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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133886, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963218

RESUMO

In this study, pectic oligosaccharides of orange peel (OPOs) were isolated and their structure characterized, and then screened according to anti-glycation level compared with aminoguanidine (AG). The results indicated that OPOs mainly included two components, and the main component has more than 50 % inhibition level for the seven glycation products at 60 °C for 40 h. At the accelerated storage temperature, OPOs demonstrated a better anti-glycation level than AG, and this inhibition was concentration-dependent. In addition, the main component in OPOs was separated into 10 fractions by DEAE Sephadex A-25 gel chromatography, the group of 5-7 monosaccharide polymerization showed the best anti-glycation effect, average anti-glycation capability on six products was over 70 % in the 40th hour. The anti-glycation level of this group was closely related to its high content of GalA and molar ratio of GalA: Rha, and positively correlated with time at moderate temperature.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Pectinas , Monossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos , Pectinas/química , Temperatura
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158909, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155050

RESUMO

Agricultural life cycle assessment (LCA) at the sub-national regional level may be a valuable input for the decision-makers. Obtaining representative and sufficient data to develop life cycle inventories (LCIs) at that level is a relevant challenge. This study aims to contribute to the development of LCIs representative Spanish crops based on economic and operational information available in official sources to assess the average environmental impacts of these crops in the main producing regions. A comprehensive approach is proposed considering both the temporal variability and uncertainty of input data by using different methods (e.g. linear programming, weighted averages, Monte Carlo simulation, forecasted irrigation, etc.) to estimate the inventory data of reference holdings. From these inventories, the environmental assessment of those reference holdings is carried out. Two case studies are developed, on orange and tomato crops in the main producing regions, where climate change (CC), freshwater scarcity (WS), human toxicity non-cancer (HTnc), and freshwater ecotoxicity (ET) are evaluated. The environmental scores obtained differ significantly from region to region. The highest environmental scores of orange reference holdings correspond to Comunidad Valenciana for CC (1.94·10-1 kg CO2 eq.) HTnc (4.16·10-11 CTUh) and ET (7.45·10-3 CTUe), and to Andalucia in WS (17.4 m3 world eq.). As to greenhouse tomatoes, the highest scores correspond to Comunidad Valenciana in the four categories analysed (CC = 3.18 kg CO2 eq., HTnc = 3.6·10-9 CTUh, ET = 1.5 CTUe and WS = 13.3 m3 world eq.). The environmental scores estimated in this study are consistent with the literature, showing that the approach is useful to obtain a representative description of the environmental profile of crops from official statistical data and other information sources. Widening the data gathered in ECREA-FADN, and also that from other data sources used, would increase the quality of the environmental impact estimation.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Lycopersicon esculentum , Humanos , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Meio Ambiente , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
3.
Waste Manag ; 155: 29-39, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335773

RESUMO

This research aims to optimize the environmentally sustainable and economically feasible process for soluble dietary fiber concentrate (SDFC) production from waste citrus peel by different physical methods, including micronization, autoclave, autoclave followed by micronization, extrusion, and ultrasonication. The study is mainly divided into two sections. The first section deals with a detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of the size 40 kg SDFC/batch process and investigates the influence of various renewable energy sources, including biomass, solar, and wind electricity, on the environmental impact and compares it with mixed grid electricity. It was observed that the use of solar and wind electricity reduces CO2 emissions by 95.93 % and 99.07 %, respectively. In the second section, technoeconomic analysis (TEA) was performed of all processes for the same capability as LCA, with sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of batch size by varying batch size from 10 kg to 250 kg to investigate the impact of scale-up from pilot to industrial scale. Moreover, study the impact of energy sources from mixed-grid to renewable energy on total plant economics. TEA shows that extrusion performs the best among all, with an internal rate of return of 43.77 %. Whereas by using solar-based electricity, the overall utility cost is reduced by 58 % compared to the mix grid electricity.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Animais , Energia Renovável , Eletricidade , Fibras na Dieta , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
4.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134612, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288672

RESUMO

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a non-thermal method of sterilizing orange juice. However, knowledge of the quality variation during its storage is limited. This study aimed to comprehensively analyze metabolite variations during HHP orange juice storage using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven volatiles and 49 non-volatiles were identified. Partial least square analysis results showed that 21 days was a dividing point for metabolites highly varied. Results of relative odor activity value showed nonanal, methyl butanoate, and ethyl butanoate decreased after six days, which might reduce fruity flavor. After 21 days, over 60 % of metabolites such as linalool, α-pinene, and ascorbic acids decreased while α-terpineol and limonin increased, which would likely result in a change of coniferous, tarry, and bitter, as well as decreased organoleptic quality and antioxidative activities. This study provides a theoretical basis to optimize the shelf-life of HHP orange juice and advice for consumers' choices.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Citrus sinensis/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Odorantes/análise
5.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114594, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257451

RESUMO

The ability of cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) to absorb electromagnetic waves led to their use as potential biomedical agents in recent years. The properties of magnetic fluid containing cobalt nanoparticles are extraordinary. Hence, this research was designed to evaluate the Co(NO3)2 reducing the potential of orange peel aqueous extract and assessed their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The aqueous extract derived from orange peel had the potential to fabricate the CoNPs from 1 M Co(NO3)2 and the synthesized CoNPs were successfully characterized by standard nanoparticles characterization techniques such as UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses. The FTIR analysis revealed that the synthesized CoNPs were capped with active functional groups. It was characterized by predominant peaks corresponding to carbonyl (CO), amide (CO = ), and C-O of alcohols or phenols. The size and shape of CoNPs were found as 14.2-22.7 nm and octahedral, respectively, under SEM analysis. Furthermore, at increased concentration, the CoNPs demonstrated remarkable antimicrobial activity against common bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) pathogens. Furthermore, these CoNPs also showed considerable in-vitro antioxidant activities against various free articles such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). These results suggest that OP aqueous extract synthesized CoNPs possess considerable biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Citrus sinensis , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Prata/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Cobalto , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Escherichia coli
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(46): 14693-14705, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350271

RESUMO

Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri), is a plant disease affecting Citrus crops worldwide. However, little is known about defense compounds in Citrus. Here, we conducted a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to obtain an overview of the chemical responses of Citrus leaves to X. citri infection. To facilitate result interpretation, the multivariate analyses were combined with molecular networking to identify biomarkers. Metabolite variations among untreated and X. citri-inoculated Citrus samples under greenhouse conditions highlighted induced defense biomarkers. Notably, the plant tryptophan metabolism pathway was activated, leading to the accumulation of N-methylated tryptamine derivatives. This finding was subsequently confirmed in symptomatic leaves in the field. Several tryptamine derivatives showed inhibitory effects in vitro against X. citri. This approach has enabled the identification of new chemically related biomarker groups and their dynamics in the response of Citrus leaves to Xanthomonas infection.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Citrus , Xanthomonas , Citrus sinensis/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Triptaminas/farmacologia
7.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(11): 1337-1339, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increasingly, educators are implementing simulation to supplement teaching. Where simulation is not already integral, difficulties have arisen with the utilization of simulation due to limited resources, training requirements, and educator uncertainty. PERSPECTIVE: A learner's ability to suspend disbelief in a simulation can impact the effectiveness of learning. In other words, they become so immersed in the simulation that they ignore obvious limitations and choose to believe the activity is realistic. When designing simulations, educators need to consider intended learning outcomes (ILOs), realism, and briefings/debriefings to help learners suspend disbelief. Realism encompasses physical realism (fidelity), conceptual realism, and emotional/experiential realism. The ILOs should drive the simulation design and type of realism required. These should be presented to learners in a briefing, explaining where and why they may need to suspend disbelief; this should be reiterated during a debriefing to centre a learner's focus on whether the ILOs were met. Without this, learners may not "buy into" the simulation and instead can get lost in detail not relevant to their learning. IMPLICATIONS: The use of cutting-edge equipment does not, on its own, ensure that learners get the most realistic learning experience. The goal of simulations should be to utilize resources in the most advantageous manner for attainment of ILOs. In a time when institutions may be pressured for time, staff, and resources, educators should remember that it is possible to facilitate effective learning in low-resource ways.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Educação Médica , Humanos , Competência Clínica , Aprendizagem , Simulação por Computador
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430374

RESUMO

The contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG) formation and removal in high-pH-mediated alleviation of plant copper (Cu)-toxicity remains to be elucidated. Seedlings of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) were treated with 0.5 (non-Cu-toxicity) or 300 (Cu-toxicity) µM CuCl2 × pH 4.8, 4.0, or 3.0 for 17 weeks. Thereafter, superoxide anion production rate; H2O2 production rate; the concentrations of MG, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant metabolites (reduced glutathione, ascorbate, phytochelatins, metallothioneins, total non-protein thiols); and the activities of enzymes (antioxidant enzymes, glyoxalases, and sulfur metabolism-related enzymes) in leaves and roots were determined. High pH mitigated oxidative damage in Cu-toxic leaves and roots, thereby conferring sweet orange Cu tolerance. The alleviation of oxidative damage involved enhanced ability to maintain the balance between ROS and MG formation and removal through the downregulation of ROS and MG formation and the coordinated actions of ROS and MG detoxification systems. Low pH (pH 3.0) impaired the balance between ROS and MG formation and removal, thereby causing oxidative damage in Cu-toxic leaves and roots but not in non-Cu-toxic ones. Cu toxicity and low pH had obvious synergistic impacts on ROS and MG generation and removal in leaves and roots. Additionally, 21 (4) parameters in leaves were positively (negatively) related to the corresponding root parameters, implying that there were some similarities and differences in the responses of ROS and MG metabolisms to Cu-pH interactions between leaves and roots.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/toxicidade , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
9.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432159

RESUMO

The intensification of total phenolic compound (TPC) extraction from blood orange peels was optimized using a novel green infrared-assisted extraction technique (IRAE, Ired-Irrad®) and compared to the conventional extraction using a water bath (WB). Response surface methodology (RSM) allowed for the optimization of ethanol concentration (E), time (t), and temperature (T) in terms of extracted TPC and their antiradical activity, for both WB extraction and IRAE. Using WB extraction, the multiple response optimums as obtained after 4 h at 73 °C and using 79% ethanol/water were 1.67 g GAE/100 g for TPC and 59% as DPPH inhibition percentage. IRAE increased the extraction of TPC by 18% using 52% ethanol/water after less than 1 h at 79 °C. This novel technology has the advantage of being easily scalable for industrial usage. HPLC analysis showed that IRAE enhanced the recovery of gallic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, caffeic acid, and hesperidin. IR extracts exhibited high bioactivity by inhibiting the production of Aflatoxin B1 by 98.9%.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus , Citrus sinensis , Aflatoxina B1 , Citrus sinensis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fenóis/química , Etanol/química , Água , Tecnologia , Proliferação de Células
10.
Food Funct ; 13(23): 11945-11953, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383179

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. As a complex matrix of micronutrients, phytochemicals and sugars, the effects of orange juice (OJ) on CVD risk factors in overweight and obese adults warrant investigation. Hence, this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated the effect of chronic OJ consumption on the lipid profile, blood pressure, glycemic indices and inflammatory biomarkers in overweight and obese adults. Four databases were searched from inception until May 2022 and eight studies were included in the final analysis. Pooled results demonstrated the beneficial effect of OJ on systolic blood pressure (MD: -0.98 mmHg, 95% CI [-1.52, -0.44], p = 0.000, I2 = 0.0%) and HDL-C (SMD: 0.29, 95% CI [0.03, 0.54], p = 0.027, I2 = 0.0%) compared to the control group. However, total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and CRP did not change following chronic OJ consumption. This meta-analysis demonstrates the beneficial effects of chronic OJ consumption on blood pressure and HDL-C in overweight and obese adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Citrus sinensis , Adulto , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 243: 108412, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is a crucial zoonotic global health concern which can be treated by alternative medicinal plants extracts. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was carried out to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Citrus sinensis peel ethanolic extract on Cryptosporidium-infected mice. METHODS: Two doses of Citrus sinensis extract; high dose (30 mg/kg) and low dose (15 mg/kg) were investigated compared to the common commercial drug nitazoxanide (NTZ). Assessment of the extract was carried out by calculating oocysts count in fecal samples, in addition to histopathological and electron microscopic examination of intestinal mucosa.. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of oocyst shedding more in high dose than low dose Citrus-treated mice group till negligible numbers of oocysts were found at day 22nd post infection. Histopathologically, the intestinal tissues from high dose Citrus-treated group showed improvement of the pathological changes, the villi retained their normal appearance with minimal inflammatory cells in comparison to infected control mice groups. Also, ultra-structurally, the high dose Citrus-treated mice showed few Cryptosporidium trophozoites, while moderate number of parasitic stages and mucous in the low dose Citrus-treated mice, and large numbers of parasitic stages with sever mucous in the control infected non-treated mice epithelium. CONCLUSION: Our study established for the first time that Citrus sinensis is a promising natural candidate that could be efficiently used for developing of new anti-cryptospordial drugs.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Camundongos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Oocistos , Fezes/parasitologia
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1685: 463640, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375218

RESUMO

Citrus flavonoids are attracting great interest due to their well-known beneficial effects, but many of them have not been characterized. In this work, ultra-high liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLCHRMS) was used for profiling flavonoids in citrus fruit. We proposed a strategy combining mass defect filtering (MDF) and MS/MS-based molecular networking (MMN) to handle complex UHPLC-HRMS data. The proposed strategy was explained and validated in the fruit of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, and when specific mass and mass defect windows were pre-defined, MDF enable removal of considerable un-related and/or interference MS1 peaks. In citrus fruit, the number of MS1 peaks in positive and negative modes were reduced by 70.80% (from 15,113 to 4413) and 55.30% (from 5617 to 2511), respectively, and thus the potential MS features of flavonoids were retained and exposed. After MDF, an MS/MS similarity-based MMN map was constructed to cluster flavonoids with similar chemical structures. MMN facilitated the annotation of 65 unknown citrus flavonoids by using only 21 pre-identified flavonoids as references. The compounds comprised 42 polymethoxylated flavonoids, 17 flavones, 24 flavanones, and 3 flavonols. Eleven of them had not been previously reported in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck to our knowledge. Results of the current work indicated that the combination of MDF and MMN is a useful strategy for removing interference MS1 peaks and performing the structural annotation of unkonwn compounds in complex samples.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Citrus , Flavonoides/análise , Citrus/química , Citrus sinensis/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida
13.
Opt Express ; 30(11): 18108-18118, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36221618

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating bacterial diseases in citrus growth and there is no cure for it. The mastery of elemental migration and transformation patterns can effectively analyze the growth of crops. The law of element migration and transformation in citrus growth is not very clear. In order to obtain the law of element migration and transformation, healthy and HLB-asymptomatic navel oranges collected in the field were taken as research objects. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic spectrometry technique for material component analysis. By analyzing the element composition of fruit flesh, peel and soil, it can know the specific process of nutrient exchange and energy exchange between plants and the external environment, as well as the rules of internal nutrient transportation, distribution and energy transformation. Through the study of elemental absorption, the growth of navel orange can be effectively monitored in real time. HLB has an inhibitory effect on the absorption of navel orange. In order to improve the detection efficiency, LIBS coupled with SVM algorithms was used to distinguish healthy navel oranges and HLB-asymptomatic navel oranges. The classification accuracy was 100%. Compared with the traditional detection method, the detection efficiency of LIBS technology is significantly better than the polymerase chain reaction method, which provides a new means for the diagnosis of HLB-asymptomatic citrus fruits.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Citrus , Citrus/química , Citrus/microbiologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/microbiologia , Lasers , Solo , Análise Espectral/métodos
14.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234701

RESUMO

The present study focused on the possibility of differentiating fresh-unprocessed orange juice according to botanical origin (variety), based on the use of conventional physico-chemical parameters, flavonoids, and volatile compounds, in combination with chemometrics. For this purpose, oranges from seven different varieties were collected during the harvest years of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 from central and southern Greece. The physico-chemical parameters that were determined included: electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, and total soluble solids. The flavonoids: hesperidin, neohespseridin, quercetin, naringin, and naringenin were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD). Finally, volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Statistical treatment of data by multivariate techniques showed that orange juice variety had a significant (p < 0.05) impact on the above analytical parameters. The classification rate for the differentiation of orange juice according to orange variety using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was 89.3%, based on the cross-validation method.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Hesperidina , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Quimiometria , Citrus sinensis/química , Flavonoides/análise , Hesperidina/análise , Quercetina/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235092

RESUMO

Bougainvillea × buttiana is a plant widely used in traditional Mexican medicine and other parts of the world for the treatment of various health disorders. In this study, the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of three ethanolic extracts of B. × buttiana (BxbO (Orange), BxbR1 (Rose1) and BxbR2 (Rose2)) were investigated. Antioxidant activities were determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), DPPH free radicals scavenging activity, and radical scavenging effects on nitric oxide (NO). The in vitro cytoprotective effect of the extracts against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide-(H2O2) in a model of L929 cells was also determined as well as NO uptake with or without H2O2 through the MTT assay. The results revealed that there was a difference between the compounds present in each of the extracts, with the 2-Hydroxycinnamic acid compound being observed in all the extracts. The 2-Hydroxycinnamic acid compound was tested in silico to predict its biological (PASSonline) and toxicological (Osiris Property Explorer) activity. All extracts with 1 to 4 mg/mL inhibited the activity of the NO radical. In cells exposed to 1 mg/mL of extracts followed by H2O2 exposure, cell protection ranged from 66.96 to 83.46%. The treatment of the cells with extracts prevented the morphological changes caused by H2O2. The 2-Hydroxycinnamic acid compound showed a probability of in silico antioxidant and cytoprotective activity greater than 0.5 and 0.6, respectively. Therefore, the results demonstrated that Bxb extracts exert antioxidant and protective activities against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in L929 cells.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Nyctaginaceae , Rosa , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cumáricos , Radicais Livres , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Óxido Nítrico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296684

RESUMO

Molecular dyes are finding more and more applications in photonics and quantum technologies, such as polaritonic optical microcavities, organic quantum batteries and single-photon emitters for quantum sensing and metrology. For all these applications, it is of crucial importance to characterize the dephasing mechanisms. In this work we use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) to study the temperature dependent dephasing processes in the prototypical organic dye Lumogen-F orange. We model the 2DES maps using the Bloch equations for a two-level system and obtain a dephasing time T2 = 53 fs at room temperature, which increases to T2 = 94 fs at 86 K. Furthermore, spectral diffusion processes are observed and modeled by a combination of underdamped and overdamped Brownian oscillators. Our results provide useful design parameters for advanced optoelectronic and photonic devices incorporating dye molecules.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Corantes , Análise Espectral , Difusão , Eletrônica
17.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296919

RESUMO

The world population is rapidly aging. This should cause us to reflect on the need to develop a new nutritional approach to mitigate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage. A randomized, double blind, controlled study was carried out on 60 elderly male and female subjects. Product efficacy was measured before and after 2 and 8 weeks of product intake. The reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione concentrations in the erythrocytes and the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) hematic concentration were measured to assess the antioxidant efficacy. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in the serum were measured to assess the anti-inflammatory effectiveness. The wellbeing was assessed by Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire (male) and by Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) (female). Blood, urine analysis and electrocardiography (ECG) were carried out to assess the product's safety. The results showed that GSH/GSSG ratio increased by 22.4% and 89.0% after 2 and 8 weeks of product intake. Serum TNF-α levels decreased by 2.5% after 8 weeks of product intake. The SF-36 QoL and the MRS questionnaire outputs indicate, preliminarily, a positive effect of the extract intake in ameliorating the wellbeing of both male and female subjects. The product was well-tolerated. Our findings suggest that the test product has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy and has a positive effect on the wellbeing of elderly female and male subjects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Citrus sinensis , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292591

RESUMO

A complex molecular regulatory network plays an important role in the development and ripening of fruits and leads to significant differences in apparent characteristics. Comparative transcriptome and sRNAome analyses were performed to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of fruit ripening in a spontaneous early-ripening navel orange mutant ('Ganqi 4', Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and its wild type ('Newhall' navel orange) in this study. At the transcript level, a total of 10792 genes were found to be differentially expressed between MT and WT at the four fruit development stages by RNA-Seq. Additionally, a total of 441 differentially expressed miRNAs were found in the four periods, and some of them belong to 15 families. An integrative analysis of the transcriptome and sRNAome data revealed some factors that regulate the mechanisms of formation of early-ripening traits. First, secondary metabolic materials, especially endogenous hormones, carotenoids, cellulose and pectin, obviously changed during fruit ripening in MT and WT. Second, we found a large number of differentially expressed genes (PP2C, SnRK, JAZ, ARF, PG, and PE) involved in plant hormone signal transduction and starch and sucrose metabolism, which suggests the importance of these metabolic pathways during fruit ripening. Third, the expression patterns of several key miRNAs and their target genes during citrus fruit development and ripening stages were examined. csi-miR156, csi-miR160, csi-miR397, csi-miR3954, and miRN106 suppressed specific transcription factors (SPLs, ARFs, NACs, LACs, and TCPs) that are thought to be important regulators involved in citrus fruit development and ripening. In the present study, we analyzed ripening-related regulatory factors from multiple perspectives and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that operate in the early-ripening navel orange mutant 'Ganqi 4'.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , MicroRNAs , Citrus sinensis/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Frutas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Hormônios , Celulose/metabolismo
19.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 33(8): 457-462, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239551

RESUMO

Citrus sinensis and Lippia alba are herbal medicines widely used in the form of tea (infusion, decoction), which ethanolic extracts have already shown great anticoagulant activity in vitro . For this reason, they seem to be excellent candidates for the development of new antithrombotics and also have the potential to interact with them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of aqueous extracts in blood coagulation and platelet aggregation, in addition to analysing the micromolecular composition of these species. Thrombin generation test (TGT) by the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram method and Platelet Aggregation Test by turbidimetry were performed to evaluate the biological activities, while the chemical composition was qualitatively evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Aqueous extracts were elaborated according to the folk use. All extracts were effective in reducing thrombin formation in TGT. Infusion of L. alba and infusion and decoction of C. sinensis at a concentration of 0.6 mg/ml significantly reduced platelet aggregation induced by ADP, and only the decoction of L. alba at the same concentration was able to significantly reduce collagen-induced platelet aggregation. The presence of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids in C. sinensis and L. alba extracts was verified. Furthermore, hesperidin was identified in C. sinensis through coinjection. C. sinensis and L. alba are rich in phenolics and demonstrated an in-vitro effect on important processes of haemostasis (blood coagulation, platelet agreggation), corroborating the potential of C. sinensis and L. alba for the development of antithrombotics and interact with them.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Lippia , Lippia/química , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Trombina , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
20.
Animal ; 16(11): 100659, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308921

RESUMO

Using agricultural by-products such as dehydrated orange pulp (DOP) in animal feeds is of interest to increase pig sector sustainability. With this aim, an assay was carried out to assess the effects of increasing inclusion levels of DOP in pig diets regarding animal performance, carcass quality, and environmental impact. Four experimental diets were designed, a control diet (T1) and three more diets with increasing levels of DOP with 80, 160, and 240 g/kg of DOP for diets T2, T3, and T4, respectively. One hundred and sixty growing pigs were used in the experiment. Growth performance (average daily gain, ADG; average daily feed intake, ADFI and feed conversion ratio, FCR) and in vivo backfat thickness (BF) and loin depth (LD) gain were recorded during the finishing phase (from 70 to 130 kg BW). Faecal samples were incubated for bacteria enumeration. At slaughter, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were measured, and subcutaneous fat was sampled to analyse the fatty acid (FA) profile. Additionally, the slurry excreted by the animals was measured, characterised and subjected to a gaseous emission assay during its storage. The final BW and overall ADFI, ADG and FCR were similar among treatments. In vivo final LD and BF gain decreased (P ≤ 0.10) as the inclusion level of DOP increased. No differences were observed in carcass characteristics with the inclusion of DOP, except carcass weight that decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with DOP. Regarding the FA profile of the subcutaneous fat, the ratio of total monounsaturated to saturated FA increased with the inclusion level of DOP. Neither slurry excretion and characterisation nor bacterial counts from faeces showed any significant difference among treatments. The inclusion of DOP led to greater CH4 emissions in mg per L of slurry and hour, whereas these differences disappeared when expressed in mg per animal and day. In all, it has been demonstrated that the inclusion of DOP up to 240 mg/kg in pig diets had minor effects on growth performance, carcass quality traits or gaseous emissions from slurry, favouring the circular economy strategy and pig sector sustainability.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Hordeum , Suínos , Animais , Gases , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise
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