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1.
Life Sci ; 259: 118382, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898532

RESUMO

AIM: Vancomycin (VCM) is a glycopeptide antibiotic widely used to treat serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and has been associated with some severe side effects such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanism of VCM-induced hepatotoxicity is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of zingerone (Zin) against VCM-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VCM was intraperitoneally administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 7 days alone and in combination with the orally administered Zin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w). KEY FINDINGS: Zin treatment significantly improved VCM-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, reduced antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities and liver function markers (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase). Histopathological integrity and immunohistochemical expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the VCM-induced liver tissue were ameliorated after Zin administration. In addition, Zin reversed the changes in levels and/or activities of inflammatory and apoptotic parameters such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p53, cysteine aspartate specific protease-3 (caspase-3), cysteine aspartate specific protease-8 (caspase-8), cytochrome c, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the VCM-induced hepatotoxicity. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these results reveal probable ameliorative role of Zin against VCM-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Vancomicina/toxicidade , Animais , Western Blotting , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Guaiacol/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Sci Immunol ; 5(51)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943497

RESUMO

COVID-19 pathogenesis is associated with an exaggerated immune response. However, the specific cellular mediators and inflammatory components driving diverse clinical disease outcomes remain poorly understood. We undertook longitudinal immune profiling on both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of hospitalized patients during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Here, we report key immune signatures present shortly after hospital admission that were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Immune signatures were related to shifts in neutrophil to T cell ratio, elevated serum IL-6, MCP-1 and IP-10, and most strikingly, modulation of CD14+ monocyte phenotype and function. Modified features of CD14+ monocytes included poor induction of the prostaglandin-producing enzyme, COX-2, as well as enhanced expression of the cell cycle marker Ki-67. Longitudinal analysis revealed reversion of some immune features back to the healthy median level in patients with a good eventual outcome. These findings identify previously unappreciated alterations in the innate immune compartment of COVID-19 patients and lend support to the idea that therapeutic strategies targeting release of myeloid cells from bone marrow should be considered in this disease. Moreover, they demonstrate that features of an exaggerated immune response are present early after hospital admission suggesting immune-modulating therapies would be most beneficial at early timepoints.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Monócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 235-245, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865915

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an intractable ailment, in which may chronic inflammations/ulcerations may develop in the mucosal lining of the colon with multiple recurrences. Various drugs such as steroids, immunosuppressants, and antibiotics are extensively used to treat UC. The patients suffer from adverse effects of these advanced drugs. So, they need a harmless therapeutic agent from natural sources. The therapeutic D-carvone has an anti-inflammatory action against the investigational colon cancer models. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of D-carvone on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) provoked colitis model in mice as follows: Group I: noncolitis healthy control mice; Group II: ulcerative colitis mice models; Group III: D-carvone (40 mg/kg) + ulcerative colitis models; Group IV: sulfasalazine (50 mg/kg) + ulcerative colitis models. On the 8th day, the experimental study was terminated and serum samples and colon tissues were processed for further analysis. The effect of D-carvone at different concentration was studied on the LPS challenged RAW 264.7 cell lines. The D-carvone (40 mg/kg) treatment maintained the colon length and decreased disease activity index (DAI) score in UC animals. The increased antioxidant enzymes status and decreased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory markers were noted in the D-carvone (40 mg/ kg) + UC mice. Histopathological study of colon tissue of D-carvone (40 mg/kg) treated UC mice displayed less mucosal damage and improved crypt integrity and goblet cells compared with DSS only provoked mice. The im-munohistochemical expression of iNOS and COX-2 was drastically diminished in the D-carvone treated UC mice. D-carvone (40 mg/kg) treatment appreciably diminished the LPS provoked NO production and pro-inflammatory modulators in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. These findings proved that D-carvone has a potential therapeutic effect to prevent LPS induced inflammation in in vitro cells and chemically induced ulcerative colitis in vivo models.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111070, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763567

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used as antimicrobial agents and resulted in their accumulation in environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying AgNP-induced lung cellular senescence which has been proposed as a pathogenic driver of chronic lung disease. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure to AgNPs elevates multiple senescence biomarkers in lung cells, with cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and potently activates genes of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in human fetal lung fibroblast cell line MRC5. Fluorescence-based assay also reveals that apoptosis induced by AgNPs is associated with senescence. Furthermore, we show that AgNPs cause premature senescence through an increase in transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression and over-production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lung cells. Inhibition of COX2 reduces AgNPs-induced senescence to a normal level. Moreover, AgNPs also induce upregulation of COX2 and accelerate lung cellular senescence in vivo and cause mild fibrosis in the lung tissue of mice. Taken together, our studies support a critical role of AgNPs in the induction of lung cellular senescence via the upregulation of the COX2/PGE2 intracrine pathway, and suggest the adverse effects to the human respiratory system.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo
5.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F312-F322, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628542

RESUMO

The ultrafiltrate flow over the major processes and cell body generates fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) on podocytes. Hyperfiltration-associated increase in FFSS can lead to podocyte injury and detachment. Previously, we showed that FFSS-induced upregulation of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-PGE2-prostaglandin E receptor 2 (EP2) axis in podocytes activates Akt-glycogen synthase kinase-3ß-ß-catenin and MAPK/ERK signaling in response to FFSS. Integrative MultiOmics Pathway Resolution (IMPRes) is a new bioinformatic tool that enables simultaneous time-series analysis of more than two groups to identify pathways and molecular connections. In the present study, we used previously characterized COX2 [prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2)], EP2 (Ptger2), and ß1-catenin (Ctnnb1) as "seed genes" from an array data set of four groups analyzed over a time course. The 3 seed genes shared 7 pathways and 50 genes of 14 pathways and 89 genes identified by IMPRes. A composite of signaling pathways highlighted the temporal molecular connections during mechanotransduction signaling in FFSS-treated podocytes. We investigated the "proteoglycans in cancer" and "galactose metabolism" pathways predicted by IMPRes. A custom-designed PCR array validated 60.7% of the genes predicted by IMPRes analysis, including genes for the above-named pathways. Further validation using Western blot analysis showed increased expression of phosho-Erbb2, phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), CD44, and hexokinase II (Hk2); decreased total Erbb2, galactose mutarotase (Galm), and ß-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4galt1); and unchanged total mTOR and AKT3. These findings corroborate our previously reported results. This study demonstrates the potential of the IMPRes method to identify novel pathways. Identifying the "proteoglycans in cancer" and "galactose metabolism" pathways has generated a lead to study the significance of FFSS-induced glycocalyx remodeling and possible detachment of podocytes from the glomerular matrix.


Assuntos
Podócitos/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Ativação Transcricional/fisiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
6.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(1): G63-G73, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538139

RESUMO

Hyaluronic acid (HA), a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to CD44 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We previously demonstrated that both CD44 and TLR4, but predominately TLR4, mediated HA stimulation of Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal growth in postnatal mice. Here we address the questions of which cell type expresses the relevant TLR4 in driving intestinal growth and what are the downstream events from TLR4 activation. Studies were done in 14-day-old mice: wild type (WT), mice deficient in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), mice deficient in myeloid cell TLR4, and mice deficient in epithelial cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Biological end points included crypt fission and Lgr5 cell proliferation. In WT mice, treatment with NS-398 (a COX2 inhibitor), clodronate (a macrophage-depleting agent), or tyrphostin (an EGFR inhibitor) resulted in 30% reductions in crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation compared with control mice. Mice deficient in COX2 or myeloid TLR4 or epithelial cell EGFR all had 30% reductions in crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation compared with WT mice. Administration of dimethyl PGE2, a stable PGE2 analog, increased crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation. Administration of dimethyl PGE2 reversed the effects of NS-398, clodronate, COX2 deficiency, and myeloid TLR4 deficiency but had no effect on mice treated with tyrphostin or mice deficient in epithelial cell EGFR. We conclude that, in postnatal mice, ~30% of intestinal growth as manifested by crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation is driven by a novel pathway: Extracellular HA binds TLR4 on pericryptal macrophages, inducing the production of PGE2 through COX2. PGE2 transactivates EGFR in Lgr5+ epithelial stem cells, resulting in Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation and crypt fission.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study, in newborn mice, describes a novel molecular pathway regulating Lgr5+ epithelial stem cell proliferation and normal intestinal elongation, as assessed by crypt fission. In this pathway, endogenous extracellular hyaluronic acid binds to Toll-like receptor 4 on pericryptal macrophages releasing PGE2 which binds to epidermal growth factor receptor on Lgr5+ stem cells resulting in proliferation. Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation leads to crypt fission and intestinal elongation. The demonstration that normal growth requires microbial-independent Toll-like receptor activation is novel.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/antagonistas & inibidores , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10187, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576928

RESUMO

Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is known as an ideal target for next generation of anti-inflammatory drugs without the side effects of currently available anti-inflammatory drugs. However, there has been no clinically promising mPGES-1 inhibitor identified through traditional drug discovery and development route. Here we report a new approach, called DREAM-in-CDM (Drug Repurposing Effort Applying Integrated Modeling-in vitro/vivo-Clinical Data Mining), to identify an FDA-approved drug suitable for use as an effective analgesic targeting mPGES-1. The DREAM-in-CDM approach consists of three steps: computational screening of FDA-approved drugs; in vitro and/or in vivo assays; and clinical data mining. By using the DREAM-in-CDM approach, lapatinib has been identified as a promising mPGES-1 inhibitor which may have significant anti-inflammatory effects to relieve various forms of pain and possibly treat various inflammation conditions involved in other inflammation-related diseases such as the lung inflammation caused by the newly identified COVID-19. We anticipate that the DREAM-in-CDM approach will be used to repurpose FDA-approved drugs for various new therapeutic indications associated with new targets.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Lapatinib/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/antagonistas & inibidores , Betacoronavirus , Química Computacional/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110806, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512418

RESUMO

The present study investigated the expressions of signalling molecules and inflammatory cytokines involved in copper-induced inflammatory responses of the mouse liver. A total of 240 institute of cancer research (ICR) mice (half male and half female) aged four weeks were randomly allocated to four groups treated with 0, 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg of [Cu] (Cu2+-CuSO4) for 42 days, respectively. [Cu] exceeding 4 mg/kg was found to induce inflammatory responses of the liver. Results showed significant up-regulation of mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 3/6 (MEK3/6), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 4/7 (MEK4/7), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1/2 (MEK1/2), and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) due to Cu. By doing so, copper could activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signalling pathway. Concurrently, the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway was also activated in the Cu-treatment, as demonstrated by higher expressions of NF-κB and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contents of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and reducing levels of expression of inhibitory kappa B (IκB). High Cu intake also up-regulated expression levels of some pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-8 (IL-8), and down-regulated the levels of expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß), an anti-inflammatory mediator. Additionally, our results indicated that Cu caused hepatic dysfunction, with evidence of occurrence of histopathological lesions and higher serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), aspartic acid transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), contents of albumin (ALB) and total bilirubin (TBIL). Altogether, the aforementioned results indicate that [Cu], at more than 4 mg/kg, induces the inflammatory responses in the liver via NF-κB and MAPKs signalling pathways, subsequently inducing hepatic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Probiotics are suggested to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of some potential probiotics in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anticancer effects of the following potential probiotic groups were investigated in LS174T cancer cells compared to IEC-18 normal cells. 1. a single strain of Bifidobacterium. breve, 2. a single strain of Lactobacillus. reuteri, 3. a cocktail of 5 strains of Lactobacilli (LC), 4. a cocktail of 5 strains of Bifidobacteria (BC), 5. a cocktail of 10 strains from Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (L+B). Apoptosis rate, EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 (COX-2 protein) expression levels were assessed as metrics of evaluating anticancer properties. Effect of BC, as the most effective group in vitro, was further assessed in mice models. RESULTS: BC induced ~21% and only ~3% apoptosis among LS174T and IEC-18 cells respectively. BC decreased the expression of EGFR by 4.4 folds, HER-2 by 6.7 folds, and PTGS-2 by 20 folds among the LS174T cells. In all these cases, BC did not interfere significantly with the expression of the genes in IEC-18 cells. This cocktail has caused only 1.1 folds decrease, 1.8 folds increase and 1.7 folds decrease in EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 expression, respectively. Western blot analysis confirmed these results in the protein level. BC significantly ameliorated the disease activity index, restored colon length, inhibited the increase in incidence and progress of tumors to higher stages and grades. CONCLUSIONS: BC was the most efficient treatment in this study. It had considerable "protective" anti-cancer properties and concomitantly down regulated EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 (COX-2), while having significant anti-CRC effects on CRC mice models. In general, this potential probiotic could be considered as a suitable nutritional supplement to treat and prevent CRC.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401938

RESUMO

Purpose To evaluate the kinetics of apical periodontitis development in vivo , induced either by contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from the oral cavity or by inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the regulation of major enzymes and receptors involved in the arachidonic acid metabolism. Methodology Apical periodontitis was induced in C57BL6 mice (n=96), by root canal exposure to oral cavity (n=48 teeth) or inoculation of LPS (10 µL of a suspension of 0.1 µg/µL) from E. coli into the root canals (n= 48 teeth). Healthy teeth were used as control (n=48 teeth). After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and tissues removed for histopathological and qRT-PCR analyses. Histological analysis data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Sidak's test, and qRT-PCR data using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results Contamination by microorganisms led to the development of apical periodontitis, characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells and bone tissue resorption, whereas inoculation of LPS induced inflammatory cells recruitment without bone resorption. Both stimuli induced mRNA expression for cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Expression of prostaglandin E 2 and leukotriene B 4 cell surface receptors were more stimulated by LPS. Regarding nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), oral contamination induced the synthesis of mRNA for PPARδ, differently from inoculation of LPS, that induced PPARα and PPARγ expression. Conclusions Contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from oral cavity induced the development of apical periodontitis differently than by inoculation with LPS, characterized by less bone loss than the first model. Regardless of the model used, it was found a local increase in the synthesis of mRNA for the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 of the arachidonic acid metabolism, as well as in the surface and nuclear receptors for the lipid mediators prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Periodontite Periapical/microbiologia , Animais , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/análise , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/microbiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/análise , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/patologia , Dinoprostona/análise , Expressão Gênica , Leucotrieno B4/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Periodontite Periapical/metabolismo , Periodontite Periapical/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1195: 137-148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468468

RESUMO

In the present work a series of N'-arylidene-2-(benzamido)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)acrylohydrazides were synthesized by refluxing the intermediate 2-(benzamido)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)acrylohydrazide with various substituted benzaldehyde in the presence of glacial acetic acid. The intermediate 2-(benzamido)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)acrylohydrazide 2 was prepared by stirring 4-((naphthalen-2-yl)methylene)-2-phenyloxazol-5(4H)-one with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of absolute ethanol. The chemical structures of the compounds were established by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. All the compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory (in vivo, in vitro) activity and performed docking against COX-2. The compounds 3a, 3c and 3o showed good inhibition of COX-2 in in vitro studies (0.75 µM, 0.5 µM and 0.7 µM as IC50, respectively). The compounds 3c, 3e and 3f were found to be more active than standard drug phenylbutazone at equidose. Molecular docking studies showed that compound 3 m exhibited good binding affinity against COX-2 with docking score 9.328 kcal/mol, when compared to the standard celecoxib.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/síntese química , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/síntese química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Hidrazonas/química , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2358, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398649

RESUMO

Sphingosine kinase1 (SphK1) is an acetyl-CoA dependent acetyltransferase which acts on cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) in neurons in a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying this activity was unexplored. Here we show that N-acetyl sphingosine (N-AS) is first generated by acetyl-CoA and sphingosine through SphK1. N-AS then acetylates serine 565 (S565) of COX2, and the N-AS-acetylated COX2 induces the production of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). In a mouse model of AD, microglia show a reduction in N-AS generation, leading to decreased acetyl-S565 COX2 and SPM production. Treatment with N-AS increases acetylated COX2 and N-AS-triggered SPMs in microglia of AD mice, leading to resolution of neuroinflammation, an increase in microglial phagocytosis, and improved memory. Taken together, these results identify a role of N-AS in the dysfunction of microglia in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilação , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/patologia , Mutagênese , Neurônios , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Presenilina-1/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Esfingosina/metabolismo
13.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(6): 1419-1429, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399713

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the reparative and inhibitory effects of single wavelength photobiomodulation (SW-PBM) and of cumulative increased wavelength photobiomodulation (CW-PBM) on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR). Thirty-three Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: untreated group (negative control), only relapse group (positive control-1), only retention group (positive control-2), SW-PBM group (650 nm, 100 mW/cm2), and CW-PBM group (532-650-940 nm, 100 mW/cm2). Orthodontic tooth movement was induced experimentally in rats for 10 days with an applied force of 50 cN; retention and therapeutic approaches were performed concurrently. At the end of the experiment, maxillary quadrants were prepared for micro-CT analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test followed post hoc Bonferroni test and paired samples t test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Resorption lacunae volume (p < 0.001), number of resorption lacunae (p < 0.05), and percentage of the resorption (PR) lacunae (p < 0.001) decreased with PBM applications when compared with the positive control groups, and the mean PR was similar in the negative control group when compared with SW-PBM group. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) levels of the PBM groups were lower (p < 0.05) than those of the positive control groups. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels significantly decreased with PBM administration (p < 0.05). No significant change was found in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression levels and OPG/RANKL ratios (p > 0.05). PBM applications showed marked inhibitory and reparative effects on OIIRR by modulating the RANKL and COX-2 expression levels. However, the effects of the different wavelengths were similar to each other.Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Retenção em Prótese Dentária , Luz , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Ortodontia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Reabsorção da Raiz/radioterapia , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 326: 109128, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416088

RESUMO

Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. The present study for the first time demonstrated that mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON), permeates through Swiss albino mice skin, which demands awareness of health risks in people who are dermally exposed to mycotoxins especially agricultural farmers. Despite the widespread contamination of DON in food commodities studies to alleviate DON's toxicity are sparsely reported. Thus effective measures to combat mycotoxins associated toxicity remains an imperative aspect to be considered from the angle of dermal exposure. Topical application of Celecoxib (1-2 mg), followed by DON (100 µg) application on the dorsal side of mice, resulted in substantial decrease in DON-induced (i) edema, hyperplasia, cell proliferation (ii) inhibition of cytokine and prostaglandin-E2 levels (iii) phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38, MAPKKs, CREB, P90-RSK (iv) downregulation of c-Jun, c- Fos, phospho-NF-kB and their downstream target proteins cyclin D1 and COX-2. Using Ro-31-8220 (Protein-Kinase-C inhibitor), it was observed PKC was responsible for DON induced upregulation of COX-2 and iNOS proteins. Treatment of Celecoxib decreased DON-induced translocation of Protein Kinase C isozymes (α,ε,γ), demonstrating the role of PKC in DON-mediated biochemical and molecular alterations responsible for its dermal toxicity. The present findings indicate that topical application of celecoxib is effective in the management of inflammatory skin disorders induced by foodborne fungal toxin DON. The skin permeation potential of Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NSAID, was also assessed, and the results indicated that the permeation was relatively lower as compared to the oral mode of administration. Hence topical use of celecoxib may be preferred over oral dosing because of lower systemic absorption and to avoid the unwanted side effects. This study provides a prospect for exploring the clinical efficacy of topically applied COX-2 inhibitors for the management of inflammatory skin disorders induced by foodborne fungal toxins.


Assuntos
Celecoxib/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365105

RESUMO

Intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy is a major risk factor for preterm birth. Thrombin, the most abundant coagulation factor in blood, is associated with uterine myometrial contraction. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism and signaling of thrombin-induced myometrial contraction. First, histologic studies of placental abruption, as a representative intrauterine bleeding, revealed that thrombin was expressed within the infiltrating hemorrhage and that thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor 1, PAR1) was highly expressed in myometrial cells surrounding the hemorrhage. Treatment of human myometrial cells with thrombin resulted in augmented contraction via PAR1. Thrombin-induced signaling to myosin was then mediated by activation of myosin light chain kinase- and Rho-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain-2. In addition, thrombin increased prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase-2 (PTGS2 or COX2) mRNA and prostaglandin E2 and F2α synthesis in human myometrial cells. Thrombin significantly increased the mRNA level of interleukine-1ß, whereas it decreased the expressions of prostaglandin EP3 and F2α receptors. Progesterone partially blocked thrombin-induced myometrial contractions, which was accompanied by suppression of the thrombin-induced increase of PTGS2 and IL1B mRNA expressions as well as suppression of PAR1 expression. Collectively, thrombin induces myometrial contractions by two mechanisms, including direct activation of myosin and indirect increases in prostaglandin synthesis. The results suggest a therapeutic potential of progesterone for preterm labor complicated by intrauterine bleeding.


Assuntos
Miométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombina/farmacologia , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Miosinas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miométrio/fisiologia , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Progesterona/farmacologia , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombina/metabolismo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Contração Uterina/fisiologia
16.
Nature ; 580(7804): 524-529, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322056

RESUMO

The initiation of an intestinal tumour is a probabilistic process that depends on the competition between mutant and normal epithelial stem cells in crypts1. Intestinal stem cells are closely associated with a diverse but poorly characterized network of mesenchymal cell types2,3. However, whether the physiological mesenchymal microenvironment of mutant stem cells affects tumour initiation remains unknown. Here we provide in vivo evidence that the mesenchymal niche controls tumour initiation in trans. By characterizing the heterogeneity of the intestinal mesenchyme using single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis, we identified a population of rare pericryptal Ptgs2-expressing fibroblasts that constitutively process arachidonic acid into highly labile prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Specific ablation of Ptgs2 in fibroblasts was sufficient to prevent tumour initiation in two different models of sporadic, autochthonous tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses of a mesenchymal niche model showed that fibroblast-derived PGE2 drives the expansion οf a population of Sca-1+ reserve-like stem cells. These express a strong regenerative/tumorigenic program, driven by the Hippo pathway effector Yap. In vivo, Yap is indispensable for Sca-1+ cell expansion and early tumour initiation and displays a nuclear localization in both mouse and human adenomas. Using organoid experiments, we identified a molecular mechanism whereby PGE2 promotes Yap dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity by signalling through the receptor Ptger4. Epithelial-specific ablation of Ptger4 misdirected the regenerative reprogramming of stem cells and prevented Sca-1+ cell expansion and sporadic tumour initiation in mutant mice, thereby demonstrating the robust paracrine control of tumour-initiating stem cells by PGE2-Ptger4. Analyses of patient-derived organoids established that PGE2-PTGER4 also regulates stem-cell function in humans. Our study demonstrates that initiation of colorectal cancer is orchestrated by the mesenchymal niche and reveals a mechanism by which rare pericryptal Ptgs2-expressing fibroblasts exert paracrine control over tumour-initiating stem cells via the druggable PGE2-Ptger4-Yap signalling axis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Mesoderma/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Comunicação Parácrina , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos Ly/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Organoides/patologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única
17.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(4): 227-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238697

RESUMO

A growing body of experimental evidence strongly suggests that cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a major component of the fiber-type cannabis plant, exerts a variety of biological activities. We have reported that CBDA can abrogate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and its enzymatic activity. It is established that aberrant expression of COX-2 correlates with the degree of malignancy in breast cancer. Although the reduction of COX-2 expression by CBDA offers an attractive medicinal application, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not fully been established. It has been reported that COX-2 expression is positively controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ß/δ (PPARß/δ) in some cancerous cells, although there is "no" modulatory element for PPARß/δ on the COX-2 promoter. No previous studies have examined whether an interaction between PPARß/δ-mediated signaling and COX-2 expression exists in MDA-MB-231 cells. We confirmed, for the first time, that COX-2 expression is positively modulated by PPARß/δ-mediated signaling in MDA-MB-231 cells. CBDA inhibits PPARß/δ-mediated transcriptional activation stimulated by the PPARß/δ-specific agonist, GW501516. Furthermore, the disappearance of cellular actin stress fibers, a hallmark of PPARß/δ and COX-2 pathway activation, as evoked by the GW501516, was effectively reversed by CBDA. Activator protein-1 (AP-1)-driven transcriptional activity directly involved in the regulation of COX-2 was abrogated by the PPARß/δ-specific inverse agonists (GSK0660/ST-247). Thus, it is implicated that there is positive interaction between PPARß/δ and AP-1 in regulation of COX-2. These data support the concept that CBDA is a functional down-regulator of COX-2 through the abrogation of PPARß/δ-related signaling, at least in part, in MDA-MB-231 cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , PPAR delta/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , PPAR delta/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/fisiologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
18.
Cancer Sci ; 111(6): 2004-2015, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227417

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and activation are the major causes of metastasis in cancers such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the reciprocal effect of EGF-induced COX-2 and angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) on HNSCC metastasis remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that the expression of ANGPTL4 is essential for COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 )-induced tumor cell metastasis. We showed that EGF-induced ANGPTL4 expression was dramatically inhibited with the depletion and inactivation of COX-2 by knockdown of COX-2 and celecoxib treatment, respectively. Prostaglandin E2 induced ANGPTL4 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manners in various HNSCC cell lines through the ERK pathway. In addition, the depletion of ANGPTL4 and MMP1 significantly impeded the PGE2 -induced transendothelial invasion ability of HNSCC cells and the binding of tumor cells to endothelial cells. The induction of molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also dependent on ANGPTL4 expression in PGE2 -treated cells. The depletion of ANGPTL4 further blocked PGE2 -primed tumor cell metastatic seeding of lungs. These results indicate that the EGF-activated PGE2 /ANGPTL4 axis enhanced HNSCC metastasis. The concurrent expression of COX-2 and ANGPTL4 in HNSCC tumor specimens provides insight into potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of EGFR-associated HNSCC metastasis.


Assuntos
Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 223: 105476, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315829

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used pharmaceuticals to treat pain, fever and inflammation. NSAIDs are also known to have many side effects including adverse effects on reproduction in both humans and animals. As NSAIDs usage is not regulated they are frequently detected at high concentrations in the environment. In order to understand the effect of NSAIDs on zebrafish sex differentiation, we used seven different NSAIDs which were either Cox-1 selective, Cox-1 biased, non-selective or COX-2 selective. We show that at higher concentration, NSAIDs are toxic to zebrafish embryo as they lead to mortality and hatching delay. Gene expression analysis following short term exposure of NSAIDs led to downregulation of female specific genes including zp2, vtg2 foxl2 and wnt4. Long term exposure of larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cox-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs resulted in male-biased sex ratio which confirmed the qRT-PCR analysis. However, the Cox-1 selective acetylsalicylic acid and the Cox-1 biased ketoprofen did not alter sex ratio. The observed male-biased sex ratio could also be due to induction of apoptosis process as the genes including p21 and casp8 were significantly upregulated following exposure to the Cox-2 selective and the non-selective NSAIDs. The present study indicates that NSAIDs alter sex differentiation in zebrafish, primarily through inhibition of Cox-2. This study clearly demonstrates that the use of NSAIDs and their release into the aquatic environment should be carefully monitored to avoid adverse effects to the aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética
20.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 14-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314719

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the block effect of amentoflavone (AF) on the inflammation of mouse BV-2 microglial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods BV-2 microglial cells were treated with AF at different concentrations, and cell viability was determined by CCK-8 assay to get the AF concentration that had no effect on the cell viability. BV-2 microglia cells were pretreated with 10 mol/L AF, and 1 hour later, 1.0 g/mL LPS was used to induce inflammatory response in the BV-2 microglial cells. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect the gene expression of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The protein expression of COX2 and iNOS were measured by Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the location and expression of COX2 and iNOS. Results CCK-8 showed that 10 mol/L AF did not affect the viability in BV-2 microglial cells. The treatment of 1.0 g/mL LPS could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression of IL-1ß, TNF-α, COX2, iNOS, and the protein expression of COX2 and iNOS. Compared with the only LPS treatment, 10 mol/L AF pretreatment markedly decreased the elevated gene and protein expression induced by LPS. In addition, AF significantly inhibited the expression of COX2 and iNOS, and less microglial cells were activated. Conclusion AF can inhibit the inflammation of BV-2 microglial cells induced by LPS.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Inflamação , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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