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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 339: 122248, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823916

RESUMO

Arabinoxylan is a major hemicellulose in the sugarcane plant cell wall with arabinose decorations that impose steric restrictions on the activity of xylanases against this substrate. Enzymatic removal of the decorations by arabinofuranosidases can allow a more efficient arabinoxylan degradation by xylanases. Here we produced and characterized a recombinant Bifidobacterium longum arabinofuranosidase from glycoside hydrolase family 43 (BlAbf43) and applied it, together with GH10 and GH11 xylanases, to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from wheat arabinoxylan and alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The enzyme synergistically enhanced XOS production by GH10 and GH11 xylanases, being particularly efficient in combination with the latter family of enzymes, with a degree of synergism of 1.7. We also demonstrated that the enzyme is capable of not only removing arabinose decorations from the arabinoxylan and from the non-reducing end of the oligomeric substrates, but also hydrolyzing the xylan backbone yielding mostly xylobiose and xylose in particular cases. Structural studies of BlAbf43 shed light on the molecular basis of the substrate recognition and allowed hypothesizing on the structural reasons of its multifunctionality.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Celulose , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases , Glucuronatos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Oligossacarídeos , Saccharum , Xilanos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Glucuronatos/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Xilanos/metabolismo , Xilanos/química , Saccharum/química , Saccharum/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Celulose/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium longum/enzimologia , Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Especificidade por Substrato , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Dissacarídeos
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4898, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851785

RESUMO

Developing artificial leaves to address the environmental burden of CO2 is pivotal for advancing our Net Zero Future. In this study, we introduce EcoLeaf, an artificial leaf that closely mimics the characteristics of natural leaves. It harnesses visible light as its sole energy source and orchestrates the controlled expansion and contraction of stomata and the exchange of petiole materials to govern the rate of CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere. Furthermore, EcoLeaf has a cellulose composition and mechanical strength similar to those of natural leaves, allowing it to seamlessly integrate into the ecosystem during use and participate in natural degradation and nutrient cycling processes at the end of its life. We propose that the carbon sequestration pathway within EcoLeaf is adaptable and can serve as a versatile biomimetic platform for diverse biogenic carbon sequestration pathways in the future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Sequestro de Carbono , Celulose , Folhas de Planta , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Ecossistema , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Luz
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108794, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850730

RESUMO

With the increasing occurrence of global warming, drought is becoming a major constraint for plant growth and crop yield. Plant cell walls experience continuous changes during the growth, development, and in responding to stressful conditions. The plant WRKYs play pivotal roles in regulating the secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis and helping plant defend against abiotic stresses. qRT-PCR evidence showed that OsWRKY12 was affected by drought and ABA treatments. Over-expression of OsWRKY12 decreased the drought tolerance of the rice transgenics at the germination stage and the seedling stage. The transcription levels of drought-stress-associated genes as well as those genes participating in the ABA biosynthesis and signaling were significantly different compared to the wild type (WT). Our results also showed that less lignin and cellulose were deposited in the OsWRKY12-overexpressors, and heterogenous expression of OsWRKY12 in atwrky12 could lower the increased lignin and cellulose contents, as well as the improved PEG-stress tolerance, to a similar level as the WT. qRT-PCR results indicated that the transcription levels of all the genes related to lignin and cellulose biosynthesis were significantly decreased in the rice transgenics than the WT. Further evidence from yeast one-hybrid assay and the dual-luciferase reporter system suggested that OsWRKY12 could bind to promoters of OsABI5 (the critical component of the ABA signaling pathway) and OsSWN3/OsSWN7 (the key positive regulators in the rice SCW thickening), and hence repressing their expression. In conclusion, OsWRKY12 mediates the crosstalk between SCW biosynthesis and plant stress tolerance by binding to the promoters of different downstream genes.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Lignina/biossíntese , Lignina/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Celulose/biossíntese , Celulose/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo
4.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14368, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837358

RESUMO

Biobased waste utilization is an intriguing area of research and an ecologically conscious approach. Plant-based materials can be used to render cellulose, which is an eco-friendly material that can be used in numerous aspects. In the current investigation, cellulose was extracted from the leaves of the Vachellia nilotica plant via acid hydrolysis. The application of this research is specifically directed toward the utilization of undesirable plant sources. To validate the extracted cellulose, FT-IR spectroscopy was applied. The cellulose was measured to have a density of 1.234 g/cm3. The crystallinity index (58.93%) and crystallinity size (11.56 nm) of cellulose are evaluated using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy analysis. The highest degradation temperature (320.8°C) was observed using thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry curve analysis. The analysis of particle size was conducted utilizing images captured by scanning electron microscopy. Particle size of less than 30 µm was found and they exhibit non-uniform orientation. Additionally, atomic force microscopy analysis shows an improved average surface roughness (Ra), which increases the possibility of using extracted cellulose as reinforcement in biofilms.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Celulose , Folhas de Planta , Difração de Raios X , Celulose/química , Celulose/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Tamanho da Partícula , Hidrólise
5.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(8): 224, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874676

RESUMO

Grapsoid crabs (Decapoda: Grapsoidea) inhabiting along the land-sea transition provided various amounts and quality of vascular plant carbon (e.g., fresh mangrove leaf, leaf litter, and mangrove-derived organic carbon) and perform differing levels of herbivory. Other than endogenous cellulase, symbiotic cellulolytic bacteria could also contribute to the crabs' vascular plant carbon assimilation and mineralization. In this study, we isolated culturable cellulolytic bacteria from three gut regions (i.e., stomach, midgut, and hindgut) of 15 species of grapsoid crabs that inhabit in various coastal habitats (i.e., land margin, mangrove forest, tidal flat, and subtidal area). Bacillus, which was isolated from 11 out of the 15 grapsoid crabs, was the most common genus of culturable prominently cellulolytic bacteria among the target species. Seventy to ninety nine percent of culturable cellulolytic bacteria were removed, and the endoglucanase activity of five species was significantly reduced by 14.4-27.7% after antibiotic treatment. These results suggest that cellulolytic bacteria play a role in assisting mangrove carbon utilization in coastal grapsoid crabs, especially those inhabiting mangrove, mudflat, and subtidal areas. The significantly higher abundance of cellulolytic bacteria and the generally higher hydrolytic capacity of the bacteria in mangrove crab species suggest that they receive more contribution from symbionts for mangrove carbon utilization, while semi-terrestrial crabs seem to depend little on symbiotic cellulase due to the lower abundances.


Assuntos
Celulose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Celulose/metabolismo , Braquiúros/microbiologia , Bactérias Aeróbias/metabolismo , Bactérias Aeróbias/fisiologia , Celulase/metabolismo , Simbiose , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Carbono/metabolismo
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(4): 867-876, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884221

RESUMO

To investigate the correlation between carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of plant cellulose and climatic factors as well as plant physiological indices on the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we examined plant species in eight sampling sites with similar latitudes and different longitudes in this region. Through the characteristics of δ13C and δ18O values, fractionation values (Δ13C and Δ18O) in leaf cellulose, we discussed water use efficiency (WUE) and the environmental factors, the variation of carbon and oxygen isotopes in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with elevation and longitude, and revealed the indication degrees of isotopic signals to different environments and vegetation physiology. By using the semi-quantitative model of carbon and oxygen dual isotopes, we investigated the physiological adaptation mechanisms of plants to varying environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that both Δ13C and Δ18O of cellulose decreased with increasing elevation and longitude, and Δ13C was more influenced by longitude, while Δ18O was more susceptible to elevation variation. Additionally, Δ13C and Δ18O were significantly and positively correlated with temperature (TEM), precipitation (PRE), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and relative humidity (RH). PRE was the dominant meteorological factor driving the variation of Δ13C, while RH was the dominant meteorological factor influencing Δ18O variation. In contrast to Δ13C, WUE showed a stronger correlation with elevation than with longitude, which increased as elevation and longitude increased. According to the carbon-oxygen model, plant stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) decreased with increasing precipitation and relative humidity, while the values increased with increasing elevation and longitude. The combined analysis of carbon and oxygen isotopes of organic matters would yield additional environmental and gas exchange information for studies on climate tracing and vegetation physiology studies on the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono , Ecossistema , Isótopos de Oxigênio , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , China , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Clima , Altitude , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Tibet , Celulose/metabolismo , Celulose/análise
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732136

RESUMO

In the context of sustainable agriculture and biomaterial development, understanding and enhancing plant secondary cell wall formation are crucial for improving crop fiber quality and biomass conversion efficiency. This is especially critical for economically important crops like upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), for which fiber quality and its processing properties are essential. Through comprehensive genome-wide screening and analysis of expression patterns, we identified a particularly high expression of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, GhMYB52 Like, in the development of the secondary cell wall in cotton fiber cells. Utilizing gene-editing technology to generate a loss-of-function mutant to clarify the role of GhMYB52 Like, we revealed that GhMYB52 Like does not directly contribute to cellulose synthesis in cotton fibers but instead represses a subset of lignin biosynthesis genes, establishing it as a lignin biosynthesis inhibitor. Concurrently, a substantial decrease in the lint index, a critical measure of cotton yield, was noted in parallel with an elevation in lignin levels. This study not only deepens our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cotton fiber development but also offers new perspectives for the molecular improvement of other economically important crops and the enhancement of biomass energy utilization.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Lignina , Proteínas de Plantas , Lignina/biossíntese , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Celulose/biossíntese , Celulose/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas
8.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 146, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular fungal oxidoreductase with multiple functions in plant biomass degradation. Its primary function as an auxiliary enzyme of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) facilitates the efficient depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses and other carbohydrate-based polymers. The synergistic action of CDH and LPMO that supports biomass-degrading hydrolases holds significant promise to harness renewable resources for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and modified materials in an environmentally sustainable manner. While previous phylogenetic analyses have identified four distinct classes of CDHs, only class I and II have been biochemically characterized so far. RESULTS: Following a comprehensive database search aimed at identifying CDH sequences belonging to the so far uncharacterized class III for subsequent expression and biochemical characterization, we have curated an extensive compilation of putative CDH amino acid sequences. A sequence similarity network analysis was used to cluster them into the four distinct CDH classes. A total of 1237 sequences encoding putative class III CDHs were extracted from the network and used for phylogenetic analyses. The obtained phylogenetic tree was used to guide the selection of 11 cdhIII genes for recombinant expression in Komagataella phaffii. A small-scale expression screening procedure identified a promising cdhIII gene originating from the plant pathogen Fusarium solani (FsCDH), which was selected for expression optimization by signal peptide shuffling and subsequent production in a 5-L bioreactor. The purified FsCDH exhibits a UV-Vis spectrum and enzymatic activity similar to other characterized CDH classes. CONCLUSION: The successful production and functional characterization of FsCDH proved that class III CDHs are catalytical active enzymes resembling the key properties of class I and class II CDHs. A detailed biochemical characterization based on the established expression and purification strategy can provide new insights into the evolutionary process shaping CDHs and leading to their differentiation into the four distinct classes. The findings have the potential to broaden our understanding of the biocatalytic application of CDH and LPMO for the oxidative depolymerization of polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Desidrogenases de Carboidrato , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/genética , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/enzimologia , Celulose/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 403: 130899, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801951

RESUMO

Amino acids are essential organic compounds in composting products. However, the mechanism underlying the amino acid metabolism during composting remains unclear. This study aims at exploring the impacts of inoculating cellulose-degrading microbes on amino acid metabolism during composting with mulberry branches and silkworm excrements. Cellulose-degrading microbial inoculation enhanced amino acid degradation by 18%-43% by increasing protease and sucrase activities and stimulating eight amino acid degradation pathways from the initial to thermophilic phases, with Enterococcus, Saccharomonospora, Corynebacterium being the dominant bacterial genera, but stimulated amino acid production by 54% by increasing sucrase and urease activities, decreasing ß-glucosidase activities, and stimulating twenty-two amino acid synthesis pathways at the mature phase, with Thermobifida, Devosia, and Cellulosimicrobium being the dominant bacterial genera. The results suggest that cellulose-degrading microbial inoculation enhances amino acid degradation from the initial to thermophilic phases and biosynthesis at the mature phase, thereby improving the quality of organic fertilizer.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Celulose , Compostagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Animais , Bombyx/metabolismo , Bombyx/microbiologia , Solo/química
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 270(Pt 1): 131968, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704059

RESUMO

Enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass provides an eco-friendly approach to produce value-added macromolecules, e.g., bioactive polysaccharides. A novel acidophilic GH5 ß-1,4-endoglucanase (termed TaCel5) from Trichoderma asperellum ND-1 was efficiently expressed in Komagataella phaffii (∼1.5-fold increase, 38.42 U/mL). TaCel5 displayed both endoglucanase (486.3 U/mg) and alginate lyase (359.5 U/mg) enzyme activities. It had optimal pH 3.0 and strong pH stability (exceed 86 % activity retained over pH range 3.0-5.0). 80 % activity (both endoglucanase and alginate lyase) was retained in the presence of 15 % ethanol or 3.42 M NaCl. Analysis of action mode revealed that hydrolytic activity of TaCel5 required at least three glucose (cellotriose) residues, yielding mainly cellobiose. Glu241 and Glu352 are essential catalytic residues, while Asp106, Asp277 and Asp317 play auxiliary roles in cellulose degradation. TaCel5 displayed high hydrolysis efficiency for glucan and alginate substrates. ESI-MS analysis indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysates of alginate mainly contained disaccharides and heptasaccharides. This is the first detailed report of a bifunctional GH5 endoglucanase/alginate lyase enzyme from T. asperellum. Thus TaCel5 has strong potential in food and feed industries as a catalyst for bioconversion of cellulose- and alginate-containing waste materials into value-added products oligosaccharides, which was of great benefit both for the economy and environment.


Assuntos
Alginatos , Celulase , Celulose , Oligossacarídeos , Alginatos/metabolismo , Alginatos/química , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulase/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Hidrólise , Celulose/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hypocreales/enzimologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Polissacarídeo-Liases/metabolismo , Polissacarídeo-Liases/química , Polissacarídeo-Liases/genética
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 207, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767733

RESUMO

Biological pretreatment of wood chips by fungi is a well-known approach prior to mechanical- or chemical pulp production. For this biological approach, a limited number of white-rot fungi with an ability to colonize and selectively degrade lignin are used to pretreat wood chips allowing the remaining cellulose to be processed for further applications. Biopulping is an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce the energy consumption of traditional pulping processes. Fungal pretreatment also reduces the pitch content in the wood chips and improves the pulp quality in terms of brightness, strength, and bleachability. The bleached biopulps are easier to refine compared to pulps produced by conventional methodology. In the last decades, biopulping has been scaled up with pilot trials towards industrial level, with optimization of several intermediate steps and improvement of economic feasibility. Nevertheless, fundamental knowledge on the biochemical mechanisms involved in biopulping is still lacking. Overall, biopulping technology has advanced rapidly during recent decades and pilot mill trials have been implemented. The use of fungi as pretreatment for pulp production is in line with modern circular economy strategies and can be implemented in existing production plants. In this review, we discuss some recent advances in biopulping technology, which can improve mechanical-, chemical-, and organosolv pulping processes along with their mechanisms.


Assuntos
Celulose , Fungos , Lignina , Madeira , Lignina/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Madeira/microbiologia , Celulose/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos
12.
Biomacromolecules ; 25(6): 3532-3541, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750618

RESUMO

Despite the potential of lignocellulose in manufacturing value-added chemicals and biofuels, its efficient biotechnological conversion by enzymatic hydrolysis still poses major challenges. The complex interplay between xylan, cellulose, and lignin in fibrous materials makes it difficult to assess underlying physico- and biochemical mechanisms. Here, we reduce the complexity of the system by creating matrices of cellulose, xylan, and lignin, which consists of a cellulose base layer and xylan/lignin domains. We follow enzymatic degradation using an endoxylanase by high-speed atomic force microscopy and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy to obtain morphological and kinetic data. Fastest reaction kinetics were observed at low lignin contents, which were related to the different swelling capacities of xylan. We demonstrate that the complex processes taking place at the interfaces of lignin and xylan in the presence of enzymes can be monitored in real time, providing a future platform for observing phenomena relevant to fiber-based systems.


Assuntos
Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases , Lignina , Madeira , Xilanos , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Xilanos/química , Xilanos/metabolismo , Madeira/química , Madeira/metabolismo , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Celulose/química , Celulose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Cinética
13.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(6): 277, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38789671

RESUMO

Nowadays, natural resources like lignocellulosic biomass are gaining more and more attention. This study was conducted to analyse chemical composition of dried and ground samples (500 µm) of various Algerian bioresources including alfa stems (AS), dry palms (DP), olive pomace (OP), pinecones (PC), and tomato waste (TW). AS exhibited the lowest lignin content (3.60 ± 0.60%), but the highest cellulose (58.30 ± 2.06%), and hemicellulose (20.00 ± 3.07%) levels. DP, OP, and PC had around 30% cellulose, and 10% hemicellulose. OP had the highest lignin content (29.00 ± 6.40%), while TW contained (15.70 ± 2.67% cellulose, 13.70 ± 0.002% hemicellulose, and 17.90 ± 4.00% lignin). Among 91 isolated microorganisms, nine were selected for cellulase, xylanase, and/or laccase production. The ability of Bacillus mojavensis to produce laccase and cellulase, as well as B. safensis to produce cellulase and xylanase, is being reported for the first time. In submerged conditions, TW was the most suitable substrate for enzyme production. In this conditions, T. versicolor K1 was the only strain able to produce laccase (4,170 ± 556 U/L). Additionally, Coniocheata hoffmannii P4 exhibited the highest cellulase activity (907.62 ± 26.22 U/L), and B. mojavensis Y3 the highest xylanase activity (612.73 ± 12.73 U/L). T. versicolor K1 culture showed reducing sugars accumulation of 18.87% compared to initial concentrations. Sucrose was the predominant sugar detected by HPLC analysis (13.44 ± 0.02 g/L). Our findings suggest that T. versicolor K1 holds promise for laccase production, while TW represents a suitable substrate for sucrose production.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lacase , Lignina , Lignina/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Argélia , Celulase/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus/enzimologia
14.
Nature ; 630(8016): 381-386, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811733

RESUMO

Lignocellulose is mainly composed of hydrophobic lignin and hydrophilic polysaccharide polymers, contributing to an indispensable carbon resource for green biorefineries1,2. When chemically treated, lignin is compromised owing to detrimental intra- and intermolecular crosslinking that hampers downstream process3,4. The current valorization paradigms aim to avoid the formation of new C-C bonds, referred to as condensation, by blocking or stabilizing the vulnerable moieties of lignin5-7. Although there have been efforts to enhance biomass utilization through the incorporation of phenolic additives8,9, exploiting lignin's proclivity towards condensation remains unproven for valorizing both lignin and carbohydrates to high-value products. Here we leverage the proclivity by directing the C-C bond formation in a catalytic arylation pathway using lignin-derived phenols with high nucleophilicity. The selectively condensed lignin, isolated in near-quantitative yields while preserving its prominent cleavable ß-ether units, can be unlocked in a tandem catalytic process involving aryl migration and transfer hydrogenation. Lignin in wood is thereby converted to benign bisphenols (34-48 wt%) that represent performance-advantaged replacements for their fossil-based counterparts. Delignified pulp from cellulose and xylose from xylan are co-produced for textile fibres and renewable chemicals. This condensation-driven strategy represents a key advancement complementary to other promising monophenol-oriented approaches targeting valuable platform chemicals and materials, thereby contributing to holistic biomass valorization.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Biomassa , Lignina , Fenóis , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Catálise , Madeira/química , Fracionamento Químico , Hidrogenação , Celulose/química , Celulose/metabolismo , Xilanos/química , Xilanos/metabolismo , Xilose/química , Xilose/metabolismo
15.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 147: 102516, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735123

RESUMO

Although studies on non-tuberculous mycobacteria have increased in recent years because they cause a considerable proportion of infections, their cellulolytic system is still poorly studied. This study presents a characterization of the cellulolytic activities of environmental mycobacterial isolates derived from soil and water samples from the central region of Argentina, aimed to evaluate the conservation of the mechanism for the degradation of cellulose in this group of bacteria. The molecular and genomic identification revealed identity with Mycolicibacterium septicum. The endoglucanase and total cellulase activities were assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively and the optimal enzymatic conditions were characterized. A specific protein of around 56 kDa with cellulolytic activity was detected in a zymogram. Protein sequences possibly arising from a cellulase were identified by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics. Results showed that M. septicum encodes for cellulose- and hemicellulose-related degrading enzymes, including at least an active ß-1,4 endoglucanase enzyme that could be useful to improve its survival in the environment. Given the important health issues related to mycobacteria, the results of the present study may contribute to the knowledge of their cellulolytic system, which could be important for their ability to survive in many different types of environments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Celulase , Celulose , Microbiologia do Solo , Celulose/metabolismo , Celulase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Argentina , Microbiologia da Água , Proteômica/métodos , Mycobacteriaceae/genética , Mycobacteriaceae/enzimologia
16.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(7): 200, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822158

RESUMO

Grapevine production is economically indispensable for the global wine industry. Currently, Mexico cultivates grapevines across approximately 28 500 hectares, ranking as the 26th largest producer worldwide. Given its significance, early detection of plant diseases' causal agents is crucial for preventing outbreaks. Consequently, our study aimed to identify fungal strains in grapevines exhibiting trunk disease symptoms and assess their enzymatic capabilities as indicators of their phytopathogenic potential. We collected plant cultivars, including Malbec, Shiraz, and Tempranillo, from Querétaro, Mexico. In the laboratory, we superficially removed the plant bark to prevent external contamination. Subsequently, the sample was superficially disinfected, and sawdust was generated from the symptomatic tissue. Cultivable fungal strains were isolated using aseptic techniques from the recovered sawdust. Colonies were grown on PDA and identified through a combination of microscopy and DNA-sequencing of the ITS and LSU nrDNA regions, coupled with a BLASTn search in the GenBank database. We evaluated the strains' qualitative ability to degrade cellulose, starch, and lignin using specific media and stains. Using culture morphology and DNA-sequencing, 13 species in seven genera were determined: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Dydimella, Fusarium, Sarocladium, and Quambalaria. Some isolated strains were able to degrade cellulose or lignin, or starch. These results constitute the first report of these species community in the Americas. Using culture-dependent and DNA-sequencing tools allows the detection of fungal strains to continue monitoring for early prevention of the GTD.


Assuntos
DNA Fúngico , Fungos , Doenças das Plantas , Vitis , Vitis/microbiologia , México , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/enzimologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Celulose/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10848, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740945

RESUMO

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural polymer renowned for its unique physicochemical and mechanical attributes, including notable water-holding capacity, crystallinity, and a pristine fiber network structure. While BC has broad applications spanning agriculture, industry, and medicine, its industrial utilization is hindered by production costs and yield limitations. In this study, Rhizobium sp. was isolated from bean roots and systematically assessed for BC synthesis under optimal conditions, with a comparative analysis against BC produced by Komagataeibacter hansenii. The study revealed that Rhizobium sp. exhibited optimal BC synthesis when supplied with a 1.5% glucose carbon source and a 0.15% yeast extract nitrogen source. Under static conditions at 30 °C and pH 6.5, the most favorable conditions for growth and BC production (2.5 g/L) were identified. Modifications were introduced using nisin to enhance BC properties, and the resulting BC-nisin composites were comprehensively characterized through various techniques, including FE-SEM, FTIR, porosity, swelling, filtration, and antibacterial activity assessments. The results demonstrated that BC produced by Rhizobium sp. displayed properties comparable to K. hansenii-produced BC. Furthermore, the BC-nisin composites exhibited remarkable inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study contributes valuable insights into BC's production, modification, and characterization utilizing Rhizobium sp., highlighting the exceptional properties that render it efficacious across diverse applications.


Assuntos
Celulose , Raízes de Plantas , Rhizobium , Celulose/biossíntese , Celulose/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Acetobacteraceae/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/biossíntese
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(6): 161, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700667

RESUMO

In the wake of rapid industrialization and burgeoning transportation networks, the escalating demand for fossil fuels has accelerated the depletion of finite energy reservoirs, necessitating urgent exploration of sustainable alternatives. To address this, current research is focusing on renewable fuels like second-generation bioethanol from agricultural waste such as sugarcane bagasse. This approach not only circumvents the contentious issue of food-fuel conflicts associated with biofuels but also tackles agricultural waste management. In the present study indigenous yeast strain, Clavispora lusitaniae QG1 (MN592676), was isolated from rotten grapes to ferment xylose sugars present in the hemicellulose content of sugarcane bagasse. To liberate the xylose sugars, dilute acid pretreatment was performed. The highest reducing sugars yield was 1.2% obtained at a temperature of 121 °C for 15 min, a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:25 (% w/v), and an acid concentration of 1% dilute acid H2SO4 that was significantly higher (P < 0.001) yield obtained under similar conditions at 100 °C for 1 h. The isolated strain was statistically optimized for fermentation process by Plackett-Burman design to achieve the highest ethanol yield. Liberated xylose sugars were completely utilized by Clavispora lusitaniae QG1 (MN592676) and gave 100% ethanol yield. This study optimizes both fermentation process and pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to maximize bioethanol yield and demonstrates the ability of isolated strain to effectively utilize xylose as a carbon source. The desirable characteristics depicted by strain Clavispora lusitaniae shows its promising utilization in management of industrial waste like sugarcane bagasse by its conversion into renewable biofuels like bioethanol.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Celulose , Etanol , Fermentação , Saccharum , Saccharum/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Agricultura , Xilose/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Hypocreales/metabolismo
19.
Glycobiology ; 34(6)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690785

RESUMO

Cellulose is an abundant component of plant cell wall matrices, and this para-crystalline polysaccharide is synthesized at the plasma membrane by motile Cellulose Synthase Complexes (CSCs). However, the factors that control CSC activity and motility are not fully resolved. In a targeted chemical screen, we identified the alkylated nojirimycin analog N-Dodecyl Deoxynojirimycin (ND-DNJ) as a small molecule that severely impacts Arabidopsis seedling growth. Previous work suggests that ND-DNJ-related compounds inhibit the biosynthesis of glucosylceramides (GlcCers), a class of glycosphingolipid associated with plant membranes. Our work uncovered major changes in the sphingolipidome of plants treated with ND-DNJ, including reductions in GlcCer abundance and altered acyl chain length distributions. Crystalline cellulose content was also reduced in ND-DNJ-treated plants as well as plants treated with the known GlcCer biosynthesis inhibitor N-[2-hydroxy-1-(4-morpholinylmethyl)-2-phenyl ethyl]-decanamide (PDMP) or plants containing a genetic disruption in GLUCOSYLCERAMIDE SYNTHASE (GCS), the enzyme responsible for sphingolipid glucosylation that results in GlcCer synthesis. Live-cell imaging revealed that CSC speed distributions were reduced upon treatment with ND-DNJ or PDMP, further suggesting an important relationship between glycosylated sphingolipid composition and CSC motility across the plasma membrane. These results indicate that multiple interventions compromising GlcCer biosynthesis disrupt cellulose deposition and CSC motility, suggesting that GlcCers regulate cellulose biosynthesis in plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Celulose , Glucosilceramidas , Glucosiltransferases , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Celulose/metabolismo , Celulose/biossíntese , Glucosilceramidas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/farmacologia , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/análogos & derivados , Parede Celular/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10012, 2024 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693138

RESUMO

Beta-glucosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds of cellobiose, producing glucose, which is a rate-limiting step in cellulose biomass degradation. In industrial processes, ß-glucosidases that are tolerant to glucose and stable under harsh industrial reaction conditions are required for efficient cellulose hydrolysis. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, Escherichia coli expression, and functional characterization of a ß-glucosidase from the gene, CelGH3_f17, identified from metagenomics libraries of an Ethiopian soda lake. The CelGH3_f17 gene sequence contains a glycoside hydrolase family 3 catalytic domain (GH3). The heterologous expressed and purified enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 50 °C and pH 8.5. In addition, supplementation of 1 M salt and 300 mM glucose enhanced the ß-glucosidase activity. Most of the metal ions and organic solvents tested did not affect the ß-glucosidase activity. However, Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions, Mercaptoethanol and Triton X-100 reduce the activity of the enzyme. The studied ß-glucosidase enzyme has multiple industrially desirable properties including thermostability, and alkaline, salt, and glucose tolerance.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lagos , beta-Glucosidase , beta-Glucosidase/genética , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Hidrólise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Celulose/metabolismo , Temperatura , Glucose/metabolismo
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