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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(23): 10028-10040, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822757

RESUMO

Our understanding of connections between human and animal health has advanced substantially since the canary was introduced as a sentinel of toxic conditions in coal mines. Nonetheless, the development of wildlife sentinels for monitoring human exposure to toxins has been limited. Here, we capitalized on a three-decade long child blood lead monitoring program to demonstrate that the globally ubiquitous and human commensal house sparrow (Passer domesticus) can be used as a sentinel of human health risks in urban environments impacted by lead mining. We showed that sparrows are a viable proxy for the measurement of blood lead levels in children at a neighborhood scale (0.28 km2). In support of the generalizability of this approach, the blood lead relationship established in our focal mining city enabled us to accurately predict elevated blood lead levels in children from another mining city using only sparrows from the second location. Using lead concentrations and lead isotopic compositions from environmental and biological matrices, we identified shared sources and pathways of lead exposure in sparrows and children, with strong links to contamination from local mining emissions. Our findings showed how human commensal species can be used to identify and predict human health risks over time and space.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo , Pardais , Animais , Chumbo/sangue , Humanos , Criança , Mineração , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espécies Sentinelas , Poluentes Ambientais
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 112(6): 85, 2024 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853161

RESUMO

Lead poisoning, is currently recognized as a real public health problem, The WHO classifies lead as one of 10 chemicals of serious public health concern. In Algeria and North Africa, to date, no study on the evaluation of lead impregnation has been carried out at the national level. The main objective of this work is to assess the exposure of the general Algerian population to lead. A cross-sectional study was carried out over the entire Algerian national territory, on a population aged between 3 and 74 years old. The survey lasted three years, A questionnaire, a clinical examination and a blood sample were carried out for each individual. Generalized linear regression models were used to determine the factors influencing lead levels measured in blood samples. The study population, spread over 39 wilayas and 121 districts, consists of 3674 individuals. The mean lead levels were 28.27 µg/L, the median was 22.22 µg/L, and the 95th percentile was 73.83 µg/L, Blood lead levels were influenced differently by age, gender, wilaya of residence, dietary habits such as consumption of canned food and the way in which water is conserved for daily consumption. The use of kohl has been confirmed as a potential source of lead exposure. In Algeria, a blood lead value of 75 µg/L serves as the Reference Exposure Value, guiding public health responses and risk management strategies, Recommendations have been issued to reduce the blood lead levels of the general population in Algeria in terms of limitation of lead in the sources of exposure, installation of an effective health monitoring system.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo , Argélia , Chumbo/sangue , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 940: 173686, 2024 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830425

RESUMO

Lead-based ammunition is a significant source of environmental lead and threatens species that scavenge lead-shot carcasses, particularly in areas with intensive shooting. With the impacts of lead on avian scavengers well established, there is increasing focus on the effects of lead on mammalian scavengers. We investigated lead exposure in a morphologically specialized mammalian scavenger, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), by analyzing their blood lead levels (BLLs) before and after a marsupial culling program using linear mixed effects models. We compared lead isotope signatures in devil blood to those in the culling ammunition to inform potential source attributions. We sampled 23 devils before culling and 15 after culling, finding no significant difference in mean BLLs pre and post-culling. However, devils captured closer to forestry coupes where culling had occurred had higher BLLs, and a greater proportion of devils displayed elevated BLLs post-culling (33 % compared to 18 % pre-culling). The highest BLL (7.93 µg/dL) was found in a devil post-culling and this individual had lead isotope signatures that matched the ammunition samples analyzed, suggesting the individual was exposed to lead from scavenging on culled carcasses. While 18 % of the devil blood lead samples had isotope signatures consistent with the ammunition samples, most were measurably different, indicating other sources of lead in the landscape. BLLs in our study landscape were similar to published BLLs for wild devils across Tasmania. That said, lead isotope signatures in the blood of individual devils sampled both before and after culling shifted closer to those of ammunition samples post-culling. Our results indicate that while some individual devils may have been exposed to lead from culling, most devils in the landscape did not show evidence of recent exposure. However, even low lead levels can adversely impact wildlife health and immunity, a particular concern for devils, a species endangered by disease.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Marsupiais , Animais , Chumbo/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Abate de Animais
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13062, 2024 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844557

RESUMO

Metals have been proved to be one of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes, but the effect of mixed metal co-exposure and potential interaction between metals are still unclear. We assessed the urine and whole blood levels of cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and renal function in 3080 adults from National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) (2011-2018) to explore the effect of mixed metal exposure on CKD especially in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Weighted quantile sum regression model and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression model were used to evaluate the overall exposure impact of metal mixture and potential interaction between metals. The results showed that the exposure to mixed metals was significantly associated with an increased risk of CKD in blood glucose stratification, with the risk of CKD being 1.58 (1.26,1.99) times in urine and 1.67 (1.19,2.34) times in whole blood higher in individuals exposed to high concentrations of the metal mixture compared to those exposed to low concentrations. The effect of urine metal mixture was elevated magnitude in stratified analysis. There were interactions between urine Pb and Cd, Pb and Mn, Pb and Hg, Cd and Mn, Cd and Hg, and blood Pb and Hg, Mn and Cd, Mn and Pb, Mn and Hg on the risk of CKD in patients with T2DM and no significant interaction between metals was observed in non-diabetics. In summary, mixed metal exposure increased the risk of CKD in patients with T2DM, and there were complex interactions between metals. More in-depth studies are needed to explore the mechanism and demonstrate the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Fatores de Risco , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Idoso , Metais/urina , Metais/sangue , Metais/efeitos adversos , Manganês/urina , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(6): 67003, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to environmental chemicals can cause adverse health effects in offspring. Mounting evidence supports that these effects are influenced, at least in part, by epigenetic modifications. It is unknown whether epigenetic changes in surrogate tissues such as the blood are reflective of similar changes in target tissues such as cortex or liver. OBJECTIVE: We examined tissue- and sex-specific changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) associated with human-relevant lead (Pb) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure during perinatal development in cerebral cortex, blood, and liver. METHODS: Female mice were exposed to human relevant doses of either Pb (32 ppm) via drinking water or DEHP (5mg/kg-day) via chow for 2 weeks prior to mating through offspring weaning. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) was utilized to examine DNAm changes in offspring cortex, blood, and liver at 5 months of age. Metilene and methylSig were used to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Annotatr and ChIP-enrich were used for genomic annotations and gene set enrichment tests of DMRs, respectively. RESULTS: The cortex contained the majority of DMRs associated with Pb (66%) and DEHP (57%) exposure. The cortex also contained the greatest degree of overlap in DMR signatures between sexes (n=13 and 8 DMRs with Pb and DEHP exposure, respectively) and exposure types (n=55 and 39 DMRs in males and females, respectively). In all tissues, detected DMRs were preferentially found at genomic regions associated with gene expression regulation (e.g., CpG islands and shores, 5' UTRs, promoters, and exons). An analysis of GO terms associated with DMR-containing genes identified imprinted genes to be impacted by both Pb and DEHP exposure. Of these, Gnas and Grb10 contained DMRs across tissues, sexes, and exposures, with some signatures replicated between target and surrogate tissues. DMRs were enriched in the imprinting control regions (ICRs) of Gnas and Grb10, and we again observed a replication of DMR signatures between blood and target tissues. Specifically, we observed hypermethylation of the Grb10 ICR in both blood and liver of Pb-exposed male animals. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide preliminary evidence that imprinted genes may be viable candidates in the search for epigenetic biomarkers of toxicant exposure in target tissues. Additional research is needed on allele- and developmental stage-specific effects, as well as whether other imprinted genes provide additional examples of this relationship. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP14074.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Impressão Genômica , Chumbo , Fígado , Animais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/sangue , Impressão Genômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Narra J ; 4(1): e704, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798830

RESUMO

Diabetes is a global health concern with significant implications for individuals and societies. Diabetes results from a complex interaction between genes and environmental factors, including metal exposure. Lead or plumbum (Pb) is a heavy metal pollutant and is predicted to be associated with the morbidity of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between blood Pb level and possible risk factors (body mass index insulin resistance, carbohydrate intake, sugar intake, and physical activity) with fasting blood sugar (FBS) level in women living in the mining area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a mining area of Indonesia located in Pemali District, Bangka Belitung Regency, involving women aged 30-49, selected through purposive sampling. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the risk factors and FBS level, while the Spearman correlation was used to analyze the correlations between the risk factors and FBS level. Our data indicated that blood Pb concentration and other risk factors (carbohydrate intake, sugar intake and physical activity) were neither associated nor correlated with FBS level. However, as predicted, insulin resistance was associated with FBS level with OR: 9.66; 95%CI: 1.13-82.29; p=0.038. In addition, the Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score was also correlated with FBS level (r=0.316, p=0.002). This study highlights the level of Pb is not associated with the risk of diabetes in women living in mining area.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Chumbo , Mineração , Humanos , Feminino , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
7.
Environ Int ; 188: 108725, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifelong health is dependent on prenatal growth and development, influenced by the placental intrauterine environment. Charged with dual functions--exchange of oxygen and nutrients as well as a barrier against toxins--the placenta itself is susceptible to environmental exposure to heavy metals. OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of placenta weight as a biomarker for heavy metal exposure using a large Japanese cohort of pregnant women. METHODS: The placenta weight, as a biomarker of exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), was investigated using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (2011-2014). Selenium and manganese were included as factors directly affecting fetal growth or heavy metal toxicity. Maternal blood samples collected in the second or third trimester were used to measure heavy metal concentrations. The association between maternal blood metal concentrations and placenta weight was explored by applying Z scores and multivariable logistic regression analysis and classifying participants into quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4) according to metal concentrations. RESULTS: This study included a total of 73,005 singleton pregnant women who delivered via live births and met the inclusion criteria. The median heavy metal concentrations in the maternal whole blood were 0.662 ng/g cadmium, 5.85 ng/g lead, 3.61 ng/g mercury, 168 ng/g selenium, and 15.3 ng/g manganese. Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between placenta weight Z scores and maternal blood metal concentrations: cadmium, 0.0660 (standard error = 0.0074, p < 0.001); selenium, -0.3137 (standard error = 0.0276, p < 0.001); and manganese, 0.1483 (standard error = 0.0110, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study provides a robust examination of the association between heavy metal exposure and placenta weight. Cadmium and manganese showed a positive correlation with significant differences, whereas selenium showed a negative correlation. Essential elements notably affect placenta weight differently. No significant association was noted between lead or mercury and placenta weight.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Placenta , Selênio , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Metais Pesados/sangue , Japão , Adulto , Selênio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Mercúrio/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cádmio/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Manganês/sangue , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Adulto Jovem , Recém-Nascido , Biomarcadores/sangue
8.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 84: 127460, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to metals during pregnancy can potentially influence blood pressure (BP) in children, but few studies have examined the mixed effects of prenatal metal exposure on childhood BP. We aimed to assess the individual and combined effects of prenatal metal and metalloid exposure on BP in preschool children. METHODS: A total of 217 mother-child pairs were selected from the Zhuang Birth Cohort in Guangxi, China. The maternal plasma concentrations of 20 metals [e.g. lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and zinc (Zn)] in early pregnancy were measured by inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry. Childhood BP was measured in August 2021. The effects of prenatal metal exposure on childhood BP were explored by generalized linear models, restricted cubic spline and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models. RESULTS: In total children, each unit increase in the log10-transformed maternal Rb concentration was associated with a 10.82-mmHg decrease (95% CI: -19.40, -2.24) in childhood diastolic BP (DBP), and each unit increase in the log10-transformed maternal Cs and Zn concentrations was associated with a 9.67-mmHg (95% CI: -16.72, -2.61) and 4.37-mmHg (95% CI: -8.68, -0.062) decrease in childhood pulse pressure (PP), respectively. The log10-transformed Rb and Cs concentrations were linearly related to DBP (P nonlinear=0.603) and PP (P nonlinear=0.962), respectively. Furthermore, an inverse association was observed between the log10-transformed Cs concentration and PP (ß =-12.18; 95% CI: -22.82, -1.54) in girls, and between the log10-transformed Rb concentration and DBP (ß =-12.54; 95% CI: -23.87, -1.21) in boys, while there was an increasing association between the log10-transformed Pb concentration and DBP there was an increasing in boys (ß =6.06; 95% CI: 0.36, 11.77). Additionally, a U-shaped relationship was observed between the log10-transformed Pb concentration and SBP (P nonlinear=0.015) and DBP (P nonlinear=0.041) in boys. Although there was no statistically signiffcant difference, there was an inverse trend in the combined effect of maternal metal mixture exposure on childhood BP among both the total children and girls in BKMR. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to both individual and mixtures of metals and metalloids influences BP in preschool children, potentially leading to nonlinear and sex-specific effects.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Exposição Materna , Metaloides , Metais , Humanos , Feminino , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Gravidez , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metaloides/sangue , Metais/sangue , Adulto , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Chumbo/sangue , China , Zinco/sangue , Teorema de Bayes
9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 84: 127468, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous research suggests that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, and that regularly eating meals may reduce blood lead. However, there is insufficient evidence linking breakfast status and blood-metal levels in children. We assessed the cross-sectional association between breakfast consumption status and children and adolescent's blood levels of lead and cadmium. We also explored blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and age group as potential effect modifiers of these associations. METHODS: This analysis included children and adolescents aged 6-17 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2013-2018 with complete data on breakfast consumption status (consumers vs. skippers), blood metals, and covariates (N=3722). Blood metal variables were log-transformed. Crude and covariate-adjusted, survey-weighted linear regression models were conducted for each blood metal outcome. Potential effect modification was explored using stratification. RESULTS: Overall fewer participants reported skipping breakfast (n=719) than eating breakfast (n=3003). Mean (SE) concentrations of blood lead and cadmium (µg/L) were 0.63 (0.01) µg/dL and 0.13 (0.00) µg/L, respectively. Children and adolescents who skipped breakfast were more likely to be female (51.2%), older (mean 12.2 years, SE = 0.1), have a higher body mass index (mean 22.8 kg/m2, SE = 0.2), and a lower income-poverty ratio (mean 1.7, SE = 0.1) than breakfast consumers. No associations between breakfast consumption and any of the blood metals were found. When stratified by age (≤ 10, 11-13, and 14-17 years), children aged 11-13 years who consumed breakfast had lower log-transformed blood lead levels [ß = -0.14 µg/L; 95% CI: (-0.25, -0.03)] compared to children of the same age who skipped breakfast. CONCLUSION: Children 11-13 years-old who were breakfast consumers had lower blood lead levels compared to children of the same age who skipped breakfast. Our results support that encouraging breakfast consumption among school-age children may contribute to lower blood lead levels.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Cádmio , Chumbo , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Criança , Adolescente , Cádmio/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Jejum Intermitente
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(5): 57010, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) plays a significant role in both human health and global industries. Epidemiological studies of exposed populations demonstrate a dose-dependent association between Mn and neuromotor effects ranging from subclinical effects to a clinically defined syndrome. However, little is known about the relationship between early life Mn biomarkers and adolescent postural balance. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the associations between childhood and adolescent Mn biomarkers and adolescent postural balance in participants from the longitudinal Marietta Communities Actively Researching Exposures Study (CARES) cohort. METHODS: Participants were recruited into CARES when they were 7-9 y old, and reenrolled at 13-18 years of age. At both time points, participants provided samples of blood, hair, and toenails that were analyzed for blood Mn and lead (Pb), serum cotinine, hair Mn, and toenail Mn. In adolescence, participants completed a postural balance assessment. Greater sway indicates postural instability (harmful effect), whereas lesser sway indicates postural stability (beneficial effect). Multivariable linear regression models were conducted to investigate the associations between childhood and adolescent Mn biomarkers and adolescent postural balance adjusted for age, sex, height-weight ratio, parent/caregiver intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, blood Pb, and serum cotinine. RESULTS: CARES participants who completed the adolescent postural balance assessment (n=123) were 98% White and 54% female and had a mean age of 16 y (range: 13-18 y). In both childhood and adolescence, higher Mn biomarker concentrations were significantly associated with greater adolescent sway measures. Supplemental analyses revealed sex-specific associations; higher childhood Mn biomarker concentrations were significantly associated with greater sway in females compared with males. DISCUSSION: This study found childhood and adolescent Mn biomarkers were associated with subclinical neuromotor effects in adolescence. This study demonstrates postural balance as a sensitive measure to assess the association between Mn biomarkers and neuromotor function. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13381.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Cabelo , Manganês , Unhas , Equilíbrio Postural , Humanos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Cabelo/química , Unhas/química , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Chumbo/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Cotinina/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue
11.
Toxicology ; 505: 153833, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759721

RESUMO

Electronic waste (e-waste) contains numerous metals and organic pollutants that have detrimental impacts on human health. We studied 199 e-waste recycling workers and 104 non-exposed workers; analyzed blood, urine, and hair samples to measure heavy metals, hormonal, liver, and renal function. We used quantile regression models to evaluate the impact of Pb, Cd, and Hg on hormonal, liver and renal function, and the role of DNA oxidative damage in mediating the relationship between exposures and outcomes. Exposed workers had higher blood lead (Pb) (median 11.89 vs 3.63 µg/dL), similar blood cadmium (Cd) (1.04 vs 0.99 µg/L) and lower total mercury (Hg) in hair (0.38 vs 0.57 ppm) than non-exposed group. Exposed workers also had elevated median concentrations of total triiodothyronine (TT3), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urinary albumin, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significantly higher than non-exposed group (p≤0.05). Sex hormones including luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone concentrations were not significantly different between exposed and non-exposed (all p≥0.05). The median concentration of ALT was 4.00 (95% CI: 0.23, 7.77), urinary albumin was 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.12) and ACR was 1.31 (95% CI: 0.57, 2.05) units higher in the exposed group compared to non-exposed group. Pb was associated with a 3.67 unit increase in the ALP (95% CI: 1.53, 5.80), 0.01 unit increase in urinary albumin (95% CI: 0.002, 0.01), and 0.07 unit increase in ACR (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13). However, no hormonal, renal, and hepatic parameters were associated with Cd or Hg. Oxidative DNA damage did not mediate exposure-outcome relationships (p≥0.05). Our data indicate e-waste exposure impairs liver and renal functions secondary to elevated Pb levels. Continuous monitoring, longitudinal studies to evaluate the dose-response relationship and effective control measure are required to protect workers from e-waste exposure.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Rim , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Feminino , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metais Pesados/urina , Metais Pesados/sangue , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Reciclagem , Adulto Jovem , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cabelo/química , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Hormônios/sangue , Dano ao DNA
12.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732616

RESUMO

BRCA1 mutations substantially elevate the risks of breast and ovarian cancer. Various modifiers, including environmental factors, can influence cancer risk. Lead, a known carcinogen, has been associated with various cancers, but its impact on BRCA1 carriers remains unexplored. A cohort of 989 BRCA1 mutation carriers underwent genetic testing at the Pomeranian Medical University, Poland. Blood lead levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each subject was assigned to a category based on their tertile of blood lead. Cox regression analysis was used to assess cancer risk associations. Elevated blood lead levels (>13.6 µg/L) were associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer (univariable: HR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.23-9.00; p = 0.02; multivariable: HR = 2.10; 95% CI: 0.73-6.01; p = 0.17). No significant correlation was found with breast cancer risk. High blood lead levels are associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 carriers, suggesting priority for preventive salpingo-oophorectomy. Potential risk reduction strategies include detoxification. Validation in diverse populations and exploration of detoxification methods for lowering lead levels are required.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1 , Chumbo , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Chumbo/sangue , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Fatores de Risco , Polônia , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idoso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(9): e033474, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copper exposure is reported to be associated with increased risk of stroke. However, the association of copper exposure with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: This observational study included consecutive participants from Xinqiao Hospital between May 2020 and August 2021. Blood metals were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and carotid atherosclerosis was assessed using ultrasound. Modified Poisson regression was performed to evaluate the associations of copper and other metals with subclinical carotid plaque presence. Blood metals were analyzed as categorical according to the quartiles. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, education, smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and coronary artery disease history. Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression was conducted to evaluate the overall association of metal mixture with subclinical carotid plaque presence. One thousand five hundred eighty-five participants were finally enrolled in our study, and carotid plaque was found in 1091 subjects. After adjusting for potential confounders, metal-progressively-adjusted models showed that blood copper was positively associated with subclinical carotid plaque (relative risk according to comparing quartile 4 to quartile 1 was 1.124 [1.021-1.238], relative risk according to per interquartile increment was 1.039 [1.008-1.071]). Blood cadmium and lead were also significantly associated with subclinical carotid plaque. Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression analyses suggested a synergistic effect of copper-cadmium-lead mixture on subclinical carotid plaque presence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify copper as a novel risk factor of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and show the potential synergistic proatherogenic effect of copper, cadmium, and lead mixture.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Cobre , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Cobre/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Idoso , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Medição de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Assintomáticas , Chumbo/sangue
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9713, 2024 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678115

RESUMO

Lead exposure can have serious consequences for health and development. The neurological and behavioral effects of lead are considered irreversible. Young children are particularly vulnerable to lead poisoning. In 2020, Pure Earth and UNICEF estimated that one in three children had elevated blood lead levels above 5 µg/dL. The sources of lead exposure vary around the world and can range from household products, such as spices or foodware, to environmental pollution from nearby industries. The aim of this study was to analyze common products from markets in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for their lead content to determine whether they are plausible sources of exposure. In 25 LMICs, the research teams systematically collected consumer products (metal foodware, ceramics, cosmetics, paints, toys, spices and other foods). The items were analyzed on site for detectable lead above 2 ppm using an X-ray fluorescence analyzer. For quality control purposes, a subset of the samples was analyzed in the USA using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The lead concentrations of the individual product types were compared with established regulatory thresholds. Out of 5007 analyzed products, threshold values (TV) were surpassed in 51% for metal foodware (TV 100 ppm), 45% for ceramics (TV 100 ppm), and 41% for paints (TV 90 ppm). Sources of exposure in LMICs can be diverse, and consumers in LMICs lack adequate protection from preventable sources of lead exposure. Rapid Market Screening is an innovative, simple, and useful tool to identify risky products that could be sources of lead exposure.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Chumbo , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/sangue , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cosméticos/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673296

RESUMO

This study analyzes the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in children across Chicagoland zip codes from 2019 to 2021, linking them to socioeconomic, environmental, and racial factors. Wilcoxon tests and generalized additive model (GAM) regressions identified economic hardship, reflected in per capita income and unemployment rates, as a significant contributor to increased lead poisoning (LP) rates. Additionally, LP rates correlate with the average age of buildings, particularly post the 1978 lead paint ban, illustrating policy impacts on health outcomes. The study further explores the novel area of land surface temperature (LST) effects on LP, finding that higher nighttime LST, indicative of urban heat island effects, correlates with increased LP. This finding gains additional significance in the context of anthropogenic climate change. When these factors are combined with the ongoing expansion of urban territories, a significant risk exists of escalating LP rates on a global scale. Racial disparity analysis revealed that Black and Hispanic/Latino populations face higher LP rates, primarily due to unemployment and older housing. The study underscores the necessity for targeted public health strategies to address these disparities, emphasizing the need for interventions that cater to the unique challenges of these at-risk communities.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Chicago , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Criança
16.
Environ Pollut ; 349: 123907, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582185

RESUMO

Although lead (Pb) poisoning in wild birds has been considered a serious problem in Japan for over 30 years, there is little information about Pb exposure and its sources throughout Japan except for Hokkaido. Furthermore, to identify and effectively prioritize the conservation needs of highly vulnerable species, differences in sensitivity to Pb exposure among avian species need to be determined. Therefore, we investigated the current situation of Pb exposure in raptors (13 species, N = 82), waterfowl (eight species, N = 44) and crows (one species, N = 6) using concentration and isotope analysis. We employed blood or tissue samples collected in various Japanese facilities mainly in 2022 or 2023. We also carried out a comparative study of blood δ-ALAD sensitivity to in vitro Pb exposure using blood of nine avian species. Pb concentrations in the blood or tissues displayed increased levels (>0.1 µg/g blood) in two raptors (2.4%), ten waterfowl (23%) and one crow (17%). Among them, poisoning levels (>0.6 µg/g blood) were found in one black kite and one common teal. The sources of Pb isotope ratios in ten blood samples with high Pb levels were determined as deriving from shot pellets (N = 9) or rifle bullets (N = 1). In the δ-ALAD study, red-crowned crane showed the highest sensitivity among the nine tested avian species and was followed in order by five Accipitriformes species (including white-tailed and Steller's sea eagle), Blakiston's fish owl, Muscovy duck and chicken, suggesting a genetically driven variance in susceptibility. Further studies on contamination conditions and exposure sources are urgently needed to inform strict regulations on the usage of Pb ammunition. Furthermore, detailed examinations of δ-ALAD sensitivity, interspecific differences, and other factors involved in the variability in sensitivity to Pb are required to identify and prioritize highly sensitive species.


Assuntos
Aves , Poluentes Ambientais , Chumbo , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/metabolismo , Japão , Aves Predatórias/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Aves/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/veterinária , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Corvos
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(17): 7270-7278, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625742

RESUMO

Lead poisoning is globally concerning, yet limited testing hinders effective interventions in most countries. We aimed to create annual maps of county-specific blood lead levels in China from 1980 to 2040 using a machine learning model. Blood lead data from China were sourced from 1180 surveys published between 1980 and 2022. Additionally, regional statistical figures for 15 natural and socioeconomic variables were obtained or estimated as predictors. A machine learning model, using the random forest algorithm and 2973 generated samples, was created to predict county-specific blood lead levels in China from 1980 to 2040. Geometric mean blood lead levels in children (i.e., age 14 and under) decreased significantly from 104.4 µg/L in 1993 to an anticipated 40.3 µg/L by 2040. The number exceeding 100 µg/L declined dramatically, yet South Central China remains a hotspot. Lead exposure is similar among different groups, but overall adults and adolescents (i.e., age over 14), females, and rural residents exhibit slightly lower exposure compared to that of children, males, and urban residents, respectively. Our predictions indicated that despite the general reduction, one-fourth of Chinese counties rebounded during 2015-2020. This slower decline might be due to emerging lead sources like smelting and coal combustion; however, the primary factor driving the decline should be the reduction of a persistent source, legacy gasoline-derived lead. Our approach innovatively maps lead exposure without comprehensive surveys.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Chumbo/sangue , China , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Exposição Ambiental , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(20): 29971-29978, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594562

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to lead substantially decreased over the past decades. However, soil of former mining areas still contains high lead levels. We therefore performed a biomonitoring study among children living in two former mining communities in Lower Saxony, Germany. In these communities, soil contains lead levels of 1000 to 30,000 mg/kg. Overall, 75 children (6-10 years of age) attending the two primary schools of the study area took part in the study. Parents completed a short questionnaire on sociodemographics, and children provided capillary whole blood samples. We analysed lead using inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometer. We compared the results to current German (20 µg/l for boys, 15 µg/l for girls) and US (35 µg/l) reference values. Potential associations between questionnaire information and lead results were tested using lead as continuous outcome and using lead dichotomized at the reference values. Finally, we analysed spatial patterns of elevated biomonitoring results. Of all children, 48% exceeded the German reference values for lead (5% expected) and 8% the US reference value (2.5% expected). Children 6-8 years of age were more likely to exceed German reference values (63%) than 9-10 year old children were (32%; pFisher = 0.01). No other questionnaire information was statistically significantly associated with biomonitoring results. Additionally, we did not find any indication of spatial clustering. In conclusion, we observed elevated blood lead levels in primary school children living in a former mining area. In the next step, exposure pathways need to be identified to implement effective public health measures.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo , Mineração , Humanos , Alemanha , Criança , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 277: 116269, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657460

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of vascular CCM3 gene deficiency and lead (Pb) exposure on the nervous system. Lentiviral transfection was performed to generate a stable strain of brain microvascular endothelial cells with low CCM3 expression. MTT assay assessed the survival rate of cells exposed to Pb, determining the dose and duration of Pb exposure in vitro. Proteomic analysis was performed on the differentially expressed proteins in bEnd3 and HT22 cells and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Finally, urine samples from pregnant and postpartum women were subjected to ICP-MS to detect Pb levels and HPLC to detect neurotransmitter metabolites. Based on the proteomic analysis of bEnd3 (CCM3-/-) cells co-cultured with HT22 cells, it was determined that HT22 cells and CCM3 genes interfered with bEnd3 cell differential proteins,2 including apoptosis and ferroptosis pathways. Electron microscopy observation, ICP-MS iron ion loading detection, and WB determination of protein GPX4 expression confirmed that HT22 cells undergo apoptosis, while bEnd3 cells undergo multiple pathways of iron death and apoptosis regulation. Furthermore, a linear regression model showed the interaction between maternal urine Pb levels, the rs9818496 site of the CCM3 SNP in peripheral blood DNA, and the concentration of the neurotransmitter metabolite 5-HIAA in maternal urine (F=4.198, P < 0.05). bEnd3 cells with CCM3 gene deficiency can induce HT22 cell apoptosis through iron death and apoptosis pathways under Pb exposure in a combined cell culture Pb exposure model, and CCM3 gene deficiency in endothelial cells and Pb exposure interacts with neural cell HT22. Epidemiological studies on maternal and newborn infants further confirmed the interaction between urine Pb levels in mothers and the SNP rs9818496 site of the CCM3 gene in peripheral blood DNA.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Apoptose , Chumbo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/sangue , Humanos , Feminino , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Gravidez , Animais , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Camundongos , Linhagem Celular , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Adulto , Proteômica , Proteínas de Membrana
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