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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535687

RESUMO

Spatialized racial injustices drive morbidity and mortality inequalities. While many factors contribute to environmental injustices, Pb is particularly insidious, and is associated with cardio-vascular, kidney, and immune dysfunctions and is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Here, we present a revised analysis from the New Orleans dataset of soil lead (SPb) and children's blood Pb (BPb), which was systematically assembled for 2000-2005 and 2011-2016. We show the spatial-temporal inequities in SPb, children's BPb, racial composition, and household income in New Orleans. Comparing medians for the inner city with outlying areas, soil Pb is 7.5 or 9.3 times greater, children's blood Pb is ~2 times higher, and household income is lower. Between 2000-2005 and 2011-2016, a BPb decline occurred. Long-standing environmental and socioeconomic Pb exposure injustices have positioned Black populations at extreme risk of adverse health consequences. Given the overlapping health outcomes of Pb exposure with co-morbidities for conditions such as COVID-19, we suggest that further investigation be conducted on Pb exposure and pandemic-related mortality rates, particularly among Black populations. Mapping and remediating invisible environmental Pb provides a path forward for preventing future populations from developing a myriad of Pb-related health issues.


Assuntos
Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/sangue , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Nova Orleans , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Solo , Análise Espaço-Temporal
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5): 155-161, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539334

RESUMO

Exposure to lead, a toxic metal, can result in severe effects in children, including decreased ability to learn, permanent neurologic damage, organ failure, and death. CDC and other health care organizations recommend routine blood lead level (BLL) testing among children as part of well-child examinations to facilitate prompt identification of elevated BLL, eliminate source exposure, and provide medical and other services (1). To describe BLL testing trends among young children during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, CDC analyzed data reported from 34 state and local health departments about BLL testing among children aged <6 years conducted during January-May 2019 and January-May 2020. Compared with testing in 2019, testing during January-May 2020 decreased by 34%, with 480,172 fewer children tested. An estimated 9,603 children with elevated BLL were missed because of decreased BLL testing. Despite geographic variability, all health departments reported fewer children tested for BLL after the national COVID-19 emergency declaration (March-May 2020). In addition, health departments reported difficulty conducting medical follow-up and environmental investigations for children with elevated BLLs because of staffing shortages and constraints on home visits associated with the pandemic. Providers and public health agencies need to take action to ensure that children who missed their scheduled blood lead screening test, or who required follow-up on an earlier high BLL, be tested as soon as possible and receive appropriate care.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Chumbo/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 83: 103598, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516900

RESUMO

The environmental contamination with lead (Pb) is considered a critical issue worldwide. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the expression levels of circulating miRNAs (miR-155, miR-126, and miR-145) in Mexican women exposed to Pb. Blood lead levels (BLL) were assessed in enrolled women (n = 190) using an atomic absorption method. Also, serum miRNAs expression levels were quantified through a real-time PCR assay. A mean BLL of 10.5 ± 4.50 µg/dL was detected. Overexpression of miR-155 was detected in highly exposed women. Besides, a significant simple positive relationship (p < 0.05) was found between BLL and serum miR-155 expression levels. Additionally, a significant inverse correlation (p < 0.05) was determined between BLL and serum miR-126 expression levels, as downregulation of miR-126 expression levels was observed in highly exposed women. The findings in this study are the concern, as epigenetic changes detected may represent a connection between health illnesses and Pb exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321747

RESUMO

Lead readily crosses the placenta and displays adverse effects on birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. Systematic identification of the risk of exposure during pregnancy is essential but rarely performed, probably due to hospital staff's workload and their lack of awareness. We aimed to evaluate the relevance of a questionnaire to screen pregnant women for lead exposure. A cross-sectional, multicentre study was carried out on a population of 792 pregnant women from February 2018 to May 2020. A total of 596 women had a blood lead test: 68.5% had blood lead levels below 10 µg/L. The estimated prevalence above 25 µg/L was 4% (95% confidence interval (CI) [2.6-5.9]) and 1.3% had levels above 50 µg/L (95% CI [0.6-2.6]). Multivariate analysis showed that three risk factors significantly increased the probability of blood lead levels above 25 µg/L: the use of traditional cosmetics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.90; 95% CI [1.65-9.21]; p = 0.002), degraded old housing (aOR: 2.67; 95% CI [1.19-6.038]; p = 0.018), and (marginally) eating bread more than twice a day (aOR: 2.40; 95% CI [0.96-6.11]; p = 0.060). Our study reveals that a three-question tool can be used to quickly screen for the risk of lead exposure in our population and to trigger lead blood tests and special vigilance during pregnancy follow-up.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo , Gestantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382832

RESUMO

Imbalances in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the underlying mechanism is partly in alignment with that of lead exposure causing MetS. Many studies have reported the association between lead exposure and MetS, but no study has considered the possibility of TSH mediating lead's effect on MetS. Therefore, we aimed to examine the association between lead exposure and MetS considering TSH as a partial mediator. The data of 1,688 adults (age ≥19 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 were analyzed. The prevalence of MetS in the Korean population was 21.9%, and the geometric mean of blood lead and serum TSH levels were 1.96 µg/dL and 2.17 µIU/mL, respectively. The associations between blood lead levels, serum TSH levels, and MetS were determined through a multiple logistic regression analysis. Blood lead levels were positively associated with high TSH levels (upper 25%) with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.79 (1.24, 2.58) per doubled lead levels. The increase in blood lead and serum TSH levels both positively increased the odds of developing MetS. The OR of MetS per doubling of blood lead level was 1.53 (1.00, 2.35), and was not attenuated after adjusting for TSH levels. These findings suggest that higher levels of blood lead are positively associated with serum TSH levels and MetS. By exploring the role of TSH as a partial mediator between lead and MetS, we verified that lead exposure has an independent relationship with MetS, regardless of TSH levels.


Assuntos
Chumbo/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006047, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead exposure is a serious health hazard, especially for children. It is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children. There are many potential sources of lead in the environment, therefore trials have tested many household interventions to prevent or reduce lead exposure. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions intended to prevent or reduce further lead exposure in children on improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels. SEARCH METHODS: In March 2020, we updated our searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 10 other databases and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched Google Scholar, checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted experts to identify unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of household educational or environmental interventions, or combinations of interventions to prevent lead exposure in children (from birth to 18 years of age), where investigators reported at least one standardised outcome measure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies (three new to this update), involving 3282 children: 16 RCTs (involving 3204 children) and one quasi-RCT (involving 78 children). Children in all studies were under six years of age. Fifteen studies took place in urban areas of North America, one in Australia and one in China. Most studies were in areas with low socioeconomic status. Girls and boys were equally represented in those studies reporting this information. The duration of the intervention ranged from three months to 24 months in 15 studies, while two studies performed interventions on a single occasion. Follow-up periods ranged from three months to eight years. Three RCTs were at low risk of bias in all assessed domains. The other 14 studies were at unclear or high risk of bias; for example, we considered two RCTs and one quasi-RCT at high risk of selection bias and six RCTs at high risk of attrition bias. National or international research grants or governments funded 15 studies, while the other two did not report their funding sources. Education interventions versus no intervention None of the included studies in this comparison assessed effects on cognitive or neurobehavioural outcomes, or adverse events. All studies reported data on blood lead level outcomes. Educational interventions showed there was probably no evidence of a difference in reducing blood lead levels (continuous: mean difference (MD) -0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.13 to 0.07; I² = 0%; 5 studies, 815 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; log-transformed data), or in reducing floor dust levels (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.24; I² = 0%; 2 studies, 318 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Environmental interventions versus no intervention Dust control: one study in this comparison reported data on cognitive and neurobehavioural outcomes, and on adverse events in children. The study showed numerically there may be better neurobehavioural outcomes in children of the intervention group. However, differences were small and the CI included both a beneficial and non-beneficial effect of the environmental intervention (e.g. mental development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II): MD 0.1, 95% CI -2.1 to 2.4; 1 study, 302 participants; low-certainty evidence). The same study did not observe any adverse events related to the intervention during the eight-year follow-up, but observed two children with adverse events in the control group (1 study, 355 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Meta-analysis also found no evidence of effectiveness on blood lead levels (continuous: MD -0.02, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.06; I² = 0%; 4 studies, 565 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; log-transformed data). We could not pool the data regarding floor dust levels, but studies reported that there may be no evidence of a difference between the groups (very low-certainty evidence). Soil abatement: the two studies assessing this environmental intervention only reported on the outcome of 'blood lead level'. One study showed a small effect on blood lead level reduction, while the other study showed no effect. Therefore, we deem the current evidence insufficient to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of soil abatement (very low-certainty evidence). Combination of educational and environmental interventions versus standard education Studies in this comparison only reported on blood lead levels and dust lead levels. We could not pool the studies in a meta-analysis due to substantial differences between the studies. Since the studies reported inconsistent results, the evidence is currently insufficient to clarify whether a combination of interventions reduces blood lead levels and floor dust levels (very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on available evidence, household educational interventions and environmental interventions (namely dust control measures) show no evidence of a difference in reducing blood lead levels in children as a population health measure. The evidence of the effects of environmental interventions on cognitive and neurobehavioural outcomes and adverse events is uncertain too. Further trials are required to establish the most effective intervention for reducing or even preventing further lead exposure. Key elements of these trials should include strategies to reduce multiple sources of lead exposure simultaneously using empirical dust clearance levels. It is also necessary for trials to be carried out in low- and middle-income countries and in differing socioeconomic groups in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Poeira/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Viés , Pré-Escolar , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Pintura/toxicidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Poluentes do Solo
7.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127342, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947679

RESUMO

Environmental contaminations by potentially toxic metals (PTMs) are associated with energy exploitation and present a significant problem in urban areas due to their impacts on human health. The PTMs status in Urumqi total environment inevitably impacted by extensive development of coal and oil industries has been lack of understanding comprehensively. A series of PTMs (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr) in the soil-dust-plant (foliage of Ulmus pumila L.) system of Urumqi (NW China) were screened by XRF and ICPMS. Multivariate statistics, risk models, GIS-based geostatistics, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modelling and blood lead levels of 0-6 aged children evaluated by IEUBK model are used to determine the priority pollutants, sources and health effects of the investigated elements. The spatial distribution of PTMs in soil-dust-plant system significantly coincides with coal combustion, traffic emission, and industrial activity. Although all PTM toxicants in soil, dust and tree foliage show some effects, the priority contaminants are observed for Cu, Pb and Zn as single element. The total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks from PTMs are beyond the tolerance range of 0-6 year's old children, and the dust (TCR = 1.07E-04) PTMs pose approximatively equivalent carcinogenic risk to soil PTMs (TCT = 1.09E-04). The predicted BLLs (75-83 µ g·L-1) of 1-2 years children are most strongly influenced by Pb in soil and dust, and therefore more attention should be focused on sources of Pb to support the primary health care of the toddlers in Urumqi.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/sangue , Carcinógenos , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Indústrias , Chumbo/sangue , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872296

RESUMO

This study compares the heavy metal exposure levels of the population of abandoned metal mines, with high risks of environmental pollution and health effects. We used data from a two-stage abandoned metal mines survey (AMS, n = 4467). The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the Korea National Environmental Health Survey (KNEHS) were used as general population data. Based on the sex and age distribution in the AMS, a simple random sampling was performed, so that the two datasets had the same distribution (KNHANES n = 1815, KNEHS n = 2328). Blood lead concentrations were slightly higher in the AMS than in KNEHS. Blood cadmium concentrations were similar between the two groups. However, the difference in urine cadmium concentrations was pronounced and statistically significant. Moreover, 30.6% of the AMS data for urine cadmium concentration exceeded the 95th percentile of the KNEHS data. The concentration of lead and cadmium in the residents of the abandoned metal mines, i.e., the vulnerable regions, was higher than that in the general population. It is necessary to monitor and manage the vulnerable regions via a more active and extensive survey system.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Chumbo/sangue , Metais Pesados/sangue , Mineração , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Características de Residência
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 9171027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774395

RESUMO

Heavy metal poisoning is a worldwide problem that is caused by different human industrial activities such as battery and painting manufacturing and occupational exposure of those working at petrol stations. Wastewater is known to contain higher amounts of heavy metals such as lead (Pd) and cadmium (Cd) and might be sources of exposure for workers at the wastewater treatment plant. However, to our best knowledge, no studies were done to evaluate the level of cadmium and lead in blood of workers at wastewater treatment plants and evaluate the subsequent effect of lead and cadmium on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (Uδ-ALA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as markers of lead and cadmium toxicity. In this case-control study, 79 workers at the Al-Rustumiya wastewater plant in Baghdad, Iraq, and 40 control subjects were included. The levels of lead and cadmium were measured in blood of the study subjects using the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) method. 8-OHdG was analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. δ-ALAD and Uδ-ALA were estimated using spectrophotometry-based methods. Our work showed that workers had a significantly higher level of lead and cadmium when compared with the control group (P < 0.05), yet, still within the World Health Organization permissible limit. The level of both metals was positively associated with duration of work at the plant (P < 0.01). The activity of δ-ALAD was inversely associated with the lead level, while both Uδ-ALA and 8-OHdG were positively correlated with the lead level (P < 0.05). These three markers lacked any statistically significant association with the cadmium level (P > 0.05). To sum up, working at the wastewater treatment plant was associated with a higher blood level of lead and cadmium and their possible health hazard. Health and occupational safety authorities are required to set up tighter regulations and protocols to minimize these hazards and ensure a safe working environment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênicos/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead inhibits the enzymes in heme biosynthesis, mainly reducing δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, which could be an available biomarker. The aim of this study was to detect the threshold of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity reduced by lead exposure. METHODS: We collected data on 121 lead workers and 117 non-exposed workers when annual health examinations were performed. ALAD activity was determined by the standardized method of the European Community. ALAD G177C (rs1800435) genotyping was conducted using the polymerase chain reaction and restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. In order to find a threshold effect, we used generalized additive models (GAMs) and scatter plots with smoothing curves, in addition to multiple regression methods. RESULTS: There were 229 ALAD1-1 homozygotes and 9 ALAD1-2 heterozygotes identified, and no ALAD2-2 homozygotes. Lead workers had significantly lower ALAD activity than non-exposed workers (41.6 ± 22.1 vs. 63.3 ± 14.0 U/L, p < 0.001). The results of multiple regressions showed that the blood lead level (BLL) was an important factor inversely associated with ALAD activity. The possible threshold of BLL affecting ALAD activity was around 5 µg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: ALAD activity was inhibited by blood lead at a possible threshold of 5 µg/dL, which suggests that ALAD activity could be used as an indicator for lead exposure regulation.


Assuntos
Chumbo/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/sangue , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/deficiência , Porfirias Hepáticas/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Genótipo , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/genética , Porfirias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16898-16907, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631989

RESUMO

Although the Flint, Michigan, water crisis renewed concerns about lead (Pb) in city drinking water, little attention has been paid to Pb in private wells, which provide drinking water for 13% of the US population. This study evaluates the risk of Pb exposure in children in households relying on private wells. It is based on a curated dataset of blood Pb records from 59,483 North Carolina children matched with household water source information. We analyze the dataset for statistical associations between children's blood Pb and household drinking water source. The analysis shows that children in homes relying on private wells have 25% increased odds (95% CI 6.2 to 48%, P < 0.01) of elevated blood Pb, compared with children in houses served by a community water system that is regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This increased Pb exposure is likely a result of corrosion of household plumbing and well components, because homes relying on private wells rarely treat their water to prevent corrosion. In contrast, corrosion control is required in regulated community water systems. These findings highlight the need for targeted outreach to prevent Pb exposure for the 42.5 million Americans depending on private wells for their drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Poços de Água , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , North Carolina , Purificação da Água/economia , Purificação da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668760

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to assess the impact of whole blood lead (Pb-B) levels on changes in peripheral blood morphology and selected biochemical parameters, and the severity of depression in peri-menopausal women at risk of metabolic syndrome (pre-MetS) or with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study involved 233 women from the general population of the West Pomeranian Province (Poland) aged 44-65 years. The intensity of menopausal symptoms and the severity of depression was examined using the Blatt-Kupperman Index (KI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride levels (TG), cortisol, morphology of blood cells and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Pb-B was measured. Women with MetS had higher levels of glucose, HbA1C, HDL, LDL, TG, cortisol, insulin and higher HOMA-IR. No significant differences in Pb-B were observed between pre-MetS and the control group, and between pre-MetS and the MetS group. A significant correlation was noticed between Pb-B vs. the percentage of monocytes in blood, and blood cortisol levels in women with MetS; Pb-B vs. lymphocyte count and HbA1C in the pre-MetS group, as well as in the BDI scores between the MetS and pre-MetS group. We cannot clearly state that exposure to Pb is an environmental factor that can be considered as a risk factor for MetS in this studied group.


Assuntos
Depressão , Resistência à Insulina , Chumbo , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Glicemia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia
16.
Intern Med ; 59(12): 1565-1570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536679

RESUMO

We herein report a 24-year-old male construction worker with occupational lead poisoning who presented with acute abdomen and normocytic anemia. The levels of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin were elevated without any increase in the level of urine porphobilinogen. Detection of an elevated blood lead level of 100 µg/dL confirmed a diagnosis of lead poisoning. Chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate resulted in prompt improvement of the clinical symptoms and the blood lead level. Clinicians should be aware that lead poisoning caused by occupational exposure can still occur sporadically in construction workers in Japan.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo/etiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Abdome Agudo/sangue , Anemia/sangue , Humanos , Japão , Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/complicações , Intoxicação por Chumbo/terapia , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567994

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic environmental lead (Pb) exposure in blood lead level (BLL), δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, hemoglobin (Hb) amount and hematocrit (Hct) value in primary schoolchildren and adults. Blood was obtained for BLL, ALAD, Hb and Hct measurements in 23 primary schoolchildren (girls and boys) and 117 adult residents (women and men) living in three villages (Kelmend, Boletin and Zhazhë) defined by concentric circles 2, 3 and 5 km in radius drawn around from the smelter-refinery complex "Trepça"in Zveçan and in Koliq village 40 km away. As expected, BLLs were substantially higher in the schoolchildren from smelter area compared with control (11 ± 4.2 µg/L and 6.9 ± 1.6 µg/L respectively) and in adult residents from Kelmend, Boletin and Zhazhë (24 ± 11.8, 12 ± 4.5, 11 ± 5.4 and 8.0 ± 2.8 µg/L respectively). Blood ALAD activity of children in Zhazhë is 16% inhibited compared to control and blood ALAD activity in adults in villages from smelter area is 32, 3%, 48, 4% and 17, 8% inhibited compared to control. There is no difference of Hb and Hct values in schoolchildren from Zhazhë and in adult residents from Kelmend and Zhazhë compared with control. Results of this study provide evidence of moderate inverse correlation between BLL and ALAD activity in both examined cohorts from smelter area. The inhibition of ALAD activity in primary schoolchildren and adults occurred at blood lead levels < 24 µg/L; consequently it can cause an increase of δ- Aminolevulinic acid.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Chumbo/sangue , Mineração , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Hematócrito , Humanos , Kosovo , Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234995, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559243

RESUMO

Environmental conditions that contribute to childhood lead exposure are spatially patterned. Socioeconomic and racial inequities in childhood lead exposure have been well documented, however childhood lead exposure in Milwaukee is understudied. As a segregated rustbelt metropolitan area with childhood lead exposure concerns, Milwaukee is uniquely positioned to evaluate the synergistic effects of racial and economic drivers of childhood lead exposure. Using surveillance data from the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Public Health and the US Census Bureau, this cross-sectional study determined the intersectional effect of poverty, home ownership, and racial/ethnic composition on childhood lead exposure in Milwaukee County neighborhoods using linear regression adjusting for average census tract housing age and number of children. The final analytical sample consisted of 48,393 individual childhood blood lead levels aggregated to 215 Milwaukee County census tracts. Census tracts with mean childhood blood lead levels greater than or equal to 5 µg/dL were predominantly low home ownership, high poverty, and majority non-White census tracts. The effects of low home ownership, high poverty, and majority non-White census tracts were synergistic, producing 1.78 (95% CI: 1.44, 2.11) µg/dL higher mean childhood blood lead level than high home ownership, low poverty, and majority White census tracts (referent). This research reveals that social determinants at the neighborhood level co-occur and interact to produce inequities in childhood lead exposure. Lead prevention efforts should align with equity-focused housing and economic policies that target primary prevention in neighborhoods disproportionately burdened by childhood lead exposure.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Wisconsin
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 746-754, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139367

RESUMO

Background: The presence of toxic metals in human populations is strongly associated with chronic diseases. Aim: To determine levels of lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury and inorganic arsenic (AsIn) in the general population aged over 5 years in Antofagasta, Chile. Material and Methods: People living in Urban Antofagasta for at least five years were considered eligible. Biological samples were obtained to measure heavy metals. Results: One thousand two hundred three participants with a median age of 43 years (656 women) were studied. Their mean time of residence in the city was 30 years, and 52% smoked. Eight percent of the adult population and 12% of children had AsIn values above 35 µg/L, while 75% of the population had levels below 21.9 µg/L. The other metals were below the risk levels defined by the health authority (10 µg/L for chromium, 10 µg/L for mercury, 2 µg/L for cadmium, 5 and 10 μg/dL for blood lead for children and adults, respectively). The factors associated with high levels of AsIn in adults were male sex, living more than 200 meters from monitoring points, and low schooling. In children, the associated variables were high intake of seafood products and having a caregiver with less than 8 years of schooling. Contrary to expectations, the greatest risk of presenting altered levels of the metals occurred in the population living more than 500 meters from the identified risk sources (90% of the population). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that all potential sources of exposure to AsIn should be evaluated, and surveillance actions should be established to reduce involuntary exposure to this metalloid.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Metais Pesados/urina , Chumbo/sangue , Chile/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental
20.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 166, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Encephalopathy is an uncommon but serious presentation of lead toxicity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine and follow-up the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in the patients with lead encephalopathy due to ingestion of lead contaminated opium. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study during lead-contaminated opium outbreak, all lead-poisoned patients with any signs/symptoms of encephalopathy were included. RESULTS: Of 19 patients with lead encephalopathy, five died early and other five could not be sent to MRI during their hospitalization period. Mean age was 51 ± 11 years and males were dominant (89%). Median [IQR] blood lead level (BLL) was 101 [81, 108] µg/dL (range; 50 to 200 µg/dL). There was no correlation between MRI findings and signs/symptoms. MRI was normal in six and abnormal in three. Bilateral symmetric involvement of parieto-occipital lobes was observed. Gray matter, gray-white matter junction, and subcortical white matter were also affected. Follow-up MRI was performed in two with abnormal MRI which showed complete and near complete resolution of the abnormalities after cessation of opium use and treatment. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between MRI findings and BLL. Complete recovery of brain MRI lesions was detected after cessation of opium use.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Intoxicação por Chumbo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Dependência de Ópio/complicações , Ópio , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/diagnóstico por imagem , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ópio/efeitos adversos , Ópio/química
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