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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 817825, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528016

RESUMO

Fluctuating ovarian hormones have been shown to affect decision-making processes in women. While emerging evidence suggests effects of endogenous ovarian hormones such as estradiol and progesterone on value-based decision-making in women, the impact of exogenous synthetic hormones, as in most oral contraceptives, is not clear. In a between-subjects design, we assessed measures of value-based decision-making in three groups of women aged 18 to 29 years, during (1) active oral contraceptive intake (N = 22), (2) the early follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle (N = 20), and (3) the periovulatory phase of the natural menstrual cycle (N = 20). Estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin levels were assessed in all groups via blood samples. We used a test battery which measured different facets of value-based decision-making: delay discounting, risk-aversion, risk-seeking, and loss aversion. While hormonal levels did show the expected patterns for the three groups, there were no differences in value-based decision-making parameters. Consequently, Bayes factors showed conclusive evidence in support of the null hypothesis. We conclude that women on oral contraceptives show no differences in value-based decision-making compared to the early follicular and periovulatory natural menstrual cycle phases.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais , Progesterona , Teorema de Bayes , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Estradiol , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual
2.
Physiol Rep ; 10(9): e15287, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524340

RESUMO

There is emerging evidence that ovarian hormones play a significant role in the lower stroke incidence observed in pre-menopausal women compared with men. However, the role of ovarian hormones in cerebrovascular regulation remains to be elucidated. We examined the blood pressure-cerebral blood flow relationship (cerebral autoregulation) across the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women (n = 12; mean ± SD: age, 31 ± 7 years). Participants completed sit-to-stand and Valsalva maneuvers (VM, mouth pressure of 40 mmHg for 15 s) during the early follicular (EF), late follicular (LF), and mid-luteal (ML) menstrual cycle phases, confirmed by serum measurement of progesterone and 17ß-estradiol. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), arterial blood pressure and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide were measured. Cerebral autoregulation was assessed by transfer function analysis during spontaneous blood pressure oscillations, rate of regulation (RoR) during sit-to-stand maneuvers, and Tieck's autoregulatory index during VM phases II and IV (AI-II and AI-IV, respectively). Resting mean MCAv (MCAvmean ), blood pressure, and cerebral autoregulation were unchanged across the menstrual cycle (all p > 0.12). RoR tended to be different (EF, 0.25 ± 0.06; LF; 0.19 ± 0.04; ML, 0.18 ± 0.12 sec-1 ; p = 0.07) and demonstrated a negative relationship with 17ß-estradiol (R2  = 0.26, p = 0.02). No changes in AI-II (EF, 1.95 ± 1.20; LF, 1.67 ± 0.77 and ML, 1.20 ± 0.55) or AI-IV (EF, 1.35 ± 0.21; LF, 1.27 ± 0.26 and ML, 1.20 ± 0.2) were observed (p = 0.25 and 0.37, respectively). Although, a significant interaction effect (p = 0.02) was observed for the VM MCAvmean response. These data indicate that the menstrual cycle has limited impact on cerebrovascular autoregulation, but individual differences should be considered.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Artéria Cerebral Média , Adulto , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Estradiol , Feminino , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6447, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440674

RESUMO

Pseudoscorpions are small matrotrophic chelicerates. The embryos develop in a brood sac and feed on the nutritive fluid provided by the female. It was widely accepted that the nutritive fluid is synthesized in the ovary. Recent studies have shown that in Chelifer cancroides, a representative of Cheliferidae, considered one of the most derived pseudoscorpion families, the nutritive fluid is produced not only in the ovary but also in the oviducts. Since evolution of adaptations for matrotrophy in pseudoscorpions is poorly known, we aimed to verify our hypothesis that pseudoscorpions of the family Chernetidae, closely related to Cheliferidae, share the traits of adaptations to matrotrophy in the structure and function of the female reproductive system with C. cancroides. We analysed the structure of the ovary and oviducts in five representatives of chernetids with light, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy. The results confirmed our hypothesis and provided new data which broaden our knowledge of matrotrophic pseudoscorpions. We show that in chernetids, the ovary and oviducts undergo significant alterations including their size, multistep hypertrophy and polyploidization of the epithelial cells involved in secretion of the nutritive fluid, the complex secretory activity of the epithelial cells, massive degeneration of the epithelial cells that have completed secretion, and epithelium renewal.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Aracnídeos , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual , Ovário
4.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 367: 183-208, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461658

RESUMO

Macrophages are present in the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and are most abundant during menstruation. Endometrial macrophages contribute to tissue remodeling during establishment of pregnancy and are thought to play key roles in mediating tissue breakdown and repair during menstruation. Despite these important roles, the phenotype and function of endometrial macrophages remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize approaches used to characterize endometrial macrophage phenotype, current understanding of the functional role of macrophages in normal endometrial physiology as well as the putative contribution of macrophage dysfunction to women's reproductive health disorders.


Assuntos
Endométrio , Menstruação , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos , Ciclo Menstrual/genética , Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo , Menstruação/genética , Menstruação/metabolismo , Gravidez
5.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(2): 272-278, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evidently assess the applicability of regulate menstrual cycle (MC) characteristics in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as an indicator for fertility. METHODS: A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in China. Between January 2010 and December 2012, women who were willing to conceive within 2 years were enrolled in the study. Other than the MC length pattern, a well-adopted MC characteristic, menstrual blood color and clots were specifically concerned for women enrolled. All participants were followed up in 2 years by trained nurses. Pregnancy rate, fecundability odds ratio () and risk of miscarriage were assessed as fertility outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 2109 women were effectively included in this cohort for analysis. Results show that women with irregular MC length were less likely to achieve conception (= 0.59; 95% = 0.45-0.77, < 0.001). Menstrual blood in bright red color was also associated with decline in likelihood of conception ( = 0.79; 95% = 0.63-0.98, = 0.04). Women with menstrual blood in light red were at higher risk of miscarriage ( = 2.39; 95% = 0.91-6.28, = 0.08). No significant impact was found between menstrual blood clots and fertility outcomes ( = 1.02, 95% = 0.83-1.25, = 0.88; = 1.26 95% = 0.77-2.07, = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: MC characteristics can be an effective and simple indicator for women's fertility. Increasing the knowledge of MC characteristics for women in reproductive ages would bring great benefits to their preconception health conditions.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841723, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401577

RESUMO

Background: The female reproductive tract (FRT) mucosa is the first line of defense against sexually transmitted infection (STI). FRT environmental factors, including immune-cell composition and the vaginal microbiota, interact with each other to modulate susceptibility to STIs. Moreover, the menstrual cycle induces important modifications within the FRT mucosa. Cynomolgus macaques are used as a model for the pathogenesis and prophylaxis of STIs. In addition, their menstrual cycle and FRT morphology are similar to women. The cynomolgus macaque vaginal microbiota is highly diverse and similar to dysbiotic vaginal microbiota observed in women. However, the impact of the menstrual cycle on immune markers and the vaginal microbiota in female cynomolgus macaques is unknown. We conducted a longitudinal study covering three menstrual cycles in cynomolgus macaques. The evolution of the composition of the vaginal microbiota and inflammation (cytokine/chemokine profile and neutrophil phenotype) in the FRT and blood was determined throughout the menstrual cycle. Results: Cervicovaginal cytokine/chemokine concentrations were affected by the menstrual cycle, with a peak of production during menstruation. We observed three main cervicovaginal neutrophil subpopulations: CD11bhigh CD101+ CD10+ CD32a+, CD11bhigh CD101+ CD10- CD32a+, and CD11blow CD101low CD10- CD32a-, of which the proportion varied during the menstrual cycle. During menstruation, there was an increase in the CD11bhigh CD101+ CD10+ CD32a+ subset of neutrophils, which expressed higher levels of CD62L. Various bacterial taxa in the vaginal microbiota showed differential abundance depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Compilation of the factors that vary according to hormonal phase showed the clustering of samples collected during menstruation, characterized by a high concentration of cytokines and an elevated abundance of the CD11bhigh CD101+ CD10+ CD32a+ CD62L+ neutrophil subpopulation. Conclusions: We show a significant impact of menstruation on the local environment (cytokine production, neutrophil phenotype, and vaginal microbiota composition) in female cynomolgus macaques. Menstruation triggers increased production of cytokines, shift of the vaginal microbiota composition and the recruitment of mature/activated neutrophils from the blood to the FRT. These results support the need to monitor the menstrual cycle and a longitudinal sampling schedule for further studies in female animals and/or women focusing on the mucosal FRT environment.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Microbiota , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Vagina , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Macaca fascicularis , Microbiota/genética , Vagina/microbiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457332

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the menstrual cycle phases on the movement patterns of sub-elite women soccer players during competitive matches over three consecutive seasons. Individual movement data were analyzed and compared in eight players from the second French League at the early follicular (EF), late follicular (LF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of their menstrual cycle, determined by the calendar method. The movement patterns, expressed as meters per minute, were recorded during competitive matches using devices placed on the player's ankle. Our results showed significantly lower distances covered at moderate and high velocity in the EF phase than in the LF and ML phases (Cohen's d effect size = 1.03 and 0.79, respectively). The total distance covered during matches and the number of sprints also were reduced during EF compared with LF (d = 0.78 and 0.7, respectively). Overall, the total distance and distance covered at low velocity were significantly lower during the second half-time of the matches (d = 1.51), but no menstrual cycle phase × game period interaction was noted. In conclusion, our study suggests that EF may impact the movement pattern of sub-elite women soccer players during competitive matches, without any modulation of this effect by the playing time. Despite the low sample size, these results can be useful for coaches and support staff to modulate training loads and player rotation during soccer games.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Corrida , Futebol , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual
8.
Cells ; 11(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456034

RESUMO

Migraine is a major neurological disorder affecting one in nine adults worldwide with a significant impact on health care and socioeconomic systems. Migraine is more prevalent in women than in men, with 17% of all women meeting the diagnostic criteria for migraine. In women, the frequency of migraine attacks shows variations over the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, and the use of combined hormonal contraception (CHC) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can unveil or modify migraine disease. In the general population, 18-25% of female migraineurs display a menstrual association of their headache. Here we present an overview on the evidence supporting the role of reproductive hormones, in particular estrogens, in the pathophysiology of migraine. We also analyze the efficacy and safety of prescribing exogenous estrogens as a potential treatment for menstrual-related migraine. Finally, we point to controversial issues and future research areas in the field of reproductive hormones and migraine.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Menstruação , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Gravidez
10.
Rev Neurol ; 74(9): 303-311, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484702

RESUMO

Catamenial pattern epilepsy is defined as an increase in the frequency of seizures during a specific stage of the menstrual cycle compared to baseline. It has been described that around a third of women with epilepsy have a catamenial pattern. The changes in the seizure pattern would be explained by the influence of catamenial fluctuations, of female gonadal hormones on neuronal excitability. Progesterone through its metabolite allopregnanolone plays a protective role by increasing GABAergic transmission; however, its effect on brain progesterone receptors can increase neuronal excitability. The effects of estrogens are complex, they tend to increase neuronal excitability, although their effects depend on their concentration and exposure time. Three catamenial patterns of seizure exacerbation have been proposed: the perimenstrual pattern, the periovulatory pattern, and the luteal pattern. The diagnostic approach is carried out through a systematic process of 4 steps: a) clinical history of the pattern of the menstrual cycle and epileptic seizures; b) diagnostic methods to characterize the menstrual cycle and the pattern of seizures; c) check diagnostic criteria; and d) categorize the catamenial pattern. The treatment options studied require a higher level of evidence, and there is no specific treatment. Optimization of conventional antiseizure treatment is recommended as the first therapeutic option. Other therapeutic options, such as non-hormonal and hormonal treatments, could be useful in case the first therapeutic option proves to be ineffective.


TITLE: Epilepsia con patrón catamenial.La epilepsia con patrón catamenial se define como el aumento en la frecuencia de crisis epilépticas durante una etapa específica del ciclo menstrual respecto al basal. Se ha descrito que alrededor de un tercio de las mujeres con epilepsia presenta patrón catamenial. Los cambios en el patrón de crisis epilépticas se explicarían por la influencia de las fluctuaciones catameniales de las hormonas gonadales femeninas sobre la excitabilidad neuronal. La progesterona, a través de su metabolito alopregnanolona, desempeña un papel protector incrementando la transmisión gabérgica; sin embargo, su efecto en los receptores de progesterona cerebral puede incrementar la excitabilidad neuronal. Los efectos de los estrógenos son complejos y tienden a incrementar la excitabilidad neuronal, aunque dependen de su concentración y tiempo de exposición. Se han propuesto tres patrones catameniales de exacerbación de crisis epilépticas: el patrón perimenstrual, el patrón periovulatorio y el patrón lúteo. El abordaje diagnóstico se realiza mediante un proceso sistemático de cuatro pasos: a) historia clínica del patrón del ciclo menstrual y de las crisis epilépticas; b) métodos diagnósticos para caracterizar el ciclo menstrual y el patrón de las crisis epilépticas; c) comprobar los criterios diagnósticos, y d) categorizar el patrón catamenial. Las opciones de tratamiento estudiadas requieren mayor nivel de evidencia, y no existe ningún tratamiento específico aprobado por la Food and Drug Administration. Se recomienda la optimización del tratamiento anti crisis epilépticas convencional como primera opción terapéutica. Otras opciones terapéuticas, como tratamientos no hormonales y hormonales, podrían ser de utilidad en caso de que la primera opción terapéutica resulte ineficaz.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Reflexa , Convulsões , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo , Pregnanolona/uso terapêutico , Progesterona/farmacologia , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Physiol Behav ; 251: 113808, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421422

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that perception of emotion and emotional memory vary across the menstrual cycle. However, most of these studies used stimuli that contained not only emotional but also social elements. Importantly, the social cognitive abilities of individuals are as crucial as emotional abilities for danger avoidance and recruitment of allies. Therefore, the issue that natural hormonal fluctuations may affect emotion processing should be revisited. To investigate whether the effects of the menstrual cycle are emotion-specific or can also be attributed to social information processing, the present study examined social attention across the menstrual cycle in three tasks-visual search, memory, and memory-guided orienting-with a combination of behavioral and eye-tracking measures. We used images of people standing upright with neutral emotion as social distractors and everyday objects with physical properties matched as non-social distractors. Thirty-six healthy women without hormone use and with stable menstrual cycles of 26 - 30 days participated in the three tasks in the late follicular phase (FP) and mid-luteal phase (LP), respectively. During visual search, participants were asked to search for targets accompanied by social or non-social distractors in complex scenes. Social attentional bias, as evidenced by longer search times and shorter gaze behaviors for targets with social distractors, was found in the FP but not in the LP. In the following memory task, memory accuracy for targets was higher in the FP than in the LP, and the memory for targets with social distractors was more precise in both phases. Finally, in the orienting task, targets in social scenes were detected more slowly than in non-social scenes in LP. Taken together, these findings point to the interplay between social attention, memory, and memory-oriented attention and reveal the distinct processing pathways for social information in the FP and LP. The underlying mechanisms from an evolutionary perspective and from behavioral and neural basis were discussed.


Assuntos
Atenção , Viés de Atenção , Cognição , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/psicologia
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 821368, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370993

RESUMO

Background: A clinical diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can be tedious with many different required tests and examinations. Furthermore, women with PCOS have increased risks for several metabolic complications, which need long-term health management. Therefore, we attempted to establish an easily applicable model to identify such women at an early stage. Objective: To develop an easy-to-use tool for screening PCOS based on medical records from a large assisted reproductive technology (ART) center in China. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational cohort from Peking University Third Hospital was used in the study. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) logistic regression with 10-fold cross-validation was applied to construct the model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity values were used to evaluate and compare the models. Design Setting and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 21,219 ovarian stimulation cycle records from January to December 2019 in Peking University Third Hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was whether there was a clinical diagnosis of PCOS. The independent variables included were age, body mass index (BMI), upper limit of menstrual cycle length (UML), basal serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), testosterone androstenedione, antral follicle counts et al. Results: We have established a new mathematical model for diagnosing PCOS using serum AMH and androstenedione levels, UML, and BMI, with AUC values of 0.855 (0.838-0.870), 0.848 (0.791-0.891), 0.846 (0.812-0.875) in the training, validation, and testing sets, respectively. The contribution of each predictor to this model were: AMH 41.2%; UML 35.2%; BMI 4.3%; and androstenedione 3.7%. The top 10 groups of women most predicted to develop PCOS were demonstrated. An online tool (http://121.43.113.123:8888/) has been developed to assist Chinese ART clinics. Conclusions: The models and online tool we established here might be helpful for screening and identifying women with undiagnosed PCOS in Asian populations and could assist in the long-term management of related metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Adulto , Androstenodiona , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5996, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397641

RESUMO

Ovarian hormones fluctuations across the menstrual cycle are experienced by about 58% of women in their fertile age. Maladaptive brain sensitivity to these changes likely leads to the severe psychological, cognitive, and physical symptoms repeatedly experienced by women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, the neuroanatomical correlates of these symptoms are unknown. The relationship between grey matter structure and PMDD symptom severity was delineated using structural magnetic resonance imaging during the late luteal phase of fifty-one women diagnosed with PMDD, combined with Voxel- and Surface-Based Morphometry, as well as subcortical volumetric analyses. A negative correlation was found between depression-related symptoms and grey matter volume of the bilateral amygdala. Moreover, the severity of affective and somatic PMDD symptoms correlated with cortical thickness, gyrification, sulcal depth, and complexity metrics, particularly in the prefrontal, cingulate, and parahippocampal gyri. The present findings provide the first evidence of grey matter morphological characteristics associated with PMDD symptomatology in brain regions expressing ovarian hormone receptors and of relevance to cognitive-affective functions, thus potentially having important implications for understanding how structural brain characteristics relate to PMDD symptomatology.


Assuntos
Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Transtorno Disfórico Pré-Menstrual , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fase Luteal , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/psicologia
14.
Behav Brain Res ; 425: 113817, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231499

RESUMO

The menstrual cycle is characterized partially by fluctuations of the ovarian hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), which are implicated in the regulation of cognition. Research on attention in the different stages of the menstrual cycle is eclectic with discrepancies in attention definitions, and the three attentional networks (alerting, orienting and executive) and their interaction were not explored during the menstrual cycle. In the current study, we used the ANT-I (attentional network test - interactions) to examine naturally cycling women (NC) and women using oral contraceptives (OC). We tested their performance at two time points that fit, in natural cycles, the follicular phase and the luteal phase. We found no differences in performance between the two time points (day 4 / day 18) for the OC group: the response pattern replicated known ANT-I findings. However, the NC group showed differences between the two time points. In the follicular phase, responses replicated known ANT-I results, but in the luteal phase, alertness did not interact with executive and orienting networks, resulting in a larger congruency effect (executive network) when attention was not oriented to the target in alerting and no alerting conditions. Results-driven exploratory regression analysis of E2 and P4 suggested that change in P4 from the follicular phase/day 4 to the luteal phase/day 18 was a mediator for the alerting effect found between groups. In conclusion, the alerting state, found with or without alertness manipulation, suggests that there is a progesterone-mediated activation of the alerting system during the luteal phase.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Progesterona , Atenção , Estradiol , Feminino , Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Humanos , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4738, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304559

RESUMO

This is a prospective, observational community cohort study with the objective of investigating menstrual cramp occurrence related to ovulatory characteristics. Women reported cramp intensity on daily Menstrual Cycle Diary© records over one year. Ovulation and luteal phase lengths were assessed by validated Quantitative Basal Temperature© (QBT) analysis. Healthy, normal-weight, non-smoking community dwelling premenopausal women ages 21-41 years with two consecutive, normally ovulatory, normal-length menstrual cycles were enrolled. All 53 women, with 13.6 ± 2.8 cycles per woman, reported at least one cramp episode of median intensity 1.5 [0-4 scale; range 1.0-3.5], and 2.2 days' [range 1.0-10.2] duration. Within the 49 women who experienced all ovulatory cycle types (normal, short luteal length [SLL < 10 days] and anovulatory), median cramp intensity was greater in normal-length cycles having subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SLL and anovulatory; median 1.4 [range 0.0-2.8]) than in normally ovulatory cycles (median 1.2 [range 0.0-2.3]) (P = 0.023). Cramp Scores did not differ by ovulatory status within the 19 women having both normally ovulatory and anovulatory cycles (P = 0.222). Within-woman 1-year Cramp Scores were not different in anovulatory and normally ovulatory menstrual cycles but were more intense with ovulatory disturbances.


Assuntos
Anovulação , Cãibra Muscular , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dismenorreia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual , Ovulação , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 30(2): 100-117, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267252

RESUMO

LEARNING OBJECTIVE: After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Discuss and outline the general and overlapping effects of the menstrual cycle on women's mental health. ABSTRACT: A growing body of research demonstrates menstrual cycle-dependent fluctuations in psychiatric symptoms; these fluctuations can therefore be considered as prevalent phenomena. Possible mechanisms underlying these fluctuations posit behavioral, psychological, and neuroendocrine influences. Recent reviews document cyclic exacerbation of symptoms and explore these mechanisms in the context of specific and often single disorders. The question remains, however, as to whether there are general and overlapping effects of the menstrual cycle on women's mental health. To address this gap, we synthesized the literature examining the exacerbation of a variety of psychiatric symptoms across the menstrual cycle in adult women. Results show that the premenstrual and menstrual phases are most consistently implicated in transdiagnostic symptom exacerbation. Specifically, strong evidence indicates increases in psychosis, mania, depression, suicide/suicide attempts, and alcohol use during these phases. Anxiety, stress, and binge eating appear to be elevated more generally throughout the luteal phase. The subjective effects of smoking and cocaine use are reduced during the luteal phase, but fewer data are available for other substances. Less consistent patterns are demonstrated for panic disorder, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder, and it is difficult to draw conclusions for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and trichotillomania because of the limited data. Future research should focus on developing standardized approaches to identifying menstrual cycle phases and adapting pharmacological and behavioral interventions for managing fluctuations in psychiatric symptoms across the menstrual cycle.


Assuntos
Fumar , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
17.
J Theor Biol ; 540: 111074, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227731

RESUMO

Men and women exhibit notable differences not only in the reproductive system and reproductive behaviors, but in many other organ and physiological systems as well. Notable examples include; the stress and immune systems, the anatomy of the brain, and the metabolic and cardiovascular functions. Furthermore, female physiology is affected by the menstrual cycle and by pregnancy and lactation. If we are to successfully develop effective sex-based therapies, we must attain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of sex hormones, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy on physiological function. By analyzing experimental findings, mathematical modelling can play a major role in facilitating and contributing to advancing the understanding of sex differences in physiology and pathophysiology. In this review, we present a survey of existing sex-specific modelling studies of physiological systems, describe the impact of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, and discuss future modelling opportunities.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Ciclo Menstrual , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Dedos do Pé
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1970): 20220026, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259990

RESUMO

Odour cues associated with shifts in ovarian hormones indicate ovulatory timing in females of many nonhuman species. Although prior evidence supports women's body odours smelling more attractive on days when conception is possible, that research has left ambiguous how diagnostic of ovulatory timing odour cues are, as well as whether shifts in odour attractiveness are correlated with shifts in ovarian hormones. Here, 46 women each provided six overnight scent and corresponding day saliva samples spaced five days apart, and completed luteinizing hormone tests to determine ovulatory timing. Scent samples collected near ovulation were rated more attractive, on average, relative to samples from the same women collected on other days. Importantly, however, signal detection analyses showed that rater discrimination of fertile window timing from odour attractiveness ratings was very poor. Within-women shifts in salivary oestradiol and progesterone were not significantly associated with within-women shifts in odour attractiveness. Between-women, mean oestradiol was positively associated with mean odour attractiveness. Our findings suggest that raters cannot reliably detect women's ovulatory timing from their scent attractiveness. The between-women effect of oestradiol raises the possibility that women's scents provide information about overall cycle fecundity, though further research is necessary to rigorously investigate this possibility.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Odorantes , Estradiol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ovulação , Feromônios , Progesterona , Comportamento Sexual , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico
19.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022157, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315382

RESUMO

Menstrual health affects a large number of women throughout reproductive life since adolescence. Knowledge of the duration and variation of the menstrual cycle is necessary for patient education and to identify deviations from normal  to guide clinical evaluation. The average duration of menstrual flow is between 4 to 6 days, with anormal range from 2 up to 8 days ; the mean blood loss per menstrual cycle is 25- 30 mL. In general, descriptive data falling outside the normal range are considered to be indicative of menstrual disorders. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists advocate for clinicians to consider the menstrual cycle as a vital sign in adolescents, the identification of subjects with hypomenorrhea is neither well defined nor routinely practiced. In this paper we have summarized the published prevalence of hypomenorrhea (lighter and/or shorter menstrual bleeding) in adolescents and youths in different countries and report the personal experience in four adolescents.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Distúrbios Menstruais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Distúrbios Menstruais/diagnóstico , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 140: 105720, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305405

RESUMO

The human tendency to share goods with others at personal costs declines across the perceived social distance to them, an observation termed social discounting. Cumulating evidence suggests that social preferences are influenced by the agent's neurohormonal state. Here we tested whether endogenous fluctuations in steroid hormone compositions across the menstrual cycle were associated with differences in generosity in a social discounting task. Adult healthy, normally-cycling, women made incentivized decisions between high selfish rewards for themselves and lower generous rewards for themselves but also for other individuals at variable social distances from their social environment. We determined participants' current levels of menstrual-cycle-dependent steroid hormones via salivary sampling. Results revealed that the increase in progesterone levels as well as the decrease in estradiol levels, but not changes in testosterone or cortisol, across the menstrual cycle, accounted for increased generosity specifically toward socially close others, but not toward remote strangers.


Assuntos
Estradiol , Progesterona , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Ciclo Menstrual , Testosterona
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