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1.
Talanta ; 251: 123765, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931010

RESUMO

A recently optimized rapid, cheap, and accurate coulometric method has been exploited to determine the antioxidant capacity of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) by-products, including first (FPJ) and second press juices (SPJ), in comparison to analogous products from several citrus species. Extracts from the entire edible part (i.e., juice and pulp) and de-oiled peel of bergamot were also assayed. The Coulometrically Determined Antioxidant Capacity (CDAC) data, expressed as moles of electrons per mass of sample, were evaluated with other parameters such as total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition. The CDAC of bergamot FPJ (39 mmol e- kg-1) was comparable with other citrus juices (20-65 mmol e- kg-1 range), whereas the CDAC of bergamot SPJ (816 mmol e- kg-1) was strikingly higher than the counterparts from other citrus fruits. This value approached that of bergamot peel extracts (822 mmol e- kg-1). Bergamot peel and SPJ also exhibited the highest DPPH inhibition. The CDAC values were associated with the HPLC-determined content of flavonoids, namely neoeriocitrin, naringin, and neohesperidin, which were 4-10-fold more concentrated in bergamot SPJ and peel than in SPJ from other citrus species. These findings contribute to point at bergamot by-products as rich sources of antioxidant compounds on a quantitative basis, highlighting their enormous potential for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and food applications.


Assuntos
Citrus , Óleos Voláteis , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo , Carotenoides/análise , Clorambucila/análogos & derivados , Citrus/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133834, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961174

RESUMO

Insoluble dietary fibre from citrus peels (CIDF) was found to have adsorption and inhibitory effect on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL). CIDF-400 exhibited the greatest adsorption and activity inhibition effect on PL. The fluorescence quenching spectra indicated that CIDF could quench PL through a dynamic quenching process induced by the electrostatic interactions with only one binding site between them. The synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that CIDF might combine with PL to induce the increase in hydrophobicity and the reduction in polarity of tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Try) residues, which further led to the conformational alternations of PL. Moreover, circular dichroism (CD) showed that CIDF altered the secondary structure of PL, decreased α-helical structure content, and increased ß-sheet structure content, potentially resulting in PL structure opening and its active site exposure. This study provides new perspectives for the application of CIDFs produced from agricultural waste in regulating lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Citrus , Lipase , Adsorção , Dicroísmo Circular , Citrus/química , Fibras na Dieta , Lipase/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

RESUMO

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Citrus , Aedes , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Frutas , Larva
4.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366445

RESUMO

Grafting cultivars onto rootstocks is a widely used practice by the apple industry predominantly aimed at faster fruit bearing. Using high-throughput sequencing, we revealed the presence of recently described viral agents, namely apple hammerhead viroid (AHVd), apple luteovirus 1 (ALV-1), and citrus concave gum-associated virus (CCGaV), in germplasm collections and production orchards in the Czech Republic and Hungary. The HTS results were validated with RT-(q)PCR, and Northern blotting techniques. To obtain further insight about the presence of these agents, RT-PCR based surveys were carried out and showed their widespread presence alone or in mixed infections. The pathogens were present both in production areas and in feral samples. In addition, rootstock-to-scion transmission of ALV-1 and CCGaV was confirmed using commercial rootstock materials. Phylogenetic relationships based on partial sequences of distinct variants were also investigated. Furthermore, the rosy apple aphid was found to be ALV-1-positive, suggesting that it might be a potential vector of the virus.


Assuntos
Citrus , Luteovirus , Viroides , Viroides/genética , Vírus Satélites , Filogenia , República Tcheca , Hungria
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19876, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400797

RESUMO

Citrus black spot (CBS), caused by the fungus Phyllosticta citricarpa, is associated with serious yield and quality losses. The climate suitability of the Mediterranean Basin for CBS development has been long debated. However, CBS has been described in Tunisia. In this study, a generic model was used to simulate potential infections by ascospores and pycnidiospores together with a degree-day model to predict the onset of ascospore release. High-resolution climatic data were retrieved from the ERA5-Land dataset for the citrus-growing regions in the Mediterranean Basin and other locations where CBS is present. In general, the onset of ascospore release was predicted to occur late in spring, but there is no agreement on the adequacy of this empirical model for extrapolation to the Mediterranean Basin. The generic model indicated that infections by ascospores and pycnidiospores would be concentrated mainly in autumn, as well as in spring for pycnidiospores. In contrast to previous studies, the percentage of hours suitable for infection was higher for pycnidiospores than for ascospores. The values obtained with the generic infection model for Tunisia and several CBS-affected locations worldwide were similar to those for other citrus-growing regions in Europe and Northern Africa. These results support previous work indicating that the climate of the Mediterranean Basin is suitable for CBS development.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Citrus , Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Tunísia
6.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359881

RESUMO

Viroids are single-stranded, circular RNA molecules (234-406 nt) that infect a wide range of crop species and cause economic losses in agriculture worldwide. They are characterized by the existence of a population of sequence variants, attributed to the low fidelity of RNA polymerases involved in their transcription, resulting in high mutation rates. Therefore, these biological entities exist as quasispecies. This feature allows them to replicate within a wide range of host plants, both monocots and dicots. Viroid hosts include economically important crops such as tomato, citrus, and fruit trees such as peach and avocado. Given the high risk of introducing viroids to viroid disease-free countries, these pathogens have been quarantined globally. As discussed herein, Mexico represents a geographical landscape of viroids linked to their origin and comprises considerable biodiversity. The biological features of viroid species endemic to Mexico are highlighted in this communication. In addition, we report the phylogenetic relationships among viroid and viroid strains, their economic impact, geographical distribution, and epidemiological features, including a broad host range and possible long-distance, seed, or insect-mediated transmission. In summary, this review could be helpful for a better understanding of the biology of viroid diseases and future programs on control of movement and spread to avoid economic losses in agricultural industries.


Assuntos
Citrus , Lycopersicon esculentum , Viroides , Viroides/genética , Filogenia , México/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17797, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273033

RESUMO

Dehydration technique with 80% sulfuric acid was used to create a novel biochar from mandarin peel wastes followed by condensate with triethylenetetramine (TETA) to give Mandarin Biochar-TETA (MBT). BJH, BET, FTIR, SEM, DSC, TGA, and EDX studies were used to characterise the MBT. The capacity of the newly developed biochar to remove Acid Yellow 11 (AY11) dye from a water solution was studied. The pH of AY11 dye adsorption was found to be best at pH 1.5. Using 100 ppm AY11 dye as a beginning concentration and 1.75 g L-1 MBT dose, the greatest percent of AY11 dye removal by MBT was 97.83%. The MBT calculated maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) was 384.62 mg g-1. Langmuir (LIM), Freundlich (FIM), Tempkin (TIM), and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DRIM) isotherm models were applied to analyse the experimental data. Furthermore, the results of these isotherm models were investigated by various known error function equations. The MBT experimental data was best suited by the LIM. Pseudo-first-order (PFO), pseudo-second-order (PSO), Elovich kinetic model (EKM), intraparticle diffusion (IPD), and film diffusion (FD) models were used to calculate kinetic data. A PSO rate model with a high correlation (R2 > 0.990) was used to assess the adsorption rate. The main mechanism of the MBT adsorption method of the AY11 dye's anions adsorption is the electrostatic attractive forces that arise with the increase of positively charged sites in an acidic medium. The obtained data suggest that the prepared MBT adsorbent has the potential to be an effective material to remove the AY11 dye from water and that it may be used repeatedly without losing its adsorption efficiency.


Assuntos
Citrus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Água , Trientina , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Ácidos , Termodinâmica
8.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296637

RESUMO

Increasing concerns over the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in animal production has prompted the need to explore the use of natural alternatives such as phytogenic compounds and probiotics. Citrus EOs have the potential to be used as an alternative to antibiotics in animals. The purpose of this research was to study the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of five citrus EOs, grapefruit essential oil (GEO), sweet orange EO (SEO), bergamot EO (BEO), lemon EO (LEO) and their active component d-limonene EO (DLEO). The chemical composition of EOs was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activities of the EOs on three bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Lactobacillus acidophilus) were tested by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and inhibition zone diameter (IZD). The antioxidant activities of EOs were evaluated by measuring the free radical scavenging activities of DPPH and ABTS. We found that the active components of the five citrus EOs were mainly terpenes, and the content of d-limonene was the highest. The antibacterial test showed that citrus EOs had selective antibacterial activity, and the LEO had the best selective antibacterial activity. Similarly, the LEO had the best scavenging ability for DPPH radicals, and DLEO had the best scavenging ability for ABTS. Although the main compound of the five citrus EOs was d-limonene, the selective antibacterial and antioxidant activity of them might not be primarily attributed to the d-limonene, but some other compounds' combined action.


Assuntos
Citrus , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Citrus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Limoneno , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Radicais Livres
9.
Plant Sci ; 325: 111489, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216298

RESUMO

Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' (CGT) (Huajuhong, HJH) is a widely used medicinal plant, which is mainly produced in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces of South China. Particularly, HJH from Huazhou (HZ) county of Guangdong province has been well-regarded as the best national product for geo-herbalism. But the reasons for geo-herbalism property in HJH from HZ county remains a mystery. Therefore, a multi-omics approach was applied to identify the nature of the geo-herbalism in CGT from three different regions. The comprehensive screening of differential metabolites revealed that the Nobiletin content was significantly different in HZ region compared to other regions, and could be employed as a key indicator to determine the geo-herbalism. Furthermore, the high-quality genome (N50 of 9.12 Mb), coupled with genomics and transcriptomics analyses indicated that CGT and Citrus grandis are closely related, with a predicted divergence time of 19.1 million years ago (MYA), and no recent WGD occurred in the CGT, and the bioactive ingredients of CGT were more abundant than that of Citrus grandis. Interestingly, Nobiletin (Polymethoxyflavones) content was identified as a potential indicator of geo-herbalism, and O-methyltransferase (OMT) genes are involved in the synthesis of Polymethoxyflavones. Further multi-omics analysis led to the identification of a novel OMT gene (CtgOMT1) whose transient overexpression displayed significantly higher Nobiletin content, suggesting that CtgOMT1 was involved in the synthesis of Nobiletin. Overall, our findings provide new data resources for geo-herbalism evaluation, germplasm conservation and insights into Nobiletin biosynthesis pathways for the medicinal plant C. grandis 'Tomentosa'.


Assuntos
Citrus , Plantas Medicinais , Citrus/genética , Medicina Herbária , China , Plantas Medicinais/genética
10.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297036

RESUMO

p-Synephrine is the principal alkaloid of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Several recent investigations have found that the intake of 2-3 mg/kg of p-synephrine raises fat oxidation rate during exercise of low-to-moderate intensity. However, these investigations have been carried out only with samples of male participants or mixed men/women samples. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to study the effect of p-synephrine intake on fat oxidation during exercise of increasing intensity in healthy women. Using a double-blind, randomized experiment, 18 healthy recreationally active women performed two identical exercise trials after the ingestion of (a) 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine and (b) 3 mg/kg of a placebo (cellulose). The exercise trials consisted of a ramp test (from 30 to 80% of maximal oxygen uptake; VO2max) on a cycle ergometer while substrate oxidation rates were measured at each workload by indirect calorimetry. In comparison to the placebo, the intake of p-synephrine increased resting tympanic temperature (36.1 ± 0.5 vs. 36.4 ± 0.4 °C p = 0.033, d = 0.87) with no effect on resting heart rate (p = 0.111) and systolic (p = 0.994) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.751). During exercise, there was no significant effect of p-synephrine on fat oxidation rate (F = 0.517; p = 0.484), carbohydrate oxidation rate (F = 0.730; p = 0.795), energy expenditure rate (F = 0.480; p = 0.833), heart rate (F = 4.269; p = 0.068) and participant's perceived exertion (F = 0.337; p = 0.580). The maximal rate of fat oxidation with placebo was 0.26 ± 0.10 g/min and it was similar with p-synephrine (0.28 ± 0.08 g/min, p = 0.449, d = 0.21). An acute intake of 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine before exercise did not modify energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise in healthy active women. It is likely that the increase in resting tympanic temperature induced by p-synephrine hindered the effect of this substance on fat utilization during exercise in healthy active women.


Assuntos
Citrus , Sinefrina , Feminino , Humanos , Carboidratos , Celulose , Citrus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sinefrina/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(11): 1663-1668, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36310053

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the aroma components of absolute oil from natsudaidai (Citrus natsudaidai Hayata) flowers. A total of 43 aroma components were detected in the absolute oil of natsudaidai flowers using a headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The most abundant components from the absolute oil was linalool (31.14%), followed by methyl anthranilate, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, (E)-ß-ocimene, limonene, indole and α-terpineol. The configuration of linalool from the absolute oil was assigned as (S)-form and its optical purities were determined as 89.36±0.36% enantiomeric excess using a SPME-chiral GC. These results indicated that the composition of aroma components in the absolute oil would influence the overall aroma qualities of natsudaidai flowers and the physiological effects on human.


Assuntos
Citrus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Citrus/química , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Flores/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2206076119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260744

RESUMO

Although interactions between the cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes occurred during diversification of many plants, the evolutionary conflicts due to cytonuclear interactions are poorly understood in crop breeding. Here, we constructed a pan-mitogenome and identified chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) generated by extensive structural variations (SVs). Meanwhile, short reads from 184 accessions of citrus species were combined to construct three variation maps for the nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast genomes. The population genomic data showed discordant topologies between the cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes because of differences in mutation rates and levels of heteroplasmy from paternal leakage. An analysis of species-specific SVs indicated that mitochondrial heteroplasmy was common and that chloroplast heteroplasmy was undetectable. Interestingly, we found a prominent divergence in the mitogenomes and the highest genetic load in the, which may provide the basis for cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and thus influence the reshuffling of the cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes during hybridization. Using cytoplasmic replacement experiments, we identified a type of species-specific CMS in mandarin related to two chimeric mitochondrial genes. Our analyses indicate that cytoplasmic genomes from mandarin have rarely been maintained in hybrids and that paternal leakage produced very low levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy in mandarin. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) provided evidence for three nuclear genes that encode pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins contributing to the cytonuclear interactions in the Citrus genus. Our study demonstrates the occurrence of evolutionary conflicts between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes in citrus and has important implications for genetics and breeding.


Assuntos
Citrus , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Domesticação , Citrus/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética
13.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298820

RESUMO

Viroid and viroid-like satellite RNAs are infectious, circular, non-protein coding RNAs reported in plants only so far. Some viroids (family Avsunviroidae) and viroid-like satellite RNAs share self-cleaving activity mediated by hammerhead ribozymes (HHRzs) endowed in both RNA polarity strands. Using a homology-independent method based on the search for conserved structural motifs of HHRzs in reads and contigs from high-throughput sequenced RNAseq libraries, we identified a novel small (550 nt) viroid-like RNA in a library from a Citrus reticulata tree. Such a viroid-like RNA contains a HHRz in both polarity strands. Northern blot hybridization assays showed that circular forms of both polarity strands of this RNA (tentatively named citrus transiently-associated hammerhead viroid-like RNA1 (CtaHVd-LR1)) exist, supporting its replication through a symmetric pathway of the rolling circle mechanism. CtaHVd-LR1 adopts a rod-like conformation and has the typical features of quasispecies. Its HHRzs were shown to be active during transcription and in the absence of any protein. CtaHVd-LR1 was not graft-transmissible, and after its first identification, it was not found again in the original citrus source when repeatedly searched in the following years, suggesting that it was actually not directly associated with the plant. Therefore, the possibility that this novel self-cleaving viroid-like RNA is actually associated with another organism (e.g., a fungus), in turn, transiently associated with citrus plants, is proposed.


Assuntos
Citrus , RNA Catalítico , Viroides , Viroides/genética , Viroides/metabolismo , RNA Catalítico/genética , RNA/genética , Árvores , Citrus/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , RNA Satélite , Plantas/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293338

RESUMO

Nobiletin, a dietary citrus flavonoid, exerts biological activities against hyperlipidemia, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs). The aim of this study was to explore the lipid-lowering effects of nobiletin and the underlying molecular mechanisms in vitro in hepatic cells and in vivo in zebrafish models. Transcriptome and gene ontology (GO) analyses of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that a set of twenty-eight core enrichment DEGs associated with "GO BP regulation of lipid metabolic process" (GO: 0019216) were significantly downregulated in nobiletin-treated cells. Among these genes, angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3), an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity that regulates TG-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) metabolism in circulation, was the protein most markedly downregulated by nobiletin. Nobiletin (20 and 40 µM) significantly reduced the levels of ANGPTL3 mRNA and intracellular and secreted ANGPTL3 proteins in hepatic cell lines. Furthermore, alleviation of secreted ANGPTL3 production by nobiletin was found to reinstate LPL catalytic activity. Nobiletin significantly inhibited ANGPTL3 promoter activity and attenuated the transcription factor liver X receptor-α (LXRα)-mediated ANGPTL3 transcription. Molecular docking analysis predicted that nobiletin could bind to the ligand-binding domain of LXRα, thereby counteracting LXRα activation. In animal studies, orally administered nobiletin significantly alleviated the levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol in zebrafish fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, nobiletin significantly reduced the amounts of hepatic ANGPTL3 protein in zebrafish. Our findings suggest that nobiletin may regulate the LXRα-ANGPTL3-LPL axis and exhibit lipid-modulating effects in vitro and in vivo. Thus, nobiletin is a potential ANGPTL3 inhibitor for the regulation of lipid metabolism to ameliorate dyslipidemia and ASCVDs.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 Semelhante a Angiopoietina , Citrus , Animais , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/genética , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Receptores X do Fígado/genética , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Citrus/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligantes , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Angiopoietinas/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas , RNA Mensageiro , Fatores de Transcrição
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293814

RESUMO

Exploring suitable types and intensities of environmental regulations to promote technological innovation and guide industrial green growth is an essential goal for China. This paper uses the SBM super-efficiency model with the GML index to measure the level of green growth in China's citrus industry from 2008 to 2019, and examines the impact generated by heterogeneous environmental regulations and the mediating effect of technological innovation using a panel Tobit model. The study found that: (1) From 2008 to 2019, the green growth level of the citrus industry has gradually improved, with an average annual growth rate of 2.7%, and the contribution of technical efficiency is more significant than technological progress. (2) The green growth of the citrus industry is closely related to the intensity and type of environmental regulation. The impact of market-incentive environmental regulation has an inverted U-shape, the impact of guidance-based environmental regulation is U-shaped, and the command-and-control environmental regulation has no significant effect. (3) The mediating effect suggests that guidance-based environmental regulation promotes green growth in the citrus industry by stimulating technological innovation. In contrast, market-incentive environmental regulation inhibits technological innovation and thus discourages green growth in the citrus industry. According to the study results, the government should strive to ensure the effective implementation of environmental laws and regulations, optimize the channels and amounts of investment in environmental governance, strengthen environmental protection-related media campaigns, and guide the citrus industry to break through technological bottlenecks to promote green growth.


Assuntos
Citrus , Invenções , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , Indústrias , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico
16.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234689

RESUMO

D-limonene (4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene) is an important compound in several citrus essential oils (such as orange, lemon, tangerine, lime, and grapefruit). It has been used as a flavoring agent and as a food preservative agent, with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. D-limonene has been well-studied for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antibacterial properties. The antibacterial activity of D-limonene against food-borne pathogens was investigated in this study by preparing a D-limonene nanoemulsion. The D-limonene solution and nanoemulsion have been prepared in six concentrations, 0.04%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% (v/v), respectively, and the antibacterial activity was tested against four food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli). The results showed that the D-limonene nanoemulsion had good nanoscale and overall particle size uniformity, and its particle size was about 3~5 nm. It has been found that the D-limonene solution and nanoemulsion have a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.336 mg/mL, and that they could inhibit the growth of microorganisms efficiently. The data indicate that the D-limonene nanoemulsion has more antibacterial ability against microorganisms than the D-limonene essential oil. After bananas are treated with 1.0% and 1.5% D-limonene nanoemulsion coatings, the water loss of the bananas during storage and the percentage of weight loss are reduced, which can inhibit the activity of pectinase. The application of a biocoating provides a good degree of antibacterial activity and air and moisture barrier properties, which help with extending the shelf life of bananas.


Assuntos
Citrus , Filmes Comestíveis , Musa , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Limoneno/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Poligalacturonase , Terpenos/farmacologia , Água/farmacologia
17.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234812

RESUMO

Citrus essential oils are routinely adulterated because of the lack of regulations or reliable authentication methods. Unfortunately, the relatively simple chemical makeup and the tremendous price variations among Citrus varieties encouraged the interspecies adulteration of citrus oils. In this study, a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of 14 coumarins and furanocoumarins is developed and validated. This method was applied to screen the essential oils of 12 different Citrus species. This study, to our knowledge, represents the most comprehensive investigation of coumarin and furanocoumarin profiles across commercial-scale Citrus oils to date. Results show that the lowest amount was detected in calamansi oil. Expressed oil of Italian bergamot showed the highest furanocoumarin content and the highest level of any individual furanocoumarin (bergamottin). Notable differences were observed in the coumarin and furanocoumarin levels among oils of different crop varieties and origins within the same species. Potential correlations were observed between bergapten and xanthotoxin which matches with known biosynthetic pathways. We found patterns in furanocoumarin profiles that line up with known variations among the Citrus ancestral taxa. However, contrary to the literature, we also detected xanthotoxin in sweet orange and members of the mandarin taxon. Using multivariate analysis, we were able to divide the Citrus oils into 5 main groups and correlate them to the coumarin compositions.


Assuntos
Citrus , Furocumarinas , Óleos Voláteis , 5-Metoxipsoraleno , Cromatografia Líquida , Citrus/química , Cumarínicos/química , Furocumarinas/química , Metoxaleno , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235014

RESUMO

The quality of Chinese medicinal materials depends on the content of bioactive components, which are affected by the environmental factors of different planting regions. In this research, integrated analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of C. reticulata 'Chachi' was performed in two regions, and three orchards were included in the analysis. In total, only 192 compounds were found in fresh peels, and among 18 differentially accumulated flavonoid metabolites, 15 flavonoids were enriched in peels from the Xinhui planting region. In total, 1228 genes were up-regulated in peels from Xinhui, including the CHS and GST genes, which are involved in the salt stress response. Overall, based on the correlation analysis of flavonoid content and gene expression in peels of C. reticulata 'Chachi', we concluded that the authenticity of the GCRP from Xinhui may be closely related to the higher content of naringin and narirutin, and the increase in the content of these may be due to the highly saline environment of the Xinhui region.


Assuntos
Citrus , Citrus/genética , Flavonoides , Metaboloma , Transcriptoma
19.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235672

RESUMO

Synephrine has been used to promote weight loss; however, its safety and efficacy have not been fully established. The goals of our study were to give an overview of the safety and efficacy of p-synephrine, to systematically evaluate its efficacy regarding weight loss and to assess its safety, focusing on its cardiovascular side effects in a meta-analysis. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Embase were searched for relevant studies. Only placebo-controlled, human clinical trials with synephrine intervention were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was reported according to the PRISMA guidelines using the PICOS format and taking into account the CONSORT recommendations. Altogether, 18 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased significantly after prolonged use (6.37 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.02-11.72, p = 0.02 and 4.33 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.48-8.18, p = 0.03, respectively). The weight loss in the synephrine group was non-significant after prolonged treatment, and it did not influence body composition parameters. Based on the analyzed clinical studies, synephrine tends to raise blood pressure and heart rate, and there is no evidence that synephrine can facilitate weight loss. Further studies are needed to confirm evidence of its safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Citrus , Sinefrina , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sinefrina/farmacologia , Redução de Peso
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e266065, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287405

RESUMO

Our study evaluated the oviposition behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) in five fruit species. Apples, guavas, mangoes, peaches and tangerines were exposed to infestation for 6, 12 and 24 hours. Anastrepha fraterculus and C. capitata showed different oviposition behaviour in apples and tangerines and similar oviposition behaviour in guavas, mangoes and peaches. There was a positive correlation between infestation time and pupae/kg, as well as between pupae/fruit and the survival rate of the immature (pupal viability). In this study, we present discussions about the oviposition behaviour of flies and the host infestation index. This index can reflect the reproductive capacity that each fruit species offers for each fly species. Here, we see an adult recovery rate greater than 89% in the highest infestation index observed in guava (185 A. fraterculus per unit fruit) and peach (220 C. capitata per unit fruit). Understanding the reproductive capacity of each host can help with risk analysis and the management of fruit flies.


Assuntos
Ceratitis capitata , Citrus , Mangifera , Psidium , Tephritidae , Animais , Feminino , Oviposição , Frutas , Pupa
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