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1.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119062, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231537

RESUMO

Lead is a metal that exists naturally in the Earth's crust and is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. The alleviation of lead toxicity is important to keep human health under lead exposure. Biosynthesized selenium nanoparticle (SeNPs) and selenium-enriched Lactobacillus rhamnosus SHA113 (Se-LRS) were developed in this study, and their potentials in alleviating lead-induced injury to the liver and intestinal tract were evaluated in mice by oral administration for 4 weeks. As results, oral intake of lead acetate (150 mg/kg body weight per day) caused more than 50 times and 100 times lead accumulation in blood and the liver, respectively. Liver function was seriously damaged by the lead exposure, which is indicated as the significantly increased lipid accumulation in the liver, enhanced markers of liver function injury in serum, and occurrence of oxidative stress in liver tissues. Serious injury in intestinal tract was also found under lead exposure, as shown by the decrease of intestinal microbiota diversity and occurrence of oxidative stress. Except the lead content in blood and the liver were lowered by 52% and 58%, respectively, oral administration of Se-LRS protected all the other lead-induced injury markers to the normal level. By the comparison with the effects of normal L. rhamnosus SHA113 and the SeNPs isolated from Se-LRS, high protective effects of Se-LRS can be explained as the extremely high efficiency to promote lead excretion via feces by forming insoluble mixture. These findings illustrate the developed selenium-enriched L. rhamnosus can efficiently protect the liver and intestinal tract from injury by lead.


Assuntos
Enteropatias , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Selênio , Animais , Chumbo/toxicidade , Fígado , Camundongos , Selênio/farmacologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15305, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097036

RESUMO

Compared with the relatively well-investigated effects of childhood exposure to lead on neurocognitive deficits, those of prenatal exposure remain relatively inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal blood lead levels and neurodevelopmental delay during the first three years of life. From a prospective cohort of the Japan Environment and Children's Study, we analyzed a total of 80,759 children. The exposure factors were prenatal lead concentrations measured from maternal whole blood in the second/third trimesters and umbilical cord blood at birth. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months old using a screening tool, the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, third edition (ASQ). The outcome measures were any suspected neurodevelopmental delay (sNDD) identified via the ASQ during the first (sNDD-1Y), second (sNDD-2Y), and third (sNDD-3Y) years of life. sNDD-1Y, 2Y, and 3Y were identified in 18.0%, 16.2%, and 17.2% of children, respectively. The geometric means of blood lead concentration in this study were much lower (0.62 µg/dL in maternal blood and 0.50 µg/dL in cord blood) than previously investigated levels. Multivariable regression models revealed that there were no associations between maternal blood lead and sNDD-1Y and 2Y and between cord blood lead and sNDD-1Y, 2Y, and 3Y. Although a higher maternal blood lead was associated with a reduced risk of sNDD-3Y (adjusted relative risk: 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.94, per 1 increase in common logarithm of lead concentration), there were no dose-response relationships in the analysis using quintiles of lead concentrations. Using a large-scale data set, the present study demonstrated no convincing evidence for an inverse association between levels of prenatal blood lead and neurodevelopment in early childhood. Longitudinal measurements of prenatal and postnatal lead levels are needed to understand the relationship between lead exposure and neurocognitive development.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076969

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is an important raw material for modern industrial production, they enter the aquatic environment in several ways and cause serious harm to aquatic ecosystems. Lead ions (Pb2+) are highly toxic and can accumulate continuously in organisms. In addition to causing biological deaths, it can also cause neurological damage in vertebrates. Our experiment found that Pb2+ caused decreased survival, delayed hatching, decreased frequency of voluntary movements at 24 hpf, increased heart rate at 48 hpf and increased malformation rate in zebrafish embryos. Among them, the morphology of spinal malformations varied, with 0.4 mg/L Pb2+ causing a dorsal bending of the spine of 72 hpf zebrafish and a ventral bending in 120 hpf zebrafish. It was detected that spinal malformations were mainly caused by Pb2+-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. The genetic changes in somatic segment development which disrupted developmental polarity as well as osteogenesis, resulting in uneven myotomal development. In contrast, calcium ions can rescue the series of responses induced by lead exposure and reduce the occurrence of spinal curvature. This article proposes new findings of lead pollution toxicity in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113829, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068756

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring heavy metal, which can damage the brain and affect learning and memory. Sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, can readily cross the blood-brain barrier. Our previous studies have found that PAS-Na alleviated Pb-induced hippocampal ultrastructural damage and neurodegeneration, but the mechanism has yet to be defined. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that mediate Pb-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons, and the efficacy of PAS-Na in alleviating its effects. This work showed that juvenile developmental Pb exposure impaired rats cognitive ability by inducing apoptotic cell death in hippocampal neurons. Pb-induced neuronal apoptosis was accompanied by increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) expression and enhanced intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i levels, which resulted in increased phosphorylation of neuronal apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and p38. Activation of ASK1 and p38 was blocked by IP3R inhibitor and a Ca2+ chelator. Importantly, PAS-Na treatment improved the Pb-induced effects on cognitive deficits in rats, concomitant with rescued neuronal apoptosis. In addition, PAS-Na reduced the expression of IP3R and the ensuing increase in intracellular Ca2+ and decreased the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 in Pb-exposed neurons. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the IP3R-Ca2+-ASK1-p38 signaling pathway mediates Pb-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons, and that PAS-Na, at a specific dose-range, ameliorates these changes. Collectively, this study sheds novel light on the cellular mechanisms that mediate PAS-Na efficacy, laying the groundwork for future research to examine the treatment potential of PAS-Na upon Pb poisoning.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminossalicílico , Ácido Aminossalicílico/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Hipocampo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Sódio
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113852, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068768

RESUMO

Contamination of agro-ecosystems with heavy metals can affect the development and reproduction of insect natural enemies. This study reports a detailed Tandem Mass Tag based quantitative proteomic analysis of underlying mechanisms responsible for stress response of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri against heavy metals (cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)) transported across a multi-trophic food chain. A total of 6639 proteins were detected under Cd as well as Pb stress. In Pb versus the control cluster, 69 proteins (28 up-regulated and 41 down-regulated) were differentially expressed whereas 268 proteins were differentially expressed under Cd versus the control cluster, having 198 proteins up-regulated and 70 down-regulated proteins. The analysis of differentially expressed proteins showed that 27 proteins overlapped in both clusters representing the core proteome to Pb and Cd stress. The bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that these proteins were mapped to 57 and 99 pathways in Pb versus control and Cd versus control clusters, respectively. The functional classification by COG, GO and KEGG databases showed significant changes in protein expression by C. montrouzieri under Pb and Cd stress. The heavy metal stress (Pb and Cd) induced significant changes in expression of proteins like hexokinase (HK), succinyl-CoA, trypsin like proteins, cysteine proteases, cell division cycle proteins, and yellow gene proteins. The results provide detailed information on the protein expression levels of C. montrouzieri and will serve as basic information for future proteomic studies on heavy metal responses of insect predators within a multi-trophic food chain.


Assuntos
Besouros , Metais Pesados , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Besouros/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Insetos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Proteômica
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273572, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037158

RESUMO

Current estimates of terrestrial bird losses across Europe from ingestion of lead ammunition are based on uncertain or generic assumptions. A method is needed to develop defensible European-specific estimates compatible with available data that does not require long-term field studies. We propose a 2-step method using carcass data and population models. The method estimates percentage of deaths diagnosed as directly caused by lead poisoning as a lower bound and, as an upper bound, the percentage of possible deaths from sublethal lead poisoning that weakens birds, making them susceptible to death by other causes. We use these estimates to modify known population-level annual mortality. Our method also allows for potential reductions in reproduction from lead shot ingestion because reductions in survival and reproduction are entered into population models of species with life histories representative of the most groups of susceptible species. The models estimate the sustainability and potential population decreases from lead poisoning in Europe. Using the best available data, we demonstrate the method on two taxonomic groups of birds: gallinaceous birds and diurnal raptors. The direction of the population trends affects the estimate, and we incorporated such trends into the method. Our midpoint estimates of the reduction in population size of the European gallinaceous bird (< 2%) group and raptor group (2.9-7.7%) depend on the species life history, maximum growth rate, population trend, and if reproduction is assumed to be reduced. Our estimates can be refined as more information becomes available in countries with data gaps. We advocate use of this method to improve upon or supplement approaches currently being used. As we demonstrate, the method also can be applied to individual species of concern if enough data across countries are available.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/veterinária , Dinâmica Populacional
8.
Sci Prog ; 105(3): 368504221122364, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002948

RESUMO

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is cultivated and consumed worldwide, including in Indonesia. It is used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries, due to its high content of carotenoid (lycopene) compounds that have antioxidant and anticancer activities. In Indonesia, although several cultivars of tomato are cultivated, including Opal, Permata, Mutiara, and Rewako, studies on their genetic information are limited. Unpredicted climate change as well as heavy metal contamination, especially Pb pollution, has threatened Indonesian food security. Therefore, our study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of the four local tomatoes using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and to determine the growth responses of several local tomato genotypes under Pb stress. In this study, morphological responses to Pb, including plant height and root length were observed. The RAPD analysis showed that Rewako and Permata were distinct, whereas Opal and Mutiara were closely related, possessing 81.8% similarity. Pb stress influenced plant height and root length in the four tomato genotypes, with each genotype exhibiting different morphological responses than others. However, the closely related Mutiara and Opal genotypes demonstrated similar responses to Pb stress to Permata and Rewako. Our study demonstrates that RAPD are sensitive and efficient for elucidating the genomic profile of the tomato genotypes. In addition, our results suggest that genetic variation among tomato genotypes might influence the morphological responses against Pb stress.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Indonésia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
9.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 2): 113920, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921908

RESUMO

Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT) is a helpful and sensitive methodology to evaluate the effect of metal pollution in soils using microorganisms as indicators. PICT was used to determine the increase of bacterial community tolerance to Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (Δlog IC50), and to assess the influence of soil properties on the development of bacterial community tolerance to Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Soil samples showed a wide range of properties, such as pH (3.96-7.47), texture (13.8-31.7% clay) or organic matter (9.7-30.7%). Bacterial growth measured by the [3H]-leucine incorporation method was used as the PICT endpoint. Bacterial communities generally developed tolerance in response to Cu, Ni and Zn additions to soils. However, bacterial communities showed no tolerance to Pb, probably due to high Pb sorption in studied soils. Soil properties influenced the development of bacterial community tolerance to Cu, Ni and Zn. Effective cation exchange and a soil sorption parameter (Freundlich's linearity index) were the selected variables to estimate Δlog IC50 to Cu (R2 = 0.65). Clay content and Ni-soluble are the main factors to estimate Δlog IC50 to Ni (R2 = 0.63). Organic matter content and a sorption parameter (maximum sorption capacity of the soil from Langmuir equation) are the soil properties to estimate Δlog IC50 to Zn (R2 = 0.45). Most of the variables exerted their effect in soil, i.e. PICT selection phase. However, clay content affected bacterial community tolerance determination (PICT detection phase), leading to overestimated measurements of bacterial community tolerance.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Argila , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/análise , Zinco/toxicidade
10.
J Inorg Biochem ; 235: 111950, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931012

RESUMO

The human-induced lead (Pb) contamination brings about serious environmental issues around the world and it also poses severe risks to wildlife including birds. Avian thymus is one of primary lymphoid organs and it plays an important role in regulating T cell-based cellular immunity. Therefore, in this study, we tried to examine toxic effects and potential molecular mechanism of Pb on avian thymus using a biological model species-Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). One-week-old Japanese quails were exposed to 0, 50, 500 and 1000 ppm Pb concentrations in drinking water for three weeks when thymus reached developmental climax. The results showed body weight, thymus weight and thymic size were reduced significantly by Pb exposure. Meanwhile, histopathological changes including vacuolation, cortex atrophy and nuclear debris were detected in thymic cells of Pb exposure. In addition, ultrastructural alterations such as mitochondrial damage, chromatin condensation, and nuclear destruction were found in the thymus of Pb treatments. The increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the inhibition of antioxidant system indicated that Pb exposure caused oxidative damages in the thymus. Pb exposure also increased thymic cell apoptosis. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis revealed that thymic functional pathways were disrupted by Pb exposure. Especially, Pb exposure disturbed T cell differentiation and led to T helper type 1 (Th1) /T helper type 2 (Th2) imbalance by interfering with T cell receptor signaling and cytokine signaling. This study implied that Pb caused thymic immunosuppression through causing morphological deformation, structural destruction, oxidation and molecular signaling disruption.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Tolerância Imunológica , Chumbo , Timo , Animais , Coturnix/imunologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/fisiopatologia
11.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(7): 1068-1077, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006498

RESUMO

Old lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mining sites in Greenland have increased the environmental concentration of Pb in local marine organisms, including the shorthorn sculpin. Organ metal concentrations and histopathology have been used in environmental monitoring programs to evaluate metal exposure and subsequent effects in shorthorn sculpins. So far, no study has reported the impact of heavy metals on gene expression involved in metal-related stress and immune responses in sculpins. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to environmentally relevant waterborne Pb (0.73 ± 0.35 µg/L) on hepatic gene expression of metallothionein (mt), immunoglobulin M (igm), and microRNAs (miRNAs; mir132 and mir155) associated with immune responses in the shorthorn sculpin compared to a control group. The mt and igm expression were upregulated in the Pb-exposed group compared to the control group. The transcripts of mir132 and mir155 were not different in sculpins between the Pb-exposed and control group; however, miRNA levels were significantly correlated with Pb liver concentrations. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between liver Pb concentrations and igm, and a positive relationship between igm and mir155. The results indicate that exposure to Pb similar to those concentrations reported in in marine waters around Greenland Pb-Zn mine sites influences the mt and immune responses in shorthorn sculpins. This is the first study to identify candidate molecular markers in the shorthorn sculpins exposed to waterborne environmentally relevant Pb suggesting mt and igm as potential molecular markers of exposure to be applied in future assessments of the marine environment near Arctic mining sites.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Perciformes , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Imunoglobulina M , Chumbo/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/genética , Mineração
12.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014775

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element required for normal development as well as to counteract the adverse effects of environmental stressors. Conditions of low Se intake are present in some European countries. Our aim was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of early-life low Se supply on behavior and synaptic plasticity with a focus on the hippocampus, considering both suboptimal Se intake per se and its interaction with developmental exposure to lead (Pb). We established an animal model of Se restriction and low Pb exposure; female rats fed with an optimal (0.15 mg/kg) or suboptimal (0.04 mg/kg) Se diet were exposed from one month pre-mating until the end of lactation to 12.5 µg/mL Pb via drinking water. In rat offspring, the assessment of motor, emotional, and cognitive endpoints at different life stages were complemented by the evaluation of the expression and synaptic distribution of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits at post-natal day (PND) 23 and 70 in the hippocampus. Suboptimal Se intake delayed the achievement of developmental milestones and induced early and long-term alterations in motor and emotional abilities. Behavioral alterations were mirrored by a drop in the expression of the majority of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits analyzed at PND 23. The suboptimal Se status co-occurring with Pb exposure induced a transient body weight increase and persistent anxiety-like behavior. From the molecular point of view, we observed hippocampal alterations in NMDA (Glun2B and GluN1) and AMPA receptor subunit trafficking to the post-synapse in male rats only. Our study provides evidence of potential Se interactions with Pb in the developing brain.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Hipocampo , Chumbo , Receptores de Glutamato , Selênio , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , N-Metilaspartato/farmacologia , Ratos , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo , Selênio/deficiência , Selênio/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 243: 113968, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981483

RESUMO

Effects of vitamin C supplementation on the oral bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) present in contaminated soils were examined using a number of in vitro assays (PBET, SBRC, UBM and IVG). In the presence of vitamin C, an increase in Pb bioaccessibility was observed in the gastric phase by 1.3-fold (30.5%-85.5%) and in the intestinal phase by 3.1-fold (0.9%-58.9%). Lead mobilization was regulated by reductive dissolution of Fe(III) and sequestration of Pb on secondary Fe minerals. Sequential extraction by the Bureau Community of Reference (BCR) provided more evidence that reducible fraction and residual fraction were major contributor of gastric Pb bioaccessibility, as well as reduced fractions in intestinal Pb bioaccessibility. In addition, higher non-carcinogenic risks may occur based on target hazard quotient (THQ ≥ 1). For people exposed to Pb present in soil, the management of vitamin C supplements is of serious concern.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Ácido Ascórbico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Compostos Férricos , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 243: 113966, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981484

RESUMO

Generally, individual microplastics (MPs) or lead (Pb) exposure could initiate ovarian toxicity. However, their combined effects on the ovary and its mechanism in mammals remained unclear. Female C57BL/6 mice were used in this study to investigate the combined ovarian toxicity of polystyrene MPs (PS-MPs, 0.1 mg/d/mouse) and Pb (1 g/L) for 28 days. Results showed that co-exposure to PS-MPs and Pb increased the accumulation of Pb in ovaries, the histopathological damage in ovaries and uterus, the serum malondialdehyde levels and decreased serum superoxide dismutase and sex hormone levels significantly when compared with single PS-MPs and Pb exposure. These observations indicated that co-exposure exerted more severe toxicity to mouse ovaries and uterus. Furthermore, co-exposure to PS-MPs and Pb caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by activating the PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway in the ovary, which resulted in apoptosis. However, the oxidative and ovarian damage were alleviated, and the mRNA levels of genes related to the PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway were down-regulated to levels of the control mice in the PS-MPs and Pb co-exposed mice administered with ER stress inhibitor (Salubrinal, Sal) or the antioxidant (N-acetyl-cysteine, NAC). In conclusion, our findings suggested that the combination of PS-MPs and Pb aggravated ovarian toxicity in mice by inducing oxidative stress and activating the PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway, thereby providing a basis for future studies into the combined toxic mechanism of PS-MPs and Pb in mammals.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poliestirenos , Animais , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Feminino , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovário/metabolismo , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 243: 113960, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985200

RESUMO

Hydrangea is a potential remediation plant for lead (Pb) pollution. Plant roots communicate with soil through the release of root exudates. It is crucial to study rhizoremediation mechanisms to understand the response of root exudates to contamination stress. Here, we investigated the physiological responses and metabolomic profiling of two Hydrangea species, a horticultural cultivar (Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser.) and a wild type (Hydrangea strigosa Rehd.), under Pb-free and Pb-stressed conditions for 50 days. The results showed that Pb treatment adversely affected the biomass and root growth of the two species. H. strigosa was a Pb-tolerant species with higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and more ascorbic acid (AsA) content in roots. Metabolomic profiling showed that 181 and 169 compounds were identified in H. macrophylla and H. strigosa root exudates, respectively, among which 18 showed significant differences between H. macrophylla and H. strigosa under Pb exposure. H. strigosa showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher secretion of sucrose, glycolic acid, and nonanoic acid than H. macrophylla after Pb treatment. Pb stress promoted fatty acid metabolism in H. strigosa, suppressed amino acid metabolism in H. macrophylla, and promoted a higher carbohydrate metabolism in H. strigosa compared with H. macrophylla. This study provides a possible mechanism for the high Pb absorption potential of Hydrangea.


Assuntos
Hydrangea , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Hydrangea/química , Hydrangea/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Solo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954199

RESUMO

Many species of the Viola L. genus (violets) colonize areas with high concentrations of trace elements in the soil, e.g., nickel, cadmium, zinc, and lead. Although tolerance to heavy metals is a common phenomenon in violets, it is not clear whether this is the result of gradual microevolutionary processes as a part of the adaptation to the specific conditions, or whether the tolerance was inherited from the ancestor(s). We developed cell suspension cultures of five plant species: two non-metallophytes-Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) and Viola · wittrockiana, and three metallophytes-V. philippica, V. tricolor, and Silene vulgaris subsp. humilis for tolerance tests. The aim of the study was to measure the level of tolerance of violets in comparison with species from the other genera to verify the hypothesis of the high, innate tolerance of the former. We measured cell viability, non-enzymatic antioxidant content, and the accumulation of heavy metals after cell treatment with Zn or Pb. The results indicate they are innate and independent on the ecological status (metallophyte vs. non-metallophyte) and high in comparison with other species tolerance to Zn and Pb in violets. Viability of the cells after Zn and Pb (1000 µM) exposure for 72 h was the highest in violets. Antioxidant content, after heavy metal treatment, increased significantly, particularly in metallophyte violets, indicating their high responsivity to metals. In all species, lead was detected in the protoplasm of the cells, not in the vacuole or cell wall. All violets were characterized by the accumulation capacity of lead. Here, we clearly show that the physiological and biochemical studies conducted with the use of heavy metals on plant cells translate into the heavy metal tolerance of the species.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Viola , Antioxidantes , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo/química , Viola/fisiologia , Zinco
17.
Kidney360 ; 3(7): 1191-1196, 2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919521

RESUMO

Background: The consequences of low levels of environmental heavy metal exposure, as found widely in the United States, in those with impaired renal function remain underexplored. Methods: We examined the cross-sectional association of indices of renal function with lead and cadmium levels in blood and urine among National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants. We used the 1999-2002 cycle, which included measures of cystatin C, in order to quantify renal function most precisely and defined chronic kidney disease (CKD) as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Results: In weighted and adjusted analyses of 5638 participants, lead levels were 0.23 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.42) µg/dl higher among participants with CKD, and 0.05 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.09) µg/dL higher per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 lower eGFR. Cadmium levels were 0.02 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.03) µg/L higher per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 lower eGFR. Black race significantly modified the association of lower eGFR with higher circulating lead levels (P interaction <0.001). A 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 lower eGFR was associated with a 0.13 (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.21) µg/dl higher lead level among Black participants compared with 0.03 (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.11) µg/dl higher level among White participants. Among the 1852 participants with urinary metal measurements, despite higher circulating levels, those with CKD had significantly lower urinary lead levels (-0.16 [95% CI, -0.30 to -0.01] ng/ml) and urinary lead/creatinine ratios (-0.003 [95% CI, -0.004 to -0.001]). Conclusions: CKD is associated with higher blood lead levels, particularly among Blacks, and simultaneously, lower urinary lead levels, consistent with the hypothesis that CKD confers a state of heighted susceptibility to heavy metal environmental exposure by reducing its elimination. Given that low levels of exposure remain highly prevalent in the United States, further efforts to protect patients with CKD from heavy metal toxicity may be warranted.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/complicações , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Biotechnol ; 356: 42-50, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914618

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of the exogenous application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and iron sulfate (FeSO4) upon the phytochemical mechanisms of fenugreek grown under Pb-excess (2000 mg L-1 PbCl2). The results showed that chemical additives of EDTA and IAA as well as FeSO4 improved fenugreek germination parameters. The radicle length and the amylase activity were significantly improved under IAA treatment compared to EDTA and FeSO4. Exogenous FeSO4 was more effective to improving growth parameters. Moreover, the decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was noted under all chemical additives especially under IAA application. In addition, it was more effective than EDTA and Fe in increasing catalase, glutathione (GSH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), flavonoids and phenols while the increment superoxide dismutase (SOD) production was more pronounced under EDTA addition to Pb than other chelators. HPLC analysis revealed that the gallic was the major phenol produced under all chelators addition especially with IAA. In addition, the syringic acid was only produced with exogenous IAA while the quercetin was only detected under EDTA addition. Our results exhibited a higher IAA efficiency than EDTA and FeSO4 in mitigating Pb stress in fenugreek through up-regulated mechanisms of the antioxidant system for reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) activities and enhancing special phenols.


Assuntos
Trigonella , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Quelantes/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11937, 2022 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879375

RESUMO

Early life lead (Pb) exposure is detrimental to neurobehavioral development. The quality of the environment can modify negative influences from Pb exposure, impacting the developmental trajectory following Pb exposure. Little is known about the molecular underpinnings in the brain of the interaction between Pb and the quality of the environment. We examined relationships between early life Pb exposure and living in an enriched versus a non-enriched postnatal environment on genome-wide transcription profiles in hippocampus CA1. RNA-seq identified differences in the transcriptome of enriched vs. non-enriched Pb-exposed animals. Most of the gene expression changes associated with Pb exposure were reversed by enrichment. This was also true for changes in upstream regulators, splicing events and long noncoding RNAs. Non-enriched rats also had memory impairments; enriched rats had no deficits. The results demonstrate that an enriched environment has a profound impact on behavior and the Pb-modified CA1 transcriptome. These findings show the potential for interactions between Pb exposure and the environment to result in significant transcriptional changes in the brain and, to the extent that this may occur in Pb-exposed children, could influence neuropsychological/educational outcomes, underscoring the importance for early intervention and environmental enrichment for Pb-exposed children.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Encéfalo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Ratos
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129675, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907285

RESUMO

Microbial-induced phosphate (P) precipitation (MIPP) based on P-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) is regarded as a promising approach to bioimmobilize environmental lead (Pb). Nevertheless, the underlying changes of Pb2+ biotoxicity in PSM during MIPP process were rarely discussed. The current study explored the Pb2+ immobilization and metabolic changes in PSM Penicillium oxalicum postexposure to Pb2+ and/or tricalcium phosphate (TCP). TCP addition significantly increased soluble P concentrations, accelerated extracellular Pb mineralization, and improved antioxidative enzyme activities in P. oxalicum during MIPP process. Secondary Pb2+ biomineralization products were measured as hydroxypyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2]. Using untargeted metabolomic and transcriptomics, we found that Pb2+ exposure stimulated the membrane integrity deterioration and nucleotide metabolism obstruction of P. oxalicum. Correspondingly, P. oxalicum could produce higher levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to enhance the adaptive cellular machineries under Pb2+ stress. While the MIPP process improved extracellular Pb2+ mineralization, consequently alleviating the nucleotide metabolism inhibition and membrane deterioration. Multi-omics results suggested that GABA degradation pathway was stimulated for arginine biosynthesis and TCA cycle after Pb2+ mineralization. These results provided new biomolecular information underlying the Pb2+ exposure biotoxicities to microorganisms in MIPP before the application of this approach in environmental Pb2+ remediation.


Assuntos
Penicillium , Fosfatos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Penicillium/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Solo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
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