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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301584, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578716

RESUMO

Argentina is among the most important lemon fruit producers in the world. Penicillium digitatum is the primary lemon fungal phytopathogen, causing green mold during the postharvest. Several alternatives to the use of synthetic fungicides have been developed, being the use of biocontrol yeasts one of the most promising. Although many of the reports are based on the use of a single yeast species, it has been shown that the combination of agents with different mechanisms of action can increase control efficiency through synergistic effects. The combined use of native yeasts with different mechanisms of action had not been studied as a biological control strategy in lemons. In this work, the mechanisms of action of native yeasts (Clavispora lusitaniae AgL21, Clavispora lusitaniae AgL2 and Clavispora lusitaniae AcL2) with biocontrol activity against P. digitatum were evaluated. Isolate AgL21 was selected for its ability to form biofilm, colonize lemon wounds, and inhibit fungal spore germination. The compatibility of C. lusitaniae AgL21 with two killer yeasts of the species Kazachstania exigua (AcL4 and AcL8) was evaluated. In vivo assays were then carried out with the yeasts applied individually or mixed in equal cell concentrations. AgL21 alone was able to control green mold with 87.5% efficiency, while individual killer yeasts were significantly less efficient (43.3% and 38.3%, respectively). Inhibitory effects were increased when C. lusitaniae AgL21 and K. exigua strains were jointly applied. The most efficient treatment was the combination of AgL21 and AcL4, reaching 100% efficiency in wound protection. The combination of AgL21 with AcL8 was as well promising, with an efficiency of 97.5%. The combined application of native yeasts showed a synergistic effect considering that the multiple mechanisms of action involved could hinder the development of green mold in lemon more efficiently than using single yeasts. Therefore, this work demonstrates that the integration of native yeasts with diverse modes of action can provide new insights to formulate effective microbial consortia. This could lead to the development of tailor-made biofungicides, allowing control of postharvest fungal diseases in lemons while remaining competitive with traditionally used synthetic chemicals.


Assuntos
Citrus , Fungicidas Industriais , Penicillium , Saccharomycetales , Leveduras , Citrus/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Frutas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105835, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582597

RESUMO

Octanal was found to be able to reduce green mold incidence in citrus fruit by a defense response mechanism. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Herein, the metabolomics, RNA-seq and biochemical analyses were integrated to explore the effect of octanal on disease resistance in harvested citrus fruit. Results showed that octanal fumigation at 40 µL L-1 was effective in controlling citrus green mold. Metabolomics analysis showed that octanal mainly led to the accumulation of some plant hormones including methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indoleacetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid and many phenylpropanoid metabolites including cinnamyl alcohol, hesperidin, dihydrokaempferol, vanillin, quercetin-3-O-malonylglucoside, curcumin, naringin, chrysin, coniferin, calycosin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside, trans-cinnamaldehyde, and 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone. Particularly, IAA and hesperidin were dramatically accumulated in the peel, which might be the contributors to the resistance response. Additionally, transcriptome analysis showed that octanal greatly activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids. This was further verified by the accumulation of some metabolites (shikimic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, IAA, total phenolics, flavonoids and lignin), increase in some enzyme activities (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, tyrosine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase, cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase), up-regulation of some genes (tryptophan pyruvate aminotransferase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, shikimate kinase and shikimate dehydrogenase) expressions and molecular docking results. Thus, these results indicate that octanal is an efficient strategy for the control of postharvest green mold by triggering the defense response in citrus fruit.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Citrus , Hesperidina , Citrus/química , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Hesperidina/análise , Hesperidina/metabolismo , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Frutas
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8079, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582926

RESUMO

With the growing resistance of pathogenic microbes to traditional drugs, biogenic silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have recently drawn attention as potent antimicrobial agents. In the present study, SNPs synthesized with the aid of orange (Citrus sinensis) peel were engineered by screening variables affecting their properties via Plackett-Burman design. Among the variables screened (temperature, pH, shaking speed, incubation time, peel extract concentration, AgNO3 concentration and extract/AgNO3 volume ratio), pH was the only variable with significant effect on SNPs synthesis. Therefore, SNPs properties could be enhanced to possess highly regular shape with zeta size of 11.44 nm and zeta potential of - 23.7 mV. SNPs purified, capped and stabilized by cloud point extraction technique were then checked for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans. The maximum antimicrobial activity of SNPs was recorded against E. coli, L. monocytogenes and C. albicans with clear zone diameter of 33.2, 31.8 and 31.7 mm, respectively. Based on minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of SNPs (300 mg/l) as well as their effect on respiratory chain dehydrogenases, cellular sugar leakage, protein leakage and lipid peroxidation of microbial cells, E. coli was the most affected. Scanning electron microscopy, protein banding and DNA fragmentation proved obvious ultrastructural and molecular alterations of E. coli treated with SNPs. Thus, biogenic SNPs with enhanced properties can be synthesized with the aid of Citrus peel; and such engineered nanoparticles can be used as potent antimicrobial drug against E. coli.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Citrus sinensis , Citrus , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Citrus/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(5): 202, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568380

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic fungi play a significant role in regulating insect populations in nature and have potential applications in pest management strategies in different regions. Citrus spp. are among the important horticultural products in northern Iran, and the orchards are affected by different insect pests, especially mealybugs. This study aimed to isolate and identify entomopathogenic fungi associated with citrus orchard pests in northern Iran, focusing on Akanthomyces and Lecanicillium species on mealybugs. Through the samples collected from different regions within Guilan province, 12 fungal isolates were collected and identified based on the combination of morphological characteristics and molecular data. Akanthomyces lecanii, A. muscarius, Engyodontium rectidentatum, Lecanicillium aphanocladii and Lecanicillium rasoulzarei sp. nov. were identified. Of these, A. muscarius on Lepidosaphes sp., E. rectidentatum on Coccidae, and L. aphanocladii on Tetranychus urticae are reported as new fungal-host records from Iran. Moreover, a new species, Lecanicillium rasoulzarei, is illustrated, described, and compared with closely related species.


Assuntos
Citrus , Irã (Geográfico)
5.
Magy Seb ; 77(1): 33-38, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564272

RESUMO

A felnottkori invaginatiók ritkák, klinikai megjelenésük eltér a gyerekkori formáktól. Klinikumuk igen változatos, gyakran atípusos, jellemzo, hogy egy klinikai sejtés nyomán gondolni kell az invaginatio lehetoségére. A kiegészíto vizsgálatok közül kiemelkedo szerep jut a computer tomográfiának (CT), ami magas érzékenységgel és fajlagossággal képes kimutatni a béltraktus invaginatióját. Gyógyításuk az esetek legnagyobb részében sebészi, sokszor csak a mutét során lehetséges felismerni a kiváltó okot. Esetismertetésünkben egy rendkívül ritka, felnottkori, passage-zavart okozó colo-colicus, a bal colonfelet érinto, a colon-flexura lienalis-descendens határra lokalizált invaginatio klinikai jellemzoit, diagnosztikáját és definitív megoldásaként a laparoscoposan asszisztált bal oldali haemicolectomia mutéti megoldását mutatjuk be. Munkánkban összefoglaljuk a felnottkori invaginatiókra vonatkozó kórélettani fogalmakat, diagnosztikai lehetoségeket, a leggyakoribb kiváltó tényezoket és terápiás lehetoségeket.


Assuntos
Citrus , Intussuscepção , Adulto , Humanos , Colo , Colo Descendente
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8174, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589427

RESUMO

Sustainable and effective means to control flying insect vectors are critically needed, especially with widespread insecticide resistance and global climate change. Understanding and controlling vectors requires accurate information about their movement and activity, which is often lacking. The Photonic Fence (PF) is an optical system that uses machine vision, infrared light, and lasers to identify, track, and interdict vectors in flight. The PF examines an insect's outline, flight speed, and other flight parameters and if these match those of a targeted vector species, then a low-power, retina-safe laser kills it. We report on proof-of-concept tests of a large, field-sized PF (30 mL × 3 mH) conducted with Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that transmits dangerous arboviruses, and Diaphorina citri, a psyllid which transmits the fatal huanglongbing disease of citrus. In tests with the laser engaged, < 1% and 3% of A. aegypti and D. citri, respectfully, were recovered versus a 38% and 19% recovery when the lacer was silenced. The PF tracked, but did not intercept the orchid bee, Euglossa dilemma. The system effectively intercepted flying vectors, but not bees, at a distance of 30 m, heralding the use of photonic energy, rather than chemicals, to control flying vectors.


Assuntos
Citrus , Hemípteros , Dispositivos Ópticos , Humanos , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Resistência a Inseticidas , Doenças das Plantas
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 260, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The finger lime (Citrus australasica), one of six Australian endemic citrus species shows a high natural phenotypic diversity and novel characteristics. The wide variation and unique horticultural features have made this lime an attractive candidate for domestication. Currently no haplotype resolved genome is available for this species. Here we present a high quality, haplotype-resolved reference genome for this species using PacBio HiFi and Hi-C sequencing. RESULTS: Hifiasm assembly and SALSA scaffolding resulted in a collapsed genome size of 344.2 Mb and 321.1 Mb and 323.2 Mb size for the two haplotypes. The nine pseudochromosomes of the collapsed genome had an N50 of 35.2 Mb, 99.1% genome assembly completeness and 98.9% gene annotation completeness (BUSCO). A total of 41,304 genes were predicted in the nuclear genome. Comparison with C. australis revealed that 13,661 genes in pseudochromosomes were unique in C. australasica. These were mainly involved in plant-pathogen interactions, stress response, cellular metabolic and developmental processes, and signal transduction. The two genomes showed a syntenic arrangement at the chromosome level with large structural rearrangements in some chromosomes. Genetic variation among five C. australasica cultivars was analysed. Genes related to defense, synthesis of volatile compounds and red/yellow coloration were identified in the genome. A major expansion of genes encoding thylakoid curvature proteins was found in the C. australasica genome. CONCLUSIONS: The genome of C. australasica present in this study is of high quality and contiguity. This genome helps deepen our understanding of citrus evolution and reveals disease resistance and quality related genes with potential to accelerate the genetic improvement of citrus.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio , Citrus , Citrus/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Austrália , Óxidos , Filogenia
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 209: 108540, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518398

RESUMO

Citrus, cultivated extensively across the globe, possesses considerable economic importance and nutritional value. With the degradation of chlorophyll and accumulation of carotenoids, mature citrus fruits develop an orange-yellow peel, enhancing fruit value and consumer preference. MYB transcription factors (TFs) exert a significant role in diverse plant developmental processes and investigating their involvement in fruit coloration is crucial for developing new cultivars. This work aimed to characterize a citrus TF, CrMYB33, whose expression was found to be positively correlated with carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening. The interference of CrMYB33 expression in citrus fruit resulted in inhibition of carotenoid accumulation, down-regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes, and a slower rate of chlorophyll degradation. Conversely, overexpression of CrMYB33 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) enhanced chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis, resulting in a deeper red coloration of the fruits. Furthermore, the transcription of associated genes was upregulated in CrMYB33-overexpressing tomato fruits. Additional assays reveal that CrMYB33 exhibits direct links and activation of the promoters of lycopene ß-cyclase 2 (CrLCYb2), and ß-carotene hydroxylases 2 (CrBCH2), both crucial genes in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Additionally, it was found to inhibit chlorophyllase (CrCLH), a gene essential in chlorophyll degradation. These findings provide insight into the observed changes in LCYb2, BCH2, and CLH expression in the transgenic lines under investigation. In conclusion, our study revealed that CrMYB33 modulates carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation in citrus fruits through transcriptionally activating genes involved in metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Citrus , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(14): e2321615121, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530892

RESUMO

Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are a class of abundant specialized metabolites with remarkable anticancer properties in citrus. Multiple methoxy groups in PMFs are derived from methylation modification catalyzed by a series of hydroxylases and O-methyltransferases (OMTs). However, the specific OMTs that catalyze the systematic O-methylation of hydroxyflavones remain largely unknown. Here, we report that PMFs are highly accumulated in wild mandarins and mandarin-derived accessions, while undetectable in early-diverging citrus species and related species. Our results demonstrated that three homologous genes, CreOMT3, CreOMT4, and CreOMT5, are crucial for PMF biosynthesis in citrus, and their encoded methyltransferases exhibit multisite O-methylation activities for hydroxyflavones, producing seven PMFs in vitro and in vivo. Comparative genomic and syntenic analyses indicated that the tandem CreOMT3, CreOMT4, and CreOMT5 may be duplicated from CreOMT6 and contributes to the genetic basis of PMF biosynthesis in the mandarin group through neofunctionalization. We also demonstrated that N17 in CreOMT4 is an essential amino acid residue for C3-, C5-, C6-, and C3'-O-methylation activity and provided a rationale for the functional deficiency of OMT6 to produce PMFs in early-diverging citrus and some domesticated citrus species. A 1,041-bp deletion in the CreOMT4 promoter, which is found in most modern cultivated mandarins, has reduced the PMF content relative to that in wild and early-admixture mandarins. This study provides a framework for reconstructing PMF biosynthetic pathways, which may facilitate the breeding of citrus fruits with enhanced health benefits.


Assuntos
Citrus , Citrus/química , Domesticação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Metilação , Metiltransferases/metabolismo
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(4): e0405223, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440971

RESUMO

"Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas), the causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), is able to multiply to a high abundance in citrus fruit pith. However, little is known about the biological processes and phytochemical substances that are vital for CLas colonization and growth in fruit pith. In this study, CLas-infected fruit pith of three citrus cultivars ("Shatangju" mandarin, "Guanxi" pomelo, and "Shatian" pomelo) exhibiting different tolerance to CLas were collected and used for dual RNA-Seq and untargeted metabolome analysis. Comparative transcriptome analysis found that the activation of the CLas noncyclic TCA pathway and pathogenic-related effectors could contribute to the colonization and growth of CLas in fruit pith. The pre-established Type 2 prophage in the CLas genome and the induction of its CRISPR/cas system could enhance the phage resistance of CLas and, in turn, facilitate CLas population growth in fruit pith. CLas infection caused the accumulation of amino acids that were correlated with tolerance to CLas. The accumulation of most sugars and organic acids in CLas-infected fruit pith, which could be due to the phloem blockage caused by CLas infection, was thought to be beneficial for CLas growth in localized phloem tissue. The higher levels of flavonoids and terpenoids in the fruit pith of CLas-tolerant cultivars, particularly those known for their antimicrobial properties, could hinder the growth of CLas. This study advances our understanding of CLas multiplication in fruit pith and offers novel insight into metabolites that could be responsible for tolerance to CLas or essential to CLas population growth.IMPORTANCECitrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also called citrus greening disease) is a highly destructive disease currently threatening citrus production worldwide. HLB is caused by an unculturable bacterial pathogen, "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas). However, the mechanism of CLas colonization and growth in citrus hosts is poorly understood. In this study, we utilized the fruit pith tissue, which was able to maintain the CLas at a high abundance, as the materials for dual RNA-Seq and untargeted metabolome analysis, aiming to reveal the biological processes and phytochemical substances that are vital for CLas colonization and growth. We provided a genome-wide CLas transcriptome landscape in the fruit pith of three citrus cultivars with different tolerance and identified the important genes/pathways that contribute to CLas colonization and growth in the fruit pith. Metabolome profiling identified the key metabolites, which were mainly affected by CLas infection and influenced the population dynamic of CLas in fruit pith.


Assuntos
Citrus , Liberibacter , Rhizobiaceae , Citrus/microbiologia , Rhizobiaceae/genética , Rhizobiaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Frutas/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Dinâmica Populacional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0294318, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446779

RESUMO

Enzymatic browning poses a significant challenge that limits in vitro propagation and genetic transformation of plant tissues. This research focuses on investigating how adding antioxidant substances can suppress browning, leading to improved efficiency in transforming plant tissues using Agrobacterium and subsequent plant regeneration from rough lemon (Citrus × jambhiri). When epicotyl segments of rough lemon were exposed to Agrobacterium, they displayed excessive browning and tissue decay. This was notably different from the 'Hamlin' explants, which did not exhibit the same issue. The regeneration process failed completely in rough lemon explants, and they accumulated high levels of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which contribute to browning. To overcome these challenges, several antioxidant and osmoprotectant compounds, including lipoic acid, melatonin, glycine betaine, and proline were added to the tissue culture medium to reduce the oxidation of phenolic compounds and mitigate browning. Treating epicotyl segments with 100 or 200 µM melatonin led to a significant reduction in browning and phenolic compound accumulation. This resulted in enhanced shoot regeneration, increased transformation efficiency, and reduced tissue decay. Importantly, melatonin supplementation effectively lowered the levels of TPC and PPO in the cultured explants. Molecular and physiological analyses also confirmed the successful overexpression of the CcNHX1 transcription factor, which plays a key role in imparting tolerance to salinity stress. This study emphasizes the noteworthy impact of supplementing antioxidants in achieving successful genetic transformation and plant regeneration in rough lemon. These findings provide valuable insights for developing strategies to address enzymatic browning and enhance the effectiveness of plant tissue culture and genetic engineering methods with potential applications across diverse plant species.


Assuntos
Citrus , Melatonina , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Melatonina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus/genética , Agrobacterium , Catecol Oxidase , Fenóis/farmacologia , Regeneração , Suplementos Nutricionais
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(13): 6942-6953, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506763

RESUMO

Thiamethoxam (THX), when applied to the soil, can be taken up by citrus roots and subsequently transported to the leaves, providing effective protection of plants against the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). In this study, the field experiments showed that the coapplication of THX and nitrogen fertilizer (AN) did not affect THX uptake in six-year-old citrus plants. However, their coapplication promoted THX uptake in three-year-old Potassium trifoliate rootstocks and relieved the inhibition of AN at a higher level on plant growth characteristics, including biomass and growth of root and stem. RNA-seq analysis found that THX induced upregulation of a cationic amino acid transporter (PtCAT7) in citrus leaves. PtCAT7 facilitated THX uptake in the yeast strain to inhibit its growth, and the PtCAT7 protein was localized on the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrate that THX and N fertilizer can be coapplied and PtCAT7 may be involved in THX uptake in citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus , Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Tiametoxam , Plântula , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Fertilizantes , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos
13.
J Texture Stud ; 55(2): e12828, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486415

RESUMO

Rheological analysis of citrus pectin at pH 3 and 7 elucidates its structural dynamics, revealing distinct behaviors influenced by pH. At pH 3, pectin exhibits shear-thinning, with solvent-independent unified rheological profiles identifying three concentration regimes: 0.5%-1.5%, 2%-3%, and 3.5%-4%. These regimes, alongside Cox-Merz superpositions, outline the semi-dilute (c*) and concentrated (c**) transitions at 1.5%-2% and 3%-3.5%, respectively. Moreover, a Morris equation exponent of 0.65 indicates flexible, mobility-restricted macromolecules. Conversely, at pH 7, increased viscosities and Morris plot linearity for p = .1 suggest rigid chain behavior due to electrostatic repulsion among ionized acidic groups. This rigidity leads to concentration-dependent self-assembly structures that diverge from expected unified rheological profiles, a deviation amplified by heating-cooling cycles. This study clarifies the impact of pH on citrus pectin's rheology and emphasizes the intricate relationship between polymeric chain rigidity, self-assembly, and viscosity. By providing a refined understanding of these mechanisms, our findings contribute to the broader field of polysaccharide research, offering insights critical for developing and optimizing pectin-based applications in various industries.


Assuntos
Citrus , Pectinas , Temperatura Baixa , Reologia
14.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 26(3): 467-475, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466186

RESUMO

Ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +-N) is essential for fruit tree growth, but the impact of excess NH4 +-N from fertilizer on evergreen citrus trees is unclear. In a climate chamber, 8-month-old citrus plants were exposed to five different hydroponic NH4 +-N concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm) for 1 month to study effects of NH4 +-N on growth characteristics, N uptake, metabolism, antioxidant enzymes and osmotic regulatory substances. Application of 10 mm NH4 +-N adversely affected root plasma membrane integrity, root physiological functions, and plant biomass. MDA, CAT, POD, APX and SOD content were significantly correlated with leaf N metabolic enzyme activity (GOGAT, GDH, GS and NR). GDH was the primary enzyme involved in NH4 +-N assimilation in leaves, while the primary pathway involved in roots was GS-GOGAT. Under comparatively high NH4 + addition, roots were the main organs involved in NH4 + utilization in citrus seedlings. Our results demonstrated that variations in NH4 + concentration and enzyme activity in various organs are associated with more effective N metabolism in roots than in leaves to prevent NH4 + toxicity in evergreen woody citrus plants. These results provide insight into the N forms used by citrus plants that are important for N fertilizer management.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Citrus , Poncirus , Plântula , Poncirus/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 2): 130539, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432263

RESUMO

Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was employed as an intermediate layer to enhance interfacial interaction between chitosan (CS) coating and tangerine fruits, thereby improving the preservation effect. Owing to the low surface tension of tangerine fruit (26.04 mN/m), CS coating solutions showed poor wetting properties on fruit peels (contact angle > 100°). However, by applying a 1.0 % (w/v) HPMC coating on fruits, the contact angle of CS solutions with concentrations of 0.5 %, 1.0 %, and 1.5 % (w/v) decreased to 47.0°, 47.4°, and 48.5°, respectively, whereas the spreading coefficient increased to -16.0 mN/m, -17.6 mN/m and -19.8 mN/m, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of the coatings on fruit quality were investigated. The results demonstrated the promising performance of HPMC-CS two-layer coating in inhibiting fruit respiration, reducing decay rate, and maintaining nutrient content. Notably, HPMC-1.5%CS coating not only reduced the decay rate of tangerine fruit by 45 % and 31 %, in comparison to the uncoated group (CK) and pure CS coating respectively, but also maintained a high content of ascorbic acid. Therefore, this study confirmed that the use of amphiphilic polymers for improving the surface properties of fruits can effectively facilitate the wetting of hydrophilic coatings on fruits, and significantly improve the fresh-keeping performance of edible coatings.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Citrus , Molhabilidade , Derivados da Hipromelose , Frutas , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Metilcelulose
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 923: 171406, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432361

RESUMO

Global climate change has significantly impacted the production of various crops, particularly long-term fruit-bearing plants such as citrus. This study analyzed the fruit quality of 12 citrus orchards (Citrus Sinensis L.Osbeck cv. Bingtang) in a subtropical region in Yunnan, China from 2014 to 2022. The results indicated that high rainfall (>220 mm) and low cumulative temperature (<3150 °C) promoted increases in titratable acidity (>1.8 %) in young fruits. As the fruits further expanded (with a horizontal diameter increasing from 50 to 65 mm), excessive rainfall (300-400 mm), lower cumulative temperature (<2400 °C), and a reduced diurnal temperature range (<10 °C) hindered decreases in titratable acidity. Conversely, low rainfall (<220 mm), high cumulative temperature (>3150 °C), and a high diurnal temperature range (>14 °C) promoted the accumulation of soluble solids in young fruits (9 %) at 120 days after flowering (DAF). Furthermore, low rainfall (<100 mm) favored the accumulation of soluble solids (1.5 %) during fruit expansion (195-225DAF). To quantify the relationship between fruit acidity and climate variables at 120 DAF, we developed a regression model, which was further validated by actual measurements and accurately predicted fruit acidity in 2023. Our findings have the potential to assist citrus growers in optimizing cultivation techniques for the production of high-quality citrus under increasingly variable climatic conditions.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Citrus , Mudança Climática , China , Temperatura Baixa , Frutas
17.
Food Chem ; 447: 138989, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492297

RESUMO

Limonin is an intensely bitter and highly oxidized tetracyclic triterpenoid secondary metabolite, which is abundant in the Rutaceae and Meliaceae, especially in Citrus. In order to detect limonin content in complex substrates such as citrus and traditional Chinese medicine, monoclonal antibodies specifically recognizing limonin were prepared and an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was established. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) was 5.40 ng/mL and the linear range was 1.25-23.84 ng/mL. The average recoveries from citrus peel and pulp samples were 95.9%-118.8% and 77.5%-113.1%, respectively. Moreover, the contents of limonin in 6 citrus samples and 4 herbal samples were analyzed by icELISA and UPLC-MS, and the results of the two methods were consistent. This validation is sufficient to demonstrate that the developed immunoassay is applicable for the detection of limonin in citrus and herbal samples and has the advantage of high efficiency, sensitivity, and convenience.


Assuntos
Citrus , Limoninas , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Limoninas/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Citrus/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509024

RESUMO

AIMS: Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is a plant disease putatively caused by the unculturable Gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), and it has caused severe damage to citrus plantations worldwide. There are no definitive treatments for this disease, and conventional disease control techniques have shown limited efficacy. This work presents an in silico evaluation of using specifically targeting anti-microbial peptides (STAMPs) consisting of a targeting segment and an antimicrobial segment to inhibit citrus greening by inhibiting the BamA protein of CLas, which is an outer membrane protein crucial for bacterial viability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Initially, a set of peptides with a high affinity toward BamA protein were screened and evaluated via molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations and were verified in vitro via bio-layer interferometry (BLI). In silico studies and BLI experiments indicated that two peptides, HASP2 and HASP3, showed stable binding to BamA. Protein structures for STAMPs were created by fusing known anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) with the selected short peptides. The binding of STAMPs to BamA was assessed using molecular docking and binding energy calculations. The attachment of high-affinity short peptides significantly reduced the free energy of binding for AMPs, suggesting that it would make it easier for the STAMPs to bind to BamA. Efficacy testing in vitro using a closely related CLas surrogate bacterium showed that STAMPs had greater inhibitory activity than AMP alone. CONCLUSIONS: In silico and in vitro results indicate that the STAMPs can inhibit CLas surrogate Rhizobium grahamii more effectively compared to AMPs, suggesting that STAMPs can achieve better inhibition of CLas, potentially via enhancing the site specificity of AMPs.


Assuntos
Citrus , Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Animais , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Liberibacter , Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130500, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endotoxemia is a severe and dangerous clinical syndrome that results in elevated morbidity, especially in intensive care units. Neonates are particularly susceptible to endotoxemia due to their immature immune systems. There are few effective treatments for neonatal endotoxemia. One group of compounds with potential in the treatment of neonatal inflammatory diseases such as endotoxemia is the flavonoids, mainly due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Among these, naringenin (NGN) is a citrus flavonoid which has already been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-nociceptive and anti-cancer effects. Unfortunately, its clinical application is limited by its low solubility and bioavailability. However, cyclodextrins (CDs) have been widely used to improve the solubility of nonpolar drugs and enhance the bioavailability of these natural products. OBJECTIVE: We, therefore, aimed to investigate the effects of NGN non-complexed and complexed with hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD) on neonatal endotoxemia injuries in a rodent model and describe the probable molecular mechanisms involved in NGN activities. METHOD: We used exposure to a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce neonatal endotoxemia in the mice. RESULTS: It was found that NGN (100 mg/kg i.p.) exposure during the neonatal period reduced leukocyte migration and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6) levels in the lungs, heart, kidneys or cerebral cortex. In addition, NGN upregulated IL-10 production in the lungs and kidneys of neonate mice. The administration of NGN also enhanced antioxidant enzyme catalase and SOD activity, reduced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and increased the reduced sulfhydryl groups in an organ-dependent manner, attenuating the oxidative damage caused by LPS exposure. NGN decreased ERK1/2, p38MAPK and COX-2 activation in the lungs of neonate mice. Moreover, NGN complexed with HPßCD was able to increase the animal survival rate. CONCLUSION: NGN attenuated inflammatory and oxidative damage in the lungs, heart and kidneys caused by neonatal endotoxemia through the MAPK signaling pathways regulation. Our results show that NGN has beneficial effects against neonatal endotoxemia and could be useful in the treatment of neonatal inflammatory injuries.


Assuntos
Citrus , Endotoxemia , Flavanonas , Camundongos , Animais , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Endotoxemia/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6010, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472384

RESUMO

The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae), is an extremely polyphagous pest that threatens the fruit production and trading industry worldwide. Monitoring C. capitata populations and analysing its dynamics and phenology is considered of outmost importance for designing and implementing sound management approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors regulating the population dynamics of the C. capitata in a coastal and semi-mountainous area. We focused on effects of topography (e.g. elevation), host presence and seasonal patterns of ripening on the phenological patterns considering data collected in 2008. The experimental area is characterized by mixed fruit orchards, and Mediterranean climate with mild winters. Two trap types were used for population monitoring. The female targeted McPhail type and the male targeted Jackson type. Traps were placed in farms located at different elevations and landscape morphology (coastal and semi-mountainous areas). The main crops included citrus, apples, peaches, plums, pears, figs, quinces and apricots. Adult captures were first recorded in May, peaked in mid-summer and mid-autumn and almost ceased at the end of the season (January 2008). Captures in the coastal areas preceded that of highlands by 15 days. Most of the adults detected during the fruit ripening of late stone fruit cultivars (first peak) and citrus (second peak). The probability of capturing the first adults preceded almost three weeks the peak of adult captures either considering the elevation or host focus analyses. The results provide valuable information on the seasonal population trend of C. capitata in mixed fruit Mediterranean orchards and can support the set-up of IPM systems in areas with various landscapes and different hosts throughout the fruit growing season.


Assuntos
Ceratitis capitata , Citrus , Malus , Tephritidae , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Ceratitis capitata/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Clima
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