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1.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116639, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334450

RESUMO

Carbon sequestration with amendments in blue-green infrastructure soils could off-set anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to alleviate climate change. In this 3-year study, the effects of wheat straw and its biochar on carbon sequestration in an urban landscaping soil were investigated under realistic outdoor conditions using two large-scale lysimeters. Both amendments were carried out by incorporating pellets at 0-15 cm soil depth with an equivalent initial total carbon input of 2% of the dry soil weight. Soil carbon, carbon isotope ratios, dissolved carbon in leachates, CO2-C emissions, carbon fixed in above ground vegetation, soil water content, soil bulk electrical conductivity, and water infiltration rates, were then compared between the 2 lysimeters. After 3 years, we observed that, despite having a 17.2% lower vegetation growth, soil organic and inorganic carbon content was higher by 28.8% and 41.5%, respectively, in biochar as compared to wheat straw amended soil. Carbon isotope analysis confirmed the greater stability of the added carbon in the biochar amended soil. Water content was on average 23.2% and 13.0% in the straw pellet and biochar amended soil, respectively, whereas water infiltration rates were not significantly different between the two lysimeters. Overall, the incorporation of wheat straw biochar into soil could store an estimated 30 tonnes of carbon per hectare in city blue-green infrastructure spaces. Interviews involving institution stakeholders examined the feasibility of this biochar application. Stakeholders recognized the potential of biochar as an environment-friendly means for carbon offsetting, but were concerned about the practicality of biochar production and application into soil and increased maintenance work. Consequently, additional potential benefits of biochar for environmental management such as improving the quality of polluted run-off in stormwater treatment systems should be emphasized to make biochar an attractive proposition in sustainable urban development.


Assuntos
Solo , Purificação da Água , Solo/química , Carbono , Chuva , Agricultura , Abastecimento de Água , Carvão Vegetal/química , Triticum , Água , Isótopos de Carbono
2.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116631, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347186

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization changes landscape patterns and results in frequent urban waterlogging issues, which affect citizens' daily lives and cause economic loss. Understanding the spatial patterns and impact factors associated with urban waterlogging under different rainfall intensities has significant implications for mitigating this hazard. In this study, the runoff depth calculated according to the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) simulation results was used to investigate the spatial characteristics of urban waterlogging. Multiple scenario-based designs, a correlation analysis, and a stepwise regression model were employed to detect the relationship between surface runoff depth and landscape patterns under different rainfall intensities. The results show that when the rainfall intensity reached 12.5 mm/12 h, the conversion rate of rainfall to runoff increased significantly, indicating an increased waterlogging risk. Areas with impervious surface proportions of 25-50% and 75-100% were shown to require more attention due to the strong sensitivity of the surface runoff depth to an increase in the impervious surface. It is most cost-effective to maintain the original high-density vegetation or increase the vegetation density from 0-25% to 25-50% for urban green space. Additionally, the landscape configuration also affects the surface runoff depth. The fragmented, scattered, or regular shape of impervious surface patches can reduce surface runoff effectively; larger and less fragmented green space was also shown to have a surface runoff controlling. The adjusted R2 values were greater than 0.6 for all stepwise regression models, indicating that the landscape variables selected in the study can effectively predict the surface runoff depth. These models also showed that the landscape composition had a more profound contribution than the landscape configuration on runoff depth. These findings provide meaningful insights and perspectives for urban waterlogging hazard mitigation, quantitative landscape planning, and risk management. The method proposed by this study provides a referable framework for future studies on urban waterlogging and its response to the landscape in the context of global climate change.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Urbanização , Água , Parques Recreativos , China , Cidades
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159127, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181798

RESUMO

Green roof, as a popular low impact development practice, has become important to mitigate adverse impacts of future climate change on urban stormwater. However, there is limited information regarding assessment of the effectiveness of green roofs in response to uncertain future climate change challenges. In this study, the validated model was used to simulate the reduction performance of green roofs on urban catchment outflow and assess their cost-effectiveness in response to design storms under climate change scenarios. Results showed that the median runoff volume of urban catchments increased by 12.5 %-14.6 % and 15.5 %-18.1 % and the median peak flow rate increased by 14.4 %-17.8 % and 17.9 %-22.1 % under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. This indicated the variability of runoff volume and peak flow changes for short return storm events caused by climate change was relatively high. Green roof implementation had reasonable mitigation effects on runoff volume and peak flow amplification in urban catchments caused by climate change. The median runoff volume reduction of green roofs for the 1-year storm was 15.2 % under SSP2-4.5 scenario. As rainfall intensity increased, the median runoff volume reduction of green roofs significantly declined to 5.6 % for the 100-year storm. However, the variations of runoff volume and peak flow reduction of green roofs were relatively smaller for longer return periods under climate change scenarios. Runoff reduction percentages of green roofs increased linearly with their implementation cost. The average value of the cost-effectiveness (C/E) index for green roofs was 91.2 %/million $ under base climate condition, and it decreased to 88.9 %/million $ and 88.4 %/million $ for SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. The C/E values decreased with increasing storm return period, and the values were relatively lower in SSP5-8.5 scenarios. These results could help to understand the potential role of green roofs to mitigate the impacts of future climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Movimentos da Água , Hidrologia , Chuva , Análise Custo-Benefício , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116472, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242973

RESUMO

The importing of sources of exogenous organic carbon is an effective method for the prevention of soil degradation in sloping soils. Earthworm casts (ECs) have been recognised as a contributor to long-term carbon protection, but relatively few studies have examined the temporal impact ECs have on the achievement of this goal and its efficacy in the mitigation of soil erosion challenges in the Loess Plateau region in China. This study conducted field simulated rainfall experiments as a means of investigating the effects of five ECs (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 g/m2, labelled CG, E1, E2, E3 and E4) on runoff, sediment and soil aggregate composition after 60, 90 and 150 days of fallow. As E4 was fallow for 150 days, the total runoff, runoff coefficient and total sediment amount decreased by 34.0%, 37.6% and 82.80% in comparison to CG. The runoff and sediment analytical models were able to accurately simulate the runoff and sediment yield processes through ECs application (R2≥0.704, RMSE≤1.108, NSE≥0.513). After being fallow for 150 days, soil sorptivity (S) increased from 0.151 cm/min0.5 to 0.310 cm/min0.5 as ECs application quantity increased. In contrast, the calibration constants of splash erosion (Cr) decreased from 0.150 to 0.090 and runoff erosion (Cf) decreased from 0.120 to 0.081. ECs were found to considerably enhance the number of aggregates that were more prominent than 0.25 mm in size. When E4 was fallow for 150 days, the fraction of >0.25 mm aggregate (WSA0.25) increased by 120.69% in comparison to CG. The mean weight diameter (MWD) grew by 105.96%, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) increased by 98.81% and the soil erodibility value K improved by 43.78%. When the amount of ECs was 800 g/m2, the stability of soil aggregates was effectively improved against water erosion while runoff and sediment transport were controlled. This can help improve the current soil and water loss situation in the Loess Plateau while also improving cultivated land soil quality. At the same time, a longer fallow period time promotes soil aggregate formation. This study is focused on the exceptional performance of ECs in limiting soil erosion on the Loess Plateau in China, which may provide novel solutions for soil and water conservation and the prevention of non-point source pollution.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , Chuva , Solo , Carbono/análise , Água , China , Sedimentos Geológicos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116484, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283172

RESUMO

Thermal pollution from stormwater runoff has been the focus of many studies in recent years due to its potential harm to aquatic microorganisms. However, there were few studies on the thermal pollution caused by stormwater runoff from various types of urban pavement surfaces. A lab-scale experiment was conducted to compare the thermal load of stormwater runoff from impermeable and permeable pavements and the influencing factors were investigated. The experimental findings demonstrated that the rainfall return period and initial temperature of various pavement surfaces significantly impacted the thermal load. The stormwater runoff absorbed more heat as the initial temperature, and rainfall return period increased. The difference of the thermal load of stormwater runoff between permeable brick pavement (PBP) and the impermeable asphalt pavement (IAP) increased from 305.26 to 436.70 kJ/m2, when the initial surface temperature rose from 35 to 47 °C. The average runoff temperature decreased by 1.39-1.90 °C for PBP compared to the IAP, with an increase in surface temperature from 35 to 47 °C. Under the various initial surface temperatures, the mean temperature of the infiltration effluent from the PBP was 3.12-4.20 °C lower than the average temperature of stormwater runoff from the surface layer. Therefore, a PBP can effectively alleviate thermal pollution from stormwater runoff and safeguard the receiving waters' quality.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116556, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283173

RESUMO

There have been numerous summaries of the runoff purification characteristics of bioretention cells in warm climates. However, little has been done on the effects of freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) that frequently occur in cold regions on bioretention cell performance. Three experimental columns were constructed to simulate the operation of the bioretention cell under the FTCs. The effects of FTCs on the nutrient removal efficiency of different filling bioretention cells were analyzed. The results showed that the ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration in the effluent of the wood chip bioretention cell under the T3 conditions (WBCF) (2.35 mg/L) was significantly higher than that of the wood chip bioretention cell operating at room temperature (WBCR) (0.62 mg/L). The effluent NH4+-N concentration of aluminum sludge bioretention cell (ABCF) (0.096 mg/L) under the FTCs was lower than that of WBCF (0.91 mg/L). Under the T3 condition, the effluent nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations of WBCF (5.33 mg/L and 8.86 mg/L) were higher than those of WBCR (5 mg/L and 6.11 mg/L) at room temperature. Under FTCs conditions, both WBCF and ABCF had high NO3--N removal efficiency (up to 85.87% and 24.75%) at the initial stage of thawing of the filler, and the efficiency gradually decreased with the thawing of the filler. With the increase of FTCs, the NO3--N removal efficiency of WBCF gradually decreased (always higher than 13.6%), while the removal efficiency of ABCF fluctuated wildly (the removal efficiency was primarily negative). The total phosphorus (TP) concentration in the effluent of WBCF (0.11 mg/L) under the T3 conditions was lower than that of WBCR (0.02 mg/L) at room temperature, and the TP concentration of ABCF (0.021 mg/L) in the effluent under the FTCs was slightly lower than that of WBCF (0.031 mg/L). The FTCs have a more significant impact on removing nitrogen pollutants in runoff, but have little effect on phosphorus. Compared with aluminum sludge, wood chips are more suitable for efficient removal of nitrogen pollutants in runoff under the FTCs. The experimental conclusions can provide a reference for the construction of bioretention cells in cold regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Chuva , Alumínio , Esgotos , Fósforo , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes
7.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363996

RESUMO

Phosphorus and heavy metals are washed off and transported with stormwater runoff to nearby surface water bodies resulting in environmental and human health risks. Catch basins remain one of the primary gateways through which stormwater runoff and pollutants from urban areas are transported. Retrofitting catch basins to enhance their phosphorus and heavy metal removal can be an effective approach. In this study, aluminum-based water treatment residual (WTR, a non-hazardous byproduct of the water treatment process) was granulated via a green method to serve as a sustainable filter material, called WTR granules, for enhancing the capabilities of catch basins to remove phosphorus and heavy metals. The WTR granules were field tested in a parking lot in Hoboken, New Jersey. Twelve storm events were monitored. The results showed that the WTR granules significantly (p < 0.05) reduced dissolved P, Cu, and Zn, as well as total P, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in stormwater runoff without signs of disintegration. No flooding or water ponding was observed during the implementation. Results suggest the WTR granules are an inexpensive, green filter material that can be used for retrofitting catch basins to remove phosphorus and heavy metals effectively.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Fósforo , Resíduos Industriais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Chuva , Metais Pesados/análise
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18920, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344815

RESUMO

River flooding has large societal and economic impacts across Africa. Despite the importance of this topic, little is known about the main flood generating mechanisms in Africa. This study is based on 13,815 flood events that occurred between 1981 and 2018 in 529 catchments. These flood events are classified to identify the different flood drivers: excess rains, long rains and short rains. Out of them, excess rains on saturated soils in Western Africa, and long rains for catchments in Northern and Southern Africa, are the two dominant mechanisms, contributing to more than 75% of all flood events. The aridity index is strongly related to the spatial repartition of the different flood generating processes showing the climatic controls on floods. Few significant changes were detected in the relative importance of these drivers over time, but the rather short time series available prevent a robust assessment of flood driver changes in most catchments. The major implication of these results is to underline the importance of soil moisture dynamics, in addition to rainfall, to analyze the evolution of flood hazards in Africa.


Assuntos
Inundações , Rios , Chuva , África Austral , África Ocidental
9.
Anal Chem ; 94(45): 15781-15789, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377427

RESUMO

Partitions in digital PCR (dPCR) assays do not reach the detection threshold at the same time. This heterogeneity in amplification results in intermediate endpoint fluorescence values (i.e., rain) and misclassification of partitions, which has a major impact on the accuracy of nucleic acid quantification. Rain most often results from a reduced amplification efficiency or template inaccessibility; however, exactly how these contribute to rain has not been described. We developed and experimentally validated an analytical model that mechanistically explains the relationship between amplification efficiency, template accessibility, and rain. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that a reduced amplification efficiency leads to broader threshold cycle (Ct) distributions that can be fitted using a log-normal probability distribution. From the fit parameters, the amplification efficiency can be calculated. Template inaccessibility, on the other hand, leads to a different rain pattern, in which a distinct exponential tail in the Ct distribution can be observed. Using our model, it is possible to determine if the amplification efficiency, template accessibility, or another source is the main contributor of rain in dPCR assays. We envision that this model will facilitate and speed up dPCR assay optimization and provide an indication for the accuracy of the assay.


Assuntos
Chuva , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Método de Monte Carlo
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 86(9): 2454-2464, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378192

RESUMO

Sumps are commonly used in urban stormwater systems, which can be considered as a simple pretreatment device for stormwater quality control. However, they may function as pollution sources due to sediment washout under high flow conditions. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the scour process of predeposited sediments from a sump and its influencing parameters. Under conditions with large inflows or high sediment deposit, the sediment particles could be resuspended, entrained and flushed out. The washout mass decreased exponentially with time if the sediment bed surface depth was larger than a threshold value; otherwise, the amount of washout would be much smaller. The same scour pattern was observed for all the testing cases, of which the largest scour depth always occurred below the outlet. The deposit below the inlet might increase under conditions with high flow rates and low levels of sediment bed. Dimension analysis was performed and principal non-dimensional parameters were found, including the Péclet number, the pipe Froude number, and the dimensionless particle diameter, which can be used to determine whether the washout would occur and its intensity in a stormwater sump under given conditions.


Assuntos
Baías , Sedimentos Geológicos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Chuva
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 86(9): 2441-2453, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378191

RESUMO

In this study, scale-based runoff plots of concave grasslands were designed and simulated rainfall experiments were conducted to investigate their retention effectiveness for runoff volume and pollutant loads, and to analyze the influences of concave depths on runoff and pollution retention of grasslands. Results showed that mean time to runoff of concave grasslands was 88.5 minutes, which was 5.3 times than that of flat grassland. Average peak flow rate of concave grasslands was reduced by 36.2% compared with flat grassland. Concaved grasslands averagely retained 58.2% of stormwater runoff. Deeper concave depths significantly increased runoff detention and retention performance of grasslands. Total suspended solids (TSS) load reduction rates of concave grasslands were ranged from 50.8% to 97.3%. Total nitrogen (TN) load reduction rate was 49.8% for concave depth of 10 cm. Total phosphorus (TP) load reduction rates were 45.0% and 93.9% for grasslands with 5 cm and 10 cm concave depths, respectively. Pollution load reduction rates of TSS, TN and TP enhanced along with the increase in concave depths. The estimated minimum area ratios of upslope impervious surface to grasslands of 5 cm and 10 cm concave depths were approximately 1:1 under 20 mm rainfall events, and 38:1 under 5 mm rainfalls, respectively.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Chuva , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pradaria , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fósforo/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , China
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361225

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization has triggered more serious urban flood risks. Many studies have focused on intra-urban flooding, but less attention has been paid to rainfall and flood risks at the urban fringe. Nowadays, China is vigorously promoting the construction of sponge cities in the whole area. It is important to study the construction of sponge cities in shallow mountainous areas, which are an important barrier between cities and mountains. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of Low-Impact Development (LID) facilities under different rainfall scenarios in developed shallow mountainous areas. The second garden and flower exposition ("the Expo Park") in Hebei Province is used as an example. The SWMM and MIKE21 models were used to simulate the hydrological processes before and after the construction of "the Expo Park", and the models were calibrated with the measured data. Peak flow rate, outflow volume, rainfall-outflow ratio, runoff velocity, and water feature area of the water system were used as indicators to evaluate their effectiveness. The results showed that the placement of LID facilities had a positive impact on the construction of the shallow mountain area. Specifically, (1) LID facilities can reduce the peak flow rate, delayed peak flow time, outflow volume, and rainfall outflow ratio of stormwater runoff in mountainous areas; and (2) they can effectively collect rainwater and become a supplement to the landscape water system of the site. These findings provide a scientific basis for the construction of LID facilities in shallow mountainous areas, which is important for the development and flood management of shallow mountainous areas.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Água , Hidrologia , Cidades , China
15.
Water Sci Technol ; 86(9): 2071-2088, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378167

RESUMO

Suspended solids removal is a key performance measure for proprietary stormwater treatment devices. Various technologies are available, with manufacturers claiming hydrodynamic separators offer performance advantages. However, it is important to assess manufacturers' claims. Accordingly, this study seeks to compare the performance of proprietary devices, by applying dimensional analysis to third-party certification data and experimental data from uncertified devices, and to determine the accuracy of a single parameter estimation (Hazen or Péclet number) of removal efficiency. Statistical analysis indicates that device performance is well described by a single parameter estimation transitioning from Hazen (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient = 0.81 and root mean square error = 5.1%) at low surface loading rates (SLR) in all technology types (high removal efficiency) to Péclet (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient = 0.5 to 0.61 and root mean square error = 5.9% to 4.3%) at higher SLR (low removal efficiency) for hydrodynamic separators. This indicates that performance at low SLR is well explained by gravity separation in all technology types, whilst in hydrodynamic separators removal at high SLR is better explained by gravity separation plus advection. Consequently, when high (>80%) removal efficiency is required there is no performance advantage between technology types. However, when low (<50%) removal efficiency is required hydrodynamic separators offer a 33% increase in treatment area.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Chuva , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(11): 2979-2986, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384832

RESUMO

Grass swale has been widely used in sponge city construction, which can effectively improve the urban ecological environment. To explore the regulation mechanism of runoff in grass swale, runoff scouring experiment was carried out to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of runoff and the distribution of cross-section velocity under the combined conditions of five slopes (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%) and five scour flows (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 L·min-1). With the increases of flow rate and slope, flow velocity, Reynolds number and Froude number all increased gradually, while the Manning roughness coefficient and Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient decreased gradually. The velocity (V) could be expressed as a power function V=0.3387Q0.555S0.6601 of flow rate (Q) and slope (S). The variation ranges of Reynolds number and Froude number were 1160.95-6596.82 and 0.17-1.21, respectively. The runoff flow patterns were all turbulent. The flow pattern was greatly affected by the slope. When flow rate and slope were small, they had great influence on friction coefficient. Under the experimental conditions, the Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient was negatively correlated with Reynolds number. The velocity distribution of cross-section showed symmetrical distribution on both sides of the center. The maximum velocity point was located at the center of water surface. With the increases of flow rate and slope, the velocity contours of cross section gradually became dense and the gradient of the velocity change increased. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the design, application and hydraulic calculation of grass swale in the construction of sponge cities in loess areas, and reveal the runoff regulation mechanism by analyzing the hydraulic characteristics of grass swale runoff.


Assuntos
Poaceae , Movimentos da Água , Hidrodinâmica , Chuva , Solo , China
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(11): 3027-3036, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384837

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of gravel content on runoff and sediment yield on Lou soil accumulation slopes, we conducted indoor simulation rainfall experiments and examined the characteristics of runoff and sediment yield on accumulation slopes with five gravel contents (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) under four rainfall intensities (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mm·min-1), with a no gravels slope as control. The average runoff rate under different test conditions ranged from 2.18 to 13.07 L·min-1. The average runoff rate was the maximum under the gravel content of 10% (or 20%) and the minimum under the 50% gravel content. The average flow velocity ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 m·s-1. The variation of flow velocity was complex. The smaller the gravel content, the larger the range of variation and the coefficient of variation. The average flow velocity reached the maximum when the gravel content was 10%. The presence of gravel effectively inhibited the sediment yield, and the sediment reduction benefit reached 84.2%. The rainfall intensity had more influence on the average sediment yield rate than gravel content. Results of partial correlation analysis showed that gravel content was significantly negatively correlated with the ave-rage runoff rate, the average flow velocity, and the average sediment yield rate. The relationships between the ave-rage sediment yield and the average runoff rate, the average flow velocity, and their interaction were all extremely significant linear functions, with the strongest relationship between the average sediment yield and the average runoff rate. This study could provide references for the control of soil erosion and the establishment of erosion models for engineering accumulations in Lou soil areas.


Assuntos
Solo , Movimentos da Água , Chuva , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Sedimentos Geológicos
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(11): 3137-3145, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384848

RESUMO

Under the context of frequent flood disasters in China, stormwater management practices such as sponge cities can play a role in flood mitigation and improve the 'resilience' of cities to flood. Resilient city is a concept related with adaptation to disasters, which is increasingly applied to stormwater and flood risk management in some countries. Based on the theory of resilience, we used the scientific metrological analysis tool CiteSpace to review the actualities of Chinese research on rainfall flood, analyzed the hot spots and related technologies of stormwater management from three aspects including ecology, engineering and society of stormwater resilience. Results showed the shortcomings in cross-sectoral stormwater management, and water regulation and storage management of land use at different scales from region to block. We proposed that 'ecology-engineering-society' should be set as the core to establish an adaptive and resilient stormwater management system that offers service to 'region-city-block' with the support of multi-technology integration in the future.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Cidades , Ecologia , Chuva
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276312, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327282

RESUMO

An original method for analyzing the influence of the meteorological, as well as physical-geographical conditions on the flooding of stormwater in small urban catchment areas is proposed. A logistical regression model is employed for the identification of the flooding events. The elaborated model enables to simulate the stormwater flooding in a single rainfall event, on the basis of the rainfall depth, duration, imperviousness of the catchment and its spatial distribution within the analyzed area, as well as the density of the stormwater network. The rainfall events are predicted considering the regional convective rainfall model for 32 rain gauges located in Poland, based on 44 years of rainfall data. In the study, empirical models are obtained to calculate the rainfall duration conditioning the flooding of stormwater in a small urban catchment area depending on the characteristics of the examined urban basins. The empirical models enabling to control the urbanization process of catchment areas, accounting for the local rainfall and meteorological characteristics are provided. The paper proposes a methodology for the identification of the areas especially sensitive to stormwater flooding in small urban catchment areas depending to the country scale. By employing the presented methodology, the regions with most sensitive urban catchments are identified. On this basis, a ranking of towns and cities is determined from the most sensitive to flooding in small urban catchment areas to the regions where the risk of flooding is lower. Using the method developed in the paper, maximum impervious catchment area are determined for the selected regions of the country, the exceedance of which determines the occurrence of stormwater flooding.


Assuntos
Inundações , Movimentos da Água , Chuva , Cidades , Urbanização , Modelos Teóricos
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(10): 2805-2812, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384617

RESUMO

Qilian Mountains, is an important ecological function area, an important ecological security barrier, the river runoff region in Northwest China, as well as a sensitive area to global climate change and fragile area of ecological environment. The ecological environment in this area played an important role in the economic development of Northwest China. Based on the observation data of temperature and precipitation in Qilian Mountains, MOD10A2 snow products and the flow data of Shiyang River, Heihe River and Shule River, we systematically analyzed the characteristics of climate change from 1961 to 2020, and the impacts of climate change on water resources under the scenario of climate warming. The results showed that, from 1961 to 2020, the annual average temperature increased significantly, with the rate reaching 0.39 ℃·(10 a)-1. The warming rate was the highest in the western part of Qilian Mountains, followed by the middle and eastern regions. The warming trend was the strongest in winter and the lowest in spring. The average temperature changed abruptly in 1997. The annual average precipitation increased with flucturation, with a rate of 10 mm·(10 a)-1, which increased most obviously in the middle of Qilian Mountains. After 2004, it entered a rainy period, with a warm and humid trend. The precipitation in the four seasons showed an increasing trend and the increase of precipitation in summer contributed the most to the annual precipitation. Annual precipitation was dominated by interannual scale change, and the contribution rate of 2.8-year was approximately 64.3%. The snow cover of Qilian Mountains was obviously affected by temperature and snowfall, which was negatively correlated with summer temperature and positively correlated with snowfall. From 2016 to 2020, the temperature increase had slowed down in Qilian Mountains, the snowfall had increased, and the snow cover tended to increase. After 2000, the temperature and precipitation increased more obviously, the meltwater from glacier and snow increased, the mountainous runoff of Shiyang River, Heihe River and Shule River had an increasing trend. Our findings are of great significance to the construction of ecological civilization and coping with climate change in Qilian Mountains.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recursos Hídricos , Camada de Gelo , Chuva , Neve , China
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