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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3494-3506, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212676

RESUMO

The accumulation of heavy metals in crops is largely dependent on the availability of heavy metals in soils. Due to the differences of soil types and pollution characteristics, there is no widely recognized method for the determination of the bio-available heavy metals in soils such as Pb and Cd. In order to screen and establish suitable methods, the extractable abilities of five extractants (CaCl2, NH4OAc, HCl, EDTA, and DTPA) and Gradient Diffusion Film Technology (DGT) on four typical farmland soils with very different properties in Chongqing (acid purple soil, neutral purple soil, calcareous yellow soil and calcareous purple soil) were systematically compared. Simultaneously, pot experiments were carried out with Lolium perenne L. as an indicator plant to explore the relationship between the extractable soil Pb and Cd and their accumulation in plants. The feasibility of the tested methods were evaluated based on the extractability and co-relationships. The results showed that the extractability of the tested extractants for soil Pb and Cd varied a lot. HCl showed highest extractability on Pb in acid purple soil and calcareous yellow soil, while EDTA did the best in neutral purple soil and calcareous purple soil; HCl showed best extractability in all soils except calcareous purple soil, where EDTA was the best. Considering the correlation between the extraction amount and uptake by plant, all the extraction methods could be applied for the evaluation of the bioavailability of soils Pb and Cd except CaCl2 for Pb due to its weak extractability for Pb for a specific soil type. For the comparison of heavy bioavailability in different soil types, EDTA-extractable Pb and DGT-extractable Cd were recommended due to their well co-relationships between extractable amount in soil and uptake by plant (Lolium perenne L.) as indicated by the correlation coefficients of 0.941 and 0.919, respectively. HCl was relatively suitable as Cd extractant compared to others if DGT method could not be used.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Fazendas , Chumbo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3535-3548, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212680

RESUMO

Two iron-based materials, Fe-Ca composite (FeCa) and Fe-Mn binary oxide (FMBO), were applied to immobilize As, Pb, and Cd in heavy metal contaminated paddy soils. Seven kinds of paddy soil (tidal soil) contaminated by arsenic, lead and cadmium were collected from Shangyu, Shaoxing (SY), Foshan, Guangdong (FS), Shaoguan, Guangdong (SG), LiuYang, Hunan (LY), Ganzhou, Jiangxi (GZ), Dushan, Guizhou (DS), and Ma'anshan, Anhui (MAS). The effects of iron-based materials on the dynamic changes of As, Pb, and Cd concentration in soil solution, the stabilization efficacy of available As, Pb, and Cd in soil, and the effects of soil types and properties on stabilization efficacy were studied through soil incubation experiment. The results showed that the content of soil dissolved As, Pb, and Cd were lower in iron-based material treatments than in control throughout the incubation. The addition of two iron-based materials significantly reduced the availability of Cd, Pb, and As. Moreover, the stabilization efficiency of FeCa for As was higher than FMBO, but no significant difference was found in the stabilization efficiency of Pb and Cd between two materials. The stabilization efficiency of As, Pb, and Cd in FeCa treatments could be ordered as GZ > SG > DS and MAS; FS>SY, LY, and SG>MAS; SY, GZ, and DS>MAS, respectively. While the stabilization efficiency for As, Pb, and Cd in FMBO could be ordered as SY, LY, and GZ > DS > FS; FS > GZ > SY; DS > LY > MAS, respectively. In addition, the statistical results showed that the stabilization efficiencies of various soils under the treatment of iron-based materials were significantly correlated with sand content (negatively correlated for As), soil pH (positively correlated for Pb), and clay content (negatively correlated for Cd). In conclusion, the two iron-based materials evaluated in this study may be effective stabilization agents for remediating different types of arsenic-, lead-, and cadmium-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Ferro , Chumbo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2253-2270, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231736

RESUMO

This study aimed to review studies of human biomonitoring (HBM) that evaluated exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in adults living close to industrial areas. A systematic review of studies was selected, without initial date limit through to December 2017, from the MEDLINE and BVS databases. Original studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish conducted among the adult population using blood and/or urine as biomarkers were included. The articles were evaluated according to methodological criteria, including studies with comparison groups and/or probabilistic sampling. Of the 28 studies selected, 54% were conducted in Europe, 36% in Asia, 7% in North America and 4% in Africa. Foundries, metal works and steel mills were the most frequently studied. Urine and blood were used in 82% and 50% of studies, respectively. The elements most investigated were Cd, Pb and As. Despite using heterogeneous methodologies, the results revealed higher metal concentrations, especially from As and Hg in general, than in the comparison group. This review highlights the need for more rigorous methodological studies of HBM, stressing the importance of public health vigilance among populations exposed to toxic metals, especially in developing countries.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Adulto , Arsênio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise
4.
Talanta ; 233: 122534, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215037

RESUMO

The behaviors of internal standards, according to different flow rates of the cell collision gas (He), were studied for the determination of Cd, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Sn in samples of fish and mollusks by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elements Bi, Ge, In, Sc, and Y were selected as internal standards, considering their masses and first ionization energies. Addition and recovery experiments were carried out at three concentration levels to evaluate the accuracy of the method applied for the analysis of two samples with different matrices. The results were evaluated using a self-organizing map (SOM). The best analyte/IS pairs were as follows: 114Cd+/74Ge+, 195Pt+/74Ge+, and 208Pb+/74Ge+. For 103Rh+, 106Pd+, and 120Sn+, greater accuracy was achieved without use of an internal standard. Helium gas (2.8 mL min-1) was used in the collision cell for the analytes, except for Sn, and recoveries ranged from 98 to 101% under optimal conditions. The use of SOM as an exploratory analysis tool was an effective approach for selection of the most appropriate internal standards.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Chumbo , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas , Platina , Análise Espectral
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 467, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224011

RESUMO

The equilibrium and kinetic studies of removal of Pb2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ metal ions were carried out using activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell and doped with CeO2 (Ce/AC). The obtained material carbon was characterized by XRD which showed some crystalline traces of CeO2, SEM displaying the porous texture with spherical pores and the determination of pH of point of zero charge (pHPZC) which was found to be equal to 6. The contact time and adsorbate were thoroughly investigated. The maximum adsorption depends inversely on the hydrated metal radius. This observation was confirmed by calculating the formation energies (ΔH(M(OH)2)) of M(OH)2. The metal ionic radii were acting on calculated sorption capacity and that sorption efficiency related to ionic radii of metal was as follows: R(Ni2+) ≤ R(Cd2+) < R(Cu2+) < R(Pb2+). The texture and morphology of the material after sorption were affected by the metallic ion nature as observed by SEM. The kinetic studies showed that the rate constant (k2) of pseudo-second-order model decreased with the increase of the hydrated cations radii, while the rate constant of intraparticle diffusion increased with the increase of the ionic radii. The Freundlich isotherm model best fit the experimental sorption data for all the metallic ions.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cádmio/análise , Cério , Carvão Vegetal , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Chumbo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204028

RESUMO

Lead, zinc, and cadmium were used to prepare a composite-contaminated soil to replicate common situations, in which soil is usually simultaneously contaminated by multiple metals. To examine the long-term durability of stabilized/solidified (S/S) contaminated soil, specimens were subjected to a series of freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles, up to ninety times (one day per cycle), prior to testing. Triaxial compression tests, soil column leaching tests, and X-ray diffraction analysis were then employed to study the mechanical properties, environmental influences, and micro-mechanisms of the S/S lead-zinc-cadmium composite-contaminated soils after long-term F-T. The results showed that triaxial compressive strength increases within three F-T cycles, then decreases before slightly increasing or stabilizing after thirty F-T cycles. The stage of decreased cohesion thus occurs between three and fourteen F-T cycles, with variation in other factors similar to that of the triaxial compressive strength. The cohesion mainly increases between three and seven cycles. The soil column leaching test showed that the permeability of soil is more than four times higher than that of soil not subject to freeze-thaw cycles after ninety F-T cycles. XRD tests further revealed that the chemical composition of S/S contaminated soil and the occurrence of each heavy metal (HM) remained unchanged under F-T treatment.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Chumbo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205199

RESUMO

Lead detection for biological environments, aqueous resources, and medicinal compounds, rely mainly on either utilizing bulky lab equipment such as ICP-OES or ready-made sensors, which are based on colorimetry with some limitations including selectivity and low interference. Remote, rapid and efficient detection of heavy metals in aqueous solutions at ppm and sub-ppm levels have faced significant challenges that requires novel compounds with such ability. Here, a UiO-66(Zr) metal-organic framework (MOF) functionalized with SO3H group (SO3H-UiO-66(Zr)) is deposited on the end-face of an optical fiber to detect lead cations (Pb2+) in water at 25.2, 43.5 and 64.0 ppm levels. The SO3H-UiO-66(Zr) system provides a Fabry-Perot sensor by which the lead ions are detected rapidly (milliseconds) at 25.2 ppm aqueous solution reflecting in the wavelength shifts in interference spectrum. The proposed removal mechanism is based on the adsorption of [Pb(OH2)6]2+ in water on SO3H-UiO-66(Zr) due to a strong affinity between functionalized MOF and lead. This is the first work that advances a multi-purpose optical fiber-coated functional MOF as an on-site remote chemical sensor for rapid detection of lead cations at extremely low concentrations in an aqueous system.


Assuntos
Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Chumbo/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Metais Pesados/química , Fibras Ópticas , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Zircônio/química
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218554

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to explore whether lead exposure could cause anxiety of zebrafish larvae, and to explore its mechanism. Methods: In May 2020, zebrafish embryos 4 hours after fertilization (4 hpf) were collected, E3 culture medium was used as the control group, and different lead exposure concentrations (6, 12, 24, 48 µmol/L) as the poisoned group during the time was 140 h. The mortalities, hatching rates and deformity rates were calculated, the behavioral changes of 144 hpf larvae were observed (moving speed, moving distance, activity, absolute turn angle, the light-evoked startle response, darkness-evoked escape response and thigmotaxis) . The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected in zebrafish larvae in the heads. ELISA kits were used to detect the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) , dopamine (DA) , noradrenaline (NA) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) related to anxiety. Results: The mortalities rates of zebrafish embryos in the lead exposure concentration of 12, 24 and 48 µmol/L were higher than the control group, and the embryo hatching rates were lower than control group. The deformity rates of zebrafish larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 24 and 48 µmol/L were higher than control group (P<0.01) . The movement speed, activity and thigmotaxis of zebrafish larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 24 and 48 µmol/L were significantly lower than control group, the absolute turn angle were higher than control group (P<0.01) . The moving distance and darkness-evoked escape response of zebrafish larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 48 µmol/L group were lower than control group (P<0.05) . The light-evoked startle response of zebrafish larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 12, 24 and 48 µmol/L groups were lower than control group (P<0.05) . The ROS levels and MDA concentrations in the heads of larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 24 and 48 µmol/L were higher than control group (P<0.05) . The levels of NA and DA in the heads of the larvae in the lead exposure groups of 12, 24 and 48 µmol/L were lower than control group, and the levels of 5-HT and CRH in the heads of the larvae in the lead exposure groups of 24 and 48 µmol/L were higher than control group (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Lead exposure is toxic to zebrafish embryonic development and may cause anxiety-like neurobehavior changes and oxidative stress in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ansiedade , Larva , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207149

RESUMO

In this study, four different coal fly ashes (CFAs) were used as raw materials of silica and alumina for the preparation of the alumina-containing Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (Al-MCM-41) and the exploration of an activation strategy that is efficient and universal for various CFAs. Alkaline hydrothermal and alkaline fusion activations proceeded at different temperatures to determine the best treatment parameters. We controlled the pore structure and surface hydroxyl density of the CFA-derived Al-MCM-41 by changing the crystallization temperature and aging time. The products were characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction, nitrogen isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 29Si silica magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and transmission electron microscopy, and they were then grafted with thiol groups to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. This paper innovatively evaluates the CFA activation strategies using energy consumption analysis and determines the optimal activation methodology and parameters. This paper also unveils the effect of the crystallization condition of Al-MCM-41 on its subsequent Pb(II) removal capacity. The results show that the appropriate selection of crystallization parameters can considerably increase the removal capacity over Pb(II), providing a new path to tackle the ever-increasing concern of aquic heavy-metal pollution.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Carvão Mineral/análise , Chumbo/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Algoritmos , Cristalização , Modelos Teóricos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
10.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130568, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134409

RESUMO

Lead-contaminated soil was cleaned through ethylene-diamine-teraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na) combined with diluted deep eutectic solvent (DES) which was prepared by mixing choline chloride with ethylene glycol. The influences of leaching temperature, leaching time, liquid-solid (L/S) ratio, concentration of EDTA-2Na, water-DES ratio, and the molar ratio of choline chloride-ethylene glycol (Ch-E) on the leaching rate of lead were investigated. The mineral phases of the soil and DES before and after washing were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The changes to the DESs before and after dissolving lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) were analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hydrogen bonds and EDTA-2Na in the Ch-M system resulted in the conversion of Pb(NO3)2 to other complex ions such as [Pb·Ch-E]- and [Pb·EDTA-2Na]- and other complex ions due to the dissolution of the washing agent. The results showed that the soil mineral phase did not change significantly and up to 95.79% of Pb could be washed under temperature, time, L/S ratio, EDTA-2Na concentration, DES/water ratio, Ch-E molar ratio, and stirring speed conditions of 40 °C, 2 h, 6, 0.02 M, 2, 0.75 and 300 rpm, respectively. The hydrogen bonds and EDTA-2Na may play a key role in the remediation of lead-contaminated soil by a washing agent. This research describes a rapid, efficient, and environmentally friendly method for remediation of lead-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Colina , Ácido Edético , Chumbo , Solo , Solventes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130862, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134434

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) entering the body through different channels can damage the function of intestinal mucosal barrier and cause the body stressful inflammatory response to enhance. This study conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the effects of Pb exposure on intestinal permeability in children by measuring the level of bacterial endotoxin and index of inflammatory cell types in peripheral blood. From November to December 2018, we recruited 187 participants aged 3-6 years by stratified randomization, from an electronic-waste-exposed group (n = 82) and a referent group (n = 105). General demographic information, past history of the digestive system in child, and family situation were informed by children's guardians with questionnaires. Children in the exposed group showed lower weight, height, and body mass index while more diarrhea in a month. Blood Pb and plasma endotoxin were elevated in exposed children than referent children and the positive relationship between them was shown in all children [B (95% CI): 0.072 (0.008, 0.137), P = 0.033]. Peripheral monocyte counts and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels were significantly increased in the exposed group. Endotoxin levels were positively correlated with neutrophils, monocytes, and LTB4 [B (95% CI): 0.054 (0.015, 0.093), 0.018 (0.005, 0.031), and 0.049 (0.011, 0.087), respectively, P < 0.05]. To sum up, the exposed children showed lower physical growth levels, poorer gut health, and increased intestinal permeability, which was related to high blood Pb and peripheral inflammatory indices. These results suggest the possible adverse impact of environmental Pb exposure on the intestinal health of children.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Permeabilidade , Reciclagem
12.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065439

RESUMO

There are many controversies regarding the relationship between lead exposure andcomplications in pregnancy. Preeclampsia (PE) is a maternal hypertensive disorder which is one of the main causes of maternal and foetal mortality. The aim of our study was to assess blood lead level (BLL) in Polish women with PE (PE group, n = 66) compared with healthy, non-pregnant women (CNP group, n = 40) and healthy pregnant women (CP group, n = 40). BLL was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and BLL in the CP group were significantly lower than in the PE group (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses of BLL showed a significant positive relationship with the presence of PE. Furthermore, both the SBP and DBP values were positively associated with BLL. This study indicates that preeclamptic women tend to present with significantly higher BLL compared to healthy pregnant women. There were no differences in the BLL between the CP and CNP groups.


Assuntos
Chumbo/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 430, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151379

RESUMO

The assessment of the ecological status of natural surface water, in terms of dominant trace metals, within an area subject to various sources of pollution including a non-ferrous metal ore mining, such as the West Rhodope Mountain, Bulgaria, is significant. The present study estimates the ecological status of river body waters at industrial areas of the West Rhodope Mountain, Bulgaria, simultaneously evaluating the possibility of state forecasting, together with assessing the potential risks, through the study of scenarios focusing on (i) possible variations of physicochemical parameters such as pH, concentration levels of trace metals, sulphates, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of surface water and (ii) consideration of potential spontaneous precipitation reactions in the studied waters. The ecological status of river body waters was assessed through a combination of experimental field, laboratory, and computational techniques. Al, Mn, Zn, and Pb were found to be the dominant pollutants with a variety of chemical species and distribution. The most significant difference characterizing the chemical species distribution in light of total spontaneous crystallization in the systems was found for Pb, followed by Zn and Mn, with the differences being more significant at lower trace metal levels. The calculated species were discussed on the basis of HSAB (hard and soft acids and bases) principle.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Corporal/química , Bulgária , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112404, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111660

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) are potent toxicants to human health via dietary intake. It is imperative to establish accurate soil thresholds based on soil-plant transfer models and food safety standards for safe agricultural production. This study takes rice genotypes and soil properties into account to derive soil thresholds for five heavy metal(loid)s using the bioconcentration factors (BCF) and species sensitivity distribution (SSD) based on the food safety standard. The BCF generated from two paddy soils was calculated to investigate the sensitivity of heavy metal accumulation in nine rice cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment. Then, empirical soil-plant transfer models were developed from a middle-sensitivity rice cultivar (Denong 2000, one selected from nine rice) grown in nineteen paddy soils with various soil properties under a proper exogenously metal(loid)s concentration gradient. After normalization, hazardous concentrations from the fifth percentile (HC5) were calculated from the SSD curves, and the derived soil thresholds were obtained from HC5 prediction models that based on the combination of pH and organic carbon (OC) or cation exchange capacity (CEC). The soil Cd threshold derived based on pH and organic carbon (pH < 7.5, OC ≥ 20 g kg-1) was 1.3-fold of those only considering pH, whereas the Pb threshold (pH > 6, CEC ≥ 20 cmolc kg-1) was 3.1 times lower than the current threshold. The derived thresholds for five elements were validated to be reliable through literature data and field experiments. The results suggested that deriving soil heavy metal(loid)s threshold using SSD method and local food safety standards is feasible and also applicable to other crops as well as other regions with potential health risks of toxic elements contamination in agricultural production.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/normas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/normas , Solo/normas , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/normas , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/normas , Cromo/análise , Cromo/normas , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/normas , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/normas , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112410, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126303

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) toxicity is a growing serious environmental pollution that threatens human health and crop productivity. Poplar, as an important economic and ecological forest species, has the characteristics of fasting growth and accumulating heavy metals, which is a powerful model plant for phytoremediation. Here, a novel label-free quantitative proteomic platform of SWATH-MS was applied to detect proteome changes in poplar seedling roots following Pb treatment. In total 4388 unique proteins were identified and quantified, among which 542 proteins showed significant abundance changes upon Pb(II) exposure. Functional categorizations revealed that differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) primarily distributed in specialized biological processes. Particularly, lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were strongly activated upon Pb exposure, implicating their potential roles for Pb detoxification in poplar. Furthermore, hemicellulose and pectin related cell wall proteins exhibited increased abundances, where may function as a sequestration reservoir to reduce Pb toxicity in cytoplasm. Simultaneously, up-regulation of glutathione metabolism may serve as a protective role for Pb-induced oxidative damages in poplar. Further correlation investigation revealed an extra layer of post-transcriptional regulation during Pb response in poplar. Overall, our work represents multiply potential regulators in mediating Pb tolerance in poplar, providing molecular targets and strategies for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062920

RESUMO

Radioligand therapy targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is rapidly evolving as a promising treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The PSMA-targeting ligand p-SCN-Bn-TCMC-PSMA (NG001) labelled with 212Pb efficiently targets PSMA-positive cells in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of 212Pb-NG001 in multicellular tumour spheroid and mouse models of prostate cancer. The cytotoxic effect of 212Pb-NG001 was tested in human prostate C4-2 spheroids. Biodistribution at various time points and therapeutic effects of different activities of the radioligand were investigated in male athymic nude mice bearing C4-2 tumours, while long-term toxicity was studied in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. The radioligand induced a selective cytotoxic effect in spheroids at activity concentrations of 3-10 kBq/mL. In mice, the radioligand accumulated rapidly in tumours and was retained over 24 h, while it rapidly cleared from nontargeted tissues. Treatment with 0.25, 0.30 or 0.40 MBq of 212Pb-NG001 significantly inhibited tumour growth and improved median survival with therapeutic indexes of 1.5, 2.3 and 2.7, respectively. In BALB/c mice, no signs of long-term radiation toxicity were observed at activities of 0.05 and 0.33 MBq. The obtained results warrant clinical studies to evaluate the biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of 212Pb-NG001.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/radioterapia , Ensaio Radioligante , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Chumbo/farmacologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Radioisótopos/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos da radiação
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072233

RESUMO

The presented study was aimed at the determination of the level of contamination with heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, and Hg) in 240 samples of plant materials, i.e., herbal raw materials, spices, tea, and coffee. Moreover, a probabilistic risk assessment (noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models including target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR). The samples were subjected to microwave mineralisation with the use of HNO3 (65%), while the determination of the content of the elements was performed with the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and a mercury analyser. The element which was characterised by the highest level of accumulation in the analysed samples was lead (from 0.010 to 5.680 mg/kg). Among the heavy metals under analysis, the lowest concentration was noted in the case of mercury (from 0.005 to 0.030 mg/kg). A notably higher level of contamination with heavy metals was noted in the analysed samples of herbs and spices (0.005-5.680 mg/kg), compared to samples of tea and coffee (0.005-0.791 mg/kg). According to the guidelines of the World Health Organisation (WHO) concerning the limits of contamination of samples of herbal raw materials with heavy metals, lead levels exceeding the limits were only noted in 24 samples of herbs (18%). In all of the analysed samples of spices, tea, and coffee, no instances of exceeded limits were noted for any of the analysed heavy metals. The values of TTHQmax (in relation to the consumption of the analysed products) were as follows: up to 4.23 × 10-2 for spices, up to 2.51 × 10-1 for herbs, up to 4.03 × 10-2 for China tea, and up to 1.25 × 10-1 for roasted coffee beans. As the value of THQ ≤1, there is no probability of the appearance of undesirable effects related to the consumption of the analysed group of raw materials and products of plant origin. The CR value for As (max. value) was 1.29 × 10-5, which is lower than the maximum acceptable level of 1 × 10-4 suggested by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Especiarias , China , Café , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Especiarias/análise , Chá
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(26): 35305-35315, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128164

RESUMO

This study assesses the PAH and heavy metal levels in muscle of warty crabs (Eriphia verrucosa), from the northern coast of the Campania region improving the data on toxic contaminants in this crustacean. The results showed a minimal PAH contamination; the mean concentrations were as follows: 0.2, 1.6 and 1.7 µg kg-1 wet weight (ww) for BaP, PAH4 and PAH6, respectively. Regarding the levels of the two PAHs not included in the European regulations, the BkF mean concentration was 0.1 µg kg-1 ww, while DahA was detected only in 10.7% of samples. Pb and Cr were also detected at low levels with mean values of 0.068 and 0.468 mg kg-1 ww, respectively; instead, high As levels, with a mean value of 5.021 mg kg-1 ww, were found. Considering the EWIs and the ILCRs calculated in this study, the PAH, Pb and Cr contamination levels found in the edible part of the crabs resulted safe for human consumption. Contrariwise, the ILCR calculated for the As exceeded the acceptable level of cancer risk, although the calculation did not refer to the inorganic form which is the only one recognized as carcinogenic. Hence, this study shows that warty crabs can accumulate environmental contaminants in their muscle tissue representing an important route of exposure to these toxics for the local population that regularly consumes them. This finding highlights the importance of monitoring the presence of these pollutants in crabs and in general in all fish and seafood in order to ensure food safety for consumers.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Braquiúros , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Cromo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Chumbo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112429, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147864

RESUMO

Rare earth elements (REEs) are emerging as a serious threat to ecological safety due to their increasing accumulation in environments. The accumulation of REEs in environments has significantly increased its accumulation in the leaves of edible plants. However, the accumulation pathway of REEs in the leaves of edible plants are still unknown. In this study, lanthanum [La(III), a widely used and accumulated REE] and four edible plants (soybean, lettuce, pakchoi, and celery) with short growth cycles were selected as research objects. By using interdisciplinary research techniques, we found that low-dose La(III) activated endocytosis (mainly the clathrin-mediated endocytosis) in the leaf cells of four edible plants, which provided an accumulation pathway for low-dose La in the leaf cells of these edible plants. The accumulation of La in the leaf cells was positively correlated with the intensity of endocytosis, while the intensity of endocytosis was negatively correlated with the density of leaf trichomes. In addition to the accumulation of La, low-dose La(III) also brought other risks. For example, the harmful element (Pb) can also be accumulated in the leaf cells via La(III)-activated endocytosis; the homeostasis of the essential elements (K, Ca, Fe, Mg) was disrupted, although the chlorophyll synthesis and the growth of these leaf cells were accelerated; and the expression of stress response genes (GmNAC20, GmNAC11) in soybean leaves was increased. These results provided an insight to further analyze the toxicity and mechanism of REEs in plants, and sounded the alarm for the application of REEs in agriculture.


Assuntos
Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Lantânio/metabolismo , Lantânio/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Comestíveis/efeitos dos fármacos , Agricultura , Metais Terras Raras/metabolismo , Metais Terras Raras/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112426, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166940

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are considered as a typical heavy metals in aqueous solution, which may pose adverse health effects on human beings. For the removal of these two pollutants, magnesium oxide (MgO) was successfully immobilized onto eucalyptus biochar (BC) matrix via simple and cost-effective pyrolysis process of MgCl2-pretreated eucalyptus biomass under high temperature (500 °C). Synthesized MgO nanoparticles-biochar composites (MBC) exhibited superior removal performance for target pollutants, and achieve 99.9% removal efficiency for Pb(II) and Cd(II) at optimum conditions (0.02 g, pH in range of 4-7, and reaction time 120, 240 min). Furthermore, the maximum theoretical adsorbing amount of MBC was 829.11 mg/g for Pb(II) and 515.17 mg/g for Cd(II). Pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir models were well-determined for isotherm and adsorption kinetics. FTIR, XRD, and XPS analysis revealed that precipitation and ion exchange was of great importance for the removal of contaminants. Besides, cation-π interaction and complexation from the carbon-containing functional groups should not be neglected. Considering the advantage of low-cost, facile preparation, and brilliant adsorption capacity, it is anticipated that MBC has a promising prospect for the broad application in Pb(II)/Cd(II)-containing wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Eucalyptus , Chumbo/química , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Soluções
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