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1.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2342-2350, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470796

RESUMO

Peptidoglycan (PGN) is an essential structure found in the bacterial cell wall. During the bacterial life cycle, PGN continuously undergoes biosynthesis and degradation to ensure bacterial growth and division. The resulting PGN fragments (muropeptides and peptides), which are generated by the bacterial autolytic system, are usually transported into the cytoplasm to be recycled. On the other hand, PGN fragments can act as messenger molecules involved in the bacterial cell wall stress response as in the case of ß-lactamase induction in the presence of ß-lactam antibiotic or in triggering mammalian innate immune response. During their cellular life, bacteria modulate their PGN degradation by their autolytic system or their recognition by the mammalian innate immune system by chemically modifying their PGN. Among these modifications, the amidation of the ε-carboxyl group of meso-diaminopimelic acid present in the PGN peptide chain is frequently observed. Currently, the detection and quantitation of PGN-derived peptides is still challenging because of the difficulty in separating these highly hydrophilic molecules by RP-HPLC as these compounds are eluted closely after the column void volume or coeluted in many cases. Here, we report the use of capillary zone electrophoresis coupled via an electrospray-based CE-MS interface to high-resolution mass spectrometry for the quantitation of three PGN peptides of interest and their amidated derivatives in bacterial cytoplasmic extracts. The absolute quantitation of the tripeptide based on the [13C,15N] isotopically labeled standard was also performed in crude cytoplasmic extracts of bacteria grown in the presence or absence of a ß-lactam antibiotic (cephalosporin C). Despite the high complexity of the samples, the repeatability of the CZE-MS quantitation results was excellent, with relative standard deviations close to 1%. The global reproducibility of the method including biological handling was better than 20%.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Citoplasma/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Peptidoglicano/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327477

RESUMO

It is known that a wide variety of antibacterial agents stimulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. However, its mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we unexpectedly found that transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is involved in the generation of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) initiated by cefotaxime (CTX), one of specific antibacterial cephalosporins that can trigger oxidative stress-induced cell death. TAK1-deficient macrophages were found to be sensitive to oxidative stress-induced cell death stimulated by H2O2. Curiously, however, TAK1-deficient macrophages exhibited strong resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death stimulated by CTX. Microscopic analysis revealed that CTX-induced ROS generation was overridden by knockout or inhibition of TAK1, suggesting that the kinase activity of TAK1 is required for CTX-induced ROS generation. Interestingly, pharmacological blockade of the TAK1 downstream pathways, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, did not affect the CTX-induced ROS generation. In addition, we observed that CTX promotes translocation of TAK1 to mitochondria. Together, these observations suggest that mitochondrial TAK1 mediates the CTX-induced mtROS generation through noncanonical mechanisms. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel and atypical function of TAK1 that mediates mtROS generation triggered by the specific cephalosporins.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1906-1911, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058575

RESUMO

Cephalosporins belong to the betalactam group and are frequently prescribed in both out and inpatient settings. Their broad spectrum of activity allows a varied use in most medical specialties, ranging from preoperative prophylaxis to treatment of febrile agranulocytosis. There are currently five generations of cephalosporins, mainly differentiated according to their structure, spectrum of activity and side-effect profile. So-called siderophore cephalosporins are active against many multiresistant bacteria, especially in cases of complicated urinary tract infections or ventilator-associated pneumonia. This article intends to review some general clinical principles in prescription and monitoring of patients treated with cephalosporins.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Prescrições , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 676, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raoultella planticola(R.planticola) is a very rare opportunistic pathogen and sometimes even associated with fatal infection in pediatric cases. Recently,the emergence of carbapenem resistance strains are constantly being reported and a growing source of concern for pediatricians. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported 4 cases of neonatal septicemia caused by Raoultella planticola. Their gestational age was 211 to 269 days, and their birth weight was 1490 to 3000 g.The R. planticola infections were detected on the 9th to 27th day after hospitalization and occured between May and June. They clinically manifested as poor mental response, recurrent cyanosis, apnea, decreased heart rate and blood oxygen, recurrent jaundice, fever or nonelevation of body temperature. The C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were elevated at significantly in the initial phase of the infection,and they had leukocytosis or leukopenia. Prior to R.planticola infection,all of them recevied at least one broad-spectrum antibiotic for 7-27d.All the R.planticola strains detected were only sensitive to amikacin, but resistant to other groups of drugs: cephalosporins (such as cefazolin, ceftetan,etc) and penicillins (such as ampicillin-sulbactam,piperacillin,etc),and even developed resistance to carbapenem. All the infants were clinically cured and discharged with overall good prognosis. CONCLUSION: Neonatal septicemia caused by Raoultella planticola mostly occured in hot and humid summer, which lack specific clinical manifestations. Pediatricians should keep in mind that R. planticola can be a potential source of neonatal sepsis and even has the potential to acquire carbapenem-resistance. Preventing outbreaks of epidemics requires early detection, timely diagnosis and treatment, and active isolation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso ao Nascer , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Piperacilina/farmacologia , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925914

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacterales from turkeys in Canada and characterize the associated resistance determinants. Pooled fecal samples were collected in 77 turkey farms across British Columbia, Québec, and Ontario. Isolates were obtained with and without selective enrichment cultures and compared to isolates from diagnostic submissions of suspected colibacillosis cases in Ontario. Isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF and susceptibility to ESCs was assessed by disk diffusion. The presence of blaCMY, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV was tested by PCR. Transformation experiments were used to characterize blaCMY plasmids. Genome sequencing with short and long reads was performed on a representative sample of blaCTX-M-positive isolates to assess isolates relatedness and characterize blaCTX-M plasmids. For the positive enrichment cultures (67% of total samples), 93% (587/610) were identified as E. coli, with only a few other Enterobacterales species identified. The frequency of ESC resistance was low in E. coli isolates from diagnostic submission (4%) and fecal samples without selective enrichment (5%). Of the ESC-resistant Enterobacterales isolates from selective enrichments, 71%, 18%, 14%, and 8% were positive for blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV, respectively. IncI1 followed by IncK were the main incompatibility groups identified for blaCMY plasmids. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was found repeatedly on IncI1 plasmids of the pMLST type 3, while blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-55, and blaCTX-M-65 were associated with a variety of IncF plasmids. Clonal spread of strains carrying blaCTX-M genes between turkey farms was observed, as well as the presence of an epidemic blaCTX-M-1 plasmid in unrelated E. coli strains. In conclusion, Enterobacterales resistant to ESCs were still widespread at low concentration in turkey feces two years after the cessation of ceftiofur use. Although blaCMY-2 is the main ESC resistance determinant in E. coli from Canadian turkeys, blaCTX-M genes also occur which are often carried by multidrug resistance plasmids. Both clonal spread and horizontal gene transfer are involved in parallel in the spread of blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacterales from Canadian turkeys.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
6.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(4): 310-321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663440

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have been reported as cause of serious hospital-acquired infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam compared to other agents against GNB isolated from patients admitted to Brazilian medical centers between the years 2016 and 2017. Presence of ß-lactamase encoding genes was also evaluated. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of GNB isolated from intra-abdominal (IAI), respiratory (RTI), and urinary tract infections (UTI) was performed according to ISO 227-1 guidelines and interpreted following CLSI and BrCAST/EUCAST guidelines. Qualifying Enterobacteriaceae isolates were screened for the presence of ß-lactamase genes by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: 1748 GNB collected from UTI (45.2%), IAI (25.7%) and RTI (29.1%) were evaluated. Ceftolozane-tazobactam remained highly active (94.7%) against E. coli isolates. Among K. pneumoniae, susceptibility rates were 85.9% and 85.4% for amikacin and colistin, whereas ceftolozane-tazobactam (44.1% susceptible) and carbapenems (55.2-62.2% susceptible) showed poor activity due to blaKPC-2. Against E. cloacae amikacin, imipenem, and meropenem retained good activity (>90%). Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most potent ß-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa (90.9% susceptible), including ceftazidime and imipenem resistant isolates. ß-lactamase encoding genes testing was carried out in 433 isolates. blaCTX-M variants were predominant in E. coli, P. mirabilis and E. cloacae. Among the K. pneumoniae molecularly tested, most carried blaKPC (68.5%), with all harboring blaKPC-2, except two isolates carrying blaKPC-3 or blaKPC-30. ESBL encoding genes, mainly CTX-M family, were frequently detected in K. pneumoniae, plasmid-mediated AmpC were rare. A variety of PDC encoding genes were detected in P. aeruginosa isolates with five isolates harboring MBL and one KPC encoding genes. CONCLUSION: Ceftolozane-tazobactam was very active against E. coli, P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa isolates and could constitute an excellent therapeutic option including for those isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems but not producers of carbapenemases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Brasil , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Tazobactam
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 544, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify ten different 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes (rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, armA, rmtF, npmA, rmtH, rmtE and rmtG) and their coexisting ESBL and carbapenemase with the emergence of three E.coli clones within a single study centre. METHODS: A total of 329 non-duplicate E.coli isolates were studied to detect the presence of 16S rRNA methyltransferases along with ß-lactamases (TEM, SHV, OXA, VEB, GES, PER,CTX-M types, NDM, OXA-48,VIM, IMP and KPC) using PCR assay. Horizontal transferability were validated by transformation and conjugation analysis. Plasmid incompatibility typing and MLST analysis was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 117 isolates were found to be resistant to at least one of the aminoglycoside antibiotics. It was observed that 77 (65.8%) were positive for 16S rRNA methyltransferases. Among them thirty nine isolates were found to harbour only blaCTX-M-15, whereas combination of genes were observed in three isolates (blaVEB+ blaCTX-M-15 in 2 isolates and blaPER + blaCTX-M-15 in 1 isolate). blaNDM and blaOXA-48 like genes were found in 23 and 9 isolates, respectively. All the resistance genes were conjugatively transferable, and incompatibility typing showed multiple 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes were originated from a single Inc. I1 group. MLST analysis detected 3 clones of E.coliST4410, ST1341 and ST3906. CONCLUSION: The present study identified emergence of three clones of E.coli, resistant to aminoglycoside -cephalosporin- carbapenem. This warrants immediate measures to trace their transmission dynamics in order to slow down their spread in clinical setting.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108559, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599476

RESUMO

Salmonella Heidelberg resistant to ceftiofur (a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial agent) in broiler chicken products pose a risk to public health in Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the extent of that risk and to evaluate the effect of intervention measures along the agri-food chain. A stochastic farm-to-fork quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed following the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance. Different scenarios were analyzed to assess the individual relative effects of 18 possible interventions in comparison to a baseline scenario. The baseline scenario represented the first year of on-farm antimicrobial use surveillance in the Canadian broiler industry and the year before an industry-imposed ban on the preventive use of antimicrobials of very high importance to human health (2013), where 31.3% of broiler flocks consisted of birds to which ceftiofur was administered. The baseline scenario predicted an average probability of illness of 1.1 per 100,000 servings (SE: 0.064 per 100,000), corresponding to an average of 22,000 human infections (SE: 1900) with ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg per year, which is likely an overestimation. This risk was reduced by 90% or 20% when two separate scenarios designed to capture the effect of withdrawing preventive ceftiofur use from poultry production were simulated using different approaches; data used for the former scenario were confounded by other potential concomitant control measures (e.g. Salmonella vaccination programme), so the true effect likely lies somewhere between the two estimates. A theoretical 'worst case' scenario where all flocks had birds exposed to ceftiofur increased the risk by 107%. A 50% reduction in the probability of human prior exposure to antimicrobials, which has a selective and competitive effect for Salmonella spp. following ingestion of contaminated products, reduced the risk by 65%. Other promising measures that could be considered for further risk management included improved cleaning and disinfection between broiler flocks on farm (risk reduction by 26%), exclusive use of air chilling (risk reduction by 34%), and the improvement of meat storage and preparation conditions, e.g., no temperature abuse at retail (risk reduction by 88%). These findings showed the importance of a structured approach to assessing and potentially implementing effective interventions to reduce the risk associated with ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg at different steps along the agri-food chain. Major data gaps included information on concentrations of resistant bacteria, cross contamination at processing and how ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg behave in comparison with susceptible ones, e.g., in terms of growth and survival ability, as well as pathogenicity and virulence.


Assuntos
Resistência às Cefalosporinas , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus) is the etiologic agent for the sexually transmitted Infection gonorrhea, a disease with a significant global public health impact. The treatment regimen for gonorrhea has been changed frequently over the past few decades due to the organism's propensity for developing antibiotic resistance. This study investigated antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of quinolones, third-generation cephalosporin, and other relevant antimicrobials found in N. gonorrhoeae isolated from men presenting with urethral discharge at selected healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with the aim of revising the national treatment regimen based on the information generated from this study. METHODS: A total of 599 male patients presenting with urethral discharge were included in the current study. Urethral discharge specimens were cultured on Modified Thayer Martín media and suspected gonococcal colonies were confirmed using Oxidase and Superoxol tests followed by identification through a commercial kit (API-NHR). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using ciprofloxacin (5µg), ceftriaxone (30µg), cefixime (5µg), cefoxitin (30 µg), penicillin (10µg) and spectinomycin (100 µg) on enriched GC agar. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was also carried out using concentration gradient strips (E-tests) of the same antimicrobial agents. RESULTS: The prevalence of gonococcal isolates in the current study was 69%. Out of the 361 gonococcal isolates, close to 68% were fluoroquinolone non-susceptible, with 60% resistant and 7% having an intermediate status. However, all tested isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. In addition, all of the isolates have shown reduced non-susceptibility to spectinomycin and cefoxitin. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of gonococcal isolates in men presenting with urethral discharge at selected healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was found to be high. The high level of fluoroquinolone resistance observed in gonococcal isolates recovered in this study necessitates revision of the national syndromic treatment guideline.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Líquidos Corporais/microbiologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Gonorreia/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/patogenicidade , Uretra/microbiologia , Uretra/patologia
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6473-6492, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448572

RESUMO

Selective dry-cow therapy (SDCT) could be used to reduce antibiotic use on commercial dairy farms in the United States but is not yet widely adopted, possibly due to concerns about the potential for negative effects on cow health. The objective of this study was to compare culture- and algorithm-guided SDCT programs with blanket dry-cow therapy (BDCT) in a multi-site, randomized, natural exposure, non-inferiority trial for the following quarter-level outcomes: antibiotic use at dry-off, dry period intramammary infection (IMI) cure risk, dry period new IMI risk, and IMI risk at 1 to 13 d in milk (DIM). Two days before planned dry-off, cows in each of 7 herds were randomly allocated to BDCT, culture-guided SDCT (cult-SDCT), or algorithm-guided SDCT (alg-SDCT). At dry-off, BDCT cows received an intramammary antibiotic (500 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride) in all 4 quarters. Antibiotic treatments were selectively allocated to quarters of cult-SDCT cows by treating only quarters from which aseptically collected milk samples tested positive on the Minnesota Easy 4Cast plate (University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN) after 30 to 40 h of incubation. For alg-SDCT cows, antibiotic treatments were selectively allocated at the cow level, with all quarters receiving antibiotic treatment if the cow had either a Dairy Herd Improvement Association test somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL during the current lactation or 2 or more clinical mastitis cases during the current lactation. All quarters of all cows were treated with an internal teat sealant. Intramammary infection status at enrollment and at 1 to 13 DIM was determined using standard bacteriological methods. The effect of treatment group on dry period IMI cure, dry period new IMI, and IMI risk at 1 to 13 DIM was determined using generalized linear mixed models (logistic), with marginal standardization to derive risk difference (RD) estimates. Quarter-level antibiotic use at dry-off for each group was BDCT (100%), cult-SDCT (45%), and alg-SDCT (45%). The crude dry period IMI cure risk for all quarters was 87.5% (818/935), the crude dry period new IMI risk was 20.1% (764/3,794), and the prevalence of IMI at 1 to 13 DIM was 23% (961/4,173). Non-inferiority analysis indicated that culture- and algorithm-guided SDCT approaches performed at least as well as BDCT for dry period IMI cure risk. In addition, the final models indicated that the risks for each of the 3 IMI measures were similar between all 3 treatment groups (i.e., RD estimates and 95% confidence intervals all close to 0). These findings indicate that under the conditions of this trial, culture- and algorithm-guided SDCT can substantially reduce antibiotic use at dry-off without negatively affecting IMI dynamics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Leite/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevalência
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(5): 1238-1247, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430970

RESUMO

AIMS: To analyse and compare the effect of selection power for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in coliforms of two kinds of ß-lactams-aminopenicillins; ampicillin (Amp) and cephalosporins; cephalexin (Cpn) and ceftiofur (Cef)-and tetracycline (Tet) using an approach based on a swine faecal microcosmos. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen faecal samples from 32 pigs (mixed two by two) were treated with Amp, Cpn, Cef and Tet for 6 h (T6h) at concentrations expected to reach the animals gut when using in vivo standard doses. Controls (no drug added) were also tested. Next, samples were 1 : 100 diluted and left under the same conditions (no antimicrobial added) for further 20 h (T20h). The proportion of resistant coliform bacteria (R coliforms) to each antimicrobial was analysed just before starting the treatment (T0), at T6h and at T20h. Coselection was also studied by replica plating. Treatment for 6 h yielded significant increase in proportion of R coliforms, regardless of the drug and lack of selection pressure showed different effects at T20h depending on the antimicrobial used. Selective pressure was associated with the type of the ß-lactam with Amp selecting for significantly higher numbers of R coliforms than cephalosporins. CONCLUSIONS: AMR development was observed following short treatment, and for Amp and Tet treatment, resistance persisted 20 h beyond the interruption of treatment. An association between kind of ß-lactam and power of selection was found. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: AMR represents a threat to human health globally and antimicrobial treatment of livestock has a direct impact on this problem. Through our approach based on a swine faecal microcosmos, we demonstrated the effect on AMR development of several drugs commonly used in livestock. Cephalosporins, representing last-line antimicrobials in human medicine, exerted lower selective pressure than Amp under the conditions used and yielded higher proportion of multidrug-R strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
12.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(2): 96-103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of antibiotic resistance is increasing and there are few effective antibiotics to treat infections caused by resistant and multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam against clinical bacterial isolates from Brazil. METHODS: A total of 673 Gram-negative bacterial isolates including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Enterobacterales collected from 2016 to 2017 were tested, most of them isolated from patients in intensive care units. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50/90) were determined by broth microdilution for amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftolozane-tazobactam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, ertapenem, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam using dried panels. Antimicrobial susceptibility results were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates to ceftolozane-tazobactam ranged from 40.4% to 94.9%. P. aeruginosa susceptibility rate to ceftolozane-tazobactam was 84.9% (MIC50/90, 1/16µg/mL) and 99.2% to colistin. For E. coli, ceftolozane-tazobactam inhibited 94.9% (MIC50/90, 0.25/1µg/mL) of the microorganisms. The susceptibility rate of K. pneumoniae to ceftolozane-tazobactam was 40.4% (MIC50/90, 16/>32µg/mL). Other Enterobacterales have shown susceptibility rates of 81.1% (MIC50/90, 0.5/16µg/mL) to ceftolozane-tazobactam, 93.9% to meropenem, 90.9% to amikacin (90.9%), and 88.6% to ertapenem. In non-carbapenemase producing isolates, AmpC mutations were found three isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Ceftolozane-tazobactam has shown relevant activity against a large variety of the analyzed microorganisms collected from multiple centers in Brazil, showing promising results even in multidrug resistant strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tazobactam/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
13.
Klin Padiatr ; 232(4): 203-209, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extensive use of antibiotics is reflected by an increasing prevalence of infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria, including third-generation cephalosporin-resistant bacteria (3GCRB). For neonatal intensive care units screening and enhanced barrier precautions are recommended to control the spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, while evidence for efficacy of barrier precautions remains scarce in a non-outbreak setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of a screening program for maternal 3GCRB colonization and the effects of contact precautions and cohort nursing, concerning the risk of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) and antibiotic use rates (AURs). STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective matched-pair cohort study, data of neonates exposed to maternal 3GCRB colonization were compared with findings in non-exposed neonates. RESULTS: Of 3,144 neonates admitted, 184 neonates born to 3GCRB-positive mothers were eligible. Among them, 37 (20%) became 3GCRB positive during hospital stay. 3GCRB-exposed infants had a lower rate of LOS (6.5 vs. 14.1%, p=0.03) and lower AURs in that time period compared to controls (mean 0.009 vs. 0.025, p=0.006). When started within the first 72h after birth, days of therapy with meropenem were significantly lower in non-exposed vs. 3GCRB-exposed infants (mean 0.13 vs. 0.42; p=0.002). No invasive infections with 3GCRB occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Neonates of 3GCRB-positive mothers do not have an increased a priori risk for invasive 3GCRB infection and may benefit from enhanced contact precautions measures. HINTERGRUND: Der zunehmende Einsatz von Antibiotika führt zu einem Anstieg von Infektionen mit multiresistenten Erregern wie z. B. Drittgeneration Cephalosporin-resistenten Bakterien (3GCRB). Empfehlungen zu Screening- und Kohortierungsmaßnahmen auf neonatologischen Intensivstationen zielen auf die Prävention von horizontaler Transmission und invasiven Infektionen ab. Für Nicht-Ausbruchssituationen ist die Evidenz für Hygienemaßnahmen und Screeningprogrammen unzureichend. ZIEL: Evaluation eines Screening für mütterliche 3GCRB-Besiedlung mit nachfolgender Isolation bzw. Kohortenpflege des Neugeborenen (NG) unter Bezug auf das Risiko einer Late-Onset-Sepsis (LOS) und die Anzahl der Antibiotika-Tage (AUR). STUDIENDESIGN: In einer retrospektiven Fall-Kontroll-Kohortenstudie wurden Daten von NG mit maternaler 3GCRB-Besiedelung im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe mit unauffälligem Screening analysiert. ERGEBNISSE: In einer Kohorte von 3144 NG fanden sich 184 NG von 3GCRB-besiedelten Müttern. Bei 37 (20%) wurde im Verlauf eine Besiedelung mit 3GCRB nachgewiesen. In der Gruppe der 3GCRB-exponierten NG kam es seltener zu einer LOS (6,5 vs. 14,1%, p=0,03). Zwischen dem 4. Lebenstag und der Entlassung hatten 3GCRB-exponierte NG eine niedrigere AUR (Mittelwert 0,009 vs. 0,025, p=0,006) als die Kontrollgruppe. Die Behandlungstage mit Meropenem (Start in den ersten 3 Lebenstagen), war in der Kontrollgruppe signifikant geringer als in der 3GCRB-exponierten Gruppe (Mittelwert 0,13 vs. 0,43 Tage; p=0,002). In beiden Gruppen trat keine invasive Infektion mit 3GCRB auf. SCHLUSSFOLGERUNG: Neugeborene, deren Mütter 3GCRB besiedelt sind, haben kein erhöhtes a priori Risiko für eine invasive Infektion mit 3GCRB Erregern und profitieren wahrscheinlich von erweiterten Kohortierungs- und Isolationsmaßnahmen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6493-6503, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331877

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare culture- and algorithm-guided selective dry-cow therapy (SDCT) programs with blanket dry-cow therapy (BDCT) in a multi-site, randomized, natural exposure clinical trial for the following cow-level outcomes: clinical mastitis, removal from the herd, and Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) test-day milk yield and SCC measures during the first 120 d in milk (DIM). Two days before planned dry-off, cows in each of 7 herds were randomly allocated to BDCT, culture-guided SDCT (cult-SDCT), or algorithm-guided SDCT (alg-SDCT). At dry-off, BDCT cows received an intramammary antibiotic (500 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride) in all 4 quarters. Antibiotic treatments were selectively allocated to quarters of cult-SDCT cows by only treating quarters from which aseptically collected milk samples tested positive on a rapid culture system after 30 to 40 h of incubation. For alg-SDCT cows, antibiotic treatments were selectively allocated at the cow level, with all quarters receiving antibiotic treatment if the cow met at least one of the following criteria: (1) any DHIA test with a somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL during the current lactation, and (2) ≥2 clinical mastitis cases during the current lactation. All quarters of all cows were treated with an internal teat sealant. Clinical mastitis and removal from the herd events (i.e., culling or death) and DHIA test-day data from dry-off to 120 DIM were extracted from herd records. Hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of treatment group on clinical mastitis and removal from the herd during 1 to 120 DIM were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression. The effects of treatment group on test-day loge-transformed SCC and milk yield were determined using linear mixed models. Final models indicated that either SDCT program was unlikely to increase clinical mastitis risk (HRcult-SDCT/BDCT = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.15; HRalg-SDCT/BDCT = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.09) or test-day logeSCC (cult-SDCT minus BDCT = 0.05, 95% CI: -0.09, 0.18; alg-SDCT minus BDCT = 0.07, 95% CI: -0.07, 0.21). Risk of removal from the herd and test-day milk yield were similar between treatment groups. Findings from this study indicate that culture- or algorithm-guided SDCT can be used at dry-off without negatively affecting cow health and performance in early lactation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Colostro , Feminino , Leite/citologia , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
15.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(5): 308-315, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298548

RESUMO

Salmonella is one of the leading bacterial pathogens of acute diarrhea as well as foodborne outbreaks. Salmonellosis can occur as gastroenteritis with the development of complications and generalization of infection, also the extra intestinal diseases that require antibiotic therapy are often registered. Currently, the effectiveness of many antibiotics is reduced due to the development of resistance in Salmonella. National Salmonella surveillance systems monitor Salmonella resistance to «critically important for medicine¼ antibiotics (extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones), as well as multidrug resistance. Quinoloneresistant Salmonella is considered as a high-priority resitant pathogen by the World Health Organization. The article describes the current situation on salmonellosis in the world. Foreign and Russian current data about the leading Salmonella serotypes in different regions of the world are presented. The prevalence of clinically significant resistance depending of the Salmonella serotypes in countries with state monitoring systems is shown. The authors described the leading molecular resistance mechanisms (chromosomal and plasmid mediated) and showed their prevalence in different Salmonella serotypes. The article gives the information about Salmonella successful international multidrug resistant clones with specific resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The authors describe the molecular methods for detection of resistance mechanisms, and show the necessity and significance of antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring in the epidemiological Salmonella surveillance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(13)2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276982

RESUMO

Dissemination of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella, especially extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella, is a concern worldwide. Here, we assessed Salmonella carriage by food workers in Japan to clarify the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella harboring bla CTX-M We then characterized the genetic features, such as transposable elements, of bla CTX-M-harboring plasmids using whole-genome sequencing. A total of 145,220 stool samples were collected from food workers, including cooks and servers from several restaurants, as well as food factory workers, from January to October 2017. Isolated salmonellae were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method), and whole-genome sequencing was performed for Salmonella strains harboring bla CTX-M Overall, 164 Salmonella isolates (0.113%) were recovered from 164 samples, from which we estimated that at least 0.113% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.096 to 0.132%) of food workers may carry Salmonella Based on this estimation, 3,473 (95% CI = 2,962 to 4,047) individuals among the 3,075,330 Japanese food workers are likely to carry Salmonella Of the 158 culturable isolates, seven showed resistance to ESCs: three isolates harbored bla CMY-2 and produced AmpC ß-lactamase, while four ESBL-producing isolates harbored bla CTX-M-14 (n = 1, Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg) or bla CTX-M-15 (n = 3, S. enterica serovar Haardt). bla CTX-M-15 was chromosomally located in the S Haardt isolates, which also contained ISEcp1, while the S Senftenberg isolate contained an IncFIA(HI1)/IncHI1A/IncHI1B(R27) hybrid plasmid carrying bla CTX-M-14 along with ISEcp1 This study indicates that food workers may be a reservoir of ESBL-producing Salmonella and associated genes. Thus, these workers may contribute to the spread of bla CTX-M via plasmids or mobile genetic elements such as ISEcp1 IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella bacteria arise in farm environments through imprudent use of antimicrobials. Subsequently, these antimicrobial-resistant strains, such as extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella, may be transmitted to humans via food animal-derived products. Here, we examined Salmonella carriage among food handlers in Japan. Overall, 164 of 145,220 fecal samples (0.113%) were positive for Salmonella Among the 158 tested isolates, four were identified as ESBL-producing isolates carrying ESBL determinants bla CTX-M-15 or bla CTX-M-14 In all cases, the genes coexisted with ISEcp1, regardless of whether they were located on the chromosome or on a plasmid. Our findings suggest that food workers may be a reservoir of ESBL-producing strains and could contribute to the spread of resistance genes from farm-derived Salmonella to other bacterial species present in the human gut.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Indústria Alimentícia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108643, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273023

RESUMO

We investigated the characteristics and persistence of Escherichia coli resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) by early administration of ceftiofur or gentamicin and to analyze the impact of 3GC use in hatcheries. We studied 10 ceftiofur-treated flocks (CTFs) and 10 gentamicin-treated flocks (GTFs) of layers. Fecal samples were collected at 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, and 30 weeks of age for all flocks. Among the 446 E. coli isolates, 58 (29.0 %) of 200 isolates in CTFs were identified as 3GC-resistant E. coli and 28 (11.4 %) of 246 isolates in GTFs were identified as 3GC-resistant E. coli. The presence of 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates at 1, 2, and 4 weeks was significantly higher in CTFs than in GTFs (p < 0.05). Moreover, the rate of resistance to 3GCs gradually decreased from 83.3 % at 1 week of age to 4.4 % at 30 weeks of age in CTFs. Of the 86 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates, 32 isolates had ß-lactamase-encoding gene: blaCTX-M-14 (ten isolates), blaCTX-M-15 (three isolates), blaCMY-2 (five isolates), and blaTEM-1 (twenty-five isolates) genes. Plasmid replicon typing revealed that blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY-2, and blaTEM-1 were located on F, F and FIB, I1 and K, and I1 and FII, respectively. Furthermore, 18 isolates carried class 1 integrons, with four different gene cassettes. These results revealed that ceftiofur used in hatcheries can lead to an increase in the number of 3GC-resistant E. coli with many characteristics. A voluntary ban must be imposed on the use of 3GCs for 1-day-old chicks in poultry industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , beta-Lactamases/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130234

RESUMO

In many countries, emission of insufficiently treated wastewater into water bodies appears to be an important factor in spreading clinically relevant antimicrobial resistant bacteria. In this study, we looked for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae strains with resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporin antibiotics in four urban wetlands in southwestern Nigeria by isolation, whole genome sequencing and qPCR enumeration of marker genes. Genome analysis of multi-drug resistant and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates (members of the widely distributed ST10 complex) revealed the presence of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-15 on self-transmissible IncF plasmids. The gene was also present together with a blaTEM-1B gene on self-transmissible IncH plasmids in multi-drug resistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates. A Citrobacter freundii isolate carried blaTEM-1B on an IncR-type plasmid without discernable conjugation apparatus. All strains were isolated from a wetland for which previous qPCR enumeration of marker genes, in particular the ratio of intI1 to 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, had indicated a strong anthropogenic impact. Consistent with the isolation origin, qPCR analysis in this study showed that the blaCTX-M gene was present at an abundance of 1x10-4 relative to bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. The results indicate that contamination of these urban aquatic ecosystems with clinically relevant antibiotic resistant bacteria is substantial in some areas. Measures should therefore be put in place to mitigate the propagation of clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance within the Nigerian aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cidades , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Áreas Alagadas , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nigéria , Prevalência
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108601, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated cephalosporinases (pAmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates are now reported worldwide in humans, animals, and in the environment. We identified the determinants of resistance to ß-lactams and associated resistance genes as well as phylogenetic diversity of 53 ESBL- or pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from dogs and cats in Europe. MATERIALS/METHODS: Of a collection of 842 Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were recovered in 2013 and 2014 from 842 diseased and untreated dogs and cats, for 242 ampicillin or amoxicillin resistant isolates (MIC ≥ 16 mg/L), cefotaxime (CTX) and ceftazidime (CAZ) MICs were determined. Isolates with CTX and/or CAZ MIC ≥ 1 mg/L (n = 63) were selected, and their genomes were fully sequenced using Illumina Technology. Genomic data were explored to identify the resistance determinants, the plasmid incompatibility groups, and the sequence types (STs). Plasmid location of blaESBL and blaAmpC was evaluated for all isolates based on the co-localization of resistance and plasmid incompatibility group genes on the same contig. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using core-genome MLST. RESULTS: Of the 63 sequenced isolates, 53 isolates harbored a blaESBL or blaAmpC gene. Ten CTX and/or CAZ non-wild type isolates had neither blaESBL nor blaAmpC. Among the 63 isolates, 44 (69.8 %) were Escherichia coli, 11 (17.5 %) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 8 (12.7 %) were Proteus mirabilis. Fifty-one (80.9 %) isolates originated from dogs and 12 (19.1 %) from cats. Isolates were sampled from urinary tract (n = 36), skin and soft tissue (n = 22) and respiratory tract infections (n = 5). Thirty-two isolates (32/53, 60.4 %) carried blaESBL genes, including blaCTX-M-15 (n = 12), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 6), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 5), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-27 (n = 3), blaSHV-28 (n = 4), blaSHV-12 (n = 2), and blaVEB-6 (n = 1). Four isolates of K. pneumoniae had both blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-28. Twenty-one isolates (21/53, 39.6 %) carried genes encoding pAmpC, including blaCMY-2 (n = 19) and blaDHA-1 (n = 2). Thirteen E. coli isolates harbored both blaESBL or blaAmpC genes and plasmids of incompatibility groups IncIB (9/13), IncI1 (8/13), and IncFII (6/13). In addition to the reduced susceptibility to CTX and/or CAZ, reduced susceptibility or evidence of acquired resistance to at least one other relevant class of antibiotics was observed for all 63 isolates. E. COLI: isolates clustered in 23 STs, including B2 virulent clones from humans such as ST131 (n = 5), K. pneumoniae isolates mostly clustered in 3 STs: ST11 (n = 4), ST307 (n = 3), and ST16 (n = 2). Phylogenetic analysis identified the spread of E. coli ST131 blaCTX-M-27, and of K. pneumoniae ST307 harboring blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-28 or ST11 blaCTX-M-15. CONCLUSIONS: We report here a 6.3 % prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in diseased dogs and cats. This EU survey confirms that dogs and cats can be infected with epidemic multidrug resistant clones that may also spread in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Prevalência
20.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 132-137, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141866

RESUMO

This article presents the results of sensitivity/resistance of microbial strains isolated from three biotopes, in premature infants: mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, urinary system and colon after 72 hours after birth, as well as on the 14th and 30th day of life. During the study, total 677 strains of various microorganism species were isolated of which gram-positive flora - 386 microbial strains, almost 1.5 times predominated over gram-negative (291 strains) flora. Determination of sensitivity/resistance to antibiotics was carried out by two methods - a disc diffusion and a dilution methods on a solid nutrient medium. In the process of study of specificities of neonatal period, the influence of duration of antibiotic therapy, which newborns received during hospitalization period, was assessed. As a result, the number of schemes varied from 4 to 17, and the duration of treatment was 22-19 days. The most frequently used drugs were: Carbapenems, Glycopeptide, as well as third generation Cephalosporin and Aminoglicosides.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
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