Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46.905
Filtrar
1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 173, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570480

RESUMO

The cerebellum, through its connectivity with the cerebral cortex, plays an integral role in regulating cognitive and affective processes, and its dysregulation can result in neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD)-related behavioural deficits. Identifying cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity (FC) profiles in children with NDDs can provide insight into common connectivity profiles and their correlation to NDD-related behaviours. 479 participants from the Province of Ontario Neurodevelopmental Disorders (POND) network (typically developing = 93, Autism Spectrum Disorder = 172, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder = 161, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder = 53, mean age = 12.2) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and behaviour testing (Social Communication Questionnaire, Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and Child Behaviour Checklist - Attentional Problems Subscale). FC components maximally correlated to behaviour were identified using canonical correlation analysis. Results were then validated by repeating the investigation in 556 participants from an independent NDD cohort provided from a separate consortium (Healthy Brain Network (HBN)). Replication of canonical components was quantified by correlating the feature vectors between the two cohorts. The two cerebellar-cerebral FC components that replicated to the greatest extent were correlated to, respectively, obsessive-compulsive behaviour (behaviour feature vectors, rPOND-HBN = -0.97; FC feature vectors, rPOND-HBN = -0.68) and social communication deficit contrasted against attention deficit behaviour (behaviour feature vectors, rPOND-HBN = -0.99; FC feature vectors, rPOND-HBN = -0.78). The statistically stable (|z| > 1.96) features of the FC feature vectors, measured via bootstrap re-sampling, predominantly comprised of correlations between cerebellar attentional and control network regions and cerebral attentional, default mode, and control network regions. In both cohorts, spectral clustering on FC loading values resulted in subject clusters mixed across diagnostic categories, but no cluster was significantly enriched for any given diagnosis as measured via chi-squared test (p > 0.05). Overall, two behaviour-correlated components of cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity were observed in two independent cohorts. This suggests the existence of generalizable cerebellar network differences that span across NDD diagnostic boundaries.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Humanos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Cerebelo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
J Neurosurg ; 140(4): 1160-1168, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lateral aspect of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure frequently harbors vascular pathology and is a common surgical corridor used to access the pons tegmentum, as well as the cerebellum and its superior and middle peduncles. The quadrangular lobule of the cerebellum (QLC) represents an obstacle to reach these structures. The authors sought to analyze and compare exposure of the cerebellar interpeduncular region (CIPR) before and after QLC resection and provide a case series to evaluate its clinical applicability. METHODS: Forty-two sides of human brainstems were prepared with Klingler's method and dissected. The exposure area before and after resection of the QLC was measured and statistically studied. A case series of 59 patients who underwent QLC resection for the treatment of CIPR lesions was presented and clinical outcomes were evaluated at 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: The anteroposterior surgical corridor of the CIPR increased by 10.3 mm after resection of the QLC. The mean exposure areas were 42 mm2 before resection of the QLC and 159.6 mm2 after resection. In this series, ataxia, extrapyramidal syndrome, and akinetic mutism were found after surgery. However, all these cases resolved within 1 year of follow-up. Modified Rankin Scale score improved by 1 grade, on average. CONCLUSIONS: QLC resection significantly increased the exposure area, mainly in the anteroposterior axis. This surgical strategy appears to be safe and may help the neurosurgeon when operating on the lateral aspect of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Humanos , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Tronco Encefálico/cirurgia , Microcirurgia/métodos , Craniotomia/métodos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8168, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589482

RESUMO

Injury, tumors, ischemia, and lesions in the cerebellum show the involvement of this region in human speech. The association of the cerebellum with learned birdsong has only been identified recently. Cerebellar dysfunction in young songbirds causes learning disabilities, but its role in adult songbirds has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) in adult birdsong. We created bilateral excitotoxic lesions in the DCN of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and recorded their songs for up to 4 months. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry, we validated the lesion efficacy. We found that the song duration significantly increased from 14 weeks post-op; the increase in duration was caused by a greater number of introductory notes as well as a greater number of syllables sung after the introductory notes. On the other hand, the motif duration decreased from 8 weeks after DCN lesions were induced, which was due to faster singing of syllables, not changes in inter-syllable interval length. DCN lesions also caused a decrease in the fundamental frequency of syllables. In summary, we showed that DCN lesions influence the temporal and acoustic features of birdsong. These results suggest that the cerebellum influences singing in adult songbirds.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Aves Canoras , Animais , Masculino , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação , Aprendizagem , Vocalização Animal
5.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 232, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438546

RESUMO

Two-photon microscopy enables in vivo imaging of neuronal activity in mammalian brains at high resolution. However, two-photon imaging tools for stable, long-term, and simultaneous study of multiple brain regions in same mice are lacking. Here, we propose a method to create large cranial windows covering such as the whole parietal cortex and cerebellum in mice using fluoropolymer nanosheets covered with light-curable resin (termed the 'Nanosheet Incorporated into light-curable REsin' or NIRE method). NIRE method can produce cranial windows conforming the curved cortical and cerebellar surfaces, without motion artifacts in awake mice, and maintain transparency for >5 months. In addition, we demonstrate that NIRE method can be used for in vivo two-photon imaging of neuronal ensembles, individual neurons and subcellular structures such as dendritic spines. The NIRE method can facilitate in vivo large-scale analysis of heretofore inaccessible neural processes, such as the neuroplastic changes associated with maturation, learning and neural pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Polímeros de Fluorcarboneto , Animais , Camundongos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo , Resinas Vegetais , Neuroimagem , Mamíferos
7.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298208, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427650

RESUMO

The taiep rat is a tubulin mutant with an early hypomyelination followed by progressive demyelination of the central nervous system due to a point mutation in the Tubb4a gene. It shows clinical, radiological, and pathological signs like those of the human leukodystrophy hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC). Taiep rats had tremor, ataxia, immobility episodes, epilepsy, and paralysis; the acronym of these signs given the name to this autosomal recessive trait. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in adult taiep rats and in a patient suffering from H-ABC. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on sensory responses and locomotion and finally, we compared myelin loss in the spinal cord of adult taiep and wild type (WT) rats using immunostaining. Our results showed delayed SSEPs in the upper and the absence of them in the lower extremities in a human patient. In taiep rats SSEPs had a delayed second negative evoked responses and were more susceptible to delayed responses with iterative stimulation with respect to WT. MEPs were produced by bipolar stimulation of the primary motor cortex generating a direct wave in WT rats followed by several indirect waves, but taiep rats had fused MEPs. Importantly, taiep SSEPs improved after systemic administration of 4-AP, a potassium channel blocker, and this drug induced an increase in the horizontal displacement measured in a novelty-induced locomotor test. In taiep subjects have a significant decrease in the immunostaining of myelin in the anterior and ventral funiculi of the lumbar spinal cord with respect to WT rats. In conclusion, evoked potentials are useful to evaluate myelin alterations in a leukodystrophy, which improved after systemic administration of 4-AP. Our results have a translational value because our findings have implications in future medical trials for H-ABC patients or with other leukodystrophies.


Assuntos
Doenças Desmielinizantes , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Substância Branca , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Ratos Mutantes , 4-Aminopiridina/farmacologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Desmielinizantes/genética , Cerebelo , Gânglios da Base , Potenciais Evocados , Caminhada , Atrofia
8.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 35(4): 683-695, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518248

RESUMO

The human cerebellum is an ultraspecialized region of the brain responsible for cognitive functions and movement coordination. The fine mechanisms through which the process of aging impacts such functions are not well understood; therefore, a rigorous exploration of this brain region at the molecular level is deemed necessary. Gangliosides, sialylated glycosphingolipids, highly and specifically expressed in the human central nervous system, represent possible molecular markers of cerebellum development and aging. In this context, for a comprehensive determination of development- and age-specific components, we have conducted here a comparative profiling and structural determination of the gangliosides expressed in fetal cerebellum in two intrauterine developmental stages and aged cerebellum by ion mobility separation (IMS) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS (MS/MS). Due to the high sensitivity and efficiency of separation provided by IMS MS, no less than 551 chemically distinct species were identified, which represents 4.5 times more gangliosides than ever discovered in this brain region. The detailed assessment of fetal vs aged cerebellum gangliosidome showed marked discrepancies not only in the general number of the species expressed, but also in their sialylation patterns, the modifications of the glycan core, and the composition of the ceramides. All of these characteristics are potential markers of cerebellum development and aging. The structural analysis by collision-induced dissociation (CID) documented the occurrence of GD1b (d18:1/18:0) isomer in the fetal cerebellum in the second gestational trimester, with all probability of GQ1b (t18:1/18:0) in the near-term fetus and of GQ1b (d18:1/18:0) in aged cerebellum.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Idoso , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Gangliosídeos/análise , Encéfalo , Cerebelo
9.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 103, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) plays a crucial role in cerebellar blood supply, and AICA aneurysms are relatively rare, comprising less than 1-1.5% of all brain aneurysms. Understanding their clinical scenarios, management approaches, and outcomes is essential. This systematic review analyzes data from 86 studies to comprehensively explore AICA aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The process of obtaining relevant research, which includes patients with AICA aneurysms, was carried out using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. This review exclusively included extensive papers written in English. The search included the MeSH phrases "Anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm" and "AICA aneurysm." Microsurgical and endovascular treatments were compared using statistical analysis, exploring demographics, risk factors, treatment modalities, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The review includes 85 case reports and one retrospective study, totaling 140 patients. The study reveals a diverse patient profile with a slight female predominance (65%), a mean age of 50.7 years, and an 82.86% prevalence of no identified risk factors. Ruptured aneurysms accounted for 55%, with microsurgery and endovascular procedures accounting for 70.71% and 27.86%, respectively. The mortality rate was 2.86%, and no significant differences were found in rebleed, recurrence, or mortality rates between treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Microsurgical and endovascular interventions demonstrate comparable effectiveness, with microsurgery showing superiority in specific situations. Therefore, tailoring treatment is crucial to individual patient needs. Subgroup analyses highlight demographic-specific trends, guiding clinicians in managing this rare pathology.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Humanos , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Artéria Basilar , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 48(2): 196-203, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548650

RESUMO

Self-inflicted oral injuries, accidental or otherwise, can cause major consequences. Measures need to be taken to protect individuals from chronic self-injurious behaviour; however, there are no official guidelines on the subject. The purpose of this article is to show the case of a 1-year-old patient with neurological disorders who, following the eruption of deciduous teeth, had self-inflicted a traumatic ulcer on his tongue and lower lip. Following a multidisciplinary approach involving several operating units of our hospital to make a diagnosis, an oral device was designed to completely cover the dental elements to prevent recurrence of the trauma and to prevent further worsening of the injuries already caused. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that although the surgical approach, such as extraction of the dental elements, may be the quickest solution in situations similar to the one presented, the high biological cost and irreversibility of the result lead to seeking alternatives and more conservative solutions such as the one described.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anormalidades , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso , Automutilação , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Lactente , Humanos , Automutilação/etiologia , Automutilação/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/complicações , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Assistência Odontológica/efeitos adversos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento
11.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 19(1)2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554289

RESUMO

Spatial trajectory planning and execution in a social context play a vital role in our daily lives. To study this process, participants completed a goal-directed task involving either observing a sequence of preferred goals and self-planning a trajectory (Self Sequencing) or observing and reproducing the entire trajectory taken by others (Other Sequencing). The results indicated that in the observation phase, witnessing entire trajectories created by others (Other Sequencing) recruited cerebellar mentalizing areas (Crus 2 and 1) and cortical mentalizing areas in the precuneus, ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction more than merely observing several goals (Self Sequencing). In the production phase, generating a trajectory by oneself (Self Sequencing) activated Crus 1 more than merely reproducing the observed trajectories from others (Other Sequencing). Additionally, self-guided observation and planning (Self Sequencing) activated the cerebellar lobules IV and VIII more than Other Sequencing. Control conditions involving non-social objects and non-sequential conditions where the trajectory did not have to be (re)produced revealed no differences with the main Self and Other Sequencing conditions, suggesting limited social and sequential specificity. These findings provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying trajectory observation and production by the self or others during social navigation.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Mentalização , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Lobo Parietal , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico
12.
Neurosci Lett ; 826: 137733, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492880

RESUMO

Etomidate (ET) is a widely used intravenous imidazole general anesthetic, which depresses the cerebellar neuronal activity by modulating various receptors activity and synaptic transmission. In this study, we investigated the effects of ET on the cerebellar climbing fiber-Purkinje cells (CF-PC) plasticity in vitro in mice using whole-cell recording technique and pharmacological methods. Our results demonstrated that CF tetanic stimulation produced a mGluR1-dependent long-term depression (LTD) of CF-PC excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), which was enhanced by bath application of ET (10 µM). Blockade of mGluR1 receptor with JNJ16259685, ET triggered the tetanic stimulation to induce a CF-PC LTD accompanied with an increase in paired-pulse ratio (PPR). The ET-triggered CF-PC LTD was abolished by extracellular administration of an N-methyl-(D)-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, D-APV, as well as by intracellular blockade of NMDA receptors activity with MK801. Furthermore, blocking cannabinoids 1 (CB1) receptor with AM251 or chelating intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA, ET failed to trigger the CF-PC LTD. Moreover, the ET-triggered CF-PC LTD was abolished by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), but not by inhibition of protein kinase C inhibiter. The present results suggest that ET acts on postsynaptic NMDA receptor resulting in an enhancement of the cerebellar CF-PC LTD through CB1 receptor/PKA cascade in vitro in mice. These results provide new evidence and possible mechanism for ET anesthesia to affect motor learning and motor coordination by regulating cerebellar CF-PC LTD.


Assuntos
Etomidato , Camundongos , Animais , Etomidato/farmacologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Depressão Sináptica de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia
13.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(3): e14638, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488445

RESUMO

AIMS: The open-loop nature of conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) produces continuous and excessive stimulation to patients which contributes largely to increased prevalence of adverse side effects. Cerebellar ataxia is characterized by abnormal Purkinje cells (PCs) dendritic arborization, loss of PCs and motor coordination, and muscle weakness with no effective treatment. We aim to develop a real-time field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototype targeting the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) to close the loop for ataxia using conditional double knockout mice with deletion of PC-specific LIM homeobox (Lhx)1 and Lhx5, resulting in abnormal dendritic arborization and motor deficits. METHODS: We implanted multielectrode array in the DCN and muscles of ataxia mice. The beneficial effect of open-loop DCN-DBS or closed-loop DCN-DBS was compared by motor behavioral assessments, electromyography (EMG), and neural activities (neurospike and electroencephalogram) in freely moving mice. FPGA board, which performed complex real-time computation, was used for closed-loop DCN-DBS system. RESULTS: Closed-loop DCN-DBS was triggered only when symptomatic muscle EMG was detected in a real-time manner, which restored motor activities, electroencephalogram activities and neurospike properties completely in ataxia mice. Closed-loop DCN-DBS was more effective than an open-loop paradigm as it reduced the frequency of DBS. CONCLUSION: Our real-time FPGA-based DCN-DBS system could be a potential clinical strategy for alleviating cerebellar ataxia and other movement disorders.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Transtornos dos Movimentos , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/terapia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Cerebelo , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Núcleos Cerebelares/fisiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2355, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491089

RESUMO

Handedness develops early in life, but the structural and functional brain connectivity patterns associated with it remains unknown. Here we investigate associations between handedness and the asymmetry of brain connectivity in 9- to 10-years old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Compared to right-handers, left-handers had increased global functional connectivity density in the left-hand motor area and decreased it in the right-hand motor area. A connectivity-based index of handedness provided a sharper differentiation between right- and left-handers. The laterality of hand-motor connectivity varied as a function of handedness in unimodal sensorimotor cortices, heteromodal areas, and cerebellum (P < 0.001) and reproduced across all regions of interest in Discovery and Replication subsamples. Here we show a strong association between handedness and the laterality of the functional connectivity patterns in the absence of differences in structural connectivity, brain morphometrics, and cortical myelin between left, right, and mixed handed children.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Córtex Sensório-Motor , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cerebelo
15.
J Int Med Res ; 52(3): 3000605241235848, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513145

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment in focal cerebellar disorders has been widely recognized and is described as cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS). However, the relationship between CCAS and crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis (CCD) has rarely been discussed. The present report describes the uncommon phenomenon of CCD in two cases with isolated cerebellar infarction, and discuss its contribution to cognitive impairment. Cognitive performance was examined using the CCAS scale and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. Moreover, the relative distribution of cerebral and cerebellar blood flow was measured using three-dimensional arterial spin labeling imaging. Case 1 showed deficits in general cognition and had impaired language, episodic memory, and executive function. Case 2 showed deficits in general cognition at baseline, and cognitive deterioration of visuospatial abilities, language, episodic memory, and executive function was observed at the 3-month follow-up. Both cases met the diagnosis criteria of CCAS. Reduced cerebral blood flow was observed in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the cerebellar infarction at baseline in Case 1, and at the 3-month follow-up in Case 2. The present report describes cognitive decline after isolated cerebellar infarction in combination with contralateral cerebral hypoperfusion, as measured using quantitative arterial spin labeling. One possible mechanism involves the functional depression of cerebello-cerebral pathways.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Doenças Cerebelares , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Doenças Cerebelares/complicações , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Infarto
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2519, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514616

RESUMO

Consensus is rapidly building to support a role for the cerebellum beyond motor function, but its contributions to non-motor learning remain poorly understood. Here, we provide behavioral, anatomical and computational evidence to demonstrate a causal role for the primate posterior lateral cerebellum in learning new visuomotor associations. Reversible inactivation of the posterior lateral cerebellum of male monkeys impeded the learning of new visuomotor associations, but had no effect on movement parameters, or on well-practiced performance of the same task. Using retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus, we identified a distinct cerebro-cerebellar network linking Purkinje cells in the posterior lateral cerebellum with a region of the prefrontal cortex that is critical in learning visuomotor associations. Together, these results demonstrate a causal role for the primate posterior lateral cerebellum in non-motor, reinforcement learning.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Aprendizagem , Animais , Masculino , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Células de Purkinje , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Primatas
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6641, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503802

RESUMO

Cerebellar computations are necessary for fine behavioural control and may rely on internal models for estimation of behaviourally relevant states. Here, we propose that the central cerebellar function is to estimate how states interact with each other, and to use these estimates to coordinates extra-cerebellar neuronal dynamics underpinning a range of interconnected behaviours. To support this claim, we describe a cerebellar model for state estimation that includes state interactions, and link this model with the neuronal architecture and dynamics observed empirically. This is formalised using the free energy principle, which provides a dual perspective on a system in terms of both the dynamics of its physical-in this case neuronal-states, and the inferential process they entail. As a demonstration of this proposal, we simulate cerebellar-dependent synchronisation of whisking and respiration, which are known to be tightly coupled in rodents, as well as limb and tail coordination during locomotion. In summary, we propose that the ubiquitous involvement of the cerebellum in behaviour arises from its central role in precisely coupling behavioural domains.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Locomoção , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
18.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 147, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lesions of the posterior fossa (brainstem and cerebellum) are challenging in diagnosis and treatment due to the fact that they are often located eloquently and total resection is rarely possible. Therefore, frame-based stereotactic biopsies are commonly used to asservate tissue for neuropathological diagnosis and further treatment determination. The aim of our study was to assess the safety and diagnostic success rate of frame-based stereotactic biopsies for lesions in the posterior fossa via the suboccipital-transcerebellar approach. METHODS: We performed a retrospective database analysis of all frame-based stereotactic biopsy cases at our institution since 2007. The aim was to identify all surgical cases for infratentorial lesion biopsies via the suboccipital-transcerebellar approach. We collected clinical data regarding outcomes, complications, diagnostic success, radiological appearances, and stereotactic trajectories. RESULTS: A total of n = 79 cases of stereotactic biopsies for posterior fossa lesions via the suboccipital-transcerebellar approach (41 female and 38 male) utilizing the Zamorano-Duchovny stereotactic system were identified. The mean age at the time of surgery was 42.5 years (± 23.3; range, 1-87 years). All patients were operated with intraoperative stereotactic imaging (n = 62 MRI, n = 17 CT). The absolute diagnostic success rate was 87.3%. The most common diagnoses were glioma, lymphoma, and inflammatory disease. The overall complication rate was 8.7% (seven cases). All patients with complications showed new neurological deficits; of those, three were permanent. Hemorrhage was detected in five of the cases having complications. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.6%, and 1-year survival rate was 70%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that frame-based stereotactic biopsies with the Zamorano-Duchovny stereotactic system via the suboccipital-transcerebellar approach are safe and reliable for infratentorial lesions bearing a high diagnostic yield and an acceptable complication rate. Further research should focus on the planning of safe trajectories and a careful case selection with the goal of minimizing complications and maximizing diagnostic success.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tronco Encefálico/cirurgia , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Biópsia/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia
19.
Neuroimage Clin ; 41: 103582, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Converging evidence points to impairments of the predictive function exerted by the cerebellum as one of the causes of the social cognition deficits observed in patients with cerebellar disorders. OBJECTIVE: We tested the neurorestorative effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) on the use of contextual expectations to interpret actions occurring in ambiguous sensory sceneries in a sample of adolescents and young adults with congenital, non-progressive cerebellar malformation (CM). METHODS: We administered an action prediction task in which, in an implicit-learning phase, the probability of co-occurrence between actions and contextual elements was manipulated to form either strongly or moderately informative expectations. Subsequently, in a testing phase, we probed the use of these contextual expectations for predicting ambiguous (i.e., temporally occluded) actions. In a sham-controlled, within-subject design, participants received anodic or sham ctDCS during the task. RESULTS: Anodic ctDCS, compared to sham, improved patients' ability to use contextual expectations to predict the unfolding of actions embedded in moderately, but not strongly, informative contexts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborate the role of the cerebellum in using previously learned contextual associations to predict social events and document the efficacy of ctDCS to boost social prediction in patients with congenital cerebellar malformation. The study encourages the further exploration of ctDCS as a neurorestorative tool for the neurorehabilitation of social cognition abilities in neurological, neuropsychiatric, and neurodevelopmental disorders featured by macro- or micro-structural alterations of the cerebellum.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Cerebelo , Aprendizagem , Cognição Social
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5622, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453991

RESUMO

The human cerebellum is engaged in a broad array of tasks related to motor coordination, cognition, language, attention, memory, and emotional regulation. A detailed cerebellar atlas can facilitate the investigation of the structural and functional organization of the cerebellum. However, existing cerebellar atlases are typically limited to a single imaging modality with insufficient characterization of tissue properties. Here, we introduce a multifaceted cerebellar atlas based on high-resolution multimodal MRI, facilitating the understanding of the neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration of the cerebellum based on cortical morphology, tissue microstructure, and intra-cerebellar and cerebello-cerebral connectivity.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idioma , Cognição/fisiologia , Atenção
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...