers containing cardiolipin, a phospholipid found in mitochondria, causing significant destabilization in the lipid packing which might account for its pro-apoptotic activity. In bacterial membranes, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine act synergically by electrostatically attracting cecropin D and providing access to the membrane core, respectively.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Cecropinas , Neoplasias , Animais , Apoptose , Bombyx/química , Bombyx/metabolismo , Cardiolipinas/metabolismo , Cecropinas/química , Cecropinas/metabolismo , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661821

RESUMO

Removal of infected wounds using maggots has been known for centuries. Early research has shown that the maggot exosecretion, whole body, and fecal waste products of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae species contain a variety of alkaline peptides capable of inhibiting bacterial growth. Since the wide application of antibiotics such as penicillin, a number of bacterial infections have become insensitive to antibiotic treatment. In many of these instances, maggot therapy has been successfully applied for the treatment of chronic wounds. To identify and compare the expression patterns of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) from some dipteran species, transcriptome analyses were conducted for the maggots of 11 Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae species. Species of the subfamily Calliphorinae showed relatively higher expression levels of AMPs and anti-microbial proteins compared with those of Luciliinae and Sarcophagidae species. Furthermore, among all of the dipteran species examined, Lucilia illustris exhibited the highest transcription levels of AMPs. Cecropin A2 and defensin, whose expression levels were the highest among the anti-microbial peptides, were synthesized to test their biological activity. The synthesized peptides showed anti-microbial activities without hemolytic activities. In particular, cecropin A2 of L. illustris exhibited the highest anti-microbial activity against all of the bacteria and fungi examined, thereby possessing the potential to be developed as a new alternative to antibiotics. This comparative transcriptomic study may provide new insights into anti-microbial compositions of some dipteran species.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Dípteros , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Calliphoridae , Cecropinas/metabolismo , Larva , Peptídeos/farmacologia
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 126: 311-317, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636698

RESUMO

Constructs bearing the cecropin B gene from the moth Hyalophora cecropia, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, or the common carp beta-actin (ß-actin) promoter were transferred to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus via electroporation. One F3 channel catfish family transgenic for cecropin transgene driven by the CMV promoter, and one F1 channel catfish family transgenic for cecropin transgene driven by the common carp ß-actin promoter were produced. F3 and F1 individuals exhibited enhanced disease resistance when challenged in tanks with Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). Inheritance of the transgene by the F1 and F3 generation was 15% and 60%, respectively. Growth rates of the cecropin transgenic and non-transgenic full siblings (controls) channel catfish were not different (P > 0.05). All transgenic fish showed significant resistance to infection by ESC at day 3 and day 4 post exposure (P = 0.005). No correlation was detected between body weight and time to death for all genetic groups (P = 0.34). Results of our study confirmed that genetic enhancement of E. ictaluri resistance can be achieved by cecropin transgenesis in channel catfish. In addition to survival rate, improving survival time is essential because the extension of survival time gives a better chance to apply treatments to stop the bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Cecropinas , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Doenças dos Peixes , Ictaluridae , Actinas/genética , Animais , Peixes-Gato/genética , Edwardsiella ictaluri/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Ictaluridae/genética , Ictaluridae/microbiologia
18.
Genetics ; 220(1)2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791204

RESUMO

Cecropins are small helical secreted peptides with antimicrobial activity that are widely distributed among insects. Genes encoding Cecropins are strongly induced upon infection, pointing to their role in host defense. In Drosophila, four cecropin genes clustered in the genome (CecA1, CecA2, CecB, and CecC) are expressed upon infection downstream of the Toll and Imd pathways. In this study, we generated a short deletion ΔCecA-C removing the whole cecropin locus. Using the ΔCecA-C deficiency alone or in combination with other antimicrobial peptide (AMP) mutations, we addressed the function of Cecropins in the systemic immune response. ΔCecA-C flies were viable and resisted challenge with various microbes as wild-type. However, removing ΔCecA-C in flies already lacking 10 other AMP genes revealed a role for Cecropins in defense against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Measurements of pathogen loads confirm that Cecropins contribute to the control of certain Gram-negative bacteria, notably Enterobacter cloacae and Providencia heimbachae. Collectively, our work provides the first genetic demonstration of a role for Cecropins in insect host defense and confirms their in vivo activity primarily against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Generation of a fly line (ΔAMP14) that lacks 14 immune inducible AMPs provides a powerful tool to address the function of these immune effectors in host-pathogen interactions and beyond.


Assuntos
Cecropinas
19.
Acta Trop ; 227: 106285, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921765

RESUMO

Cecropins and defensins are the main classes of antimicrobial peptides in the mosquito innate immune system, acting against bacteria, fungi and protozoa. There is a knowledge gap concerning these peptide genes in anopheline mosquitoes from the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, this work aimed to describe molecular techniques for detecting the genes encoding the antimicrobial peptides cecropin A (CecA) and defensin in Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes and to perform molecular phylogeny of the sequenced genes using the maximum likelihood method and Bayesian inference with other species from different geographic areas. Our results show, for the first time, a molecular biology method for detecting CecA and defensin in Anopheles darlingi that allows for the use of these molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis in anopheline species, separating the species into single and monophyletic clades.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Cecropinas , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Teorema de Bayes , Cecropinas/genética , Cecropinas/farmacologia , Defensinas/genética , Defensinas/farmacologia , Filogenia
20.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641415

RESUMO

The increasing antimicrobial-resistant prevalence has become a severe health problem. It has led to the invention of a new antimicrobial agent such as antimicrobial peptides. Heteroscorpine-1 is an antimicrobial peptide that has the ability to kill many bacterial strains. It consists of 76 amino acid residues with a cecropin-like region in N-terminal and a defensin-like region in the C-terminal. The cecropin-like region from heteroscorpine-1 (CeHS-1) is similar to cecropin B, but it lost its glycine-proline hinge region. The bioinformatics prediction was used to help the designing of mutant peptides. The addition of glycine-proline hinge and positively charged amino acids, the deletion of negatively charged amino acids, and the optimization of the hydrophobicity of the peptide resulted in two mutant peptides, namely, CeHS-1 GP and CeHS-1 GPK. The new mutant peptide showed higher antimicrobial activity than the native peptide without increasing toxicity. The interaction of the peptides with the membrane showed that the peptides were capable of disrupting both the inner and outer bacterial cell membrane. Furthermore, the SEM analysis showed that the peptides created the pore in the bacterial cell membrane resulted in cell membrane disruption. In conclusion, the mutants of CeHS-1 had the potential to develop as novel antimicrobial peptides.


Assuntos
Cecropinas/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Mutação , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Venenos de Escorpião/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cecropinas/química , Cecropinas/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Escorpiões , Homologia de Sequência , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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