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1.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 40(2): 128-134, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish age estimation models of northern Chinese Han adults using cranial suture images obtained by CT and multiplanar reformation (MPR), and to explore the applicability of cranial suture closure rule in age estimation of northern Chinese Han population. METHODS: The head CT samples of 132 northern Chinese Han adults aged 29-80 years were retrospectively collected. Volume reconstruction (VR) and MPR were performed on the skull, and 160 cranial suture tomography images were generated for each sample. Then the MPR images of cranial sutures were scored according to the closure grading criteria, and the mean closure grades of sagittal suture, coronal sutures (both left and right) and lambdoid sutures (both left and right) were calculated respectively. Finally taking the above grades as independent variables, the linear regression model and four machine learning models for age estimation (gradient boosting regression, support vector regression, decision tree regression and Bayesian ridge regression) were established for northern Chinese Han adults age estimation. The accuracy of each model was evaluated. RESULTS: Each cranial suture closure grade was positively correlated with age and the correlation of sagittal suture was the highest. All four machine learning models had higher age estimation accuracy than linear regression model. The support vector regression model had the highest accuracy among the machine learning models with a mean absolute error of 9.542 years. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of skull CT-MPR and machine learning model can be used for age estimation in northern Chinese Han adults, but it is still necessary to combine with other adult age estimation indicators in forensic practice.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Povo Asiático , Suturas Cranianas , Aprendizado de Máquina , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Suturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , China/etnologia , Masculino , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Etnicidade , Modelos Lineares , População do Leste Asiático
2.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 40(2): 135-142, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the application value of combining the Demirjian's method with machine learning algorithms for dental age estimation in northern Chinese Han children and adolescents. METHODS: Oral panoramic images of 10 256 Han individuals aged 5 to 24 years in northern China were collected. The development of eight permanent teeth in the left mandibular was classified into different stages using the Demirjian's method. Various machine learning algorithms, including support vector regression (SVR), gradient boosting regression (GBR), linear regression (LR), random forest regression (RFR), and decision tree regression (DTR) were employed. Age estimation models were constructed based on total, female, and male samples respectively using these algorithms. The fitting performance of different machine learning algorithms in these three groups was evaluated. RESULTS: SVR demonstrated superior estimation efficiency among all machine learning models in both total and female samples, while GBR showed the best performance in male samples. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the optimal age estimation model was 1.246 3, 1.281 8 and 1.153 8 years in the total, female and male samples, respectively. The optimal age estimation model exhibited varying levels of accuracy across different age ranges, which provided relatively accurate age estimations in individuals under 18 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The machine learning model developed in this study exhibits good age estimation efficiency in northern Chinese Han children and adolescents. However, its performance is not ideal when applied to adult population. To improve the accuracy in age estimation, the other variables can be considered.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes , Algoritmos , Povo Asiático , Aprendizado de Máquina , Radiografia Panorâmica , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes/métodos , Radiografia Panorâmica/métodos , China/etnologia , Pré-Escolar , Adulto Jovem , Mandíbula , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Árvores de Decisões , Etnicidade , População do Leste Asiático
3.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(3): 411-417, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the nutritional status and physical fitness of the Uygur, Kazak and Han ethnic college students, and to investigate the nonlinear relationship between BMI and physical fitness indexes in different ethnic groups. METHODS: A total of 3 600 Uygur, Kazakh and Han students majoring in non-sports in a university in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2021 were selected by stratified random cluster sampling method. Height, weight, vital capacity, 50 m running, standing long jump, sit-and-reach, sit-up/pull-up and endurance running were measured. Body mass index (BMI), standardized Z score of each test score and physical fitness index (PFI) were calculated. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test, single factor analysis of variance, and nonlinear quadratic regression. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight (16.00%) and obesity (8.08%) of the Han college students were significantly higher than those of the Uygur (11.83% and 4.08%) and Kazakh (13.58% and 4.58%). Prevalence of low weight in the Uygur (11.92%) was the highest, and the lowest was the Kazakh (9.75%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of BMI classification among the three ethnic groups boys and girls (all P < 0.05). There were significant differences in PFI among college students of different BMI levels in the Uygur, Kazakh and Han ethnic college students (all P < 0.05), and the PFI of normal weight group was higher than the other weight groups in general, and the overweight group was higher than the obese group, but some ethnics showed the highest PFI in the low weight group. The non-linear quadratic regression results showed that the curves of the Uygur boys and girls and the Kazakh boys were inverted "J" shaped, and the PFI increased and then decreased with the increase of BMI, while the rest of the curves were arc-shaped, and the PFI decreased with the increase of BMI. CONCLUSION: Overweight obesity in the Uygur, Kazakh and Han ethnic college students brings about a decrease in physical fitness, but Kazakh low weight male and female and Han low weight grils have better physical fitness than the normal weight groups. Focusing on improving the physical fitness of Uygur low-weight and high-weight boys and Han high-weight girls could effectively reduce the differences in physical fitness of college students in different weight levels and ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Etnicidade , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Aptidão Física , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , China/etnologia , Universidades , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Adulto Jovem , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Peso Corporal
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305169, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870166

RESUMO

This study examined the mediating role of intergroup orientation in the relationship between ethnic and national identification. Our participants were 1320 Yi minority youths from a secondary school located in the Yi ethnic autonomous prefecture of southwest China. The participants completed three self-report questionnaires measuring ethnic and national identification, and intergroup orientation, respectively. Structural equation modeling was employed to determine the relationships between ethnic and national identification and intergroup orientation, and to explore the mechanism underlying the association between ethnic and national identification. The results showed that Yi minority youths with a stronger sense of ethnic identity had a stronger sense of national identity. The results further indicated that stronger ethnic identity led to a more positive intergroup orientation, which in turn predicted a stronger national identity. Our findings may facilitate the cultivation of positive attitudes between national subgroups in multiethnic countries and help ethnic minority youth develop a stronger awareness of national identity while retaining their ethnic identity.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Identificação Social , Humanos , China/etnologia , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Etnicidade/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autorrelato
5.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2358685, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836340

RESUMO

Background: Appraisals are central to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, few studies have examined how culture influences the associations between different types of trauma-related appraisals and PTSD symptoms.Objective: This study investigated cultural influences on appraisals of control and their associations with PTSD symptoms.Method: European Australian (n = 140, Mage = 35.80, SD = 12.44; 21 men, 97 women, 20 gender diverse/prefer not to report) and Chinese Australian (n = 129, Mage = 30.16, SD = 8.93, 21 men, 97 women, 20 gender diverse/prefer not to report) trauma survivors completed measures of appraisals, cultural values, and PTSD symptoms.Results: Findings showed that the Chinese Australian group was associated with greater Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity (i.e. emphasizing the value of adversity and people's ability to overcome adversity) and fewer fatalism appraisals (i.e. appraising one's destiny as externally determined), which in turn were atemporally associated with fewer PTSD symptoms; these atemporal indirect associations were moderated by self-construal and holistic thinking. The Chinese Australian group also reported fewer secondary control appraisals (i.e. attempts to change aspects of the self and accept current circumstances), which were atemporally associated with greater PTSD symptoms. In contrast, the European Australian group was associated with fewer primary control appraisals (i.e. perceived ability to personally change or control a situation), which were atemporally associated with greater PTSD symptoms.Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of considering the influence of culture on appraisals in PTSD. However, it must be noted that causal relationships cannot be inferred from cross-sectional mediation analyses and thus, future longitudinal research is needed.


Chinese Australian trauma survivors were associated with greater reporting of Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity and fewer fatalism appraisals, which were associated with fewer PTSD symptoms. These associations were moderated by a trauma survivor's self-construal and level of holistic thinking.Chinese Australian trauma survivors reported fewer secondary control appraisals, which were associated with greater PTSD symptoms.European Australian trauma survivors were associated with fewer primary control appraisals, which were associated with greater PTSD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Austrália , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Sobreviventes/psicologia , China/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cultura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 39(2): 151-172, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720112

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) among older Asian American immigrants (AA) is a growing concern. Asian Americans represent 9% of diagnosed diabetes. Very little is known on how older Asian American immigrants with T2D navigate diabetes management, in particular the role of family support. This qualitative study examines Chinese and Filipino Americans, the two largest Asian subgroups in the US (4.2 million, and 3.6 million, respectively), and family support dynamics among adult children and their parents diagnosed with T2D. Ten dyads (n = 20) made up of adult children and aging parents participated in in-depth and dyadic interviews. Results indicate that family support occurs in a trajectory of stages. The following thematic patterns emerged in these dyads around support: independence, transitions, partnership, and stepping in. The findings point to various supportive stages that Asian American adult children and aging parents with T2D experience and the importance of developing supportive interventions for both adult children and aging parents at these various stages.


Assuntos
Filhos Adultos , Asiático , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Asiático/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filhos Adultos/etnologia , Filhos Adultos/psicologia , Filipinas/etnologia , China/etnologia , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pais/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoio Familiar , População do Leste Asiático
7.
Arch Osteoporos ; 19(1): 43, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816651

RESUMO

The increased prevalence of osteoporosis among Chinese-speaking communities in Australia deemed it necessary to have a culturally appropriate tool for assessing knowledge. This study describes the cultural adaption of the validated Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT). The adapted tool is readable and understandable for diverse Chinese-speaking communities. PURPOSE: With an expected increasing prevalence of osteoporosis among Chinese-speaking communities in Australia, a cross-culturally adapted questionnaire is necessary to assess knowledge levels among the group. We aimed to cross-culturally adapt the Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) questionnaire for Chinese-speaking populations in Australia. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation guidelines were employed to culturally adapt the OKAT to simplified Chinese. This involved translation, revision, retroversion, and expert discussion before finalizing the Chinese version of OKAT. The participants were recruited through convenience sampling from a cohort of Chinese-speaking populations who attended a bone health promotion program. The adapted questionnaire was piloted with Chinese-speaking communities in the Greater Western Sydney area for face and content validity. The adapted questionnaire was compared with the original version for response agreement using Cohen's kappa goodness of fit. The face validity of the adapted tool was analysed through a binary scale rating for readability and understandability. RESULTS: The cross-culturally adapted version of OKAT has a 71.8% total response agreement with the original version of OKAT. The cross-culturally adapted OKAT yielded higher total scores than the translated version. The cross-culturally adapted tool had a good face and content validity. CONCLUSION: The cross-culturally adapted version of OKAT improves the overall readability and understandability of the questionnaire among Chinese-speaking populations in Australia.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Osteoporose , Humanos , Osteoporose/etnologia , Austrália , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , China/etnologia , Idoso , Adulto , Traduções , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Povo Asiático
8.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(5): e13719, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of skin aging through skin measurements faces limitations, making perceived age evaluation a more valuable and direct tool for assessing skin aging. Given that the aging process markedly affects the appearance of the eye contour, characterizing the eye region could be beneficial for perceived age assessment. This study aimed to analyze age-correlated changes in the eye contour within the Chinese Han female population and to develop, validate, and apply a multiple linear regression model for predicting perceived age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A naïve panel of 107 Chinese women assessed the perceived ages of 212 Chinese Han women. Instrumental analysis evaluated periorbital parameters, including palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), acclivity of palpebral fissure (AX), angle of inner canthal (AEN), and angle of outer canthal (AEX). These parameters were used to construct a multiple linear regression model for predicting the perceived ages of Chinese Han women. A combined treatment using Fotona 4D and an anti-aging eye cream, formulated with plant extracts, peptides, and antioxidants, was conducted to verify the cream's anti-aging efficacy and safety. This eye cream was then tested in a large-scale clinical trial involving 101 participants. The prediction model was employed in this trial to assess the perceived ages of the women after an 8-week application of the eye cream. RESULTS: All parameters were observed to decrease with age. An intergroup comparison indicated that eyelid aging in Chinese Han women accelerates beyond the age of 50. Consequently, a linear regression model was constructed and validated, with the perceived age being calculated as 183.159 - 1.078 * AEN - 4.487 * PFW + 6.061 * PFH - 1.003 * AX - 0.328 * AEX. The anti-aging efficacy and safety of the eye cream were confirmed through combined treatment with Fotona 4D, showing improvements in wrinkles, elasticity, and dark circles under the eyes. In a large-scale clinical evaluation using this eye cream, a perceived age prediction model was applied, suggesting that 8 weeks of use made participants appear 2.25 years younger. CONCLUSION: Our study developed and validated a multiple linear regression model to predict the perceived age of Chinese Han women. This model was successfully utilized in a large-scale clinical evaluation of anti-aging eye cream, revealing that 8 weeks of usage made participants appear 2.25 years younger. This method effectively bridges the gap between clinical research and consumer perceptions, explores the complex factors influencing perceived age, and aims to improve anti-aging formulations.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Envelhecimento da Pele , Humanos , Feminino , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , China/etnologia , Adulto Jovem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Modelos Lineares , Olho , População do Leste Asiático
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1349558, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721547

RESUMO

Background: Fruits and vegetables (F&V) play a vital role in promoting health and preventing diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the association between F&V consumption and reduced risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality. Despite the high priority of public health in promoting F&V intake, Chinese immigrants in Canada often fall below national guidelines in their consumption. Understanding the factors influencing F&V intake in this community is crucial for developing effective interventions. Methods: This study used an applied ethnographic research approach to gain insight into the enablers and barriers that influence F&V intake among Chinese-Canadian adults in Richmond, BC. Semi-structured interviews and 'photovoice' group sessions were conducted to gather qualitative data from community participants and health care providers (HCPs). Results: The research identified four key themes: (1) Cultural differences around how vegetables are perceived, consumed and prepared; (2) Motivators and strategies for increasing vegetable and fruit intake; (3) Lack of culturally relevant dietary education and resources; and (4) Importance of value in vegetable/fruit-related decisions. Participants showed a strong preference for the traditional Eastern diet, with cost of food and lack of knowledge about Western vegetables acting as barriers to dietary diversity. The study also highlighted the need for culturally tailored educational resources to effectively promote F&V consumption. Conclusion: By adopting a multi-modal approach, incorporating both interviews and 'photovoice' sessions, this research provided comprehensive insights into the participants' perspectives and experiences related to F&V intake. Understanding these factors can guide the development of culturally appropriate interventions to increase F&V consumption among Chinese-Canadian adults in Richmond, BC, and potentially improve their overall health and well-being. Future studies should consider the heterogeneity within the Chinese immigrant population and target a more balanced representation of age groups to further enhance our understanding of F&V intake patterns in this community.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Canadá , China/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Dieta , Entrevistas como Assunto , Idoso , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Antropologia Cultural , População do Leste Asiático
10.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2357147, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Love could play a role in motivating teachers to help students and is closely related to students' achievement and prosocial behaviour. Though influenced by culture, teachers' love is not adequately studied. PURPOSE: This study explores how Chinese teachers' compassionate love is expressed and how situational factors such as Chinese culture and history influence or motivate teachers to perceive and express compassionate love for students. METHOD: This study adopted a qualitative approach of narrative study by describing and investigating the experience of a Chinese middle school teacher and two middle school students and their parents during COVID-19 pandemic. FINDINGS: Chinese teacher's compassionate love demonstrates some universal features in terms of emotional response, cognitive understanding and behaviour. Furthermore some Chinese culture-related features are also found: Chinese teachers behave in a caring and supporting way at the cost of sacrificing their own free time and comfort; an enduring long-term teacher-student relationship is valued; the Chinese culture encourages, sustains and motivates Chinese teacher's compassionate love. DISCUSSION: Teacher's compassionate love is a multi-dimensional concept entailing some universal traits in cognition, emotion and behaviour. The perception and enactment of teacher's love is subject to situational factors. Some measures for compassionate love could be built into teacher's education programme.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Empatia , Amor , Professores Escolares , Humanos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , China/etnologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Relações Interpessoais , Emoções , Adulto , Motivação , Cultura , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1392803, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784594

RESUMO

Background: Physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) are important markers of health status in children and adolescents in different ethnicities. In this study, we aimed to compare the PA and PF indicators between Tibetan and Han children and adolescents. Methods: Children and adolescents of 4-9 grades were recruited in Shigatse (n = 963) and Shanghai (n = 2,525) respectively. The information related to demographic, PA, and PF was collected via a self-reported questionnaire. PA was assessed through the participation of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) and organized sport participation (OSP). PF was estimated using the International Fitness Scale containing components of overall fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness, speed and agility, muscular strength and flexibility. Results: Han (mean age = 13.45 ± 3.3 years; 49.7% girls) and Tibet (mean age = 13.8 ± 2.5 years; 48.3% girls) children and adolescents from Shanghai and Shigatse completed the questionnaire survey. It was revealed that Tibetan students had higher MVPA, MSE and OSP than children and adolescents of Han ethnicity (p < 0.01, small to medium effect size). A relatively higher percentage of student in Shanghai did not participate in any form of PA. On the other hand, less Tibetan students thought their PF indicators including overall fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness, speed and agility, muscular strength and flexibility were poor or very poor than their counterparts of Han ethnicity (p < 0.01, small to medium effect size). Conclusion: Tibetan children and adolescents have higher levels of PA and PF in comparison to their Han counterparts. More children and adolescents of Han ethnicity engage in no PA and think their PF indicators were poor.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Tibet , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , China/etnologia , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , População do Leste Asiático
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 82, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Korea, Korean Chinese workers experience ethnic discrimination although they share physical similarities and ethnic heritage with native-born Koreans. This study aimed to examine whether perceived ethnic discrimination is associated with poor self-rated health and whether the association differs by gender among Korean Chinese waged workers in South Korea. METHODS: We conducted a pooled cross-sectional analysis using data of 13,443 Korean Chinese waged workers from the Survey on Immigrants' Living Conditions and Labor Force conducted in 2018, 2020, and 2022. Based on perceived ethnic discrimination, asking for fair treatment, and subsequent situational improvement, respondents were classified into the following four groups: "Not experienced," "Experienced, not asked for fair treatment," "Experienced, asked for fair treatment, not improved," and "Experienced, asked for fair treatment, improved." Poor self-rated health was assessed using a single question "How is your current overall health?" We applied logistic regression to examine the association between perceived ethnic discrimination and poor self-rated health, with gender-stratified analyses. RESULTS: We found an association between ethnic discrimination and poor self-rated health among Korean Chinese waged workers. In the gender-stratified analysis, the "Experienced, not asked for fair treatment" group was more likely to report poor self-rated health compared to the "Not experienced" group, regardless of gender. However, gender differences were observed in the group stratified by situational improvements. For male workers, no statistically significant association was found in the "Experienced, asked for fair treatment, improved" group with poor self-rated health (odd ratios: 0.87, 95% confidence intervals: 0.30-2.53). Conversely, among female workers, a statistically significant association was observed (odd ratios: 2.63, 95% confidence intervals: 1.29-5.38). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to find an association between perceived ethnic discrimination and poor self-rated health, along with gender differences in the association between situational improvements after asking for fair treatment and poor self-rated health among Korean Chinese waged workers in South Korea.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Nível de Saúde , Discriminação Percebida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , China/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , População do Leste Asiático , Racismo , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 541, 2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on health resource allocation trends in ethnic minority and impoverished areas in China is limited since the 2009 Medical Reform. This study aimed to investigate the variations and inequalities in health resource distribution among ethnic minority, poverty-stricken, and non-minority regions in Sichuan Province, a multi-ethnic province in Southwest China, from 2009 to 2019. METHODS: The numbers of beds, doctors and nurses were retrospectively sourced from the Sichuan Health Statistics Yearbook between 2009 and 2019. All the 181 counties in Sichuan Province were categorized into five groups: Yi, Zang, other ethnic minority, poverty-stricken, and non-minority county. The Theil index, adjusted for population size, was used to evaluate health resource allocation inequalities. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2019, the number of beds (Bedp1000), doctors (Docp1000), and nurses (Nurp1000) per 1000 individuals in ethnic minority and poverty-stricken counties consistently remained lower than non-minority counties. The growth rates of Bedp1000 in Yi (140%) and other ethnic minority counties (127%) were higher than in non-minority counties (121%), while the growth rates of Docp1000 in Yi (20%) and Zang (11%) counties were lower than non-minority counties (61%). Docp1000 in 33% and 50% of Yi and Zang ethnic counties decreased, respectively. Nurp1000 in Yi (240%) and other ethnic minority (316%) counties increased faster than non-minority counties (198%). The Theil index for beds and nurses declined, while the index for doctors increased. Key factors driving increases in bed allocation include preferential policies and economic development levels, while health practitioner income, economic development levels and geographical environment significantly influence doctor and nurse allocation. CONCLUSIONS: Preferential policies have been successful in increasing the number of beds in health facilities, but not healthcare workers, in ethnic minority regions. The ethnic disparities in doctor allocation increased in Sichuan Province. To increase the number of doctors and nurses in ethnic minority and poverty-stricken regions, particularly in Yi counties, more preferential policies and resources should be introduced.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , China/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/provisão & distribuição , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care ; 20(2): 201-216, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557360

RESUMO

Racial disparities in hospice use are a longstanding concern in the U.S. Asian Americans are among the least likely to receive hospice care and to be included in studies on this topic. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and preferences related to hospice care among older Chinese immigrants and associated factors. A sample of 262 Chinese immigrants age 60+ was recruited from six older adult centers in NYC. In-person interviews were conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese. Non-English-speaking older Chinese immigrants had very limited knowledge about hospice care. Only 26% of respondents had heard of hospice, and a few could correctly define any components. After receiving a comprehensive definition of hospice care, study participants expressed a positive attitude and a strong willingness to use hospice if near the end of life. Notably, some respondents still held misconceptions about hospice and were less positive in their attitude and preference for hospice care. These findings underscore the necessity for clear and accessible information about hospice among this population throughout the trajectory from good health to end of life. Further research is needed to identify the range of factors that influence the attitudes and preferences of older Chinese immigrants toward hospice care.


Assuntos
Asiático , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Asiático/psicologia , Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/etnologia , Preferência do Paciente/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Cidade de Nova Iorque , População do Leste Asiático
15.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e50032, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asian Americans with metastatic cancer are an understudied population. The Describing Asian American Well-Being and Needs in Cancer (DAWN) Study was designed to understand the supportive care needs of Chinese-, Vietnamese-, and Korean-descent (CVK) patients with metastatic cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to present the DAWN Study protocol involving a primarily qualitative, convergent, mixed methods study from multiple perspectives (patients or survivors, caregivers, and health care professionals). METHODS: CVK Americans diagnosed with solid-tumor metastatic cancer and their caregivers were recruited nationwide through various means (registries, community outreach newsletters, newspapers, radio advertisements, etc). Potentially eligible individuals were screened and consented on the web or through a phone interview. The study survey and interview for patients or survivors and caregivers were provided in English, traditional/simplified Chinese and Cantonese/Mandarin, Vietnamese, and Korean, and examined factors related to facing metastatic cancer, including quality of life, cultural values, coping, and cancer-related symptoms. Community-based organizations assisted in recruiting participants, developing and translating study materials, and connecting the team to individuals for conducting interviews in Asian languages. Health care professionals who have experience working with CVK patients or survivors with metastatic solid cancer were recruited through referrals from the DAWN Study community advisory board and were interviewed to understand unmet supportive care needs. RESULTS: Recruitment began in November 2020; data collection was completed in October 2022. A total of 66 patients or survivors, 13 caregivers, and 15 health care professionals completed all portions of the study. We completed data management in December 2023 and will submit results for patients or survivors and caregivers to publication outlets in 2024. CONCLUSIONS: Future findings related to this protocol will describe and understand the supportive care needs of CVK patients or survivors with metastatic cancer and will help develop culturally appropriate psychosocial interventions that target known predictors of unmet supportive care needs in Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean Americans with metastatic cancer. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/50032.


Assuntos
Asiático , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias , Humanos , Asiático/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidadores/psicologia , Avaliação das Necessidades , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto , China/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , População do Sudeste Asiático , População do Leste Asiático
16.
Body Image ; 49: 101698, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489965

RESUMO

Extensions of objectification theory to pregnant women are few and continued research is needed to better understand the psychological consequences of significant changes to physical appearance during pregnancy. Specific interests in this area include functionality appreciation which may be particularly relevant to pregnancy. Research in this area is also lacking representation of non-Western cultural contexts. To this end, we employed an online survey to assess objectification theory and functionality appreciation in Chinese pregnant women (N = 345). Correlations showed that higher body surveillance and body shame were associated with higher disordered eating and psychological distress, and higher functionality appreciation was associated with lower body surveillance, body shame, and disordered eating. Mediation analyses suggested that higher body surveillance was associated with higher body shame which, in turn, was associated with higher disordered eating and psychological distress. Main effects suggested a negative association between functionality appreciation and body shame, but moderation analyses suggested that higher functionality appreciation strengthened the positive association between body surveillance and body shame. Findings underscore objectification theory as a useful framework to understand eating and body image disturbances and psychological distress in Chinese pregnant women and outline future directions to clarify the temporal nature of these associations and the precise role of functionality appreciation.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Gestantes , Autoimagem , Vergonha , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Adulto , Gestantes/psicologia , Gestantes/etnologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , China/etnologia , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adolescente , População do Leste Asiático
18.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 48(1): 66-90, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393649

RESUMO

In this article, we examine the Covid-19 experiences of a group of Chinese university students studying in the city of Guangzhou. We draw on journal entries that Chinese students submitted to the Pandemic Journaling Project between March and May 2022, along with follow-up responses in July and December 2022, to argue that these students spent most of their undergraduate years living in a state of "seesaw precarity." We define seesaw precarity as a protracted period during which many Chinese were unable to predict from one day to the next whether they would be free to engage in the quotidian activities of everyday life. We trace student reactions and adaptations as they struggled to attend class, buy food, and see friends and family in the midst of unpredictable swings between openness and closedness. The seesaw nature of restrictions spurred considerable anxiety among the students we followed, but also produced an optimistic mindset we refer to as "anxious hope." Participants accepted the necessity of Covid controls and felt it was incumbent upon them as individuals to adjust to this reality. They saw themselves as responsible for actively cultivating a positive mindset. Our findings suggest that the promotion of emotional self-care and anxious hope during the pandemic may have supported the viability of long-term controls as well as the acceptability of their sudden abandonment, while muting the possibility of resistance.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Esperança , Estudantes , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , Universidades , Estudantes/psicologia , China/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Women Aging ; 36(3): 239-255, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315561

RESUMO

This article examines how older Korean and Chinese migrants living in Perth, Australia, engage in various beauty, grooming and fitness practices to negotiate "successful ageing" in transnational contexts. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 30 men and women aged between 60 and 89, we examine what social meanings are attached to these practices, and how the transnational context of living in Australia has influenced the participants' perceptions of ageing and presentation of self in later life. Migration in later life is often considered in relation to the 'host' countries values and social practices, which can make it difficult for individuals to settle and feel a sense of belonging especially in later life. In this article, we will illustrate how gender, class, and cultural dispositions intersect and link with possibilities for defining and redefining successful ageing in migrant contexts. This study illustrates how successful ageing emerges as a malleable concept that draws on ideas of an ideal ageing body from the cultural values of the 'home' country, rather than the 'host' country. The findings illustrate how in everyday lived experience, the transnational habitus does not always necessarily result in a 'divided habitus' where the values of the 'home' country and that of the 'host' country are in conflict - even when the migration experience is relatively recent. Quite the contrary, the way the participants utilise everyday beauty, fitness and grooming practices to maintain a future-focused self in the context of 'home' country's age-appropriate body ideals to perform signifiers of 'successful migrant living' point to the positive aspects that appearance management can have on an individual in later life, particularly in migrant contexts.


Assuntos
Beleza , Migrantes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Austrália , China/etnologia , Migrantes/psicologia , República da Coreia/etnologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Motivação , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Povo Asiático/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Cônjuges/etnologia , População do Leste Asiático
20.
Nature ; 626(7999): 565-573, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297123

RESUMO

Genomic research that targets large-scale, prospective birth cohorts constitutes an essential strategy for understanding the influence of genetics and environment on human health1. Nonetheless, such studies remain scarce, particularly in Asia. Here we present the phase I genome study of the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study2 (BIGCS), which encompasses the sequencing and analysis of 4,053 Chinese individuals, primarily composed of trios or mother-infant duos residing in South China. Our analysis reveals novel genetic variants, a high-quality reference panel, and fine-scale local genetic structure within BIGCS. Notably, we identify previously unreported East Asian-specific genetic associations with maternal total bile acid, gestational weight gain and infant cord blood traits. Additionally, we observe prevalent age-specific genetic effects on lipid levels in mothers and infants. In an exploratory intergenerational Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate the maternal putatively causal and fetal genetic effects of seven adult phenotypes on seven fetal growth-related measurements. These findings illuminate the genetic links between maternal and early-life traits in an East Asian population and lay the groundwork for future research into the intricate interplay of genetics, intrauterine exposures and early-life experiences in shaping long-term health.


Assuntos
Estudos de Coortes , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Fenótipo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , China/etnologia , Cordocentese , Feto/embriologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Lipídeos/sangue , Exposição Materna , Parto , Estudos Prospectivos , Genoma Humano/genética , Variação Genética/genética
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