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1.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120850, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583384

RESUMO

Climate change and urbanization contribute to the increased frequency of short-duration intense rainstorms. Traditional solutions often involve multiple scenarios for cost-effectiveness comparison, neglecting the rationality of placement conditions. The effective coupling and coordination of the location, number, size, and cost of storage tanks are crucial to addressing this issue. A three-phase approach is proposed to enhance the dynamic link between drainage pipeline and storage tanks in urban high-density built-up areas, integrating Python language, SWMM, the Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-III), and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods. In the first stage, each node within the pipeline network is considered as a potential storage tank location. In the second stage, factors such as the length and diameter of the upstream connecting pipeline, as well as the suitability of the storage tank location, are assessed. In the third stage, the length and diameter of the downstream connecting pipeline node are evaluated. The results show that the 90 overflow nodes (overflow time >0.5h) have been cleared using the three-phase approach with a 50a (duration = 3h) return period as the rainfall scenario, which meets the flooding limitations. After the completion of the three-phase method configuration, the total overflow and SS loads were reduced by 96.45% and 49.30%, respectively, compared to the status quo conditions. These two indicators have decreased by 48.16 and 9.05%, respectively, compared to the first phase (the traditional method of only replacing all overflow nodes with storage tanks). The proposed framework enables decision-makers to evaluate the acceptability and reliability of the optimal management plan, taking into account their preferences and uncertainties.


Assuntos
Inundações , Chuva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Simulação por Computador , Urbanização
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299771, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593139

RESUMO

Niger is highly vulnerable to rainfall variability, often with adverse socioeconomic consequences. This study examined observed subseasonal rainfall variability during Niger's monsoon season (May to September). Using k-means clustering of dekadal (ten-day) rainfall, a typology was developed for the annual evolution of the monsoon season. Year-to-year rainfall variability for each of the first few dekads of the season is modest, but the middle, or peak of the rainy season demonstrates large interannual variability. Clustering analysis of annual timeseries for each dekad of the season revealed two types of monsoon progression. The distinction between the two types is strongly dependent on differences during the latter half of the season. For the first and third ten-day periods in August, and the first ten days in September, the two groups of years are more distinct. These results imply that while reliable prediction of the timing of anomalous onsets will be challenging, due to the relatively narrow range of uncertainty historically, there are opportunities for further exploration of dynamic and or statistical predictors or precursors using this typology that could potentially provide better information for decision-makers, especially with respect to agriculture.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Chuva , Níger , Estações do Ano
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(6): 1512-1525, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557715

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the differences in intra-urban catchments with different characteristics through real-time wastewater monitoring. Monitoring stations were installed in three neighbourhoods of Barcelona to measure flow, total chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, conductivity, temperature, and bisulfide (HS-) for 1 year. Typical wastewater profiles were obtained for weekdays, weekends, and holidays in the summer and winter seasons. The results reveal differences in waking up times and evening routines, commuting behaviour during weekends and holidays, and water consumption. The pollutant profiles contribute to a better understanding of pollution generation in households and catchment activities. Flows and COD correlate well at all stations, but there are differences in conductivity and HS- at the station level. The article concludes by discussing the operational experience of the monitoring stations.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Águas Residuárias , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Esgotos/análise , Chuva , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Cidades
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171803, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508264

RESUMO

Urban stormwater is an alternative water source used to mitigate water resource shortages, and ensuring the safety of stormwater reuse is essential. An in-depth understanding of both individual pollutant concentrations/loads in stormwater and holistic stormwater quality can be used to comprehensively evaluate how safely stormwater can be reused. The toxicity test takes all pollutants present in water samples into account, and the results reflect the integrated effect of these pollutants. In this study, the influence of urban stormwater sourced from different land uses on microalgae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and the possible toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that urban stormwater, particularly residential road stormwater, significantly inhibited microalgal growth. The chlorophyll contents of microalgae exposed to residential road stormwater were relatively lower, while the corresponding values were relatively higher for microalgae exposed to grassland road stormwater. Additionally, the antioxidant-related metabolism of microalgae could be dysregulated due to exposure to urban stormwater. A possible toxicity mechanism is that urban stormwater influences metabolic pathways related to chlorophyll synthesis and further hinders photosynthesis and hence microalgal growth. To resist oxidative stress and maintain regular microalgal cell activities, the ribosome metabolism pathway was upregulated. The research results contribute to elucidating the toxicity effects of urban stormwater and hence provide useful insight for ensuring the safety of stormwater reuse. It is also worth noting that the study outcomes can only represent the influence of land use on stormwater toxicity, while the impacts of other factors (particularly rainfall-runoff characteristics) have not been considered. Therefore, the consideration of all influential factors of stormwater is strongly recommended to generate more robust results in the future and provide more effective guidance for real practices related to stormwater reuse safety.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Chuva , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Água , Clorofila
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(5): 1282-1296, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483498

RESUMO

To address the lack of theoretical guidance for sponge city construction (SCC) in China, this study introduces a method to evaluate the available water volume (AWV) in urban watersheds. This evaluation is based on the water balance relationship, water volume, and ecological water demand (EWD). The Xi'an urban area was selected as a case study due to its water shortage and flooding issues. Results show monthly surface and subsurface AWV ranging between 53.06 and 53.98 million m3 and between 8,701.89 and 8,898.14 million m3, respectively. By maximizing the potential for surface AWV, an annual water supply of 527.75 million m3 could be provided, surpassing the annual artificial water consumption of 394.20 million m3, effectively addressing water scarcity. During the rainy season, implementing measures such as employing permeable paving materials, establishing wetlands and rainwater gardens, and constructing lakes and reservoirs can mitigate flooding caused by rainfall exceeding 32.8 mm. While the subsurface space in Xi'an holds significant potential for subsurface AWV utilization, revitalizing the ecological environment of subsurface water is crucial. Overall, the AWV theoretical framework offers a comprehensive solution to water shortage and flooding issues in the Xi'an urban area, serving as a vital theory for SCC.


Assuntos
Inundações , Lagos , China , Chuva , Água
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17235, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497525

RESUMO

The accelerating pace of climate change has led to unprecedented shifts in surface temperature and precipitation patterns worldwide, with African savannas being among the most vulnerable regions. Understanding the impacts of these extreme changes on ecosystem health, functioning and stability is crucial. This paper focuses on the detection of breakpoints, indicative of shifts in ecosystem functioning, while also determining relevant ecosystem characteristics and climatic drivers that increase susceptibility to these shifts within the semi-arid to arid savanna biome. Utilising a remote sensing change detection approach and rain use efficiency (RaUE) as a proxy for ecosystem functioning, spatial and temporal patterns of breakpoints in the savanna biome were identified. We then employed a novel combination of survival analysis and remote sensing time series analysis to compare ecosystem characteristics and climatic drivers in areas experiencing breakpoints versus areas with stable ecosystem functioning. Key ecosystem factors increasing savanna breakpoint susceptibility were identified, namely higher soil sand content, flatter terrain and a cooler long-term mean temperature during the wet summer season. Moreover, the primary driver of changes in ecosystem functioning in arid savannas, as opposed to wetter tropical savannas, was found to be the increased frequency and severity of rainfall events, rather than drought pressures. This research highlights the importance of incorporating wetness severity metrics alongside drought metrics to comprehensively understand climate-ecosystem interactions leading to abrupt shifts in ecosystem functioning in arid biomes. The findings also emphasise the need to consider the underlying ecosystem characteristics, including soil, topography and vegetation composition, in assessing ecosystem responses to climate change. While this research primarily concentrated on the southern African savanna as a case study, the methodological robustness of this approach enables its application to diverse arid and semi-arid biomes for the assessment of climate-ecosystem interactions that contribute to abrupt shifts.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Solo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 171302, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428607

RESUMO

Green roofs have been increasingly used to improve stormwater management, but poor vegetation performance on roof systems, varying with vegetation type, can degrade discharge quality. Biochar has been suggested as an effective substrate additive for green roofs to improve plant performance and discharge quality. However, research on the effects of biochar and vegetation on discharge quality in the long term is lacking and the underlying mechanisms involved are unclear. We examined the effects of biochar amendment and vegetation on discharge quality on organic-substrate green roofs with pre-grown sedum mats and direct-seeded native plants for three years and investigated the key factors influencing discharge quality. Sedum mats reduced the leaching of nutrients and particulate matter by 6-64% relative to native plants, largely due to the higher initial vegetation cover of the former. Biochar addition to sedum mat green roofs resulted in the best integrated water quality due to enhanced plant cover and sorption effects. Structural equation modeling revealed that nutrient leaching was primarily influenced by rainfall depth, time, vegetation cover, and substrate pH. Although biochar-amended sedum mats showed better discharge quality from organic-substrate green roofs, additional ecosystem services may be provided by native plants, suggesting future research to optimize plant composition and cover and biochar properties for sustainable green roofs.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Sedum , Qualidade da Água , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Chuva , Plantas
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(4): 372, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489074

RESUMO

The increasing intensity and frequency of rainfall events, a critical aspect of climate change, pose significant challenges in the construction of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for climate projection. These curves are crucial for infrastructure development, but the non-stationarity of extreme rainfall raises concerns about their adequacy under future climate conditions. This research addresses these challenges by investigating the reasons behind the IPCC climate report's evidence about the validity that rainfall follows the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relationship, which suggests a 7% increase in precipitation per 1 °C increase in temperature. Our study provides guidelines for adjusting IDF curves in the future, considering both current and future climates. We calculate extreme precipitation changes and scaling factors for small urban catchments in Barranquilla, Colombia, a tropical region, using the bootstrapping method. This reveals the occurrence of a sub-CC relationship, suggesting that the generalized 7% figure may not be universally applicable. In contrast, our comparative analysis with Illinois, USA, an inland city in the north temperate zone, shows adherence to the CC relationship. This emphasizes the need for local parameter calculations rather than relying solely on the generalized 7% figure.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Chuva , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cidades , Temperatura
9.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120548, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492420

RESUMO

Urban stormwater runoff is a significant source of nutrient pollution that is very costly to treat. Water quality trading (WQT) is a market-based strategy that can be used to lower the costs associated with meeting stormwater quality regulations. While many WQT programs have experienced low participation, Virginia's program has seen high participation due to the inclusion of land developers and other regulated stormwater dischargers. However, the extent to which WQT is used as a compliance option by regulated stormwater dischargers is not well understood, particularly when compared with the adoption of traditional compliance options. To address this knowledge gap, we collated a novel dataset comprising site characteristics and stormwater compliance methods for all development projects in the City of Roanoke, Virginia from December 2015 to March 2022. We analyzed this dataset to characterize the adoption of nutrient offset credits and other compliance methods being used, including best management practices (BMPs) and improved land covers associated with reduced nutrient export. Results show that credits are the preferred compliance option in Roanoke and were used as the only treatment compliance method for 59% of projects with treatment requirements. Projects using credits corresponded with a lower median disturbed area (1.36 acres) and lower median nutrient load reduction requirement (0.69 pounds of total phosphorus per year) compared with other compliance methods. Furthermore, we found that 58% of the projects that used credits achieved stormwater quantity compliance using methods other than implementing stormwater control devices. By mapping buyers and sellers of credits, we found that all credit sellers are downstream of the development projects. We discuss how this downstream trading could be a cause for concern, as part of a larger discussion of the advantages of tracking stormwater compliance methods, drawing on Roanoke as a case study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Virginia , Chuva , Cidades , Fósforo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
10.
Environ Pollut ; 347: 123766, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492751

RESUMO

Particulate materials arising from road-deposited sediments (RDS) are an essential target for the control and management of surface runoff pollution. However, the heterogeneity of urban spaces hinders the identification and quantification of particulate pollution, which is challenging when formulating precise control measures. To elucidate the factors that drive particulate pollution in heterogeneous urban spaces, the accumulation of RDS on dry days and the total suspended solids during six natural rainfall events were investigated across three urban-rural spatial units (central urban, central suburban, and remote suburban). The underlying surface type (asphalt or cement roads) and particle size composition jointly determined the spatial heterogeneity in the static accumulation and dynamic output loads of RDS during rainfall. These two factors explained 59.6% and 18.9% of the spatial heterogeneity, respectively, according to principal component analysis. A novel CPSI exponential wash-off equation that incorporates particle size composition and underlying surface type was applied. It precisely described the spatial heterogeneity of RDS wash-off loads, the estimated values exhibiting event mean concentration errors of 10.8-18.2%. When coupled with the M(V) curve, this CPSI exponential wash-off equation more precisely split the initial volume of runoff: a lower total volume (17.6-38.0%) was shown to carry a higher proportion of the load (70.0-93.7%) compared to the traditional coupled exponential wash-off equation (volume: 31.6-49.0%, load: 37-90%). This study provides a new approach to characterizing RDS wash-off processes and splitting initial runoff in heterogeneous spaces.


Assuntos
Chuva , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Movimentos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120583, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531132

RESUMO

Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) contribute to reducing micropollutant emissions from separate sewer systems. SCM planning and design are often performed by looking at the hydrological performance. Assessment of pollutant removal and the ability to comply with discharge concentration limits is often simplified due to a lack of data and limited monitoring resources. This study analyses the impact of using different time resolutions of input stormwater concentrations when assessing the compliance of SCMs against water quality standards. The behaviour of three indicator micropollutants (MP - Copper, Diuron, Benzo[a]pyrene) was assessed in four SCM archetypes, which were defined to represent typical SCM removal processes. High resolution MP data were extrapolated by using high resolution (2 min) measurements of TSS over a long period (343 events). The compliance assessment showed that high resolution input concentrations can result in a different level of compliance with water quality standards, especially when discharged concentrations are close to the limit values. This study underlines the importance of considering the high temporal variability of stormwater micropollutants when planning and designing SCMs to identify the most effective solutions for stormwater pollution management and to ensure a thorough consideration of all the environmental implications.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Baías , Cobre/análise , Qualidade da Água , Chuva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Movimentos da Água
12.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493797

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most extensively cultivated cereal crop in the world; however, its growth and development are affected by different types of biotic and abiotic stress conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the physico-chemical diversity in different wheat genotypes under rain-fed conditions. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that significant variation for different components contributed 77.87% of total variability among all genotypes. In the scree plot, the first two PCs (PC1=44.75%, PC2=14.28%) had significant differences for numerous agronomic traits. The scatter biplot depicted eight genotypes (Zardana, NR-462, D-97, BARS-2009 (a check), NR-481, Tarnab-73, NR-489 and Pirsabak-91) with high diversity (variation ~90%) for different morphological traits, identifiable as they were located further away from the origin than other genotypes. Factor analysis of loading factors among wheat genotypes across different morpho-physiological traits also showed significant diversity for positive and negative loads. In cluster analysis, genotypes such as BWP-97, BARS-2009, NR-489, NR-448 and Pak. 13 were outliers, indicating significant diversity among all genotypes for different agronomic traits. Biochemical analysis showed maximum values for antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content in lines NR-485 (93.76%), NR-489 (3.55mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g), and the variety Suleman-96 (3.45mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g), respectively. This study provides new insights for understanding the diversity of different wheat genotypes under rain-fed conditions, and the selected genotypes can be evaluated for further breeding programs.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Chuva
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(12): 5500-5511, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483320

RESUMO

Stormwater rapidly moves trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) from the built environment to the aquatic environment. Bioretention cells reduce loadings of some TrOCs, but they struggle with hydrophilic compounds. Herein, we assessed the potential to enhance TrOC removal via changes in bioretention system design by simulating the fate of seven high-priority stormwater TrOCs (e.g., PFOA, 6PPD-quinone, PAHs) with log KOC values between -1.5 and 6.74 in a bioretention cell. We evaluated eight design and management interventions for three illustrative use cases representing a highway, a residential area, and an airport. We suggest two metrics of performance: mass advected to the sewer network, which poses an acute risk to aquatic ecosystems, and total mass advected from the system, which poses a longer-term risk for persistent compounds. The optimized designs for each use case reduced effluent loadings of all but the most polar compound (PFOA) to <5% of influent mass. Our results suggest that having the largest possible system area allowed bioretention systems to provide benefits during larger events, which improved performance for all compounds. To improve performance for the most hydrophilic TrOCs, an amendment like biochar was necessary; field-scale research is needed to confirm this result. Our results showed that changing the design of bioretention systems can allow them to effectively capture TrOCs with a wide range of physicochemical properties, protecting human health and aquatic species from chemical impacts.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Compostos Orgânicos , Humanos , Chuva
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 110, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of higher winter temperatures in Brazilian areas with tropical and highland climates may result in a fifth peak of tick populations during winter in addition to the four generations previously described. Therefore, a strategic control protocol was developed with treatments in two seasons with the objective of controlling the generations of ticks that occur in spring/summer and those that occur in autumn/winter. METHODS: The study was conducted in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from the beginning of the rainy season, November 2020, to October 2021. In a randomized block design, 36 calves were distributed into three groups: (i) negative control; (ii) traditional strategic control in one season (SC1S), at the beginning of the rainy season; and (iii) strategic control in two seasons (SC2S), at the beginning and end of the rainy season. The SC1S strategic control group was treated on day 0, November 2020, and twice more with intervals of 42 days. The SC2S group received three more treatments beginning on day 182, May 2021, with intervals of 42 days. All treatments consisted of 5% fluralaner (Exzolt® 5%) delivered via a pour-on dose of 1 mL/20 kg body weight. Counts of semi-engorged female ticks were performed on day 3 and every 14 days thereafter, and the animals were weighed at the same time. RESULTS: Fluralaner showed a mean efficacy of more than 95% up to day 294. The two treated groups showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in the average number of ticks on day 3. In the SC2S group, the means were close or equal to zero throughout the study, while in the SC1S group, the means did not differ (P > 0.05) from those of the control group from day 231 onward. The final mean weight gain of each group was 76.40 kg, 98.63 kg, and 115.38 kg for the control, SC1S, and SC2S groups, respectively, differing (P < 0.05) from each other. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, three applications of fluralaner, with one application every 42 days from the beginning of the rainy season in the middle spring, resulted in effective tick control for 224 days. When three additional treatments were given in autumn/winter with intervals of 42 days between applications, tick counts were reduced throughout the year. This strategic control approach may be indicated in years with climatic conditions that allow that population peaks are expected to occur in the autumn/winter period.


Assuntos
Rhipicephalus , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Brasil , Chuva
15.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120229, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310790

RESUMO

Climate change is currently reshaping precipitation patterns, intensifying extremes, and altering runoff dynamics. Particularly susceptible to these impacts are combined sewer systems (CSS), which convey both stormwater and wastewater and can lead to combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges during heavy rainfall. Green infrastructure (GI) can help mitigate these discharges and enhance system resilience under historical conditions; however, the quantification of its effect on resilience in a future climate remains unknown in the literature. This study employs a modified Global Resilience Analysis (GRA) framework for continuous simulation to quantify the impact of climate change on CSS resilience, particularly CSOs. The study assesses the efficacy of GI interventions (green roofs, permeable pavements, and bioretention cells) under diverse future rainfall scenarios based on EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (2085-2099) and three Representative Concentration Pathways (2.6, 4.5, 8.5 W/m2). The findings underscore a general decline in resilience indices across the future rainfall scenarios considered. Notably, the total yearly CSO discharge volume increases by a range of 145 % to 256 % in response to different rainfall scenarios. While GI proves effective in increasing resilience, it falls short of offsetting the impacts of climate change. Among the GI options assessed, green roofs routed to pervious areas exhibit the highest adaptive capacity, ranging from 9 % to 22 % at a system level, followed by permeable pavements with an adaptation capacity between 7 and 13 %. By linking the effects of future rainfall scenarios on CSO performance, this study contributes to understanding GI's potential as a strategic tool for enhancing urban resilience.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Esgotos , Mudança Climática , Chuva , Águas Residuárias
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1695, 2024 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336797

RESUMO

There is evidence that humans can survive a direct lightning strike to the head. Our question is: could water (rain) on the skin contribute to an increase in the survival rate? We measure the influence of rain during high-energy direct lightning strikes on a realistic three-compartment human head phantom. We find a lower number of perforations and eroded areas near the lightning strike impact points on the head phantom when rain was applied compared to no rain. Current amplitudes in the brain were lower with rain compared to no rain before a fully formed flashover. We conclude that rain on the scalp potentially contributes to the survival rate of 70-90% due to: (1) lower current exposition in the brain before a fully formed flashover, and (2) reduced mechanical and thermal damage.


Assuntos
Lesões por Ação do Raio , Humanos , Encéfalo , Couro Cabeludo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Chuva
17.
J Contam Hydrol ; 261: 104305, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301313

RESUMO

Initial flush management is an effective measure to control non-point source pollution (NPSP) in storm runoff. However, determining the parameter of the initial flush in different areas may pose challenges in storm runoff management strategies. To address this issue, Erhai Lake in China, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, was selected as an example for the study. Erhai Lake is a typical mesotrophic lake with the profound influence of NPSP. The NPSP control strategy in this area will provide a valuable reference for other lakes. In 2021, 289 storm events and 190 ditchwater samples were detected around Erhai Lake. The average flow in the ditches ranged from 0.004 to 0.147 m3/s, the instant total nitrogen (TN) concentration ranged from 0.28 to 91.43 mg/L, and the instant total phosphorus (TP) concentration ranged from 0.26 to 7.35 mg/L in the storm events. It was found that the concentration of pollutants was lower than expected in the initial flush period. Instead, the event mean concentrations of TN and TP were 9.3 and 2.1 times higher than in the wet seasons, showing high nutrient concentration levels throughout the entire rainfall period. To manage storm runoff effectively, a flow-processes-division method was proposed to analyze the inflow condition and pollutant removal rate in different runoff periods. The peak flow interception strategy was recommended as the optimal stormwater management plan, as it showed the highest inflow conditions and 50% pollutant removal rate. Considering the need to reduce the constant flush of stormwater runoff, it is essential to establish a healthy water cycle system to alleviate NPSP and raise the Erhai water level. The storm runoff management method can serve as a practical tool for lake areas that do not exhibit initial flush characteristics.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Chuva , China , Movimentos da Água , Fósforo , Nitrogênio/análise
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3597, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351267

RESUMO

Employing Empirical Dynamic Modelling we investigate whether model free methods could be applied in the study of Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Applying Simplex Projection and S-Map algorithms on yearly timeseries of maximum abundances from 2011 to 2020 we successfully predict the decreasing trend in the maximum number of mosquitoes which was observed in the rural area of Thessaloniki during 2021. Leveraging the use of vector correlation metrics we were able to deduce the main environmental factors driving mosquito abundance such as temperature, rain and wind during 2012 and study the causal interaction between neighbouring populations in the industrial area of Thessaloniki between 2019 and 2020. In all three cases a chaotic and non-linear behaviour of the underlying system was observed. Given the health risk associated with the presence of mosquitoes as vectors of viral diseases these results hint to the usefulness of EDM methods in entomological studies as guides for the construction of more accurate and realistic mechanistic models which are indispensable to public health authorities for the design of targeted control strategies and health prevention measures.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Temperatura , Chuva
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 468: 133532, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387172

RESUMO

Untreated stormwater is a major source of microplastics, organic pollutants, metals, and nutrients in urban water courses. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about the start-up periods of bioretention filters. A rain garden pilot facility with 13 bioretention filters was constructed and stormwater from a highway and adjacent impervious surfaces was used for irrigation for ∼12 weeks. Selected plants (Armeria maritima, Hippophae rhamnoides, Juncus effusus, and Festuca rubra) was planted in ten filters. Stormwater percolated through the filters containing waste-to-energy bottom ash, biochar, or Sphagnum peat, mixed with sandy loam. Influent and effluent samples were taken to evaluate removal of the above-mentioned pollutants. All filters efficiently removed microplastics >10 µm, organic pollutants, and most metals. Copper leached from all filters initially but was significantly reduced in the biochar filters at the end of the period, while the other filters showed a declining trend. All filters leached nutrients initially, but concentrations decreased over time, and the biochar filters had efficiently reduced nitrogen after a few weeks. To conclude, all the filters effectively removed pollutants during the start-up period. Before being recommended for full-scale applications, the functionality of the filters after a longer period of operation should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Ambientais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Metais , Chuva , Plantas
20.
Water Res ; 253: 121284, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367376

RESUMO

Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is growing in popularity to reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and hydrologic simulation models are a tool to assess their reduction potential. Given the numerous and interacting water flows that contribute to CSOs, such as evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater (GW), these models should ideally account for them. However, due to the complexity, simplified models are often used, and it is currently unknown how these assumptions affect estimates of CSOs, GSI effectiveness, and ultimately planning guidance. This study evaluates the effect on estimates of CSOs and GSI effectiveness when different flows and hydrologic processes are neglected. We modified an existing EPA SWMM model of a combined sewer system in Switzerland to include ET, GW, and upstream inflows. Historical rainfall data over 30 years are used to assess volume and duration of CSOs with and without three types of GSI (bioretention basins, permeable pavements and green roofs). Results demonstrate that neglect of certain flows in modelling can alter CSO volumes from -15 % to 40 %. GSI effectiveness also varies considerably, resulting in differences in simulated percent of CSO volume reduced from 8 % to 35 %, depending on the GSI type and modeled flow or process. Representation of GW within models is particularly crucial when infiltrating GSI are present, as CSOs could increase in certain subcatchments due to higher GW levels from increased infiltration. When basing GSI planning decisions on modeled estimates of CSOs, all relevant hydrologic processes should be included to the extent possible, and uncertainty and assumptions should always be considered.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Simulação por Computador , Água , Hidrologia , Suíça , Chuva , Esgotos/química
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