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1.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(4): 801-808, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583953

RESUMO

Isoliquiritigenin formation is a key reaction during deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis, which is catalyzed by two enzymes, chalcone synthase (CHS) and reductase (CHR). The substrates for CHS are established. However, the substrate for CHR is unknown. In this study, an in vitro reaction was performed to confirm whether naringenin chalcone can be a substrate. Naringenin chalcone was used as a substrate during the CHR reaction. Analyzing the product revealed that isoliquiritigenin was produced from naringenin chalcone, indicating that naringenin chalcone is a substrate. This study is the first to identify a substrate for CHR, reveals that deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis diverges from naringenin chalcone, endorses the term "chalcone reductase," and answers the long-standing questions about doubly-labeled acetic acid uptake pattern in deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Chalcona , Chalconas , Oxirredutases
2.
Planta ; 259(5): 114, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587670

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Two glycosyltransferase genes belonging to UGT88 family were identified to have 6'-deoxychalcone 4'-glucosyltransferase activity in dahlia. 6'-Deoxychalcones (isoliquiritigenin and butein) are important pigments for yellow and orange to red flower color. 6'-Deoxychalcones are glucosylated at the 4'-position in vivo, but the genes encoding 6'-deoxychalcone 4'-glucosyltransferase have not yet been identified. In our previous study, it was indicated that snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase (Am4'CGT) has isoliquiritigenin 4'-glucosylation activity. Therefore, to identify genes encoding 6'-deoxychalcone 4'-glucosyltransferase in dahlia (Dahlia variabilis), genes expressed in ray florets that shared high homology with Am4'CGT were explored. As a result, c34671_g1_i1 and c35662_g1_i1 were selected as candidate genes for 6'-deoxychalcone 4'-glucosyltransferases in dahlia. We conducted transient co-overexpression of three genes (c34671_g1_i1 or c35662_g1_i1, dahlia aldo-keto reductase1 (DvAKR1) or soybean (Glycine max) chalcone reductase5 (GmCHR5), and chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) MYB transcription factor (CaMYBA)) in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfiltration. Transient overexpression of c34671_g1_i1, DvAKR1, and CaMYBA resulted in increase in the accumulation of isoliquiritigenin 4'-glucosides, isoliquiritigenin 4'-O-glucoside, and isoliquiritigenin 4'-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-glucoside]. However, transient overexpression of c35662_g1_i1, DvAKR1, and CaMYBA did not increase accumulation of isoliquiritigenin 4'-glucosides. Using GmCHR5 instead of DvAKR1 showed similar results suggesting that c34671_g1_i1 has isoliquiritigenin 4'-glucosyltransferase activity. In addition, we conducted co-overexpression of four genes (c34671_g1_i1, c35662_g1_i1 or Am4'CGT, DvAKR1 or GmCHR5, CaMYBA, and chalcone 3-hydroxylase from dahlia). Accumulation of butein 4'-O-glucoside and butein 4'-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-glucoside] was detected for c35662_g1_i1, suggesting that c35662_g1_i1 has butein 4'-glucosyltransferase activity. Recombinant enzyme analysis also supported butein 4'-glucosyltransferases activity of c35662_g1_i1. Therefore, our results suggested that both c34671_g1_i1 and c35662_g1_i1 are 6'-deoxychalcone 4'-glucosyltransferases but with different substrate preference.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Chalcona , Chalconas , Dahlia , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosídeos
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 269: 116338, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522112

RESUMO

Monogenea, a prevalent parasite in aquaculture, poses significant threats to the industry, leading to substantial losses. Current preventive measures have proven insufficient, necessitating the development of novel and effective anti-parasitic drugs. In this investigation, we obtained the full-length myosin cDNA sequence by analyzing three-generation transcriptome data, revealing a 5817-base sequence encoding 1938 amino acids. Subsequently, we modeled and analyzed the characteristics of the secondary and tertiary of myosin, pinpointing the crucial functional region within the motor domain (amino acids 1-768). The prokaryotic expression of this domain yielded a protein of 87.44 kDa, confirmed as myosin by Western Blotting. Molecular docking identified ASN439 as the key amino acid residue involved in arctigenin and myosin binding, a result corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, affirming the active cavity of this interaction. Chalcone and shikonin were chosen from a virtual sieve of molecular library of natural drugs based on the active cavity. Chalcone and shikonin exhibited EC50 values of 1.085 mg/L and 0.371 mg/L, respectively, with corresponding IC50 values for myosin of 0.44 mM and 0.14 mM. Given its superior activity and structure, shikonin was selected for further optimization of drug molecule design, culminating in the discovery of 1,4-naphthoquinone as a potent antiparasitic agent. This compound demonstrated an EC50 of 0.047 mg/L, LC50 of 0.23 mg/L, and a TI index of 4.893. These findings collectively highlight the potential of shikonin and 1,4-naphthoquinone as alternative compounds to control Gyrodactylus infections. Further optimization of medicinal chemistry holds promise for the development of more potent 1,4-naphthoquinone analogues, offering prospects for future anthelmintic control through combinatorial or replacement strategies.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Chalconas , Naftoquinonas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Desenho de Fármacos , Aminoácidos
4.
J Mol Model ; 30(4): 103, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478122

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), an enzyme of significant relevance in the realm of neurodegenerative disorders, has garnered considerable attention as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Natural compounds known as chalcones have shown potential as MAO-B inhibitors. In this particular study, we employed a multimodal computational method to evaluate the inhibitory effects of chalcones on MAO-B. METHODS: Molecular docking methods were used to study and assess the complicated binding interactions that occur between chalcones and MAO-B. This extensive analysis provided a valuable and deep understanding of possible binding methods as well as the key residues implicated in the inhibition process. Furthermore, the ADME investigation gave valuable insights into the pharmacokinetic properties of chalcones. This allowed them to be assessed in terms of drug-like attributes. The use of MD simulations has benefited in the research of ligand-protein interactions' dynamic behaviour and temporal stability. MM-PBSA calculations were also done to estimate the binding free energies and acquire a better knowledge and understanding of the binding affinity between chalcones and MAO-B. Our thorough method gives a thorough knowledge of chalcones' potential as MAO-B inhibitors, which will be useful for future experimental validation and drug development efforts in the context of neurodegenerative illnesses.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Monoaminoxidase , Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Chalconas/farmacologia , Chalconas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1720: 464773, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432106

RESUMO

Although the co-occurrences of isomeric chalcones and dihydroflavones widely appear in medicinal plants, the differentiation of such isomerism seldom succeeds using MS/MS, attributing to totally identical MS/MS spectra. Here, efforts were paid to pursue an eligible tool allowing to address the technical challenge. Being inspired by that one more proton signal is observed in 1H NMR spectrum of isoliquiritigenin than liquiritigenin when employing DMSO­d6 as solvent, hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX)-MS/MS was evaluated towards differentiating isomeric chalcones and dihydroflavones through replacing H2O with D2O to prepare the mobile phase. As a result, differences were observed for either MS1 or MS2 spectrum when comparing two pairs of isomers, such as liquiritigenin vs. isoliquiritigenin and liquiritin vs. isoliquiritin, because the isomeric precursor and fragment ion species owned different amounts of hydroxyl protons and those reactive protons could be partially or completely substituted by deuterium protons at the exposure in D2O to result in n × 1.006 mass increments. Moreover, utmost four hydrogen/deuterium exchanges occurred for a single glucosyl moiety. Thereafter, HDX-MS/MS was applied to characterize the flavonoids of Snow chrysanthemum, a precious edible herbal medicine that is rich in isomeric chalcones and dihydroflavones. Through paying special attention to the deuterium labeling styles of (de)protonated molecules as well as those featured fragment ions, five pairs of isomeric chalcones and dihydroflavones were confirmatively differentiated, in addition to that 28 flavonoids were structurally annotated by applying those well-defined mass fragmentation rules. Hence, this study offered an in-depth insight towards the flavonoids-focused characterization of Snow chrysanthemum, and more importantly, HDX-MS/MS is a superior tool to differentiate, but not limited to, isomeric chalcones and dihydroflavones.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Deutério , Flavonoides , Isomerismo , Prótons , Medição da Troca de Deutério/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Íons
6.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(4): e23679, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486411

RESUMO

Normoxic inactivation of prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2) in tumour microenvironment paves the way for cancer cells to thrive under the influence of HIF-1α and NF-κB. Henceforth, the present study is aimed to identify small molecule activators of PHD-2. A virtual screening was conducted on a library consisting of 265,242 chemical compounds, with the objective of identifying molecules that exhibit structural similarities to the furan chalcone scaffold. Further, PHD-2 activation potential of screened compound was determined using in vitro 2-oxoglutarate assay. The cytotoxic activity and apoptotic potential of screened compound was determined using various staining techniques, including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), 1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimi-dazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1), and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB), against MCF-7 cells. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) model of mammary gland cancer was used to study the in vivo antineoplastic efficacy of screened compound. [(E)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(furan-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one] (BBAP-7) was screened and validated as a PHD-2 activator by an in vitro 2-oxo-glutarate assay. The IC50 of BBAP-7 on MCF-7 cells is 18.84 µM. AO/EB and DAPI staining showed nuclear fragmentation, blebbing and condensation in MCF-7 cells following BBAP-7 treatment. The red-to-green intensity ratio of JC-1 stained MCF-7 cells decreased after BBAP-7 treatment, indicating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. DMBA caused mammary gland dysplasia, duct hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Carmine staining, histopathology, and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that BBAP-7, alone or with tirapazamine, restored mammary gland surface morphology and structural integrity. Additionally, BBAP-7 therapy significantly reduced oxidative stress and glycolysis. The findings reveal that BBAP-7 activates PHD-2, making it a promising anticancer drug.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Benzimidazóis , Carbocianinas , Carcinoma , Chalcona , Chalconas , Humanos , Prolil Hidroxilases , Chalconas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Laranja de Acridina , Apoptose , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 273: 116129, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430580

RESUMO

The salinity environment is one of the biggest threats to Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (G. uralensis) growth, resulting from the oxidative stress caused by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids are the main pharmacodynamic composition and help maintain ROS homeostasis and mitigate oxidative damage in G. uralensis in the salinity environment. To investigate whether endophytic Bacillus cereus G2 can improve the salt-tolerance of G. uralensis through controlling flavonoid biosynthesis, the transcriptomic and physiological analysis of G. uralensis treated by G2 in the saline environment was conducted, focused on flavonoid biosynthesis-related pathways. Results uncovered that salinity inhibited flavonoids synthesis by decreasing the activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) (42% and 39%, respectively) due to down-regulated gene Glyur000910s00020578 at substrate level, and then decreasing the activities of chalcone isomerase (CHI) and chalcone synthase (CHS) activities (50% and 42%, respectively) due to down-regulated genes Glyur006062s00044203 and Glyur000051s00003431, further decreasing isoliquiritigenin content by 53%. However, salt stress increased liquiritin content by 43%, which might be a protective mechanism of salt-treated G. uralensis seedlings. Interestingly, G2 enhanced PAL activity by 27% whereas reduced trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase (C4H) activity by 43% which could inhibit lignin biosynthesis but promote flavonoid biosynthesis of salt-treated G. uralensis at the substrate level. G2 decreased shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) activity by 35%, increased CHS activity by 54% through up-regulating the gene Glyur000051s00003431 encoding CHS, and increased CHI activity by 72%, thereby decreasing lignin (34%) and liquiritin (24%) content, but increasing isoliquiritigenin content (35%), which could mitigate oxidative damage and changed salt-tolerance mechanism of G. uralensis.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/genética , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 268: 116301, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452727

RESUMO

In this work, a novel of dual tubulin/HDAC inhibitors were designed and synthesized based on the structure of natural product millepachine, which has been identified as a tubulin polymerization inhibitor. Biological evaluation revealed that compound 9n exhibited an impressive potency against PC-3 cells with the IC50 value of 16 nM and effectively inhibited both microtubule polymerization and HDAC activity. Furthermore, compound 9n not only induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, but also induced PC- 3 cells apoptosis. Further study revealed that the induction of cell apoptosis by 9n was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an elevation in reactive oxygen species levels in PC-3 cells. Additionally, 9n exhibited inhibitory effects on tumor cell migration and angiogenesis. In PC-3 xenograft model, 9n achieved a remarkable tumor inhibition rate of 90.07%@20 mg/kg, significantly surpassing to that of CA-4 (55.62%@20 mg/kg). Meanwhile, 9n exhibited the favorable drug metabolism characteristics in vivo. All the results indicate that 9n is a promising dual tubulin/HDAC inhibitor for chemotherapy of prostate cancer, deserving the further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Chalconas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose
9.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299238, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no antiviral medication for dengue, a potentially fatal tropical infectious illness spread by two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The RdRp protease of dengue virus is a potential therapeutic target. This study focused on the in silico drug discovery of RdRp protease inhibitors. METHODS: To assess the potential inhibitory activity of 29 phenolic acids from Theobroma cacao L. against DENV3-NS5 RdRp, a range of computational methods were employed. These included docking, drug-likeness analysis, ADMET prediction, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The aim of these studies was to confirm the stability of the ligand-protein complex and the binding pose identified during the docking experiment. RESULTS: Twenty-one compounds were found to have possible inhibitory activities against DENV according to the docking data, and they had a binding affinity of ≥-37.417 kcal/mol for DENV3- enzyme as compared to the reference compound panduratin A. Additionally, the drug-likeness investigation produced four hit compounds that were subjected to ADMET screening to obtain the lead compound, catechin. Based on ELUMO, EHOMO, and band energy gap, the DFT calculations showed strong electronegetivity, favouravle global softness and chemical reactivity with considerable intra-molecular charge transfer between electron-donor to electron-acceptor groups for catechin. The MD simulation result also demonstrated favourable RMSD, RMSF, SASA and H-bonds in at the binding pocket of DENV3-NS5 RdRp for catechin as compared to panduratin A. CONCLUSION: According to the present findings, catechin showed high binding affinity and sufficient drug-like properties with the appropriate ADMET profiles. Moreover, DFT and MD studies further supported the drug-like action of catechin as a potential therapeutic candidate. Therefore, further in vitro and in vivo research on cocoa and its phytochemical catechin should be taken into consideration to develop as a potential DENV inhibitor.


Assuntos
Aedes , Cacau , Catequina , Chalconas , Dengue , Animais , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Catequina/farmacologia , Endopeptidases , Fenóis , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
10.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474540

RESUMO

Molecular hybridization represents a new approach in drug discovery in which specific chromophores are strategically combined to create novel drugs with enhanced therapeutic effects. This innovative strategy leverages the strengths of individual chromophores to address complex biological challenges, synergize beneficial properties, optimize pharmacokinetics, and overcome limitations associated with single-agent therapies. Coumarins are documented to possess several bioactivities and have therefore been targeted for combination with other active moieties to create molecular hybrids. This review summarizes recent (2013-2023) trends in the synthesis of coumarins, as well as coumarin-chalcone and coumarin-triazole molecular hybrids. To cover the wide aspects of this area, we have included differently substituted coumarins, chalcones, 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazoles in this review and considered the point of fusion/attachment with coumarin to show the diversity of these hybrids. The reported syntheses mainly relied on well-established chemistry without the need for strict reaction conditions and usually produced high yields. Additionally, we discussed the bioactivities of the reported compounds, including antioxidative, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-cholinesterase activities and commented on their IC50 where possible. Promising bioactivity results have been obtained so far. It is noted that mechanistic studies are infrequently found in the published work, which was also mentioned in this review to give the reader a better understanding. This review aims to provide valuable information to enable further developments in this field.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Chalcona , Chalconas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/química , Cumarínicos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(5): 4670-4683, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446592

RESUMO

Surgery and anesthesia are vital medical interventions, but concerns over their potential cognitive side effects, particularly with the use of inhalational anesthetics like sevoflurane, have surfaced. This study delves into the neuroprotective potential of Echinatin against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. Echinatin, a natural compound, has exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Sevoflurane, while a popular anesthetic, is associated with perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) and neurotoxicity. Our investigation began with cellular models, where Echinatin demonstrated a significant reduction in sevoflurane-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, we identified ferroptosis, a novel form of programmed cell death characterized by iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation, as a key player in sevoflurane-induced neuronal injury. Echinatin notably suppressed ferroptosis in sevoflurane-exposed cells, suggesting a pivotal role in neuroprotection. Expanding our research to a murine model, we observed perturbations in iron homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and antioxidants due to sevoflurane exposure. Echinatin treatment effectively restored iron balance, mitigated inflammation, and preserved antioxidant levels in vivo. Behavioral assessments using the Morris water maze further confirmed Echinatin's neuroprotective potential, as it ameliorated sevoflurane-induced spatial learning and memory impairments. In conclusion, our study unveils Echinatin as a promising candidate for mitigating sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. Through the regulation of ferroptosis, iron homeostasis, and inflammation, Echinatin demonstrates significant neuroprotection both in vitro and in vivo. These findings illuminate the potential for Echinatin to enhance the safety of surgical procedures involving sevoflurane anesthesia, minimizing the risk of cognitive deficits and neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Ferroptose , Éteres Metílicos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Ratos , Animais , Camundongos , Sevoflurano/toxicidade , Éteres Metílicos/farmacologia , Éteres Metílicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Homeostase , Inflamação/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(3): 117, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the potential applicability and the underlying mechanisms of flavokawain C, a natural compound derived from kava extracts, in liver cancer treatment. METHODS: Drug distribution experiment used to demonstrate the preferential tissues enrichment of flavokawain C. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration effect of flavokawain C were determined by MTT, colony formation, EdU staining, cell adhesion, transwell, flow cytometry and western blot assay. The mechanism was explored by comet assay, immunofluorescence assay, RNA-seq-based Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes analysis, molecular dynamics, bioinformatics analysis and western blot assay. The anticancer effect of flavokawain C was further confirmed by xenograft tumor model. RESULTS: The studies first demonstrated the preferential enrichment of flavokawain C within liver tissues in vivo. The findings demonstrated that flavokawain C significantly inhibited proliferation and migration of liver cancer cells, induced cellular apoptosis, and triggered intense DNA damage along with strong DNA damage response. The findings from RNA-seq-based KEGG analysis, molecular dynamics, bioinformatics analysis, and western blot assay mechanistically indicated that treatment with flavokawain C notably suppressed the FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in liver cancer cells. This effect was attributed to the induction of gene changes and the binding of flavokawain C to the ATP sites of FAK and PI3K, resulting in the inhibition of their phosphorylation. Additionally, flavokawain C also displayed the strong capacity to inhibit Huh-7-derived xenograft tumor growth in mice with minimal adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: These findings identified that flavokawain C is a promising anticancer agent for liver cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Chalconas/farmacologia , Chalconas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Plant Signal Behav ; 19(1): 2332019, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527068

RESUMO

Tobacco black shank (TBS), caused by Phytophthora nicotianae, is a severe disease. Plant root exudates play a crucial role in mediating plant-pathogen interactions in the rhizosphere. However, the specific interaction between key secondary metabolites present in root exudates and the mechanisms of disease resistance remains poorly understood. This study conducted a comprehensive comparison via quasi-targeted metabolomic analysis on the root exudate metabolites from the tobacco cultivar Yunyan87 and K326, both before and after inoculation with P. nicotianae. The results showed that the root exudate metabolites changed after P. nicotianae inoculation, and the root exudate metabolites of different tobacco cultivar was significantly different. Furthermore, homovanillic acid, lauric acid, and isoliquiritigenin were identified as potential key compounds for TBS resistance based on their impact on the mycelium growth of the pathogens. The pot experiment showed that isoliquiritigenin reduced the incidence by 55.2%, while lauric acid reduced it by 45.8%. This suggests that isoliquiritigenin and lauric acid have potential applications in the management of TBS. In summary, this study revealed the possible resistance mechanisms of differential metabolites in resistance of commercial tobacco cultivar, and for the first time discovered the inhibitory effects of isoliquiritigenin and homovanillic acid on P. nictianae, and attempt to use plants secondary metabolites of for plant protection.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Ácidos Láuricos , Ácido Homovanílico , Ácidos Láuricos/farmacologia
14.
Neurochem Int ; 175: 105676, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is the major contributor to the secondary brain injury of ischemic stroke. NLRP3 is one of the major components of ischemia-induced microglial activation. Echinatin, a chalcone found in licorice, was reported to have the activity of anti-inflammation and antioxidant. However, the relative study of echinatin in microglia or ischemic stroke is still unclear. METHODS: We intravenously injected echinatin or vehicle into adult ischemic male C57/BL6J mice induced by 60-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). The intraperitoneal injection was performed 4.5 h after reperfusion and then daily for 2 more days. Infarct size, blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage, neurobehavioral tests, and microglial-mediated inflammatory reaction were examined to assess the outcomes of echinatin treatment. LPS and LPS/ATP stimulation on primary microglia were used to explore the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism of echinatin. RESULTS: Echinatin treatment efficiently decreased the infarct size, alleviated blood brain barrier (BBB) damage, suppressed microglial activation, reduced the production of inflammatory factors (e.g., IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, iNOS, COX2), and relieved post-stroke neurological defects in tMCAO mice. Mechanistically, we found that echinatin could suppress the NLRP3 assembly and reduce the production of inflammatory mediators independently of NF-κB and monoamine oxidase (MAO). CONCLUSION: Based on our study, we have identified echinatin as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Isquemia Encefálica , Chalconas , AVC Isquêmico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Lipopolissacarídeos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Infarto/complicações , Infarto/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Microglia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Org Biomol Chem ; 22(9): 1850-1858, 2024 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345427

RESUMO

ß-Galactosidase (ß-gal), which is responsible for the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond of lactose to galactose, has been recognized as an important biomarker of cell or organism status, especially cell senescence and primary ovarian cancer. Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop probes for detecting and visualizing ß-gal in cells. Herein, a fluorescent probe gal-HCA which possesses both excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties was prepared to monitor ß-gal in living cells. The probe consists of 2-hydroxy-4'-dimethylamino-chalcone (HCA) capped with a D-galactose group. The cleavage of the glycosidic bond in gal-HCA triggered by ß-gal releases HCA, which results in a significant bathochromic shift in fluorescence from 532 to 615 nm. The probe exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward ß-gal with a detection limit as low as 0.0122 U mL-1. The confocal imaging investigation demonstrated the potential of gal-HCA in monitoring the endocellular overexpressed ß-gal in senescent cells and ovarian cancer cells. This study provides a straightforward approach for the development of fluorescent probes to monitor ß-gal and detection of ß-gal-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Feminino , Humanos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Prótons , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica/métodos , beta-Galactosidase
16.
Biomolecules ; 14(2)2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397453

RESUMO

The purpose of the current investigation was to produce cinammaldehyde-based chalcone derivatives (3a-k) to evaluate their potential effectiveness as antioxidant and inhibitory agents versus human Caco-2 cancer cells. The findings obtained using the DPPH assay showed that compound 3e had the highest effective antioxidant activity with the best IC50 value compared with the other compounds. Moreover, the cytotoxic findings revealed that compound 3e was the best compound for inhibiting Caco-2 development in contrast to all other produced derivatives, with the lowest IC50 concentration (32.19 ± 3.92 µM), and it also had no detrimental effects on healthy human lung cells (wi38 cells). Exposure of Caco-2 cells with this IC50 value of compound 3e resulted in a substantial rise in the number of early and late cells that are apoptotic with a significant comet nucleus when compared with control cells employing the annexin V/PI and comet evaluations, respectively. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and ELISA examinations indicated that compound 3e significantly altered the expression of genes and their relative proteins related to apoptosis in the treated Caco-2 cells, thus significantly inhibiting Caco-2 growth through activating Caspase-3 via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. As a result, compound 3e could serve as an effective therapy for human colon cancer.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos , Chalcona , Chalconas , Neoplasias do Colo , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chalconas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células CACO-2 , Chalcona/farmacologia , Chalcona/química , Proliferação de Células , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Estrutura Molecular
17.
Nutrients ; 16(4)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38398837

RESUMO

2'-Hydroxychalcone is a hydroxyl derivative of chalcones, which are biosynthetic precursors of flavonoids and rich in the human diet. The anticancer activity of 2'-hydroxychalcone has been reported in several cancers but remains to be investigated in breast cancer. In the current study, 2'-hydroxychalcone showed significant cytotoxicity against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and CMT-1211. It could inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and suppress tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the NF-κB pathway was significantly inhibited by 2'-hydroxychalcone treatment accompanied by an excessive intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and activation of JNK/MAPK. In addition, 2'-hydroxychalcone elevated the autophagic levels in breast cancer cells equipped with increasing numbers of autophagy vesicles and complete autophagic flux. Finally, autophagy-dependent apoptosis was observed in 2'-hydroxychalcone-induced cell death. In conclusion, 2'-hydroxychalcone enhances the autophagic levels and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells, which could be contributed to the inhibition of the pro-survival NF-κB signaling, indicating a promising potential for 2'-hydroxychalcone in future anticancer drug development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Chalconas , Humanos , Feminino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Chalconas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transdução de Sinais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 65, 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavokawain B is one of the naturally occurring chalcones in the kava plant (Piper methysticum). It exhibits anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimalarial properties. Due to its therapeutic potential, flavokawain B holds promise for the treatment of many diseases. However, due to its poor bioavailability and low aqueous solubility, its application remains limited. The attachment of a sugar unit impacts the stability and solubility of flavonoids and often determines their bioavailability and bioactivity. Biotransformation is an environmentally friendly way to improve the properties of compounds, for example, to increase their hydrophilicity and thus affect their bioavailability. Recent studies proved that entomopathogenic filamentous fungi from the genera Isaria and Beauveria can perform O-methylglycosylation of hydroxyflavonoids or O-demethylation and hydroxylation of selected chalcones and flavones. RESULTS: In the present study, we examined the ability of entomopathogenic filamentous fungal strains of Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria caledonica, Isaria farinosa, Isaria fumosorosea, and Isaria tenuipes to transform flavokawain B into its glycosylated derivatives. The main process occurring during the reaction is O-demethylation and/or hydroxylation followed by 4-O-methylglycosylation. The substrate used was characterized by low susceptibility to transformations compared to our previously described transformations of flavones and chalcones in the cultures of the tested strains. However, in the culture of the B. bassiana KCh J1.5 and BBT, Metarhizium robertsii MU4, and I. tenuipes MU35, the expected methylglycosides were obtained with high yields. Cheminformatic analyses indicated altered physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties in the derivatives compared to flavokawain B. Pharmacological predictions suggested potential anticarcinogenic activity, caspase 3 stimulation, and antileishmanial effects. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the study provided valuable insights into the enzymatic transformations of flavokawain B by entomopathogenic filamentous fungi, elucidating the structural modifications and predicting potential pharmacological activities of the obtained derivatives. The findings contribute to the understanding of the biocatalytic capabilities of these microbial cultures and the potential therapeutic applications of the modified flavokawain B derivatives.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Flavonas , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonas/metabolismo , Biotransformação
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396931

RESUMO

A series of novel echinatin derivatives with 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were designed and synthesized. Most of the newly synthesized compounds exhibited moderate antiproliferative activity against the four cancer cell lines. Notably, Compound T4 demonstrated the most potent activity, with IC50 values ranging from 1.71 µM to 8.60 µM against the four cancer cell lines. Cell colony formation and wound healing assays demonstrated that T4 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and inhibited migration. We discovered that T4 exhibited moderate binding affinity with the c-KIT protein through reverse docking. The results were effectively validated through subsequent molecular docking and c-KIT enzyme activity assays. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that T4 inhibits the phosphorylation of downstream proteins of c-KIT. The results provide valuable inspiration for exploring novel insights into the design of echinatin-related hybrids as well as their potential application as c-KIT inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of candidates.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Chalconas , Neoplasias , Oxidiazóis , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Antineoplásicos/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proliferação de Células , Estrutura Molecular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(8): 4246-4256, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317352

RESUMO

A novel yeast-mediated hydrogenation was developed for the synthesis of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) in high yields (over 83%). Moreover, whole-cell catalytic hydrolysis was also designed to hydrolyze NHDC into potential sweeteners, hesperetin dihydrochalcone-7-O-glucoside (HDC-G) and hesperetin dihydrochalcone (HDC). The biohydrogenation was further combined with whole-cell hydrolysis to achieve a one-pot two-step biosynthesis, utilizing yeast to hydrogenate C═C in the structure, while Aspergillus niger cells hydrolyze glycosides. The conversion of NHDC and the proportion of hydrolysis products could be controlled by adjusting the catalysts, the components of the reaction system, and the addition of glucose. Furthermore, yeast-mediated biotransformation demonstrated superior reaction stability and enhanced safety and employed more cost-effective catalysts compared to the traditional chemical hydrogenation of NHDC synthesis. This research not only provides a new route for NHDC production but also offers a safe and flexible one-pot cascade biosynthetic platform for the production of high-value compounds from citrus processing wastes.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Hesperidina , Hesperidina/análogos & derivados , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Hidrólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hesperidina/química , Biotransformação
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