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2.
Neurology ; 102(6): e209160, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lifestyle behaviors have been postulated to affect headache frequency in youth and are often the primary target of self-management recommendations. Our study aimed to assess the association between various lifestyle factors and frequent recurrent headaches in children and youth. METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 5-17 years were enrolled in a large cross-sectional Canadian population-based health survey, completed on January 31, 2019. Headache frequency was dichotomized into "approximately once/week or less" or ">once/week" (defined as frequent recurrent headaches). The association between frequent headaches and meal schedules, screen exposure, physical activity, chronotype, and frequent substance use/exposure (alcohol, cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and cannabis) was assessed using both unadjusted logistic regression models and models adjusted for age/sex. Fully adjusted models examined the odds of frequent headaches according to all exposures. Survey design effects were accounted for using bootstrap replicate weighting. RESULTS: There were an estimated nweighted = 4,978,370 eligible participants in the population. The mean age was 10.9 years (95% CI 10.9-11.0); 48.8% were female; 6.1% had frequent headaches. Frequent headaches were associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, 95% CI 1.28-1.34, p < 0.001) and female sex (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 2.08-2.75, p < 0.001). In models adjusted for age/sex, the odds of frequent headaches decreased with meal regularity (adjusted OR [aOR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.89-0.92, p < 0.001) and increased with later chronotype (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15, p < 0.001) and excess screen exposure (≥21 hours vs none in past week: aOR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.53-5.77, p = 0.001); there was no significant association with reported physical activity (aOR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.67-1.34, p = 0.77). In 12- to 17-year-olds, frequent headaches were associated with frequent alcohol use (≥1/wk vs never: aOR = 3.50, 95% CI 2.18-5.62, p < 0.001), binge drinking (≥5 times in past month vs never: aOR = 5.52, 95% CI 2.95-10.32, p < 0.001), smoking cigarettes (daily vs never: aOR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.91-7.62, p < 0.001), using e-cigarettes (daily vs never: aOR = 3.10, 95% CI 2.29-4.20, p < 0.001), and cannabis use (daily vs never: aOR = 3.59, 95% CI 2.0-6.45, p < 0.001). In the entire sample, daily exposure to smoking inside the house was associated with frequent headaches (aOR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.23-3.27, p = 0.005). DISCUSSION: Several lifestyle behaviors were associated with frequent headaches in children and youth, such as meal irregularity, late chronotype, prolonged screen exposure, and frequent substance use/exposure, suggesting that these are potential modifiable risk factors to target in this population.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e16669, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313024

RESUMO

This study evaluated clinical features of individuals with long COVID (5-8 months after diagnosis) who reported sleep and memory problems (62 cases) compared to those without (52 controls). Both groups had a similar mean age (41 vs. 39 years). Around 86% of the participants were non-hospitalized at the time of infection, and none of them were vaccinated at that point. Subsequently, both cases and controls received the vaccine; however, the vaccination rates differed significantly between the groups (30.7% vs. 51.0%). Cases and controls had similar rates of symptoms at acute COVID phase. However, cases were more likely to experience coryza, dyspnea, headache, and nausea/vomiting during long COVID. Regarding new-onset symptoms in long COVID, 12.9% of cases had dyspnea, and 14.5% experienced nausea/vomiting, whereas in the control group there were only 1.9% and 0.0%, respectively. Cases also had a significantly higher prevalence of persistent headache (22.6% vs. 7.7%), and dyspnea (12.9% vs. 0.0). In addition, cases also showed an increased rate of mental health complaints: disability in daily activities (45.2% vs. 9.6%; P < 0.001); concentration/sustained attention difficulties (74.2% vs. 9.6%; P < 0.001); anxiety-Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item scale (GAD-2) ≥ 3 (66.1% vs. 34.6%; P = 0.0013); and "post-COVID sadness" (82.3% vs. 40.4%; P < 0.001). We observed a significant correlation between sadness and anxiety in cases, which was not observed in controls (P=0.0212; Spearman correlation test). Furthermore, the frequency of concomitant sadness and anxiety was markedly higher in cases compared to controls (59.7% vs. 19.2%) (P < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney test). These findings highlight a noteworthy association between sadness and anxiety specifically in cases. In conclusion, our data identified concurrent psychological phenotypes in individuals experiencing sleep and memory disturbances during long COVID. This strengthens the existing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 causes widespread brain pathology with interconnected phenotypic clusters. This finding highlights the need for comprehensive medical attention to address these complex issues, as well as major investments in testing strategies capable of preventing the development of long COVID sequelae, such as vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Depressão/epidemiologia , Sono , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Dispneia , Náusea , Vômito
4.
Dent Med Probl ; 61(1): 13-21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, about 81% of the world's population moved their workplace to a home office. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this cross-sectional pilot study was to determine the impact of working and/or learning from home during the COVID-19 pandemic on the head, the neck and orofacial health in university students, faculty and staff. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants from 4 universities were recruited for an online survey. The survey included 33 questions related to demographics, health issues before and during the lockdown, work/study from home, and the awareness of the health effects of the lockdown. Descriptive statistics and single logistic regression analysis were employed. RESULTS: A total of 96 subjects aged 26 ±10.5 years participated in the study. Of these, 60% did not consider their home workstation to be adequate. The development of new symptoms or the worsening of the pre-existing symptoms was observed in 67%, 24%, 59%, and 37% of the participants with regard to neck pain, temporomandibular joint (TMJ)-related issues, headaches, and parafunctional oral habits, respectively. In addition, 87% of the respondents reported that their oral habits were aggravated by neck pain and a bad posture. As compared to the faculty and the staff, the students were more likely to experience headaches or the exacerbation of the pre-existing headaches during the pandemic. In the survey, 91% of the participants reported an increased awareness of the impact of the lockdown on their head and neck, and orofacial health. CONCLUSIONS: The present study helps understand the self-perceived effects of working and/or learning from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, and may facilitate implementing the appropriate models of treatment of the craniocervical-mandibular region during a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , SARS-CoV-2 , Cervicalgia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Cefaleia/epidemiologia
5.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 199: 475-485, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307664

RESUMO

Migraine is a complex, multifactorial brain disorder, and its presentation, complications, and response to treatment often follow the biopsychosocial model. Therefore, assessment and management include the wider aspects of the child's life within the family, at school, with peers, and in relation to his/her neurologic and emotional development. The diagnosis of headache disorders in children relies heavily on taking a careful clinical history, carrying out an appropriate physical and neurologic examination and a skilled interpretation of the findings. This chapter discusses the peculiarities of migraine in children, the differences in presentation from that in adults, and the skills that are needed in assessing the children and adolescents with headache. There is also a brief review of the epidemiology of headache and migraine in children and adolescents and an introduction of the principles of a comprehensive clinical assessment of the impact of migraine on child's quality of life. Several important elements of the clinical history and the physical and neurologic examination will be illustrated to help in the early detection of red flags that may necessitate further assessment and/or investigations. At the end of the assessment, the clinicians will be able to employ the International Classification of headache Disorders and make the correct diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Exame Neurológico
6.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 199: 505-516, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307666

RESUMO

Migraine is commonly comorbid with psychiatric conditions, particularly major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders. The presence of psychiatric disorders can make diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Existing studies suggest that the relationship between migraine and psychiatric disorders is bidirectional, such that each disorder confers increased risk for onset of the other. Mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are largely speculative but include serotonergic dysfunction, medication overuse, allostatic load, and behavioral factors such as pain-related appraisals and unwarranted avoidance behaviors. Psychiatric comorbidities present unique clinical considerations for assessment and treatment, foremost among which is a need to routinely screen migraine patients for depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Common screening considerations and measures validated on headache patients are reviewed. Comprehensive treatment of migraine requires interventional attention also to any psychiatric comorbidities, though few randomized trials have rigorously evaluated the efficacy of pharmacologic or behavioral migraine interventions for comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Most modern antidepressants lack strong efficacy for migraine, and providers often utilize separate agents to treat migraine and any psychiatric comorbidities. Recent research on adjunctive behavioral interventions such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and acceptance-based approaches suggests they hold value in reducing psychiatric symptoms, though larger trials are needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Comorbidade , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Ansiedade
7.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 22, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About one-third of persons with migraine experience transient neurologic symptoms, referred to as aura. Despite its widespread prevalence, comprehensive clinical descriptions of migraine with aura remain sparse. Therefore, we aimed to provide an in-depth phenotypic analysis of aura symptoms and characteristics in a cross-sectional study of a large sample of adults diagnosed with migraine with aura. METHODS: Data were extracted from the baseline characteristics of participants in the Registry for Migraine (REFORM) study - a single-center, prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were adults diagnosed with migraine aura, reporting ≥ 4 monthly migraine days in the preceding 3 months. Trained personnel conducted in-person semi-structured interviews, capturing details on the nature, duration, localization, and progression of individual aura symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 227 enrolled participants with migraine with aura, the mean age was 41.1 years, with a predominant female representation (n = 205 [90.3%]). Visual aura was present in 215 (94.7%) participants, somatosensory aura in 81 (35.7%), and speech and/or language aura in 31 (13.7%). A single type of aura was observed in 148 (65.2%) participants, whilst 79 (34.8%) reported multiple aura types. Most participants (n = 220 [96.9%]) described their aura symptoms as positive or gradually spreading. Headache in relation to aura was noted by 218 (96.0%) participants, with 177 (80.8%) stating that the onset of aura symptoms preceded the onset of headache. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a detailed clinical depiction of persons with migraine with aura, who were predominantly enrolled from a tertiary care unit. The findings highlight potential gaps in the available literature on migraine with aura and should bolster clinicians' acumen in diagnosing migraine with aura in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Enxaqueca com Aura , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Enxaqueca com Aura/diagnóstico , Enxaqueca com Aura/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
8.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 18, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331709

RESUMO

Headache is a common symptom of influenza infection; however, its causes and consequences remain uncertain. In this manuscript, we analyzed which demographic and clinical factors were associated with the presence of headache during the course of influenza infection and whether patients with headache had a different prognosis, evaluated by need of hospitalization, sick leave or school absenteeism. The influence study (NCT05704335) was an observational study that analyzed data routinely collected from the Health Sentinel Network between 2010 and 2020. During the study period, 7832 cases were considered, among which, 5275 (67.4%) reported headache. The presence of headache was independently associated with myalgia (2.753; 95%CI: 2.456-3.087, P < 0.001), asthenia (OR: 1.958; 95%CI: 1.732-2.214, P < 0.001), shivering (OR: 1.925; 95%CI: 1.718-2.156, P < 0.001), nasopharyngeal erythema (OR: 1.505; 95%CI: 1.293-1.753, P < 0.001), fever (OR: 1.469; 95%CI: 1.159-1.861; P = 0.001), sudden onset of symptoms (OR: 1.380; 95%CI: 1.120-1.702, p = 0.004), female sex (OR: 1.134; 95%CI: 1.023-1.257, P = 0.018), and gastrointestinal symptoms (OR: 1.169; 95%CI: 1.039-1.315; P = 0.01). Patients with headache had a sex and age adjusted lower odds of being referred to the hospital (OR: 0.463; 95%CI: 0.264-0.812, P = 0.007) and a higher odd of having a sick leave and/or school absenteeism (absenteeism (OR: 1.342; 95%CI: 1.190-1.514, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of headache seems associated with symptoms caused by the innate immune response. These findings support a headache pathophysiology linked with the innate immune response. Due to the potential negative consequences and its treatable nature, clinicians should systematically evaluate it and, whenever necessary, treat it too.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Humanos , Feminino , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Prognóstico , Hospitalização , Absenteísmo
9.
Headache ; 64(2): 211-225, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding screen use as a contributing factor in pediatric headache and migraine. BACKGROUND: Screen exposure is often reported as a headache trigger, though there is no current consensus in terms of how screen type, duration, or frequency influences pediatric headache and the associated burden of disease. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ProQuest Health and Medical Database, and Google Scholar was performed through November 2022 in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. All English-language articles of pediatric patients aged ≤18 years evaluating screen use in relation to headache were included. RESULTS: A total of 48 studies were included. Nearly all studies were cross-sectional and represented international samples. The strongest association between screen use and headache found was for duration of use, and computer use emerged as the most common device type related to headache. While there were mixed findings related to screen use and specific headache diagnosis, migraine appeared to confer a higher risk. Across studies, there were insufficient data to assess the impact of screen use on headache frequency or headache-related disability. Several studies demonstrated changes in screen use and headache patterns related to the COVID-19 pandemic and computer vision syndrome was commonly reported. CONCLUSIONS: While there is preliminary evidence supporting possible associations between screen use and pediatric headache, there are several limitations in the present review including a lack of prospective and randomized controlled trials to better demonstrate causal relationships as well as methodological limitations with significant variability in how both headache and screen use are defined and measured. Future studies including real-time screen use and device monitoring are needed to better understand the influence of screen use behaviors on pediatric headache and to help further define best-use guidelines around these technologies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Criança , Pandemias , Tempo de Tela , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399586

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Primary headaches are highly prevalent among medical students, negatively impacting their health and academic performance. Excessive electronic device use has been implicated as a risk factor, in contrast to physical activity, which may be a protective factor; however, comprehensive data are lacking, especially for Saudi medical trainees. This study aims to investigate the associations between device use, exercise, and headaches among Saudi medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 504 medical students at Jazan University completed an online survey collecting sociodemographic factors, headache characteristics/triggers, electronic device habits, exercise frequency, and headache impacts. Descriptive analyses summarized sample characteristics. Logistic regression identified predictors of 12-month headache prevalence. Results: Overall, 83% reported experiencing headaches in the past year. High headache prevalence was observed among females (86.6%) and third-year students (88.3%). Using electronic devices ≥4 h daily was associated with higher adjusted odds of headaches (OR 13.89, 95% CI 1.96-98.54) compared to ≤1 h daily. Low physical activity (exercising 1 day vs. 7 days a week) also increased headache odds (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.61-9.42). Headaches impairing productivity (OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.28-8.45) and exacerbated by exercise (OR 10.37, 95% CI 2.02-53.35) were further associated with headache susceptibility. Conclusions: Excessive electronic device use and physical inactivity appear to be modifiable risk factors for frequent headaches in Saudi medical students. Multifaceted interventions incorporating education campaigns, skills training, and support services focused on promoting responsible technology habits, and regular exercise may help mitigate headaches in this population. Robust longitudinal studies and trials are warranted to establish causal mechanisms between lifestyle factors and headaches among medical undergraduates.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Exercício Físico
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 67, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Shift work is associated with musculoskeletal pain and headaches, but little is known about how the intensity of shift work exposure is related to musculoskeletal pain and headaches. This study aimed to investigate whether a higher proportion of night shifts is associated with a higher occurrence of musculoskeletal pain and headaches. Furthermore, to investigate whether sleep duration can mediate this potential association. METHOD: The study included 684 nurses in rotating shift work who responded to a daily questionnaire about working hours, sleep, and pain for 28 consecutive days. The data were treated cross-sectionally. RESULTS: A negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI revealed that working a higher proportion of night shifts is not associated with a higher occurrence of musculoskeletal pain and headaches. On the contrary, those working ≥ 50% night shifts had a significantly lower occurrence of pain in the lower extremities than those who worked < 25% night shifts (IRR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94). There was no indication of a mediation effect with total sleep time (TST). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that working a higher proportion of night shifts is not associated with a higher occurrence of musculoskeletal pain and headaches.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Humanos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Estudos Transversais , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Sono , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Ritmo Circadiano
12.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 236: 108112, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Other primary headache disorders (OPHD) are under-investigated compared to frequent primary headache types like migraine, tension-type headache, and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Knowledge of the distribution and characteristics of OPHD subtypes is crucial for their recognition. We aimed to determine the prevalence at the hospital and headache clinics and clinical characteristics of OPHDs in patients from 13 countries. METHODS: We analyzed a large dataset from the cross-sectional study Head-MENA-A (Middle East, North Africa, Asia). Consecutive patients over 10 years of age presenting with headaches were included from outpatient, inpatient, and emergency settings. A structured questionnaire addressing demographics, headache characteristics, accompanying symptoms, and triggers was administered. Headache subtypes were diagnosed according to the ICHD-3 criteria. RESULTS: Among patients complaining of headaches (n = 3722), 106 (2.9%) were diagnosed with OPHD. Fifty-two patients (1.4% of all headache patients) had only OPHD, while 54 (1.5%) had both OPHD and a co-existing primary headache (mostly migraine). All OPHDs were more common in females. The most frequent subtypes were new daily persistent headache and primary stabbing headache (0.2% each among all admitted patients). Photophobia and phonophobia were the most frequent accompanying symptoms, while physical activity (28.8%), stress (15.4%), and the Valsalva maneuver (15.4%) were the most common triggering factors. The majority of triggering factors were more pronounced in patients with both migraine and OPHD. CONCLUSIONS: Other primary headaches are rare and heterogeneous. Their high co-existence with migraine suggests shared predisposing factors, hinting at a "headache continuum" concept for primary headaches.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários , Transtornos da Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Ásia/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/epidemiologia
13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(1): 32-37, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219161

RESUMO

Objectives: To report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, headache, jaw pain and difficulty in swallowing among people who stutter (PWS). METHODS: The cross-sectioal study was conducted from October 3, 2021, to March 21, 2022, after approval from the ethics review committee of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia, and comprised adult people who stutter belonging to different regions of Saudi Arabia. They were divided into five groups based on stuttering severity as estimated by Stuttering Severity Instrument-4. Data was collected on musculoskeletal pain in different body areas using a questionnaire.. Data ws analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 101 Arabic-speaking subjects, 63(62.4%) were males and 38(37.6%) were females. The overall mean age was 27±7 years (range: 18-39 years). The largest group was of subjects with moderate severity of stuttering 31(30.6%); 21(68%) males and 10(32%) females. The increase in number of musculoskeletal pain locations was related to the severity of stuttering (p<0.05). The most common musculoskeletal pain sites were the lower back 31(31%), neck 26(26%) and shoulder 26(26%). Frequent headaches and difficulty chewing hard food due to jaw pain were reported by 49(49%) and 22(22%) participants, respectively (p<0.05). Swallowing difficulty was reported by 9(9%) participants (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain of low intensity was found to be common among people who stuttered, and the number of pain locations was positively related to stuttering severity.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Gagueira , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Gagueira/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Deglutição , Cefaleia/epidemiologia
14.
Cephalalgia ; 44(1): 3331024231226177, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate prescription patterns for patients aged over 17 years with headaches in the REZULT database. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study (Study 1) of the proportion of over-prescription of acute medications (≥30 tablets/90 days for triptans, combination non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and multiple types; ≥45 tablets/90 days for single NSAIDs) among patients with headache diagnosed in 2020. We longitudinally studied (Study 2) patients for >2 years from initial headache diagnosis (July 2010 to April 2022). The number of prescribed tablets was counted every 90 days. RESULTS: In Study 1, headache was diagnosed in 200,055 of 3,638,125 (5.5%) patients: 13,651/200,055 (6.8%) received acute medication. Single NSAIDs were prescribed to 12,297/13,651 (90.1%) patients and triptans to 1710/13,651 (12.5%). Over-prescription was found in 2262/13,651 (16.6%) patients and 1200/13,651 (8.8%) patients received prophylactic medication. In Study 2, 408,183/6,840,618 (6.0%) patients were first diagnosed with headaches, which persisted for ≥2 years. Over time, the proportion of patients over-prescribed acute medications increased. Over 2 years, 37,617/408,183 (9.2%) patients were over-prescribed acute medications and 29,313/408,183 (7.2%) patients were prescribed prophylaxis at least once. CONCLUSIONS: According to real-world data, prophylaxis remains poorly prescribed, and both acute and prophylactic treatment rates for headaches have increased over time.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Cefaleia , Humanos , Idoso , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Triptaminas/uso terapêutico , Seguro Saúde
15.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 21, 2024 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although primary headaches are common disorders, there is little research on the possible relationship between primary headaches and oral health (decayed, missing, and filled teeth: DMFT). The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the DMFT index and primary headaches. METHOD: This descriptive study was performed on 8682 cases from the Rafsanjani cohort population based on the Rafsanjani cohort study (RCS) and Oral Health Branch of the Rafsanjan Cohort Study (OHBRCS). Episodic primary headache (EPH) and chronic primary headache (CPH) of RCS patients who participated in OHBRCS were studied according to their DMFT score in comparison to nonprimary headache patients. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were compared in different groups. We used crude and multiple logistic regression analyses in this study. RESULTS: The missing teeth were significantly higher in the CPH group than in the no CPH group (P < 0.001), and filled teeth were significantly higher in the EPH group than in the no EPH group (P < 0.001). In the crude model, there was a direct significant association between the prevalence of EPH and filled teeth total and > 5 filled teeth, and after adjusting for confounders, this relationship remained significant. The odds ratios of CPH were not associated with DMFT or its components in the adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Our study found a correlation between filled teeth and EPH cases, but no correlation between CPH and DMFT or its components.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde Bucal , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Índice CPO
16.
Headache ; 64(2): 172-178, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigmatization and trivialization of headache confront individuals with headache disorders, but the degree to which media may contribute is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of disparaging metaphorical use of the words "headache" and "migraine" in articles and summaries of major publications. METHODS: This longitudinal study analyzed a dataset of 1.3 million articles and summaries written by authors and editors of 38 major publications. Data cover written publications from 1998 up to 2017. The use of the words "headache" or "migraine" in articles and summaries by major publications was rated by two authors (P.Z. and A.V.) as either "metaphorical" or "medical" based on their contextual application. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to assess differences in the frequency of metaphorical use of "headache" in comparison to "migraine." Secondary outcomes were the source of publication and time of publication. RESULTS: A total of 6195 and 740 articles included the words "headache" or "migraine," respectively; 7100 sentences contained the word "headache" and 1652 sentences contained the word "migraine." Among a random sample of 1000 sentences with the word "headache," there was a metaphorical use in 492 (49.2% [95% CI, 46.1-52.3]) sentences. Among a random sample of 1000 sentences with the word "migraine," there was a metaphorical use in 45 (4.5% [95% CI, 3.2-5.8]) sentences. The five most prevalent sources were CNN, Fox News, The New York Times, The Guardian, and The Washington Post. There was an overall increase in the number of articles containing the words "headache" or "migraine" from database inception until analysis (1998 up to 2017). The database included no articles containing either "headache" or "migraine" in 1998; in 2016, this number was 1480 articles. CONCLUSIONS: In this longitudinal study, major publications applied a metaphorical use of "headache" about half of the time. The metaphorical use of "headache" is 11-fold greater than the metaphorical use of "migraine" in the same media sample. These depictions may contribute to the trivialization of headache and the stigmatization of individuals with headache disorders. Studies with individuals affected by headache disorders are needed to clarify potential influences.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/complicações , Transtornos da Cefaleia/complicações , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Neurology ; 102(4): e208102, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the diurnal links between average and changes in average levels of prospectively rated mood, sleep, energy, and stress as predictors of incident headache in a community-based sample. METHODS: This observational study included structured clinical diagnostic assessment of both headache syndromes and mental disorders and electronic diaries that were administered 4 times per day for 2 weeks yielding a total of 4,974 assessments. The chief outcomes were incident morning (am) and later-day (pm) headaches. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the average and lagged values of predictors including subjectively rated mood, anxiety, energy, stress, and sleep quality and objectively measured sleep duration and efficiency on incident am and pm headaches. RESULTS: The sample included 477 participants (61% female), aged 7 through 84 years. After adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates and emotional states, incident am headache was associated with lower average (ß = -0.206*; confidence intervals: -0.397 to -0.017) and a decrease in average sleep quality on the prior day (ß = -0.172*; confidence interval: -0.305, -0.039). Average stress and changes in subjective energy levels on the prior day were associated with incident headaches but with different valence for am (decrease) (ß = -0.145* confidence interval: -0.286, -0.005) and pm (increase) (ß = 0.157*; confidence interval: 0.032, 0.281) headache. Mood and anxiety disorders were not significantly associated with incident headache after controlling for history of a diagnosis of migraine. DISCUSSION: Both persistent and acute changes in arousal states manifest by subjective sleep quality and energy are salient precursors of incident headaches. Whereas poorer sleep quality and decreased energy on the prior day were associated with incident morning headache, an increase in energy and greater average stress were associated with headache onsets later in the day. Different patterns of predictors of morning and later-day incident headache highlight the role of circadian rhythms in the manifestations of headache. These findings may provide insight into the pathophysiologic processes underlying migraine and inform clinical intervention and prevention. Tracking these systems in real time with mobile technology provides a valuable ancillary tool to traditional clinical assessments.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Sono , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Afeto , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Eletrônica
18.
Cephalalgia ; 44(1): 3331024231226323, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preset study aimed to explore whether work schedules and sleep disorders predict the onset of headache. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted with questionnaire data from 2014 (baseline) and 2017 (follow-up) on work schedule, number of night shifts, number of quick returns, insomnia, shift work disorder (SWD), restless legs syndrome (RLS) and validated headache diagnoses among 1560 Norwegian nurses. Associations were explored by multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Work related factors at baseline did not predict onset of headache three years later. In the adjusted logistic regressions, insomnia at baseline predicted increased risk of new onset of migraine (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-2.33), chronic headache (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.04-4.66) and medication-overuse headache (OR = 3.79; 95% CI = 1.26-11.42) at follow-up. SWD at baseline predicted new onset of migraine (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.07-2.50) and RLS at baseline predicted new onset of headache ≥1 day per month (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.01-2.36) and migraine (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.03-2.32) at follow-up. No factors predicted tension-type headache. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, work related factors did not predict the onset of headache three years later, whereas insomnia, SWD and RLS at baseline all increased the risk of future headaches.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 119: 205-211, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141436

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Headache after cerebral venous thrombosis (post-CVT headache [PCH]) is a common complaint during follow-up. Risk factors and their pathophysiology are not well known. We studied PCH prevalence in CVT patients, its pathophysiology, and possible risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of patients admitted to a tertiary hospital between 2006 and 2019 with CVT and at least one follow-up appointment. We diagnosed PCH when patients reported headaches during the follow-up visit. Recanalization was retrospectively assessed by two neuroradiologists using the first available follow-up MRI/ MRV, and the PRIORITy-CVT study classification. RESULTS: Of 131 patients, sixty (60/131, 45.8 %) reported PCH at the 3-month follow-up. Of these PCH, 9 had previous migraine (9/60, 5.0 %) and 13 previous tension-type headaches (13/60, 21.6 %), before CVT. Forty-four (44/60, 73.3 %) PCH patients had de novo headache: 21 (21/60, 35.0 %) de novo tension-type headaches; 6 (6/60, 10.0 %) de novo migraine; 6 [(6/60, 10.0 %) secondary headache disorders: 3 due to dural arteriovenous fistula, 2 due to intracranial hypertension, and 1 recurrent CVT], and 11 other headache types. Most patients had at least partial recanalization, with no difference in PCH frequency amongst recanalization subgroups (p = 0.598). Premorbid depression (p = 0.009, OR 7.9, 95 % CI 1.6-31.4) increased the odds ratio of PCH, while superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (p = 0.005, OR 0.15, 95 % CI 0.03-0.56) decreased it. DISCUSSION: Our study shows that PCH is a common finding after CVT and elucidates potential risk factors. PCH is common in patients with previous or de novo primary headache. In PCH patients without previous headache, secondary causes of headache, namely related to CVT complications, should be excluded. PCH is also increased in patients with premorbid depression. There was no statistically significant difference in PCH amongst the PRIORITy-CVT recanalization subgroups, but most patients had at least partial recanalization.


Assuntos
Trombose Intracraniana , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Trombose Intracraniana/complicações , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/complicações , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/epidemiologia
20.
Cephalalgia ; 43(12): 3331024231218389, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypnic headache is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent headache attacks that occur exclusively during sleep, leading to awakening. Synthesizing the available epidemiological data might inform clinical decision-making. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for observational studies on hypnic headache published between 1 May 2004, and 22 December 2022. Two investigators independently screened titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis with meta-regression to estimate the prevalence of hypnic headache and its clinical features based on epidemiologic data from population-based and clinic-based studies. RESULTS: Fourteen studies, one population-based and 13 clinic-based, met our eligibility criteria. The population-based study did not identify any people with hypnic headache. From 11 clinic-based studies, the pooled relative frequency of hypnic headache was 0.21% (95%CI, 0.13 to 0.35%; I2 = 87%) in adult patients evaluated for headache. The pooled mean age of onset was 60.5 years, with a slight female predisposition. Hypnic headache was typically bilateral (71%), pressing (73%), of moderate (38%) or severe (44%) pain intensity, and lasted about 115 minutes per attack. CONCLUSIONS: Our data should be cautiously interpreted due to between-study heterogeneity. The identified clinical presentation of hypnic headache can guide clinical diagnosis, in addition to the International Classification of Headache Disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/epidemiologia , Sono , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/epidemiologia
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