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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468532

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the phylogenetic similarities among the muntjac (Muntiacus spp.). The phylogenetic similarities among seven major muntjac species were studied by comparing the nucleotide sequence of 16s rRNA and cytochrome b genome. Nucleotide sequences, retrieved from NCBI databases were aligned by using DNASTAR software. A phylogenetic tree was created for the selected species of muntjac by using the maximum likelihood method on MEGA7 software. The results of nucleotide sequences (16s rRNA) showed phylogenetic similarities between, the M. truongsonensis and M. rooseveltorum had the highest (99.2%) while the lowest similarities (96.8%) found between M. crinifrons and M. putaoensi. While the results of nucleotide sequences (Cty b) showed the highest similarity (100%) between M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis and the lowest s (91.5%) among M. putaoensis and M. crinifrons. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species (16s rRNA gene) shows the main two clusters, the one including M. putaoensis, M. truongsonensis, M. rooseveltorum, and M. muntjak, and the second one including M. crinifrons and M. vuquangensis. The M. reevesi exists separately in the phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species using cytochrome b genes shows that the M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis are clustered in the same group.


Assuntos
Citocromos b , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citocromos b/genética , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133564

RESUMO

Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


Assuntos
Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano
3.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 49, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying factors shaping population genetic structure across continuous landscapes in the context of biogeographic boundaries for lineage diversification has been a challenging goal. The red muntjacs cover a wide range across multiple vegetation types, making the group an excellent model to study South and Southeast Asian biogeography. Therefore, we analysed mitogenomes and microsatellite loci, confirming the number of red muntjac lineages from India, gaining insights into the evolutionary history and phylogeography of red muntjacs. RESULTS: Our results indicated the Northwestern population of red muntjac or the Himalayan red muntjac (M. aureus) in India as genetically diverse and well-structured, with significant genetic differentiation implying a low level of gene flow. The phylogenetic, population genetic structure, as well as species delimitation analyses, confirm the presence of the lineage from Western Himalayan in addition to the previously identified red muntjac lineages. Relatively low genetic diversity was observed in M. aureus compared to M. vaginalis, M. malabaricus and M. muntjak. The M. aureus and M. vaginalis lineages have split during the late Pleistocene, ~ 1.01 million years ago (Mya), making M. aureus the youngest lineage; whereas, M. malabaricus split earlier, ~ 2.2 Mya and appeared as the oldest lineage among red muntjacs. CONCLUSIONS: Pronounced climate fluctuations during the Quaternary period were pivotal in influencing the current spatial distribution of forest-dwelling species' restriction to Northwestern India. Our finding confirms the distinct Himalayan red muntjac (M. aureus) within the red muntjac group from Northwestern India that should be managed as an Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU). We recommend a reassessment of the conservation status of red muntjacs for effective conservation and management.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Índia , Filogenia , Filogeografia
4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450743

RESUMO

Northern red muntjac (Muntiacus vaginalis; "barking deer") is a shy and small-sized cervid mammal, limited to the outer Himalayan foothill forests in Pakistan. Habitat characteristics were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify habitat utilization of barking deer, 80 field surveys were conducted in the study area along transects. 1200 Quadrats at 50 m intervals were deployed along these transect lines to determine microhabitat factors associated with seasonal distribution. The food composition of the barking deer was determined through fecal droppings analysis by micro-histological technique. Forty-five fecal samples of barking deer were collected from the study area (Murree-Kotli Sattian-Kahuta National Pak); summer (28) and winter (17). The micro-histological analysis revealed that more plant species are available in its habitat during the summer season (27) as compared to winter (19). Due to browsing nature barking deer mostly feed on trees in both seasons. While shrubs are slightly higher in winters. In summer barking deer consumed 10 Trees, 6 Shrubs, 5 Herbs, and 6 kinds of grass species. Dominant tree species were Phyllanthus emblica and Acacia modesta. Dominant shrub species were Ziziphus nummularia and Justicia adhatoda. In winter barking deer consumed 8 Trees, 7 Shrubs, 3 Herbs, and 1 Grass. Dominant tree species were Bauhinia variegata and Acacia modesta while shrubs included Ziziphus nummularia and Carissa opaca.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ecossistema , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Cervo Muntjac , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
5.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 212-216, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496093

RESUMO

Muntjac deer (Cervidae: Muntiacus) are often cited as an excellent model for the study of vertebrate evolution due to their fast rate of change in chromosome number among vertebrates. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Muntiacus generally, and the taxonomic status of Muntiacus gongshanensis specifically, remain unclear. Here, the phylogenetic relationships within Muntiacus were studied using mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) and cytochrome b (cyt b) segments. Our results recognize 12 species within Muntiacus and support the controversial species M. gongshanensis, M. putaoensis, and M. malabaricus. Furthermore, Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum-likelihood (ML) approaches revealed M. gongshanensis and M. crinifrons to be closely related species, with M. feae as their sister species, and M. putaoensis and M. truongsonensis to be closely related, with M. rooseveltorum as their sister species. The distribution range of M. gongshanensis was also confirmed in southwest China (Namdapha, Modong, Zayu and Gongshan) and northern Myanmar (Putao). The results of this study provide insight into the evolution of Muntiacus and further provide a molecular basis for the taxonomic evaluation of the genus in the future and fundamental data for the conservation of M. gongshanensis.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Filogenia , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(3): 500-511, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423310

RESUMO

The present study reports data on the skull bone morphometry of barking and sambar deer. The skulls of adult barking deer (n = 6) and sambar deer (n = 6) of either sex (n = 3 males and n = 3 females) were collected from the Aizawl Zoological Park, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, with official permission from the Government of Mizoram. Anatomically, barking and sambar deer's skulls were elongated, pyramid-like, dolichocephalic and consisted of thirty-two cranial and facial bones. The cranial bones were eleven (three single and four paired), comprising of occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal, interparietal, parietal and temporal. The facial bones were twenty-one (one single and ten were paired), consisting of the maxilla, premaxilla (incisive), palatine, pterygoid, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic (malar), vomer, turbinates, mandible and hyoid. In the present study, altogether 41 different measurements were taken morphologically and 6 different indices were applied. The obtained morphometrical parameters were significantly (p < .01, p < .05) higher in males than females of both species. Species wise, all obtained parameters were higher in sambar deer than barking deer. The obtained 41 different skull parameters and 6 indices showed statistically significant differences (p < .01 and p < .05) between both sexes of barking and sambar deer; however, practically these differences were meagre. The present morphometrical study on the skull of both species can help the wildlife professionals and zoo veterinarians determine the sex of these animals and differentiate it from other domestic and wild small ruminants for solving veterolegal cases. This study's findings will also motivate and assist other comparative studies with various domestic and wild small ruminants.


Assuntos
Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mandíbula , Maxila , Crânio
7.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 80(1): 170-176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no previously reported information on the applied anatomy and clinical significance of the maxillofacial and mandibular regions of the barking deer and sambar deer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Therefore, the present study was designed to provide some important clinical landmarks related to tracking of the infraorbital, mental and mandibular nerves with its clinical implications in regional anaesthesia in both the species. RESULTS: In the present study, the distance between the most lateral bulging of the facial tuberosity to the infraorbital foramen and from the latter to the root of the alveolar tooth directly ventral to it was found to be 2.65 ± 0.01 cm and 0.90 ± ± 0.02 cm in males; 2.75 ± 0.01 cm, 1.11 ± 0.01 cm in females of barking deer and 4.57 ± 0.01 cm and 1.83 ± 0.02 cm in males; 4.52 ± 0.02 cm and 1.76 ± 0.02 cm in females of sambar deer. The infraorbital foramen was small, elliptical and was located at the level of first superior premolar teeth in barking deer and sambar deer. The facial tuberosity was located above the third superior premolar teeth in the barking deer but was located at the level of the first superior molar teeth in sambar deer. The distance between the lateral alveolar root of the third inferior incisor tooth to the mental foramen was 2.84 ± 0.01 cm in males, 2.78 ± 0.01 cm in females of barking deer and 3.04 ± 0.02 cm in males, 2.96 ± 0.01 cm in females of sambar deer which is an important landmark for achieving the location of the mental foramen nerve for the regional nerve block in both the species. The mandible of both the species showed oval-shaped mental foramen with unossified mandibular symphysis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that most of the parameters showed a statistically significant difference between the sexes in barking deer and sambar deer; however, from the practical point of view, these differences were meager. The results were discussed with regard to their clinical applications in various regional anaesthesia performed in maxillofacial and mandibular regions of both the species.


Assuntos
Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Face , Feminino , Masculino , Mandíbula , Maxila
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315909

RESUMO

Across the tropics, large-bodied mammals have been affected by selective logging in ways that vary with levels of timber extraction, collateral damage, species-specific traits and secondary effects of hunting, as facilitated by improved access through logging roads. In Peninsular Malaysia, 3.0 million hectares or 61 percent of its Permanent Reserved Forests is officially assigned for commercial selective logging. Understanding how wildlife adapts and uses logged forest is critical for its management and, for threatened species, their conservation. In this study, we quantify the population status of four tropical ungulate species in a large selectively logged forest reserve and an adjacent primary forest protected area. We then conduct finer scale analyses to identify the species-specific factors that determine their occurrence. A combined indirect sign-camera trapping approach with a large sampling effort (2,665 km and 27,780 trap nights surveyed) covering a wide area (560 km2) generated species-specific detection probabilities and site occupancies. Populations of wild boar were widespread across both logged and primary forests, whereas sambar and muntjac occupancy was lower in logged forest (48.4% and 19.2% respectively), with gaur showing no significant difference. Subsequent modelling revealed the importance of conserving lower elevation habitat in both habitat types, particularly <1,000 m asl, for which occupancies of sambar, muntjac and gaur were typically higher. This finding is important because 75 percent (~13,400 km2) of Peninsular Malaysia's Main Range Forest (Banjaran Titiwangsa) is under 1,000 m asl and therefore at risk of being converted to industrial timber plantations, which calls for renewed thinking around forest management planning.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Agricultura Florestal , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Florestas , Malásia , Cervo Muntjac/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical , Gravação em Vídeo
9.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 480, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873878

RESUMO

Closely related muntjac deer show striking karyotype differences. Here we describe chromosome-scale genome assemblies for Chinese and Indian muntjacs, Muntiacus reevesi (2n = 46) and Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis (2n = 6/7), and analyze their evolution and architecture. The genomes show extensive collinearity with each other and with other deer and cattle. We identified numerous fusion events unique to and shared by muntjacs relative to the cervid ancestor, confirming many cytogenetic observations with genome sequence. One of these M. muntjak fusions reversed an earlier fission in the cervid lineage. Comparative Hi-C analysis showed that the chromosome fusions on the M. muntjak lineage altered long-range, three-dimensional chromosome organization relative to M. reevesi in interphase nuclei including A/B compartment structure. This reshaping of multi-megabase contacts occurred without notable change in local chromatin compaction, even near fusion sites. A few genes involved in chromosome maintenance show evidence for rapid evolution, possibly associated with the dramatic changes in karyotype.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Cariótipo , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Animais , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Feminino , Filogenia
10.
Open Biol ; 10(7): 200101, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634373

RESUMO

The distance between fluorescent spots formed by various kinetochore proteins (delta) is commonly interpreted as a manifestation of intrakinetochore tension (IKT) caused by microtubule-mediated forces. However, large-scale changes of the kinetochore architecture (such as its shape or dimensions) may also contribute to the value of delta. To assess contributions of these non-elastic changes, we compare behaviour of delta values in human kinetochores with small yet mechanically malleable kinetochores against compound kinetochores in Indian muntjac (IM) cells whose architecture remains constant. Due to the micrometre-scale length of kinetochore plates in IM, their shape and orientation are discernible in conventional light microscopy, which enables precise measurements of IKT independent of contributions from changes in overall architecture of the organelle. We find that delta in IM kinetochores remains relatively constant when microtubule-mediated forces are suppressed by Taxol, but it prominently decreases upon detachment of microtubules. By contrast, large decreases of delta observed in Taxol-treated human cells coincide with prominent changes in length and curvature of the kinetochore plate. These observations, supported by computational modelling, suggest that at least 50% of the decrease in delta in human cells reflects malleable reorganization of kinetochore architecture rather than elastic recoil due to IKT.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinetocoros/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Animais , Proteína Centromérica A/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Humanos , Metáfase/genética , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/genética , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Fuso Acromático/efeitos dos fármacos , Fuso Acromático/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8910, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488122

RESUMO

Recent molecular phylogeny of deer revealed that the characters of antlers previously focused on are homoplasious, and antlers tend to be considered problematic for classification. However, we think antlers are important tools and reconsidered and analysed the characters and structures to use them for classification. This study developed a method to describe the branching structure of antlers by using antler grooves, which are formed on the antlers by growth, and then projecting the position of the branching directions of tines on the burr circumference. By making diagrams, comparing the branching structure interspecifically, homologous elements (tines, beams, and processes) of the antlers of 25 species of 16 genera were determined. Subsequently, ancestral state reconstruction was performed on the fixed molecular phylogenetic tree. It was revealed that Capreolinae and Cervini gained respective three-pointed antlers independently, and their subclades gained synapomorphous tines. We found new homologous and synapomorphous characters, as the antler of Eld's deer, which has been classified in Rucervus, is structurally close to that of Elaphurus rather than that of Rucervus, consistent with molecular phylogeny. The methods of this study will contribute to the understanding of the branching structure and phylogeny of fossil species and uncover the evolutionary history of Cervidae.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cervos/classificação , Cervos/genética , Masculino , Cervo Muntjac/anatomia & histologia , Cervo Muntjac/classificação , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Filogenia , Rena/anatomia & histologia , Rena/classificação , Rena/genética
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1578-1584, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228749

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive strain, 8 H-2T, was isolated from faeces of Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) barking deer in Taiwan. Cells of the strain were short rod-shaped, non-motile, non-haemolytic, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic, heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase and oxidase activities. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and dnaA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strain was a member of the genus Weissella. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the type strains of Weissella oryzae (99.2 %), Weissella confusa (97.8 %), Weissella cibaria (97.6 %) and Weissella soli (97.3 %) were the closest neighbours to strain 8 H-2T. The concatenated housekeeping gene sequence (pheS and dnaA) similarities of 8 H-2T to closely related type strains were 72.5-84.9 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 40.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values with these type strains were 70.2-75.4% and 25.1-30.1 %, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic test results demonstrated that strain 8 H-2T represents a novel species belonging to the genus Weissella, for which the name Weissella muntiaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 8 H-2T (=BCRC 81133T=NBRC 113537T).


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Weissella/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , Genes Bacterianos , Cervo Muntjac , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan , Weissella/isolamento & purificação
13.
Mol Cell Probes ; 52: 101582, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334005

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated blood samples of 196 invasive Reeve's muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and 91 native roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) originating from the same area in Thetford Forest in Eastern England for the occurrence of blood pathogens such as Anaplasmatacae, Rickettsiales and Piroplasmida (Babesia spp., Theileria spp.) by using PCR. Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Theileria spp. were not detected. Only two male (1%) Reeve's muntjacs and six (6.6%) roe deer were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum with 100% identity among their sequences. However, it is not clear whether Reeve's muntjac is less susceptible to infection, less susceptible to infestation by I. ricinus, or an infection in Reeve's muntjac is more lethal and therefore less positive animals are taken during hunting events.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Cervo Muntjac/microbiologia , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reino Unido
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059238

RESUMO

Mandibular osteomyelitis is common in domestic and wild ruminants. Inflammation of the mandible is not only caused by Actinomyces ssp., but numerous additional bacteria may also lead to this disease. A privately owned muntjac was presented to the clinic due to reluctant food intake and a solid mass on the corpus of the right mandible. Cranial radiography led to the diagnosis mandibular osteomyelitis. The muntjac was treated with gamithromycin (Zactran®) for 50 days, which led to an improvement of food intake as well as a size reduction of the mandibular mass. Radiographic imaging 18 and 28 months after treatment revealed a satisfactory mandibular remodeling, however complete loss of the molar teeth occured. Solitary long-term treatment with gamithromycin may represent a successful method for treating mandibular osteomyelitis in ruminants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Mandibulares/veterinária , Cervo Muntjac , Osteomielite/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Mandibulares/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Radiografia/veterinária
15.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 56(2): 97-102, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898011

RESUMO

Isolation and culture of somatic cells from animals especially endangered species have raised great concerns as it is being an effective and convenient way to preserve genetic materials for future studies. As a species native to China, Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) is listed as a beneficial species with economic and scientific research values. To our knowledge, however, there have been no published reports on somatic cell preservation of this species to date. To conserve biological resources for sustainability of Chinese muntjacs' genetic diversity, we established a fibroblast cell line from the postmortem ear skin of an adult male Chinese muntjac. The cultured cells were adherent to the plastic and showed an elongated, thin, and spindle-like shape. Moreover, they were FSP1- and VIM-positive characterizing them to be fibroblastic. No microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, or mycoplasmas) were detected throughout the whole study. Cell viability was high although it declined somehow after passaging. The population doubling time was 21.28 h according to the growth curve. Chromosome analysis revealed that the established fibroblast cell line contained 23 pairs of chromosomes, one pair of which was sex chromosomes (XY). Mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene of cultured cells shared 98.32% identity with those of Muntiacus reevesi registered in GenBank, which verified the cell line was derived from Muntiacus reevesi. In conclusion, we propagated and characterized fibroblast cells from a Chinese muntjac. We believe that this somatic cell line could facilitate animal cloning and breeding studies and become a useful in vitro model to address genetic questions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fibroblastos/citologia , Pele/citologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Masculino , Cervo Muntjac , Mudanças Depois da Morte
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2101: 247-266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879909

RESUMO

During cell division in eukaryotes a microtubule-based network undergoes drastic changes and remodeling to assemble a mitotic spindle competent to segregate chromosomes. Several model systems have been widely used to dissect the molecular and structural mechanisms behind mitotic spindle assembly and function. These include budding and fission yeasts, which are ideal for genetic and molecular approaches, but show limitations in high-resolution live-cell imaging, while being evolutionarily distant from humans. On the other hand, systems that were historically used for their exceptional properties for live-cell imaging of mitosis (e.g., newt lung cells and Haemanthus endosperm cells) lack the necessary genomic tools for molecular studies. In a CRISPR-Cas9 era, human cultured cells have conquered the privilege to be positioned among the most powerful genetically manipulatable systems, but their high chromosome number remains a significant bottleneck for the molecular dissection of mitosis in mammals. We believe that we can significantly broaden this scenario by establishing a unique placental mammal model system that combines the powerful genetic tools and low chromosome number of fission yeast and Drosophila melanogaster, with the exceptional cytological features of a rat kangaroo cell. This system is based on hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts from a female Indian muntjac, a placental mammal with the lowest known chromosome number (n = 3). Here we describe a series of methodologies established in our laboratory for the study of mitosis in Indian muntjac. These include standard techniques such as immunofluorescence, western blotting, and FISH, but also several state-of-the-art methodologies, including live-cell imaging, cell confinement, RNAi, super-resolution STED microscopy, and laser microsurgery.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Mitose/fisiologia , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Linhagem Celular , Eutérios , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Impressão Molecular , Interferência de RNA , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
17.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683735

RESUMO

The cell nucleus is a three-dimensional, dynamic organelle organized into subnuclear compartments such as chromatin and nucleoli. The structure and function of these compartments are maintained by diffusion and interactions between related factors as well as by dynamic and structural changes. Recent studies using fluorescent microscopic techniques suggest that protein factors can access and are freely mobile in heterochromatin and in mitotic chromosomes, despite their densely packed structure. However, the physicochemical properties of the chromosome during cell division are not fully understood. In the present study, characteristic properties such as the refractive index (RI), volume of the mitotic chromosomes, and diffusion coefficient (D) of fluorescent probes inside the chromosome were quantified using an approach combining label-free optical diffraction tomography with complementary confocal laser-scanning microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Variations in these parameters correlated with osmotic conditions, suggesting that changes in RI are consistent with those of the diffusion coefficient for mitotic chromosomes and cytosol. Serial RI tomography images of chromosomes in live cells during mitosis were compared with three-dimensional confocal micrographs to demonstrate that compaction and decompaction of chromosomes induced by osmotic change were characterized by linked changes in chromosome RI, volume, and the mobilities of fluorescent proteins.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/metabolismo , Mitose , Tomografia/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Cultura/química , Citosol/química , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Cervo Muntjac
18.
J Helminthol ; 94: e48, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973116

RESUMO

The naturalization of alien Reeves's muntjacs (Muntiacus reevesi) on Izu-Oshima Island, Tokyo, Japan, has proceeded intensively over the last five decades. To clarify whether the gastrointestinal helminths of these animals were brought from their original endemic area or were newly acquired in Japan, 32 Reeves's muntjacs trapped on the island were parasitologically examined. In addition to Gongylonema pulchrum in the oesophagus (34.4% prevalence), Chabaudstrongylus ninhae (Drózdz, 1967) (Trichostrongylidae: Cooperiinae) and Oesophagostomum muntiacum Jian, 1989 (Chabertiidae: Oesophagostominae) were prevalent in the small (28.1%) and large (46.9%) intestines, respectively. For the first time, these trichostrongylid or chabertiid worms were genetically characterized based on partial nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox-1), and the phylogenetic relationships with other members of their family were explored. Since these two intestinal nematode species are inherent in muntjacs, this study demonstrates a new distribution of exotic helminth species in Japan in accordance with the naturalization of alien mammalian hosts. The molecular genetic data collected here could assist the taxonomic assessment of morphological variants in different Muntiacus spp. and/or of different geographical origins. Furthermore, our data may help to define the phylogenetic relationships among such isolates.


Assuntos
Cervo Muntjac/parasitologia , Esofagostomíase/veterinária , Oesophagostomum/genética , Filogenia , Trichostrongyloidea/genética , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Intestinos/parasitologia , Ilhas , Masculino , Esofagostomíase/parasitologia , Oesophagostomum/classificação , Tóquio , Trichostrongyloidea/classificação , Tricostrongiloidíase/parasitologia
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(1): 1327-1333, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456740

RESUMO

We report complete mitochondrial genome of Northern Indian red muntjac, Muntiacus vaginalis, and its phylogenetic inferences. Mitogenome composition was 16,352 bp in length and its overall base composition in the circular genome was A = 33.2%, T = 29.0%, C = 24.50% and G = 13.30%. It exhibited a typical mitogenome structure, including 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). All the genes except ND6 and eight tRNA's were encoded on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analyses showed that M. vaginalis is closely related to M. muntjak and formed a sister relationship with Elaphodus cephalophus. In view of the unclear distribution range and escalating habitat loss, it is important to identify its population genetic status. The complete mitogenome described in this study can be used in further phylogenetics, identification of extant maternal lineage, evolutionary significance unit and its genetic conservation.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Índia , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Nucleotídeos/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
20.
Curr Biol ; 28(11): R665-R667, 2018 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870706

RESUMO

Aneuploidy is frequently found to affect individual chromosomes differentially, but it is unclear whether this depends on inter-chromosome differences in missegregation rates. A new study presents evidence that, in the Indian muntjac, centromere-kinetochore size influences the rate at which chromosomes missegregate.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Cinetocoros , Aneuploidia , Animais , Centrômero , Cromossomos , Cervo Muntjac
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