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2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics of census tracts and the presence/quality of public open spaces and physical activity facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 643 census tracts in Florianópolis, Brazil, the presence and quality of public open spaces and physical activity facilities were objectively analyzed and the data by census tracts using Geographic Information Systems was treated. Outcomes were analyzed considering the census tracts as having: ≥ 1 public open spaces; ≥ 1 public open spaces with high quality; ≥ 2 physical activity facilities and high-quality physical activity facilities. Sociodemographic characteristics were the independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Census tracts with a medium-income (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-3.0) and high-income (OR = 2.4; 95%CI 1.4-4.0), in those with medium (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0-2.7) and high residential density (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1,2-3.3), and with higher proportions of older adults (OR = 3.3; 95%CI 1.9-5.7) had a higher proportion of public open spaces. Census tracts with higher proportions of children/adolescents (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.2-0.6) and non-white residents (OR= 0.6; 95%CI 0.3-0.9) were less likely to contain public open spaces. The tracts with medium (OR = 4.0; 95%CI 1.4-11.3) and high-income (OR = 3.6; 95%CI 1.2-10.2) were more likely to contain public open spaces with ≥ 2 structures for physical activity, compared with those with low-income. We observed the inverse in sectors with a high proportion of non-white residents (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Census tracts with higher proportions of children or adolescents, non-white individuals and those in the low-income strata had lower odds of containing public open spaces and physical activity facilities.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Censos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1147, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass shootings are an increasingly common phenomenon in the United States. However, there is little research on whether the recent growth of income inequality is associated with this rise of mass shootings. We thus build on our prior research to explore the connection between income inequality and mass shootings across counties in the United States. METHODS: We assemble a panel dataset of 3144 counties during the years 1990 to 2015. Socioeconomic data are extracted from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Mass shootings data are from three databases that compile its information from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and media sources, respectively. These data are analyzed using random effects negative binomial regressions, while controlling for seven additional predictors of crime. RESULTS: Counties experiencing a one standard deviation growth of income inequality witnessed 0.43 more mass shootings when using the definition of three or more victim injuries (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 1.66; P < .001) and 0.57 more mass shootings when using the designation of four or more victim deaths (IRR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.26, 1.96; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Counties with growing levels of income inequality are more likely to experience mass shootings. We assert that one possibility for this finding is that income inequality fosters an environment of anger and resentment that ultimately leads to violence.


Assuntos
Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Censos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 266: 44-50, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397300

RESUMO

There has been no empirical evidence about the health informatics workforce in Australia produced in the last ten years. This study reports the findings from an analysis of a subset of the 2018 Australian Health Informatics Workforce Census data. Analysing 420 responses that were identified as the occupational group Health Informatics, the results indicate that whilst most of the workforce is classified as aged (>45 years), many respondents are still relatively early in their health informatics careers. Furthermore, most do not possess any formal education in health informatics and almost a quarter undertake their health informatics role alongside another health-related role. The broad range of position titles and functions demonstrates the breadth within this workforce. Ongoing monitoring of this occupational group is required to inform workforce reform and renewal.


Assuntos
Censos , Informática Médica , Austrália , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Recursos Humanos
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1145-1149, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438104

RESUMO

The Australian Health Information Workforce is a critical discipline in the health sector as the investment in digital technologies increases. Yet historically there was no standardized reporting about the workforce and its six professional areas: clinical coding, costing analysts, data analysts, health informaticians, health information managers and health librarians. This paper presents the findings from the inaugural Australian Health Information Workforce Census. Analysis of 1,596 responses indicates this is an aging (56.1% ≥45 years) workforce with a large (78.1%) female population. Working in permanent (82%), public hospital (72%) roles, in professional or managerial roles (84%). The majority (93.2%) of respondents hold a tertiary qualification in health information, one-quarter of these at masters or doctoral level. Fewer than 30% of respondents hold a health information credential from a professional or industry association. The data from the ongoing national census will inform workforce planning and enable forecasting of the future workforce needs.


Assuntos
Censos , Recursos Humanos , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Previsões , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 966, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To draw optimal benefits of the demographic dividend, healthy life years of the young adults is a growing concern in India. Rising prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases among the younger population is responsible for increasing the life years lived with disability among them and for affecting their productivity in turn. This study measures the disability burden in various Indian sub-populations and assesses the contribution of disability to the change in person years lived with a disability during 2001-11. METHODS: Data from the Census of India, 2001 and 2011 was used for estimating the age distribution and disability prevalence among males and females. The Sample Registration System was used for age-specific mortality rate to calculate the life table for 15 states in India. Life years Lived with Disability (LLD) were estimated using the Sullivan method. The extension of Arriaga method was used to decompose change in life years lived with disability into Mortality and Disability Effect (ME and DE, respectively). Positive ME explains improvement in life years due to decline in mortality rate and a negative DE explains a decline in disability incidence in 2001-11. RESULTS: At national level, the disability prevalence has increased from 2001 to 2011. The prevalence of disability and the share of LLD to Life Expectancy (LE) is higher for males. High and medium fertility states scored highest on living with disability to LE ratio and measured DE in the decomposition analysis. At the national level, the DE increased in the age groups of 20-35 years. It was higher among the females. The states that are in the advanced stages of demographic transition show a negative DE. CONCLUSION: The study highlights expansion of DE in prime productive years of life, especially among females, in medium and high fertility states. Decline in skilled employment and productivity can be two major economic adversities due to increasing DE in working ages. Disability among young and working age population needs to be prioritised as most of the Indian states stand at crucial stages of demographic transitions.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Censos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10303-10311, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359751

RESUMO

Wastewater studies that provide per capita estimates of consumption (influent) or release (effluent) via wastewater systems rely heavily on accurate population data. This study evaluated the accuracy of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) reported populations, as well as hydrochemical parameters, against accurate populations from a population census. 104 catchment maps were received from WWTPs, geolocated in geospatial software and overlaid with the smallest area unit of the Australian census, equating to 14.9 million Australians or 64% of the national population. We characterized each catchment for population counts, as well as by age profile, income profile, and education level. For a subset of sites, population estimates using hydrochemical parameters BOD, COD, and dissolved ammonia were evaluated for accuracy against census populations. Population estimates provided by WWTP personnel were on average 18% higher than census-based populations. Furthermore, hydrochemical-based population estimates had high RSD (>44%) for BOD, COD, and ammonium between sites, suggesting that their applicability for use in population estimation may not be appropriate for every WWTP. Catchment age distributions were evaluated and 46% of catchments had skewed age distributions: 6% were skewed older, and 40% were skewed younger. Through this process WWTP catchment populations can be characterized in a way that will enhance the interpretations of per capita estimates.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Austrália , Censos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 377, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past studies have identified that inconvenient access to health clinics is one of the important barriers to health service utilization and health outcomes. However, establishing the link between the lack of access to health clinics and the high maternal and child morbidity and mortality in Nigeria has been a challenge due to the lack of data. This paper overcomes this problem by using the country's health clinic census data. METHODS: Using the Nigerian health clinic census, we evaluate the intercorrelation between the quantity and the quality of health clinics available across the country. We also examine the correlation between the access to health clinics and health behaviors/outcomes for residents by merging the health clinic census data with data from the demographic and health survey (DHS). The health clinic census data makes it possible to capture the overall geographical allocation of health services across the country as well as their comprehensive relationship with health outcomes. RESULTS: We find a strong positive correlation between the quality of a health clinic and the quantity and quality of neighboring clinics. The high quality clinics are concentrated in areas where the density of clinics is high, and where more of the clinics around them are also of high quality. We also find that an increase in access to health clinics of high quality that are in close proximity is significantly and positively correlated with an improvement in health behaviors as well as health outcomes. Women who are more disadvantaged benefit more from the access to high quality clinics than others. CONCLUSIONS: Health clinics of good quality are unevenly distributed geographically in Nigeria. The quality of health clinics should be of a level that can support the promotion of recommended health behaviors and achieve improved health outcomes throughout the country. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the optimal distribution of clinics of good quality, given that residents in less populated areas gain a higher marginal benefit from improved access to health service, despite the higher costs of supplying the service in those areas.


Assuntos
Censos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Nigéria , Gravidez
14.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 36(2): 129-137, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this paper we provide revised estimates of the prevalence of dementia in Ireland, the number of new cases per year and the severity mix. These estimates are a necessary input for any assessment of the potential demand for services and supports for people with dementia across all care settings in Ireland. METHODS: The prevalence, incidence and severity stage of dementia are calculated by applying rates from prominent international studies to population data from the 2016 census. RESULTS: We show that the total number of people with dementia in Ireland ranges between 39 272 and 55 266, depending on the international rates used to measure prevalence. The incidence of dementia in Ireland has increased as the population has aged, to at least 7752 new cases per year. We estimate that there are at least 11 175 people living at home in the community in Ireland with dementia who have a serious functional impairment, based on an Activities of Daily Living measurement, of which an estimated 1876 are chair or bedbound. CONCLUSIONS: Without a national prevalence study it is not possible to be precise about the estimates of the number of people with dementia in Ireland. However, having credible upper and lower bound estimates for the number of people with dementia, the potential number of new cases per year and severity rates is useful for planners and those charged with the responsibility of making resource allocation decisions in dementia.


Assuntos
Censos , Demência/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
G Ital Nefrol ; 36(3)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We report here the results of the 6th National Census (Cs-16) of Peritoneal Dialysis in Italy, carried out in 2017-18 by the Italian Society of Nephrology's Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group and relating to 2016. METHODS: The Census was conducted using an on-line questionnaire administered to the 237 non pediatric centers which did perform Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) in 2016. The results have been compared with the previous Censuses carried out since 2005. RESULTS: Incidence: In 2016, 1,595 patients (CAPD=56.1%) started on PD (1st treatment for ESRD) and 4,607 on hemodialysis (HD). PD was started incrementally by 32.5% in 144 Centers. 15.6% were late referrals, and 5.1% began within 48-72 hours of insertion. The catheter was positioned exclusively by a Nephrologist in 24.3% of cases. Prevalence: Patients on PD on 31/12/2016 were 4,607 (CAPD=46.6%), with 22.2% of prevalent patients on assisted PD (family member caregiver: 80.5%). Out: In 2016, PD dropout rate (ep/100 pt-yrs: 12.5 to HD; 11.8 death; 7.0 Tx) has not changed. The main cause of transfer to HD remains peritonitis (23.8%), although it is still decreasing (Cs-05: 37.9%). Peritonitis/EPS: The incidence of peritonitis in 2016 was 0.211 ep/pt-yr (939 episodes). The incidence of new cases of EPS in 2015-16 is diminishing too (16 cases=0.176 ep/100 pt-yrs). Other results: In 2016 the number of Centers using 3.86% for the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) (49.8%) increased, and the Centers carrying out home visits diminished (51.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Cs-16 confirms that PD in Italy is having good results.


Assuntos
Censos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália
16.
Gastroenterology ; 157(4): 1055-1066.e11, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Trends of mortality associated with extrahepatic complications of chronic liver disease might be changing. We studied trends in mortality from extrahepatic complications of viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the United States. METHODS: We performed a population-based study using US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics mortality records from 2007 through 2017. We identified trends in age-standardized mortality using Joinpoint trend analysis with estimates of annual percent change. RESULTS: The liver-related mortality among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased from 2007 through 2013 and then decreased once patients began receiving treatment with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, from 2014 through 2017. Among patients with HCV infection, the age-standardized mortality for extrahepatic cancers was 2.6%, for cardiovascular disease was 1.9%, and for diabetes was 3.3%. Among individuals with hepatitis B virus infection, liver-related mortality decreased steadily from 2007 through 2017. During the study, age-standardized mortality from hepatitis B virus-related extrahepatic complications increased by an average of 2.0% each year. Although liver-related mortality from ALD continued to increase, mortality from extrahepatic complications of ALD did not change significantly during the 11-year study. Among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the cause of death was most frequently cardiovascular disease, which increased gradually over the study period, whereas liver-related mortality increased rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics mortality records, we found that after widespread use of DAA agents for treatment of viral hepatitis, cause-specific mortality from extrahepatic cancers increased, whereas mortality from cardiovascular disease or diabetes increased only among patients with HCV infection. These findings indicate the need to reassess risk and risk factors for extrahepatic cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in individuals successfully treated for HCV infection with DAA agents.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Hepatite B Crônica/mortalidade , Hepatite C Crônica/mortalidade , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Censos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Public Health ; 109(8): 1079-1083, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219714

RESUMO

Increasing in frequency and impact in the United States and worldwide, disasters can lead to serious mental health consequences. Although US census data are essential for disaster preparedness and the identification of community-level risk factors for adverse postdisaster mental health outcomes, the US Census Bureau faces many challenges as we approach 2020 Decennial Census data collection. Despite the utility of the information provided by the Census and American Community Survey (ACS), the 2020 US Census and subsequent ACS data face threats to validity. As a result, public health funding could be misallocated, and disaster preparedness and response efforts misinformed; this can also contribute to the worsening of mental health inequities, particularly in the context of disaster. Undercutting the Census and the ACS, rich data sources that allow representation of all people in the United States, is a step backward in our effort to mitigate the population mental health consequences of disasters.


Assuntos
Censos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Public Health ; 109(8): 1084-1091, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219718

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine associations of county-level demographic, socioeconomic, and labor market characteristics on overall drug mortality rates and specific classes of opioid mortality. Methods. We used National Vital Statistics System mortality data (2002-2004 and 2014-2016) and county-level US Census data. We examined associations between several census variables and drug deaths for 2014 to 2016. We then identified specific classes of counties characterized by different levels and rates of growth in mortality from specific opioid types between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 to 2016. We ran multivariate and multivariable regression models to predict probabilities of membership in each "opioid mortality class" on the basis of county-level census measures. Results. Drug mortality rates overall are higher in counties characterized by more economic disadvantage, more blue-collar and service employment, and higher opioid-prescribing rates. High rates of prescription opioid overdoses and overdoses involving both prescription and synthetic opioids cluster in more economically disadvantaged counties with larger concentrations of service industry workers. High heroin and "syndemic" opioid mortality counties (high rates across all major opioid types) are more urban, have larger concentrations of professional workers, and are less economically disadvantaged. Syndemic opioid counties also have greater concentrations of blue-collar workers. Conclusions. Census data are essential tools for understanding the importance of place-level characteristics on opioid mortality. Public Health Implications. National opioid policy strategies cannot be assumed universally applicable. In addition to national policies to combat the opioid and larger drug crises, emphasis should be on developing locally and regionally tailored interventions, with attention to place-based structural economic and social characteristics.


Assuntos
Censos , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Governo Local , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Public Health ; 109(8): 1092-1100, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219723

RESUMO

Public health professionals have long played a vital-albeit underappreciated-role in shaping, not simply using, US Census data, so as to provide the factual evidence required for good governance and health equity. Since its advent in 1790, the US Census has constituted a key political instrument, given the novel mandate of the US Constitution to allocate political representation via a national decennial census. US Census approaches to categorizing and enumerating people and places have profound implications for every branch and level of government and the resources and representation accorded across and within US states. Using a health equity lens to consider how public health has featured in each generation's political battles waged over and with census data, this essay considers three illustrations of public health's engagement with the enduring ramifications of three foundational elements of the US Census: its treatment of slavery, Indigenous populations, and the politics of place. This history underscores how public health has major stakes in the values and vision for governance that produces and uses census data.


Assuntos
Censos/história , Escravização/estatística & dados numéricos , Equidade em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Índios Norte-Americanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 2): 303, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254122

RESUMO

The number of hospital beds per capita, an important measure of equity in healthcare availability and resource allocation, was found to vary across geographic areas in many countries, including the USA. The hospital service areas (HSAs) have proven to be more meaningful spatial units for studying health-seeking behaviors and health resource allocation and service utilization. However, when evaluating the geographical balance in ratios of hospital beds to population (HBtP), no existing HSA delineation methods directly consider the underlying population distribution. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this study incorporated the State Inpatient Database with census data to develop a population-based HSA delineation method. The census-derived HSAs were produced for Florida and were validated by aggregating and comparing with the traditional flow-based HSAs. The difference in current ratios of HBtP between the most over- and under-served HSAs was approximately 60 times. Significant clusters of high and low ratios were found in Miami and Jacksonville metropolitan areas, respectively. Such results may be of interest to relevant stakeholders and contribute to planning and optimization of hospital resource allocation and healthcare policy-making. Furthermore, the discovery of a strong correlation between the numbers of hospital discharges and the population at ZIP code level holds a remarkable potential for affordable population estimation, especially in non-census years.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Florida , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Geografia , Hospitais , Humanos
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