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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 851-860, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031065

RESUMO

The microalgae treatment system is an economically and environmentally friendly option for wastewater treatment. However, the effects of heavy metal toxicity on microalgae cells can limit the use of microalgae in the treatment of industrial effluents rich in heavy metals. In this work, we studied the effect of Ni, Cu, Al, Hg and Pb, added as single-metal solutions to the microalgae culture medium, on the growth of 20 indigenous strains belonging to a wide variety of microalgae genera. Ni and Cu were the most toxic to the strains tested. A highly tolerant strain of the Phacus genera was selected. We determined the effect of multiple combinations of Ni, Al and Pb on the cell growth of the selected strain and on the removal capacity of each metal from the microalgae culture medium. Phacus was able to grow in the multi-metal solution (Ni, 5.00 mg/L; Al, 9.94 mg/L and Pb 1.00 mg/L) and to efficiently remove the metals, with removal capacities of 8.82 ±0.16 mg/g for Ni, 2.09 ± 0.05 mg/g for Pb and 16.90 ± 0.53 mg/g for Al. The reductions of Ni, Al and Pb concentrations were 66.67, 64.28 and 79.17% respectively.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microalgas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Águas Residuárias
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105607, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861022

RESUMO

The ubiquitous contamination of environmental lead (Pb) remains a worldwide threat. Improper Pb mine waste disposal from an abandoned lead-zinc mine has recently unearthed widespread Pb poisoning in children in Kabwe Zambia. Although the adverse effects of Pb on human health have begun to receive attention, the ecotoxicological effects on aquatic vertebrates still need further investigation. In addition, there is paucity in the knowledge on the behavioural and molecular subcellular responses in larval zebrafish exposed to Pb within the range of environmental relevant concentration (average 3 µg/L with maximum of 94 µg/L) on aquatic organisms such as zebrafish. The adverse effects of environmentally relevant levels of Pb on larval zebrafish was evaluated by measuring swimming behaviour under alternating dark and light conditions. Larval zebrafish acutely exposed to environmentally relevant Pb exhibited neuro-behavioural alteration including enhanced hyperactivity under light conditions evidenced by increased distanced covered and speed compared to the control. The alteration of entire behavioral profiles was further associated with the disturbed expression patterns of mRNA level of key genes associated with antioxidant (HO-1, Ucp-2 and CoxI), proapoptotic gene (TP53), and antiapoptotic gene (Bcl-2). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of environmentally relevant Pb levels from Kabwe, Zambia and their adverse neurobehavioural effects and subcellular molecular oxidative responses in larval zebrafish acutely exposed within a 30 min period. The current results would be beneficial in our understanding of the effects of low Pb levels acutely discharged into an aquatic environment and the life of aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111049, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758698

RESUMO

Recent studies identified a novel programmed and regulated cell death that was characterized by a necrotic cell death morphology, termed necroptosis. Lead (Pb) is known as a persistent inorganic environmental pollutant that affects the health of humans and animals worldwide. However, there are no detailed reports of Pb-induced necroptosis of immune tissue. Selenium (Se) is a trace element that antagonizes the toxicity of heavy metals. Here, chickens were randomly divided into four groups, treated with Pb ((CH3OO)2Pb, 150 mg/kg) and/or Se (Na2SeO3, 2 mg/kg), aim to study the effect and mechanism of necroptosis in Pb-induced spleen injury and the antagonistic effects of Se on Pb toxicity. Our results showed that Pb exposure evidently increased the accumulation of Pb in spleen and caused necroptosis by upregulating the expression of RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL, and decreasing Caspase8 expression. Meanwhile, Pb treatment inhibited the activities of SOD, GPX, and CAT, caused the accumulation of NO and MDA, and induced oxidative stress, which promoted the expression of MAPK/NF-κB pathway genes (ERK, JNK, P38, NF-κB and TNF-α) and activated HSPs (HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90). However, the increased content of Pb in spleen and Pb-caused necroptosis were inhibited by Se cotreatment. Overall, we conclude that Se can prevent Pb-induced necroptosis by restoring antioxidant functions and blocking the MAPK/NF-κB pathway and HSPs activation in chicken spleen.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790698

RESUMO

Tomato is the most widespread vegetable crop in the world. In Italy, tomatoes are mainly cultivated in the South and in the Campania region, precisely in the area called Agro Nocerino-Sarnese. This flatland is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, especially related to the Sarno River, where concentrations of Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs) have been found to be higher than the maximum permitted level. The aim of this study was to determine the PTEs uptake by roots and their translocation to the aerial parts of the plants of two cultivars of tomatoes (Pomodoro Giallo and San Marzano Cirio 3). To the purpose, samples of the two cultivars were grown both in pots with experimentally contaminated soil containing: Cr or Cd or Pb at extremely high concentrations and in pots with uncontaminated soils (control). Additionally, the antioxidant properties of the cultivars selected grown on uncontaminated/contaminated soils were assessed. The results showed that Cd was the contaminant that most significantly interfered with the growth of both cultivars of tomato plants, whereas Pb caused lower phenotypical damage. Cd translocation from root to the organs of tomato plants was observed in both cultivars. Specifically, the total amount of Cd found in stems and leaves was higher in the Pomodoro Giallo (254.4 mg/kg dry weight) than in the San Marzano Cirio 3 (165.8 mg/kg dry weight). Cd was the only PTE found in the fruits of both cultivars, with values of 6.1 and 3.9 mg/kg dry weight of Pomodoro Giallo and San Marzano Cirio 3, respectively. The fruits of tomato plants grown in PTEs-contaminated soil showed inhibition or stimulations of the radical scavenging activity compared to the fruits grown in uncontaminated soil. This study highlighted that, despite the relatively high experimental concentrations of PTEs, their translocation to the edible part was comparatively low or absent.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Bioacumulação , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cromo/farmacocinética , Cromo/toxicidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Itália , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111086, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781345

RESUMO

In the present research, Silene vulgaris as a representative species growing on both unpolluted and heavy metal (HM) polluted terrains were used to identify ecotype-specific responses to metallic stress. Growth, cell ultrastructure and element accumulations were compared between non-metallicolous (NM), calamine (CAL) and serpentine (SER) specimens untreated with HMs and treated with Pb, Cd and Zn ions under in vitro conditions. Moreover, proteins' modifications related to their level, carbonylation and degradations via vacuolar proteases were verified and linked with potential mechanisms to cope with ions toxicity. Our experiment revealed diversified strategy of HM uptake in NM and both metallicolous ecotypes, in which antagonistic relationship of Zn and Pb/Cd ions provided survival benefits for the whole organism. Despite this similarity, growth rate and metabolic pathways induced in CAL and SER shoots varied significantly. Exposition to HMs in CAL culture led to drop in protein level by approximately 16% compared to the control. This parameter nearly correlated with the enhanced activity of proteases at pH 5.2 as well as possible glutamate changes to proline and reduced glutathione, resulting in intensified growth and first signs of cell senescence. In turn, SER shoots were characterized by growth retardation (to 53% of the control), although protein level and carbonylation were not modified, while a deeper insight into protein network showed its remodeling towards production of polyamines and 2-oxoglutarate delivered to the Krebs cycle. Contrary, an uncontrolled HM influx in NM shoots contributed to morpho-structural disorders accompanied by an increase activity of proteases involved in the degradation of oxidized proteins, what pointed to metal-induced autophagy. Taken together, S. vulgaris ecotypes respond to stress by triggering various mechanisms engaged their survival and/or death under HM treatment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Silene/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ecótipo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/metabolismo , Silene/ultraestrutura , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
6.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(3): 140-147, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major portion of lead in the body resides in skeletal system. The bone turnover affects the release of lead into the circulation from bones. The bone turnover biomarkers (BTM) in lead-battery workers with long-term exposure to lead have not been explored yet. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the BTM (formation and resorption) in lead-battery workers with long-term exposure to lead in lead-battery manufacturing plant. METHODS: 176 male lead-exposed workers and 80 matched comparison group were studied. All participants were examined for blood lead levels (BLLs), bone formation biomarkers- serum osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP)-and bone resorption biomarkers-serum pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPYD), tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary hydroxyproline (UHYP). RESULTS: We found a significantly higher bone formation biomarkers such as BALP (p=0.007) and bone resorption biomarkers, eg, PYD (p=0.048), TRCAP-5b (p=0.001), and UHYP (p=0.001) in lead-exposed workers. A significant (p=0.041) negative correlation (ρ ­0.128) was noted between BLLs and OC. A significant positive correlation was noted between BLLs and TRACP-5b (ρ 0.176, p=0.005) and UHYP (ρ 0.258, p=0.004). Serum OC (p=0.040) and UHYP (p=0.015) levels changed significantly with BLL level. Bone resorption biomarkers levels- PYD, TRACP-5b, and BALP-were higher among those with higher BLLs levels. The duration of exposure was significantly associated with BALP (p=0.037), DPYD (p=0.016), TRACP-5b (p=0.001), and UHYP (p=0.002) levels. CONCLUSION: Long-term lead exposure affects the bone turnover.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Chumbo/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fosfatase Ácida/sangue , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Reabsorção Óssea/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Isoenzimas/sangue , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Chumbo/química , Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteocalcina/sangue , Local de Trabalho
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110966, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678755

RESUMO

We studied the effect of the chemical interaction of nutrients and the ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on metals toxicity. Growth inhibition tests of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata by nutrient metals copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), and the non-nutrient metal lead (Pb), were performed. The high-enriched Bold's Basal medium (BBm) and two low-enriched standard media, recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECDm) and Environmental Protection Agency-algal assay procedure medium (AAPm), were used in this study. The metals toxicity was affected by the interaction of nutrients and EDTA. Cu+2 was more toxic in the OECDm (EC50 20.3 µg/L), while Pb+2 (EC50 23.1 µg/L) and Zn+2 (EC50 99.4 µg/L) in the AAPm. Non-toxic effect of these metals was observed in BBm, but the exclusion of EDTA shifted it into a toxic medium. Finally, we found that the toxicity of the studied nutrient metals is mainly influenced by EDTA, which reduced the concentration of ionized metals, while the toxicity of the non-nutrient metal is affected by EDTA and phosphates.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Quelantes/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Bioensaio , Cobre/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Chumbo/toxicidade , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Teóricos , Zinco/toxicidade
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111008, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678766

RESUMO

Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) play vital roles in elimination of hydroperoxide and other reactive oxygen species through catalyzing reduced glutathione to protect from oxidative stress caused by heavy metals such as lead. Among the family of Gpxs, Gpx3 is the only extracellular enzyme synthesized in the kidney and actively secreted into the plasma. This study investigated mechanisms of lead-induced GPx3 inactivation both at the animal and molecular levels. Six-week-old mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, and exposed to different lead concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 g/L) in their drinking water for 4 weeks. Contents of GPx3 in blood serum were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the mRNA levels of Gpx3 in mice nephrocytes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), both of which showed significantly inhibited at higher lead concentrations accompanied by the decreased Gpx3 activities and the elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in nephrocytes, which indicated that lead could induce strongly oxidative stress through affecting Gpx3 function. So we further investigated molecular mechanisms of GPx3 inactivation caused by lead with multiple spectroscopic techniques, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking studies in vitro. Results showed that lead statically quenched GPx3 fluorescence by tightly binding to the structural domain of GPx3 in a 3:1 ratio with high binding affinity (K = 3.1(±0.087) × 107 mol-1). Further investigation of the conformation of GPx3 by UV-visible spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy indicated that lead changed the secondary structure of GPx3 by loosening the GPx3 skeleton and decreasing the hydrophobicity around tryptophan residues. This work proved in vivo and in vitro experiments that lead could induce oxidative stress in mice nephrocytes by interacting with GPx3.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Glutationa Peroxidase/química , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Chumbo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 372-380, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705320

RESUMO

Quantum dots (QDs), such as cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead selenide (PbSe) exhibit excellent optical, magnetic and chemical properties due to their extremely size (ca. 1-10 nm) and are attractive semiconductor nanomaterials for optical studies and energy storage. In this study, aqueous synthesis of CdSe and PbSe QDs in a size range of 2-10 nm was described. Synthesized QDs were characterized using SEM and TEM, DLS, zeta potential, FTIR, EDX and XRD. Highest accumulation (72.5 ± 5.8 mg L-1) of PbSe QDs occurred at 10 ppm suspensions. In general accumulation increased up to 48 h exposure then fluctuate tended to decline. For CdSe QDs, accumulation tended to decrease for 72 h exposure except that for 5 ppm groups. For the elimination period, in general, the elimination levels of PbSe and CdSe QDs from exposed individuals decreased (p < 0.05) even it has some fluctuate.


Assuntos
Artemia/fisiologia , Compostos de Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Compostos de Selênio/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Compostos de Cádmio/farmacologia , Nanoestruturas , Água/química
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140794, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731064

RESUMO

The aquatic sediment acts as a reservoir for multiple sources of pollutants including toxic metals. Most analytical methods used for estimating the bioavailability of sediment heavy metals have not been biologically validated by correlation with an aquatic organism's response. A reliable whole-sediment contacting toxicity assay using vertebrate species is lacking and the exposure routes for sediment metals are unclear. This study established a novel bio-analytical approach involving the Chelex-100 resin detection system and sediment toxicity assessment with embryo-larval stages of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of lead (Pb) contamination in sediment to fish. Treated fish exposed to the Pb-spiked artificial sediment with whole-sediment exposure showed more dose-dependent toxic responses than those from pore- or overlying-water exposure extracted from the same sediment. The Chelex-100 resin-extractable Pb content was highly correlated with mortality, total malformation and Pb bioaccumulation in medaka embryos or hatchlings from Pb-spiked sediment at environmentally relevant concentrations. The environmental sediment with higher contents of clay or organic carbon showed lower potency of releasing Pb from sediment to overlying water, as compared to those observed with artificial sediment. Our results suggest that the bio-analytical method can be practically applied in situ to evaluate the adverse effect of heavy metal-contaminated sediment on the aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryzias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bioensaio , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Poliestirenos , Polivinil
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(1): 41-50, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474622

RESUMO

Molecular biomarkers play an increasing crucial role in evaluating and predicting toxicity of metals. Expressions patterns of genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, immune and inflammation response in the Bufo gargarizans embryo exhibited a development dependent manner. The genes related to oxidative stress (HSP, GPx and SOD) are the first response in the development of embryo, followed by the apoptosis (Bax, BCLAF1 and TRAIL) and inflammation and immune response (SOCS3, IL-27 and IL-17D), respectively. Then, we have verified the HSP, Bax and SOCS3 IL-27 (expressed highest in their respective processes) exhibited the most significant changes in Cd-Pb mixed group compared with control. In addition, we found exposure of Cd-Pb mixed metals causes greater adverse effects than Cd, Pb alone on development and morphology of embryo. Overall, our results provide a useful tool to use the sensitive molecular biomarkers as indicators of developmental toxicity in amphibian embryo.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bufonidae/embriologia , Bufonidae/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(1): 51-61, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561951

RESUMO

Tissue culture of Berula erecta is suitable cultivation system for research purposes connected with contamination and phytoremediation studies. In previous investigation we determined the optimal dose concentration at which Se stimulates plant growth and positively affects the antioxidative status in this experimental system. In current study, we investigate its response to exposure to lead (Pb) and further the possible protective effect of Se(IV) against Pb exposure. Plants were grown in 10 and 50 mg Pb L-1 solution without and with added Se (0.1 mg L-1) for six weeks. Plants possessed a high affinity to uptake Pb and Se in roots. Addition of Pb inhibited roots elongations and the plant height. In contrast, the combined effect of Se + Pb treatment was reflected in increased weight of plants when compared to Pb treatment alone. Pb decreased the amount of chlorophylls and consequently photochemical efficiency was lowered, whereas in Pb + Se treatment the photochemical efficiency was higher. Furthermore, Pb treatment caused a gradual increase in glutathione in both roots and shoots, however, to a greater percentage in shoots when compared to controls. Exposure to both Pb and Se did not cause any significant changes in root's glutathione level when compared to Pb treatment alone. In shoots, the combined treatment lowered the glutathione significantly, but the levels remained 50% above those of untreated control samples, reflecting that this might be related with the antioxidative effects of Se treatment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Apiaceae , Chumbo/toxicidade , Selênio , Biodegradação Ambiental , Glutationa , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(27): 33723-33731, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529628

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is an environmental toxicant; its consumption can induce renal deficits. In this study, we explored the possible protective efficiency of Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) against lead acetate (PbAc)-mediated reprotoxicity. Four experimental groups of seven rats each were used: control, PbAc, MOE, and MOE+PbAc groups. All groups were given their respective treatment for 4 weeks. PbAc impaired the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the renal tissue, as shown by the decreased antioxidant proteins (glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) and increased oxidants (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide). Additionally, PbAc enhanced the progression of kidney inflammation by increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and nuclear factor kappa B associated with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Moreover, a dysregulation in the apoptotic-regulating proteins (Bax, caspase-3, and Bcl2) were recorded upon PbAc exposure. Remarkably, MOE oral administration restored redox homeostasis, suppressed the inflammatory and apoptotic responses in the kidney tissue. Our findings point out that MOE could be used as an alternative remedy to overcome the adverse effects of Pb exposure, which may be due to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Moringa oleifera , Compostos Organometálicos , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127253, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531488

RESUMO

In freshwater species, metal toxicity is usually assessed through short-term exposures, hence limiting the practical usefulness of biomarkers for monitoring long-term impacts on wildlife populations. This study investigates the biological alterations elicited by chronic metallic exposures in Gammarus fossarum using multi-level biomarkers. In aquaria, gammarids were exposed for 10 weeks to field-realistic concentrations of Cd, Cu or Pb (0.25, 1.5 or 5.0 µg/L). At the individual level, behavioural traits (respiration, locomotion and feeding) were compared between naive and chronically-exposed gammarids. At the cellular level, enzymatic activities involved in digestion, moult and cell stress were monitored after 2, 6 and 10 weeks of exposure in males and females to consider the temporal feature of their responses. Results showed that the inhibitory effects of Cd and Pb on respiration and locomotion disappeared in chronically-exposed gammarids, reflecting acclimation to maintain these processes, unlike Cu. Chronic Cu- and Pb-elicited feeding inhibition was associated with the inhibitions of digestion enzymes. Chitobiase was inhibited by Cu in males and, by Cd and Pb in females, suggesting gender-dependent disturbances in moulting. In both genders, Cd generated cellular stress by stimulating acidic phosphatase and peroxidase activities. To conclude, such cellular impairments and alterations in individual performances are likely to disturb individual growth, population dynamics and litter decomposition in the long-term. Besides, obtaining biological responses, common to metals or specific to a metal or a gender, supports the development of biomarkers highlighting long-term impacts of metals on the health of organisms and their associated ecological functions in natural environments.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Monitoramento Biológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Feminino , Água Doce , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 20-26, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569801

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to summarise the available information regarding the partition of toxic metal (Cd, Hg, Mn, Pb) levels in the maternal/foetal unit from large epidemiological studies. We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MedLine, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science for papers on Cd, total Hg, Mn or Pb levels in the maternal/cord blood that were published in English (n > = 200; 2010-2017). Data on year of publication, sample size, location, year of survey, and main results were extracted. We found a total of 35 papers. Most studies included large convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. The maternal/cord blood was properly used as a biomarker of prenatal exposure to toxic metals. The partition of these toxic metal levels in the maternal/foetal unit was metal-specific. Cd median levels (IQR) in cord blood reported worldwide were much lower [∼ 70 % < LOD = ± 0.11 µg/L] than those found in maternal blood [0.23 µg/L (0.15-0.35), ∼ 65 % > LOD]. Considering that Cd was under LOD in 70 % of the cord blood, Cd cord:maternal ratio as well as Cd cord proportion were not provided. Total Hg median levels (IQR) in cord blood [0.75 µg/L (0.40-1.19), ∼30 % < LOD = ±0.35 µg/L] were usually higher than in maternal blood [0.55 µg/L (0.40-0.85), ∼ 10 % < LOD = ±0.15 µg/L]. Hg cord:maternal ratio was 1.34 (1.00-1.91), and infants born would have Hg cord:(cord + maternal) proportion ranged from 0.50 to 0.63. Mn was the only metal that was detected in 100 % in both maternal (LOD : ±0.50 µg/L) and cord (LOD = ±0.2 µg/L) blood. Mn median levels (IQR) in cord blood [32.96 µg/L (26.90-40.10)] were 2 times higher than in maternal blood [14.01 µg/L (11.50-17.58)]. Mn cord:maternal ratio was 2.35 (1.09-3.80), and infants born would have Mn proportion ranged from 0.52 to 0.79. Pb median levels (IQR) in cord blood [5.79 µg/L (4.34-8.38), ∼ 5% < LOD : ±2.07 µg/L] were usually equal to or lower than those reported in maternal blood [8.07 µg/L (5.79-10.76), ∼ 1% < LOD = ±1.03 µg/L]. Pb cord:maternal ratio was 0.71 (0.59-0.96), and infants born would have Pb proportion ranged from 0.37 to 0.49. Globally, the results indicate that total Hg and Mn levels were lower in maternal blood but higher in cord blood. However, much greater variability was seen with Cd and Pb. At delivery, total Hg and Pb levels in maternal blood were strong predictors of cord blood levels. Our findings empty that understanding the partition, levels and correlations of toxic metals in the maternal/cord blood may help to elucidate the adverse effects of these metals on foetuses and neonates.


Assuntos
Estudos Epidemiológicos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/epidemiologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Adulto , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Manganês/farmacocinética , Manganês/toxicidade , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Gravidez
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105479, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417751

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a toxic environmental pollutant that is frequently present in effluents from urban, mining, and industrial sources. The combinatorial effects of heavy metal exposure and temperature in aquatic organisms have received considerable attention as heat stress occurs simultaneously in conjunction with several contaminants in a natural environment. In this study, we examined the potential effects of Pb exposure in conditions of thermal stress (34 °C) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Thermal stress at 34 °C induced a dramatic decrease in the survival rate, although exposure to Pb at 26 °C decreased the survival rate of the embryos. Malformations, such as the curved body shape, were increased in response to exposure to a combination of Pb and heat stress. The combination of Pb and heat stress also caused a decrease in the heart rate. Moreover, Pb and high-temperature exposure induced the upregulation of SOD, CAT, TNF-α, IL-1ß, p53, and BAX transcripts, and downregulation of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b transcripts. Thermal stress enhanced transcriptional responses of eight indicator genes following Pb toxicity. The induction of cell death in response to combined exposures was also confirmed in the body of zebrafish by fluorescence intensity image analysis. These data indicated that thermal stress enhanced the poisonous effects of Pb exposure on antioxidant defense, inflammation, and apoptotic mechanisms. Transcriptional inhibition of DNA methylation-related genes might serve as a crucial factor contributing to the possibility of epigenetic adaptation by altering combined stress. We suggest that a careful evaluation of the potential effects of climate change (especially temperature) should be considered when investigating the toxic levels of metal pollution, such as Pb, in an aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/imunologia , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/imunologia , Temperatura Alta , Inflamação , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126839, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361016

RESUMO

Due to their large range across diverse habitats, flying-foxes are potential bioindicator species for environmental metal exposure. To test this hypothesis, blood spots, urine, fur, liver and kidney samples were collected from grey-headed flying-foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) and black flying-foxes (P. alecto) from the Sydney basin, Australia. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc and 11 other trace metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As predicted, kidney and fur lead concentrations were lower compared to concentrations found in flying-foxes in the early 1990's, due to reduced environmental lead emissions. Tissue cadmium concentrations in flying-foxes were higher compared to previous studies of flying-foxes and other bat species, suggesting that flying-foxes were exposed to unrecognized cadmium sources. Identification of these sources should be a focus of future research. Urine concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead were proportional to kidney concentrations. Given that urine can be collected from flying-foxes without handling, this demonstrates that many flying-foxes can be assessed for metal exposure with relative ease. The analysis of blood spots was not viable because of variable metal concentrations in the filter paper used. Fur concentrations of metals correlated poorly with tissue concentrations at the low levels of metals found in this study, but fur could still be a useful sample if flying-foxes are exposed to high levels of metals. Lastly, heat inactivation had minimal impact on metal concentrations in kidney and liver samples and should be considered as a tool to protect personnel working with biohazardous samples.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Ambientais/fisiologia , Chumbo/metabolismo , Animais , Austrália , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Chumbo/toxicidade
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 330, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372388

RESUMO

The present study investigated the acute (72 h) and sub-acute (14 days) toxicity of mercury, lead, and cadmium to the green microalga, Nannochloropsis oculata. The acute toxicity testing was conducted according to the modified OECD guideline (No. 201). The 72-h IC50 values of Hg, Pb, and Cd exposed to N. oculata were 0.87, 1.81, and 4.97 mg/L, respectively. These results showed that mercury is about twice as toxic as lead and about 5.7 times more toxic than cadmium to this marine microalga. Lead is about 2.7 times more toxic than cadmium. The chlorophyll a content of the microalga decreased in the 10th and 14th days of the sub-acute toxicity test. Although the carotenoid content increased following exposure to the low levels of tested heavy metals (which may show the protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress), with increased exposure time the total carotenoid reduced compared to control. A regular monitoring program to examine the level of metals in the aquatic ecosystem for protecting microalgae should be implemented.


Assuntos
Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Microalgas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cádmio/toxicidade , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stunting is an indicator of poor linear growth in children and is an important public health problem in many countries. Both nutritional deficits and toxic exposures can contribute to lower height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ < -2). OBJECTIVES: In a community-based cross-sectional sample of 97 healthy children ages 6-59 months in Kampala, Uganda, we examined whether exposure to Pb, As, Cd, Se, or Zn were associated with HAZ individually or as a mixture. METHODS: Blood samples were analyzed for a mixture of metals, which represent both toxins and essential nutrients. The association between HAZ and metal exposure was tested using multivariable linear regression and Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression, which uses mixtures of correlated exposures as a predictor. RESULTS: There were 22 stunted children in the sample, mean HAZ was -0.74 (SD = 1.84). Linear regression showed that Pb (ß = -0.80, p = 0.021) and Se (ß = 1.92, p = 0.005) were significantly associated with HAZ. The WQS models separated toxic elements with a presumed negative effect on HAZ (Pb, As, Cd) from essential nutrients with presumed positive effect on HAZ (Se and Zn). The toxic mixture was significantly associated with lower HAZ (ß = -0.47, p = 0.03), with 62% of the effect from Pb. The nutrient WQS index did not reach statistical significance (ß = -0.47, p = 0.16). DISCUSSION: Higher blood lead and lower blood selenium level were both associated with lower HAZ. The significant associations by linear regression were reinforced by the WQS models, although not all associations reached statistical significance. These findings suggest that healthy children in this neighborhood of Kampala, Uganda, who have a high burden of toxic exposures, may experience detrimental health effects associated with these exposures in an environment where exposure sources are not well characterized.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Metais/toxicidade , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/toxicidade , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Selênio/sangue , Uganda , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/toxicidade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433709

RESUMO

Hearing loss is the second most common nonfatal problem affecting the Chinese population. Historical studies have suggested an association between exposure to heavy metals, such as cadmium and lead, and hearing loss. Few studies have investigated this relationship in the general population in China. We conducted a case-control study with 1008 pairs of participants from a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted in Zhejiang Province. A self-designed questionnaire was adopted to collect information on demographics, chronic diseases, lifestyles and environmental noise. Pure-tone averages of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed. Blood lead and cadmium levels were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrometer. After adjusting for all other potential confounding factors, compared with the lowest blood cadmium quartile (0.00-0.53 µg/L), blood cadmium quartile 2 (0.54-0.92 µg/L), quartile 3 (0.93-1.62 µg/L) and quartile 4 (1.63-57.81 µg/L) exhibited significantly elevated risks for hearing loss, with odds ratios of 1.932 (95% CI: 1.356-2.751), 2.036 (95% CI: 1.423-2.914) and 1.495 (95% CI: 1.048-2.133), respectively (P-trend<0.001). However, an association of lead with hearing loss was not found. Young age (less than 60 years), male sex and current smoking were associated with increased blood cadmium concentration. Additionally, a positive association between blood cadmium and lead concentrations was found. Therefore, we conclude that exposure to environmental cadmium may be a risk factor for hearing loss among the general population in China.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Perda Auditiva , Chumbo/toxicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/sangue , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
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