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1.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116694, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343400

RESUMO

Poor management of crop residues leads to environmental pollution and composting is a sustainable practice for addressing the challenge. However, knowledge about composting with pure crop straw is still limited, which is a novel and feasible composting strategy. In this study, pure corn straw was in-situ composted for better management. Community structure of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms during composting was deciphered using high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that the compost was mature with organic matter content of 37.83% and pH value of 7.36 and pure corn straw could be composted successfully. Cooling phase was major period for cellulose degradation with the highest ß-glucosidase activity (476.25 µmol·p-Nitr/kg·dw·min) and microbial diversity (Shannon index, 3.63; Chao1 index, 500.81). Significant compositional succession was observed in the functional communities during composting with Streptomyces (14.32%), Trichoderma (13.85%) and Agromyces (11.68%) as dominant genera. ß-Glucosidase-producing bacteria and fungi worked synergistically as a network to degrade cellulose with Streptomyces (0.3045**) as the key community revealed by multi-interaction analysis. Organic matter (-0.415***) and temperature (-0.327***) were key environmental parameters regulating cellulose degradation via influencing ß-glucosidase-producing communities, and ß-glucosidase played a key role in mediating this process. The above results indicated that responses of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms to cellulose degradation were reflected at both network and individual levels and multi-interaction analysis could better explain the relationship between variables concerning composting cellulose degradation. The work is of significance for understanding cellulose degradation microbial communities and process during composting of pure corn straw.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Streptomyces , Trichoderma , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Solo , Celulose/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Esterco
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 300: 120263, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372513

RESUMO

The scCO2-assisted organosolv pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was carried out using aqueous ethanol and organic acid catalysts. Variables involved were temperature (150-190 °C), time (0-60 min), type of catalyst (acetic, citric, and oxalic acids), amount of CO2 (25-50 g), ethanol titer in water (0-80 vol%), and catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1.5 % w·v-1). The best delignification (86 wt%) and glucan retention (89 wt%) were achieved at 170 °C for 15 min using 60 vol% ethanol in water, 1 wt% oxalic acid, and 25 g CO2. Organic acid esterification was a limitation for pretreatment operations using ethanol titers above 60 vol%. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated materials at 1 % (w·v-1) glucans released 74.3 ± 0.2 % glucose in 96 h using Cellic CTec3 (Novozymes) at 9.89 FPU·gglucans-1. The concentrated pretreatment liquor allowed lignin recovery by water precipitation in high yields, while the aqueous supernatant contained low levels of fermentation inhibitors.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Celulose/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono , Etanol , Lignina , Hidrólise , Ácidos , Compostos Orgânicos , Fermentação , Água
3.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 162: 110119, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115274

RESUMO

Enzymatically pre-treated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was used as substrate for sequential production of hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4). In stage I, SCB was used by autochthonous bacteria, such as Enterococcus (42.4 % relative abundance) and Paraclostridium (16.8 %) for H2 production (166.8 mL H2/L), while the metabolites accumulated at the end of this stage (9140.5 mg HAc/L) were used by allochthonous inoculum for CH4 production (870.8 mL CH4/L) in stage II. In stage II, hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus, 49.1 %) and acetoclastic (Methanosaeta, 15.5 %) archaeal genera were identified and considered important to maintain low H2 pressure in the system. According to gene inference, the hydrolysis of the SCB fiber was performed in both stages, as potential ß-glucosidase and 1,4-ß-xylosidase encoding genes were predicted. However, the energy metabolism of microbial populations differed, as potential genes involved in CH4 metabolism were predominant in phase II (39.0 %).


Assuntos
Saccharum , Saccharum/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos , Anaerobiose , Metano , Reatores Biológicos
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2566: 269-279, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152259

RESUMO

The plant cell wall comprises various types of macromolecules whose abundance and spatial distribution change dynamically and are crucial for plant architecture. High-resolution live cell imaging of plant cell wall components is, therefore, a powerful tool for plant cell biology and plant developmental biology. To acquire suitable data, the experimental setup for staining and imaging of non-fixed samples must be straightforward and avoid creating stress-induced artifacts. We present a detailed sample preparation and live image acquisition protocol for fluorescence visualization of cell wall components using commercially available probes and stains.


Assuntos
Celulose , Pectinas , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 133997, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037687

RESUMO

The effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on softening, cell wall components and cell wall metabolic genes in okras after harvest was studied. The results showed that HRW treatment could maintain fruit firmness and delay softening, thereby prolonging shelf life in okras during storage. The treated okras displayed significantly lower levels water- and chelate-soluble pectins while higher contents of Na2CO3-soluble pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. The cell wall biosynthesis was maintained by HRW treatment via up-regulating genes involved in biosynthesis of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose at the beginning of storage. On the contrary, the treatment could inhibit the cell wall disassembly due to the down-regulation of numerous cell wall degradative genes including AePME, AeGAL and AeCX at the end of storage. Taken together, our results suggested that HRW treatment delayed softening and extended shelf life in postharvest okras through modifying cell wall biosynthesis and disassembly at different times of storage.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus , Frutas , Abelmoschus/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Pectinas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
6.
Sci Adv ; 8(46): eabq6971, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383676

RESUMO

Controlled primary cell wall remodeling allows plant growth under stressful conditions, but how these changes are conveyed to adjust cellulose synthesis is not understood. Here, we identify the TETRATRICOPEPTIDE THIOREDOXIN-LIKE (TTL) proteins as new members of the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) and describe their unique and hitherto unknown dynamic association with the CSC under cellulose-deficient conditions. We find that TTLs are essential for maintaining cellulose synthesis under high-salinity conditions, establishing a stress-resilient cortical microtubule array, and stabilizing CSCs at the plasma membrane. To fulfill these functions, TTLs interact with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 1 (CESA1) and engage with cortical microtubules to promote their polymerization. We propose that TTLs function as bridges connecting stress perception with dynamic regulation of cellulose biosynthesis at the plasma membrane.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(11): 683, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318370

RESUMO

Microbial communities for bioconversion of lignocellulose have received widespread attention. Many cellulose-degrading microbial communities have been enriched from different sources. Combining two microbial communities with acidic and basic properties (acid-base combination) is a technique used alongside restricted enrichment culturing. Understanding how changes to microbial communities result in community's structure and function is important for mechanistic reconstruction of microbiomes. In this study, we analyzed changes in microbial community structure to elucidate determination of the mechanisms of acid-base combination. We found that after restricted enrichment, the bacteria that were primarily retaining included not only those that decompose and utilize lignocellulose, such as Clostridium and Pseudomonas, but also synergistic microbiota such as Alkalobacillaceae. When the proportion of these two types of bacteria was unbalanced, the degradative ability of the microbial community was low, or pH changes of it did not compound regular changes, which may lead to the failure of restricted enrichment. Microbial communities were re-constituted by acid-base combination, whereby the degrading and synergistic strains were adjusted to a more appropriate proportion. The acid-base combination fixed the instability of microbial communities caused by the randomness of restrictive screening enrichment; it provided an effective method for obtaining high-quality lignocellulose-degrading microbial community.


Assuntos
Lignina , Microbiota , Lignina/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18340, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316373

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate novel applications for chicken feather waste hydrolysate through a green, sustainable process. Accordingly, an enzymatically degraded chicken feather (EDCFs) product was used as a dual carbon and nitrogen source in the production medium of bacterial cellulose (BC). The yield maximization was attained through applying experimental designs where the optimal level of each significant variable was recorded and the yield rose 2 times. The produced BC was successfully characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. On the other hand, sludge from EDCFs was used as a paper coating agent. The mechanical features of the coated papers were evaluated by bulk densities, maximum load, breaking length, tensile index, Young's modulus, work to break and coating layer. The results showed a decrease in tensile index and an increase in elongation at break. These indicate more flexibility of the coated paper. The coated paper exhibits higher resistance to water vapor permeability and remarkable oil resistance compared to the uncoated one. Furthermore, the effectiveness of sludge residue in removing heavy metals was evaluated, and the sorption capacities were ordered as Cu ++ > Fe ++ > Cr ++ > Co ++ with high affinity (3.29 mg/g) toward Cu ++ and low (0.42 mg/g) towards Co ++ in the tested metal solution.


Assuntos
Plumas , Metais Pesados , Animais , Plumas/química , Galinhas , Esgotos/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Metais Pesados/análise , Celulose/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361567

RESUMO

Leaf angle is an influential agricultural trait that influences rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant type and yield, which results from the leaf bending from the vertical axis to the abaxial axis. UV-B radiation affects plant morphology, but the effects of varying UV-B intensities on rice flag leaves and the underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms remain unknown. This experiment aims to examine the effect of natural light and field-enhanced UV-B radiation (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 kJ·m-2) on the leaf angle of the traditional rice variety Baijiaolaojing on Yuanyang terraces. In comparison with natural light, the content of brassinolide and gibberellin in rice flag leaves increased by 29.94% and 60.1%, respectively. The auxin content decreased by 17.3%. Compared with the natural light treatment, the cellulose content in the pulvini was reduced by 13.8% and hemicellulose content by 25.7% under 7.5 kJ·m-2 radiation intensity. The thick-walled cell area and vascular bundle area of the leaf pulvini decreased with increasing radiation intensity, and the growth of mechanical tissue in the rice leaf pulvini was inhibited. The flag leaf angle of rice was greatest at 7.5 kJ·m-2 radiation intensity, with an increase of 50.2%. There are two pathways by which the angle of rice flag leaves is controlled under high-intensity UV-B radiation. The leaf angle regulation genes OsBUL1, OsGSR1, and OsARF19 control hormone levels, whereas the ILA1 gene controls fiber levels. Therefore, as cellulose, hemicellulose, sclerenchyma, and vascular bundles weaken the mechanical support of the pulvini, the angle of the flag leaf increases.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Celulose/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364155

RESUMO

In this study, the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of PS14, a short peptide derived from the cellulase binding domain of pathogenic fungus, Aphanomyces invadans, have been evaluated, in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis of PS14 revealed the physicochemical properties and the web-based predictions, which indicate that PS14 is non-toxic, and it has the potential to elicit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. These in silico results were experimentally validated through in vitro (L6 or Hep-2 cells) and in vivo (zebrafish embryo or larvae) models. Experimental results showed that PS14 is non-toxic in L6 cells and the zebrafish embryo, and it elicits an antitumor effect Hep-2 cells and zebrafish embryos. Anticancer activity assays, in terms of MTT, trypan blue and LDH assays, showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Moreover, in the epithelial cancer cells and zebrafish embryos, the peptide challenge (i) caused significant changes in the cytomorphology and induced apoptosis; (ii) triggered ROS generation; and (iii) showed a significant up-regulation of anti-cancer genes including BAX, Caspase 3, Caspase 9 and down-regulation of Bcl-2, in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity of PS14 was observed in the cell-free in vitro assays for the inhibition of proteinase and lipoxygenase, and heat-induced hemolysis and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis. Together, this study has identified that PS14 has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, while being non-toxic, in vitro and in vivo. Future experiments can focus on the clinical or pharmacodynamics aspects of PS14.


Assuntos
Aphanomyces , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Hemólise , Apoptose , Células Epiteliais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Celulose/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 379, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370198

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of coconut fruit pulp by-product (CPB) on the intake, apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance, and ruminal parameters of sheep. Five intact, male, non-descript lambs with a mean initial body weight of 25.5 ± 1.68 kg were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5) of five treatments consisting of CPB inclusion levels, in five proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% dry matter (DM), in diets consisting of sugarcane bagasse as forage, with corn and soybean meal. Each period lasted 15 days for adaptation followed by 6 days for data collection. The inclusion of CPB linearly decreased (P < 0.05) the intake of DM, crude protein, non-fibre carbohydrates, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and DM digestibility. The inclusion of CPB linearly increased (P < 0.05) the ether extract digestibility, but did not influence (P > 0.05) the NDF digestibility. There was a linear reduction (P < 0.05) in the absorbed nitrogen (N) and retained N (g/day); however, a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) for N absorbed (% consumed) as well as ammonia nitrogen was observed. There was a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) for propionate (mMol/L and %) and the ratio of acetate, propionate and butyrate (mMol/L and %) with the inclusion of CPB in the diet. Based on these findings, it was recommended to incorporate CPB up to the level of 5% in the diet of sheep.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Saccharum , Ovinos , Animais , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Cocos/metabolismo , Digestão , Frutas , Propionatos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
12.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 216, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellulose degradation can determine mycelial growth rate and affect yield during the growth of Flammulina filiformis. The degradation of cellulose requires the joint action of a variety of cellulases, and some cellulase-related genes have been detected in mushrooms. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of cellulose degradation. RESULTS: In this study, FfMYB15 that may regulate the expression of cellulase gene FfCEL6B in F. filiformis was identified. RNA interference (RNAi) showed that FfCEL6B positively regulated mycelial growth. Gene expression analyses indicated that the expression patterns of FfCEL6B and FfMYB15 in mycelia cultured on the 0.9% cellulose medium for different times were similar with a correlation coefficient of 0.953. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activity analyses implied that FfMYB15 was located in the nucleus and was a transcriptional activator. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and dual-luciferase assays demonstrated that FfMYB15 could bind and activate FfCEL6B promoter by recognizing MYB cis-acting element. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that FfCEL6B played an active role in mycelial growth of F. filiformis and was regulated by FfMYB15.


Assuntos
Celulase , Celulases , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Flammulina , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230919

RESUMO

Cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance is central for plant cells. Mechanical and chemical distortions, pH changes, and breakdown products of cell wall polysaccharides activate plasma membrane-localized receptors and induce appropriate downstream responses. Microbial interactions alter or destroy the structure of the plant cell wall, connecting CWI maintenance to immune responses. Cellulose is the major polysaccharide in the primary and secondary cell wall. Its breakdown generates short-chain cellooligomers that induce Ca2+-dependent CWI responses. We show that these responses require the malectin domain-containing CELLOOLIGOMER-RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CORK1) in Arabidopsis and are preferentially activated by cellotriose (CT). CORK1 is required for cellooligomer-induced cytoplasmic Ca2+ elevation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, cellulose synthase phosphorylation, and the regulation of CWI-related genes, including those involved in biosynthesis of cell wall material, secondary metabolites and tryptophan. Phosphoproteome analyses identified early targets involved in signaling, cellulose synthesis, the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi secretory pathway, cell wall repair and immune responses. Two conserved phenylalanine residues in the malectin domain are crucial for CORK1 function. We propose that CORK1 is required for CWI and immune responses activated by cellulose breakdown products.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Mitógenos/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
14.
Microbes Environ ; 37(4)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273894

RESUMO

The rumen contains a complex microbial ecosystem that degrades plant materials, such as cellulose and hemicellulose. We herein reconstructed 146 nonredundant, rumen-specific metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), with ≥50% completeness and <10% contamination, from cattle in Japan. The majority of MAGs were potentially novel strains, encoding various enzymes related to plant biomass degradation and volatile fatty acid production. The MAGs identified in the present study may be valuable resources to enhance the resolution of future taxonomical and functional studies based on metagenomes and metatranscriptomes.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Microbiota , Bovinos , Animais , Rúmen , Japão , Bactérias/metabolismo , Filogenia , Celulose/metabolismo , Metagenômica
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 365: 128129, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252760

RESUMO

Substrate characteristics and proteins that affect lignocellulose-hydrolysis by the hypercellulolytic fungus Penicillium janthinellum NCIM 1366 (PJ-1366) were investigated. The hydrolysis rate of PJ-1366 enzymes was very high, with upto 75 % of the reaction being completed in initial 4 h. Comparison of the hydrolytic efficiencies on differently pretreated biomass indicated that the greatest (negative) effect was imparted by lignin, suggesting that improving ligninase activity of the PJ-1366 enzymes may help to improve hydrolysis. Larger pore sizes and higher crystallinity of substrates, which favor enzyme penetration and processive hydrolysis, positively influenced hydrolysis efficiency. For alkali-pretreated substrates, 16 FPU/g of PJ-1366 cellulases released the sugar-equivalent of using 10 FPU/g of a commercial biomass hydrolyzing enzyme. By correlation analysis, 41 proteins, including 20 CAZymes were identified, whose abundance in the secretome positively correlated with the cellulase activities of the culture filtrate. These proteins may be considered as the primary drivers of FPase/CMCase/pNPGase/xylanase activity in PJ-1366.


Assuntos
Lignina , Secretoma , Lignina/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Hidrólise
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292591

RESUMO

A complex molecular regulatory network plays an important role in the development and ripening of fruits and leads to significant differences in apparent characteristics. Comparative transcriptome and sRNAome analyses were performed to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of fruit ripening in a spontaneous early-ripening navel orange mutant ('Ganqi 4', Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and its wild type ('Newhall' navel orange) in this study. At the transcript level, a total of 10792 genes were found to be differentially expressed between MT and WT at the four fruit development stages by RNA-Seq. Additionally, a total of 441 differentially expressed miRNAs were found in the four periods, and some of them belong to 15 families. An integrative analysis of the transcriptome and sRNAome data revealed some factors that regulate the mechanisms of formation of early-ripening traits. First, secondary metabolic materials, especially endogenous hormones, carotenoids, cellulose and pectin, obviously changed during fruit ripening in MT and WT. Second, we found a large number of differentially expressed genes (PP2C, SnRK, JAZ, ARF, PG, and PE) involved in plant hormone signal transduction and starch and sucrose metabolism, which suggests the importance of these metabolic pathways during fruit ripening. Third, the expression patterns of several key miRNAs and their target genes during citrus fruit development and ripening stages were examined. csi-miR156, csi-miR160, csi-miR397, csi-miR3954, and miRN106 suppressed specific transcription factors (SPLs, ARFs, NACs, LACs, and TCPs) that are thought to be important regulators involved in citrus fruit development and ripening. In the present study, we analyzed ripening-related regulatory factors from multiple perspectives and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that operate in the early-ripening navel orange mutant 'Ganqi 4'.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , MicroRNAs , Citrus sinensis/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Frutas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Hormônios , Celulose/metabolismo
17.
Biotechnol Lett ; 44(12): 1465-1475, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to reveal the roles of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit 1 (pkac1) and carbon catabolite repressor cre1 genes in cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei wild-type strain QM6a. Our strategy might be useful to construct a high-yielding cellulase strain for its wide application. METHODS: This paper describes cellulase activity, plate conidiation, and yellow pigment synthesis assays of QM6a with the disruption of pkac1 and cre1. RESULTS: Deletion of pkac1 (Δpkac1) had no effect on cellulase production or transcript levels of major cellulase genes in the presence of cellulose. Disruption of cre1 (Δcre1) resulted in a remarkable increase in cellulase production and expression of the four major cellulase genes. Double disruption of pkac1 and cre1 significantly improved enzyme activity and protein production. The double disruption also resulted in a significant reduction in yellow pigment production and abrogated conidial production. CONCLUSION: Double deletion of pkac1 and cre1 led to increased hydrolytic enzyme production in T. reesei using cellulose as a carbon source.


Assuntos
Celulase , Trichoderma , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Celulase/genética , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo
18.
Biotechnol Lett ; 44(12): 1477-1493, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As a type of agricultural waste, there is a large amount of lignocellulose in corn (Zea mays) straw, but it is difficult to utilize efficiently owing to its recalcitrance to enzymatic degradation. Three strains of actinomycetes that degrade cellulose were constructed as complex flora, and the conditions of cellulose degradation conditions and their degradative activity were optimized and evaluated. RESULTS: When the complex flora were inoculated into the fermentation medium at pH 7 and 3% (v/v), the rate of degradation of corn straw reached 38.24% after 5 d of fermentation at 28 ºC and 180 rpm. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the corn straw were degraded by 33.97%, 34.08%, and 21.52%, respectively. The results from scanning electron microscopy showed that the waxy layer on the surface of corn straw became thin and gradually disappeared following fermentation by the complex flora. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the complex flora could change the internal functional groups of corn straw at different fermentation periods. The compounds detected in the fermentation system indicated that the corn straw was efficiently degraded. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the constructed complex flora was more effective at degrading corn straw than the individual strains and provides research concepts for the development and utilization of biomass resources.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Zea mays , Zea mays/química , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Actinomyces , Celulose/metabolismo , Fermentação
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17410, 2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36258024

RESUMO

The fish immune system is a topic or subject that offers a unique understanding of defensive system evolution in vertebrate heredity. While gut microbiota plays several roles in fish: well-being, promoting health and growth, resistance to bacterial invasion, regulation of energy absorption, and lipid metabolism. However, studies on fish gut microbiota face practical challenges due to the large number of fish varieties, fluctuating environmental conditions, and differences in feeding habits. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of supplemented three autochthonous strains, Bacillus sp. RCS1, Pantoea agglomerans RCS2, and Bacillus cereus RCS3 mixture diet on cobia fish (Rachycentron canadum). Also, chromatography, mass spectrometry and high throughput sequencing were combined to explore composition and metabolite profile of gut microbiota in juvenile cobia fed with supplemented diet. In the trial group, juvenile cobia received diets supplemented with 1 × 1012 CFU mL-1 autochthonous strains for ten weeks and a control diet without supplementation. Juvenile cobia receiving diets supplementation exhibited significantly improved growth than those without additives (control). Haematological indices, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin, were higher in the supplemented group. Similarly, digestive enzymes (trypsin, lipase, amylase, pepsin and cellulose, activities) activities were higher in supplemented diet with an indigenous isolates mixture. Serum biochemical parameters albumin, globulin, and total protein were significantly higher, while triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and cholesterol showed no significant difference. On the other hand, glucose was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the group without supplementation. On gene expression in the midgut, Immunoglobulin, Colony-stimulating factor receptor 1, major histocompatibility complex 1 were up-regulated by native isolates while T cell receptor beta, and Major histocompatibility complex 2 showed no significant difference. Gut bacterial composition was altered in fish receiving supplemented diet with autochthonous strains. Metabolomics also revealed that some metabolic pathways were considerably enriched in fish fed with supplemented diet; pathway analysis based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment revealed that differentially expressed metabolites were involved in galactose metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, carbohydrate digestion and absorption, purine metabolism, and ABC transporters. Functional analysis of bacterial community showed that differences in enriched metabolic pathways generally comprised carbohydrate and its metabolites, nucleotide and its metabolites, amino acid and its metabolites, heterocyclic compounds, and tryptamines, cholines, pigments. The current investigation results showed that autochthonous strains mixture has significantly enhanced the growth, survival, and innate and adaptive immunities of juvenile cobia.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Perciformes , Animais , Alanina/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Amilases/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta , Peixes/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Perciformes/fisiologia , Purinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Triptaminas , Triptofano/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(42): 13574-13582, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223298

RESUMO

N, N-dimethylformamide is frequently present in industrial wastewater and is environmentally detrimental. The current study aims to assess the utilization and biodegradation of N, N-dimethylformamide-containing wastewater to lessen the associated environmental load. Results show that addition of wastewater containing N, N-dimethylformamide to Trichoderma reesei fermentation media enhances cellulase production and facilitates cellulose hydrolysis. However, N, N-dimethylformamide is a cellulase enhancer that is not degraded during cellulase production in T. reesei fermentation and is retained in the N, N-dimethylformamide-enhanced cellulase solution. Indeed, the cellulosic sugar solution generated via lignocellulose hydrolysis with N, N-dimethylformamide-enhanced cellulase retains N, N-dimethylformamide. We further identified three core enzyme modules─N, N-dimethylformamidase, dimethylamine dehydrogenase, and methylamine dehydrogenase enzyme─which were inserted into Escherichia coli to develop metabolically engineered strains. These strains degraded N, N-dimethylformamide and produced succinate using N, N-dimethylformamide-enhanced cellulosic sugar as the substrate. The platform described here can be applied to effectively convert waste into valuable bioproducts.


Assuntos
Celulase , Trichoderma , Dimetilformamida/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias , Engenharia Metabólica , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Fermentação , Carboidratos , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
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