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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130541, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273855

RESUMO

Penicillium oxalicum has been used as a biocontrol fungus in agriculture for many years, but the antimicrobial substances are still uncertain. Herein, we isolated a linear peptide named Sanxiapeptin in the culture broth of Penicillium oxalicum SG-4 collecting from the Three Gorges riparian zone. Sanxiapeptin exhibited potent inhibitory effect on citrus green mold Penicillium digitatum, the main fungi responsible for postharvest decay. Sanxiapeptin was elucidated as composing of five amino acids, which were ß-amino-α-methoxybutyric acid (Amoba), N-Me-l-Thr, d-Thr, N-Me-l-Val and l-Ser. By analyzing three chemically synthesized oligopeptides with similar structures, we found that the first amino acid of Amoba was crucial to the antifungal activity, as was the methylation of peptide bond. Sanxiapeptin may act as an antimicrobial agent by affecting the function of cell membranes or walls. The antimicrobial spectrum, safety and stability analysis supported that Sanxiapeptin was a promising antifungal agent for citrus preservation.


Assuntos
Citrus , Penicillium , Frutas , Doenças das Plantas
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130605, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311239

RESUMO

The Citrus genus is a good source of dietary flavonoids, which have many health benefits. As a representative citrus fruit, the flavonoids composition in Shatianyu (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) pulp remains to be investigated. In the present study, 11 flavonoids were isolated and identified from Shatianyu pulp flavonoid extracts (SPFEs). Among them, 4 flavonoids were previously undescribed and 2 flavonoids were firstly isolated from pummelo. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of isolated compounds were evaluated. Naringin and rhoifolin showed the highest ORAC activity, and the presence of a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl or a 4'-glucose decreased the ORAC activity of flavonoids. The contribution of isolated flavonoids to the holistic antioxidant activity of SPFEs was determined by an online knockout method. Melitidin, bergamjuicin and naringin contributed most to ORAC activity, while bergamjuicin, melitidin and apigenin-4'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 â†’ 2)-[6″-O-(3- hydroxy-3-methylgltaryl)]-ß-d-glucopyranoside contributed most to CAA activity.


Assuntos
Citrus , Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130635, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352690

RESUMO

In this study, tailored-made citrus pectin-derived compounds were produced through controlled enzymatic and/or chemical modifications of commercial citrus pectin with different degrees of methylesterification (DM) and similar average molecular weight (MW). In the first treatment, degradation of the citrus pectin (CP) materials by endo-polygalacturonase (EPG) yielded pectins with average Mw's (between 2 and 60 kDa). Separation and identification of the oligosaccharide fraction present in these samples, revealed the presence of non-methylesterified galacturonic acid oligomers with degree of polymerization (DP) 1-5. In the second treatment, exploiting the combined effect of EPG and pectin lyase, compounds with MW between 2 and 21 kDa, containing methylesterified and non-methylesterified polygalacturonans (DP 1-6), were generated. Finally, CP was sequentially modified by chemical saponification and the action of EPG. A sample of DM 11% and MW 2.7 kDa, containing POS (DP 1-5), was produced. Diverse pectin-derived compounds were successfully generated for further studies exploring their functionality.


Assuntos
Citrus , Pectinas , Peso Molecular , Oligossacarídeos , Poligalacturonase/genética
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468512

RESUMO

': Kinnow' mandarin (Citrus nobilis L.× Citrus deliciosa T.) is an important marketable fruit of the world. It is mainstay of citrus industry in Pakistan, having great export potential. But out of total production of the country only 10% of the produce meets the international quality standard for export. Pre-harvest fruit drop and poor fruit quality could be associated with various issues including the plant nutrition. Most of the farmers do not pay attention to the supply of micro nutrients which are already deficient in the soil. Furthermore, their mobility within plants is also a question. Zinc (Zn) is amongst those micronutrients which affect the quality and postharvest life of the fruit and its deficiency in Pakistani soils is already reported by many researchers. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the influence of pre-harvest applications of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0, 0.4%, 0.6% or 0.8%) on pre-harvest fruit drop, yield and fruit quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin at harvest. The treatments were applied during the month of October i.e. 4 months prior to harvest. The applied Zn sprays had significant effect on yield and quality of the "Kinnow" fruit. Amongst different foliar applications of ZnSO4applied four months before harvest, 0.6% ZnSO4 significantly reduced pre-harvest fruit drop (10.08%) as compared to untreated control trees (46.45%). Similarly, the maximum number of fruits harvested per tree (627), fruit weight (192.9 g), juice percentage (42.2%), total soluble solids (9.5 °Brix), ascorbic acid content (35.5 mg 100 g-1) and sugar contents (17.4) were also found significantly higher with 0.6% ZnSO4 treatment as compared to rest of treatments and control. Foliar application of 0.6% ZnSO4 also significantly improved total antioxidants (TAO) and total phenolic contents (TPC) in fruit. In conclusion, foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.6%) four months prior to harvest reduced pre-harvest fruit drop, increase yield with improved quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin fruit.


Assuntos
Citrus , Frutas , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10869-10884, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499509

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas), is a devastating citrus disease worldwide. While all citrus are affected by HLB, some cultivars display greater tolerance; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, volatile changes in HLB-tolerant LB8-9 Sugar Belle (SB) and HLB-sensitive Murcott mandarins after CaLas infection were comprehensively compared to determine if specific volatiles are associated with HLB responses and to discern the underlying tolerance mechanisms. These cultivars emitted qualitatively and quantitatively different volatiles in response to HLB induced by artificial graft or natural psyllid inoculation. Increasing amounts of total volatiles and de novo-synthesized new volatiles were two key responses to HLB of both cultivars. Markers potentially associated with HLB and host susceptibility were identified. Terpenoid biosynthetic pathway, green leaf volatile, and thymol metabolic pathways responsive to CaLas infection were dramatically altered. SB mandarin allows simultaneous defense and growth, contributing to its greater HLB tolerance.


Assuntos
Citrus , Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Animais , Liberibacter , Doenças das Plantas , Folhas de Planta
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10807-10818, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505777

RESUMO

A multifunctional surface, subsurface and systemic therapeutic (MS3T) formulation comprised of two bactericides, both didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and a zinc (Zn)-chelate, was developed as an alternative to copper pesticides for crop protection. Agricultural grade chemicals were used to prepare MS3T formulations. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be tested in vitro against Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (herein called Xa), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas syringae (Ps). Assessment of the phytotoxic potential was carried out on tomato under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, field trials were conducted during three consecutive years on grapefruit (Chrysopelea paradise) groves to evaluate efficacy against citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri), scab (Elsinoe fawcetti), and melanose (Diaporthe citri). In addition to disease control, improvements to both fruit yield and quality were observed likely due to the nutritional activity of MS3T via the sustained release of plant nutrients (Zn and nitrogen). Zn residues of leaf tissues were analyzed via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) at various time points before and after MS3T foliar applications throughout the duration of the 2018 field trial. Field trial results demonstrated MS3T to be an effective alternative to copper (Cu)-based formulations for the control of citrus canker.


Assuntos
Citrus , Xanthomonas , Ascomicetos , Escherichia coli , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 677, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is one the causative agents of greening disease in citrus, an unccurable, devastating disease of citrus worldwide. CLas is vectored by Diaphorina citri, and the understanding of the molecular interplay between vector and pathogen will provide additional basis for the development and implementation of successful management strategies. We focused in the molecular interplay occurring in the gut of the vector, a major barrier for CLas invasion and colonization. RESULTS: We investigated the differential expression of vector and CLas genes by analyzing a de novo reference metatranscriptome of the gut of adult psyllids fed of CLas-infected and healthy citrus plants for 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 days. CLas regulates the immune response of the vector affecting the production of reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen, and the production of antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, CLas overexpressed peroxiredoxin, probably in a protective manner. The major transcript involved in immune expression was related to melanization, a CLIP-domain serine protease we believe participates in the wounding of epithelial cells damaged during infection, which is supported by the down-regulation of pangolin. We also detected that CLas modulates the gut peristalsis of psyllids through the down-regulation of titin, reducing the elimination of CLas with faeces. The up-regulation of the neuromodulator arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase implies CLas also interferes with the double brain-gut communication circuitry of the vector. CLas colonizes the gut by expressing two Type IVb pilin flp genes and several chaperones that can also function as adhesins. We hypothesized biofilm formation occurs by the expression of the cold shock protein of CLas. CONCLUSIONS: The thorough detailed analysis of the transcritome of Ca. L. asiaticus and of D. citri at different time points of their interaction in the gut tissues of the host led to the identification of several host genes targeted for regulation by L. asiaticus, but also bacterial genes coding for potential effector proteins. The identified targets and effector proteins are potential targets for the development of new management strategies directed to interfere with the successful utilization of the psyllid vector by this pathogen.


Assuntos
Citrus , Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Hemípteros/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Liberibacter , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizobiaceae/genética
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4446-4455, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581049

RESUMO

Twenty batches of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus(AFI) were collected, with their peel and pulp taken as research objects. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) fingerprints of peel and pulp of AFI were established with 17 common peaks in peel and 10 in pulp. Six kinds of flavonoids were identified, i.e., narirutin, naringin, rhoifolin, hesperidin, neohesperidin and nobiletin. The Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine was employed for similarity analysis, which showed that the chromatographic peaks of peel and pulp were basically similar to their respective reference fingerprints, with all similarities greater than 0.90. The similarity between peel and pulp of the same batch of AFI ranged from 0.850 to 0.983. Cluster analysis(CA), principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were conducted on the common peaks of peel and pulp of AFI with SPSS 17.0 and SIMCA 14.1. Combined with the reference fingerprints, these analyses revealed 12 differential components regarding peel and pulp. Further, the content of the 6 flavonoids and synephrine was determined. The proposed method integrating UPLC fingerprint and multicomponent quantitative analysis is applicable to the quality evaluation of AFI. The results provide a certain basis for the scientific connotation about the appearance characteristic of AFI.


Assuntos
Citrus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Sinefrina
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4865-4874, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581098

RESUMO

In ancient times, the original plants of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had experienced succession and change, including tangerine(Citrus reticulata), pomelo(C. grandis), and Huazhou pomelo(C. grandis 'Tomentosa'), a specific cultivar of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong. Before the Qing Dynasty, tangerine was the main original plant, while Huazhou pomelo came to the fore in the Qing Dynasty. In the 1950 s and 1960 s, the producing area of Huazhou pomelo was destroyed, and thus it had to be supplemented with pomelo. From then on, C. grandis 'Tomentosa' and C. grandis were both listed as the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the collection, processing, and efficacy of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium. The research showed that:(1)The harvest time of the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had changed from maturity to immaturity. The collection and processing of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was first recorded in the Illustrated Classics of Materia Medica in the Song Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the mesocarp of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum needed to be removed completely, and Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was processed into different specifications such as seven-piece, five-piece, and single piece. Furthermore, processed young fruits of Huazhou pomelo appeared.(2)Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium were processed with carp skin for the first time in the Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing. It was suggested that carp skin might be helpful for eliminating bones stuck in throat. During the Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, some other processing methods such as ba-king, stir-frying, and salt-processing appeared. Honey, soil, ginger juice, and alum were firstly used as adjuvants for the processing in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was mainly prepared with salt in order to improve the effect of lowering Qi, while it was unnecessary for Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' because of its obvious effect of lowering Qi and eliminating phlegm. The stir-frying and honey-frying methods helped reduce the strong effect of Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa'.(3)According to the application of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium in history, their medicinal use began in Han and Tang Dynasties, developed in Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, and matured in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was originally applied in Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it still plays an important in role treating COVID-19 nowadays. Moreover, Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis had cold medicinal property, while Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' had warm medicinal property, and thus they should not be treated the same. At present, Huazhou pomelo has a certain production scale. Therefore, it is recommended that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and C. grandis should be deleted. The results are conducive to the further development and utilization of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and support the rational use of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and its processed products.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Citrus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 357: 109384, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517294

RESUMO

Metschnikowia citriensis FL01 has great potential for biocontrol applications for its excellent biocontrol efficacy on postharvest diseases of citrus fruit, and the iron depletion by pulcherriminic acid (PA) and then formation of insoluble pigment pulcherrimin had been speculated as an important action mechanism. To identify the genes involved in pulcherrimin synthesis and reutilization in M. citriensis FL01, we de novo assembled the genome of M. citriensis FL01 based on long-read PacBio sequencing. The final assembled genome consisted of 12 contigs with a genome size of 25.74 Mb, G + C content of 49.16% and 9310 protein-coding genes. The genome-wide BLAST of the PUL genes of M. pulcherrima APC 1.2 showed that the four PUL genes were clustered and located on Contig 4 of M. citriensis FL01. In order to further clarify the role of pulcherrimin pigment on biocontrol of M. citriensis FL01, CRISPR/cas9 technology was used to knock out PUL2 gene that was responsible for PA synthesis and the pigmentless mutants with stable phenotype were obtained. The mutant strains of M. citriensis FL01 lost the ability to produce pulcherrimin pigment, and simultaneously lost the ability to inhibit the growth of Geotrichum citri-aurantii in vitro. Moreover, the biocontrol efficacy of pigmentless mutant strains against sour rot was about 80% lower than that of wild-type M. citriensis FL01. These results directly proved that the iron depletion was an important mechanism of M. citriensis FL01.


Assuntos
Citrus , Metschnikowia , Geotrichum , Ferro
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112579, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352583

RESUMO

Limited data are available on metabolic responses of plants to copper (Cu)-toxicity. Firstly, we investigated Cu-toxic effects on metabolomics, the levels of free amino acids, NH4+-N, NO3--N, total nitrogen, total soluble proteins, total phenolics, lignin, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde, and the activities of nitrogen-assimilatory enzymes in 'Shatian' pummelo (Citrus grandis) leaves. Then, a conjoint analysis of metabolomics, physiology and transcriptomics was performed. Herein, 59 upregulated [30 primary metabolites (PMs) and 29 secondary metabolites (SMs)] and 52 downregulated (31 PMs and 21 SMs) metabolites were identified in Cu-toxic leaves. The toxicity of Cu to leaves was related to the Cu-induced accumulation of NH4+ and decrease of nitrogen assimilation. Metabolomics combined with physiology and transcriptomics revealed some adaptive responses of C. grandis leaves to Cu-toxicity, including (a) enhancing tryptophan metabolism and the levels of some amino acids and derivatives (tryptophan, phenylalanine, 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan, 5-oxoproline and GSH); (b) increasing the accumulation of carbohydrates and alcohols and upregulating tricarboxylic acid cycle and the levels of some organic acids and derivatives (chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, d-tartaric acid and gallic acid o-hexoside); (c) reducing phospholipid (lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine) levels, increasing non-phosphate containing lipid [monoacylglycerol ester (acyl 18:2) isomer 1] levels, and inducing low-phosphate-responsive gene expression; and (d) triggering the biosynthesis of some chelators (total phenolics, lignin, l-trytamine, indole, eriodictyol C-hexoside, quercetin 5-O-malonylhexosyl-hexoside, N-caffeoyl agmatine, N'-p-coumaroyl agmatine, hydroxy-methoxycinnamate and protocatechuic acid o-glucoside) and vitamins and derivatives (nicotinic acid-hexoside, B1 and methyl nicotinate). Cu-induced upregulation of many antioxidants could not protect Cu-toxic leaves from oxidative damage. To conclude, our findings corroborated the hypothesis that extensive reprogramming of metabolites was carried out in Cu-toxic C. grandis leaves in order to cope with Cu-toxicity.


Assuntos
Citrus , Citrus/genética , Cobre/toxicidade , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta , Plântula/genética , Transcriptoma
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 397, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mandarin 'Shatangju' is susceptible to Huanglongbing (HLB) and the HLB-infected fruits are small, off-flavor, and stay-green at the maturity period. To understand the relationship between pericarp color and HLB pathogen and the effect mechanism of HLB on fruit pericarp coloration, quantitative analyses of HLB bacterial pathogens and carotenoids and also the integrative analysis of metabolome and transcriptome profiles were performed in the mandarin 'Shatangju' variety with four different color fruits, whole green fruits (WGF), top-yellow and base-green fruits (TYBGF), whole light-yellow fruits (WLYF), and whole dark-yellow fruits (WDYF) that were infected with HLB. RESULTS: the HLB bacterial population followed the order WGF > TYBGF > WLYF > WDYF. And there were significant differences between each group of samples. Regarding the accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoid, the chlorophyll-a content in WGF was the highest and in WDYF was the lowest. The content of chlorophyll-b in WGF was significantly higher than that in other three pericarps. There were significant differences in the total content of carotenoid between each group. WGF and TYBGF pericarps were low in phytoene, γ-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin and apocarotenal, while other kinds of carotenoids were significantly higher than those in WDYF. And WLYF was only short of apocarotenal. We comprehensively compared the transcriptome and metabolite profiles of abnormal (WGF, TYBGF and WLYF) and normal (WDYF, control) pericarps. In total, 2,880, 2,782 and 1,053 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 121, 117 and 43 transcription factors were identified in the three comparisons, respectively. The qRT-PCR confirmed the expression levels of genes selected from transcriptome. Additionally, a total of 77 flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites were identified in the three comparisons. Most (76.65 %) showed markedly lower abundances in the three comparisons. The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway was the major enrichment pathway in the integrative analysis of metabolome and transcriptome profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Synthesizing the above analytical results, this study indicated that different color pericarps were associated with the reduced levels of some carotenoids and phenylpropanoids derivatives products and the down-regulation of proteins in flavonoids, phenylpropanoids derivatives biosynthesis pathway and the photosynthesis-antenna proteins.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análise , Citrus/genética , Citrus/microbiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Liberibacter/patogenicidade , Pigmentos Biológicos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Metaboloma , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4558-4565, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414756

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of microplastics on soil organic carbon mineralization and the changes in soil enzyme activities, an incubation experiment was conducted whereby single applications of either microplastics or straw, and combined application of both, were added to Dangyang citrus orchard soil. The results showed that the combined application of straw and microplastics significantly affected organic carbon mineralization in the soil, but the single addition of microplastics had no significant effect. Compared with straw alone, the application of a small combined amount of microplastics and straw significantly increased soil organic carbon mineralization by 8.20%, while medium and high amounts of the combined application significantly inhibited soil organic carbon mineralization. The lowest amount of organic carbon mineralization occurred with the highest amount of combined microplastics and straw, 10.13% lower than with straw alone. The addition of microplastics significantly reduced the activity of ß-glucosidase. In particular, a high amount of microplastics significantly decreased the activity of ß-glucosidase, compared with the control, by 20.52%, 43.93%, and 17.79% on the day 1, 6, and 35, respectively. However, straw application alleviated the inhibition effect of microplastic application on soil ß-glucosidase activity. The soil organic carbon mineralization rate was significantly positively correlated with DOC, MBC and ß-glucosidase activity.


Assuntos
Citrus , Solo , Carbono , Microplásticos , Plásticos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371971

RESUMO

Although physiologically pain has a protective function, in many diseases, it is one of the most prominent symptoms. Today, new trends are focused on finding more natural alternatives to conventional treatments to alleviate it. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to obtain preclinical data of the antinociceptive properties of a lyophilized obtained from a newly designed maqui-citrus beverage alone and added with different sweeteners. To achieve this objective, maqui berry and citrus pharmacological activity were studied separately, as well as the interaction of both ingredients. In addition, due to the controversy generated regarding the intake of sugars, related to different metabolic diseases, the influence of different sweeteners (stevia, sucralose, or sucrose) was studied to determine their possible influence on the bioactive compounds of this product. For the attainment of our goals, a pharmacological evaluation, using the 1% formalin test, a nociceptive pain model in mice, was performed by using a sub-efficacious dosage of Maqui (25 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and combined with citrus, and then compared with the effects obtained in the presence of the different sweeteners. As a result, the antinociceptive response of the maqui was synergized in the presence of citrus in the neurogenic and inflammatory phases of the formalin test. However, this response was partially or totally reduced in the presence of the sweeteners. Our study gives preclinical evidence that a combination of maqui and citrus might exert beneficial actions to relieve pain, whereas the presence of sweeteners could reduce or avoid it.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Citrus , Elaeocarpaceae , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Analgesia , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Bebidas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Flavanonas/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Stevia , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/farmacologia
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9869-9882, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410124

RESUMO

1,2-Rhamnosyltransferase (1,2RhaT) catalyzes the final step of production of flavanone neohesperidoside (FNH) that is responsible for the primary bitter taste of citrus fruits. In this study, species-specific flavonoid profiles were determined in 87 Citrus accessions by identifying eight main flavanone glycosides (FGs). Accumulation of FNHs was completely correlated to the presence of the 1,2RhaT gene in 87 citrus accessions analyzed using a novel 1,2RhaT-specific DNA marker. Pummelo (Citrus grandis) was identified as the genetic origin for a function allele of 1,2RhaT that underpinned FNH-bitterness in modern citrus cultivars. In addition, genes encoding six MYB and five bHLH transcription factors were shown to coexpress with 1,2RhaT and other flavonoid pathway genes related to FNH accumulation, indicating that these transcription factors may affect the fruit taste of citrus. This study provides a better understanding of bitterness formation in Citrus varieties and a genetic marker for the early selection of nonbitterness lines in citrus breeding programs.


Assuntos
Citrus , Alelos , Citrus/genética , Flavonoides , Melhoramento Vegetal , Paladar
16.
Waste Manag ; 133: 80-88, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388535

RESUMO

This study conducted the first life cycle analysis for citrus residue (CR) management systems in China. The results indicated conventional waste treatment systems were not suitable for CR management in China. Although feed system seems to be a favourable option, the uncertainty analysis suggested valorisation system could achieved better performance in global warming, eutrophication and human toxicity. The environmental impacts of valorisation systems were more sensitive to energy consumption. For silage and single cell protein (SCP) system, the environmental impacts could be significantly reduced by improving the energy use efficiency or using more renewable energy. In comparison, although the environmental impacts of biorefinery system were less favourable than SCP and silage systems. The multiple extraction unit had less impact than reported values in other studies. Further research in biorefinery system can focus on increasing the energy efficiency of pre-treatment or reuse of extraction chemicals.


Assuntos
Citrus , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Eutrofização , Aquecimento Global , Humanos
17.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361554

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the use of citrus fiber as a carrier of blackberry juice polyphenols. For that purpose, freeze-dried complexes with blackberry juice and different amounts of citrus fiber (1%, 2% and 4%) were prepared. Complexes were evaluated spectrophotometrically for total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity. Analyses of individual polyphenols were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. IR spectra were recorded to confirm encapsulation. All analyses were performed after preparation and after eight months of storage, in order to examine the stability of formed complexes. The obtained results indicated that increasing the amount of fiber led to a decrease in the concentration of polyphenols and the antioxidant activity of complexes. Cyanidin 3-glucoside was the prevalent anthocyanin in complexes (138.32-246.45 mg/100 g), while cyanidin 3-dioxalylglucoside was present at lower concentrations (22.19-31.45 mg/100 g). The other identified and quantified polyphenols were hesperidin (from citrus fiber), ellagic acid and quercetin (1317.59-1571.65 mg/100 g, 31.94-50.11 mg/100 g and 20.11-33.77 mg/100 g, respectively). Degradation of polyphenols occurred during storage. Results obtained in this study confirmed that citrus fiber could be used for the formulation of novel bioactive additives. Such additives could enhance the antioxidant potential of products to which they are added, such as baked goods, dairy, or fruit products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Citrus/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Rubus/química
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361563

RESUMO

The consumption of plant-based food is important for health promotion, especially regarding the prevention and management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. We investigated the effects of a lemon extract (LE), containing ≥20.0% total flavanones and ≥1.0% total hydroxycinnamic acids, on insulin signaling in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α, which was used to mimic in vitro the insulin resistance condition that characterizes diabetes mellitus. Our results showed LE increased PPARγ, GLUT4 and DGAT-1 levels, demonstrating the potential of this lemon extract in the management of insulin resistance conditions associated with TNF-α pathway activation. LE treatment further decreased the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and restored triglyceride synthesis, which is the main feature of a healthy adipocyte.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Resistência à Insulina , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
19.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443643

RESUMO

Pomelo is rich in bioactive compounds (carotenoids, phenolics and essential oil) in the early stage of fruit development, but it is often wasted in the cultivation and management process. To gain an insight into the carotenoid metabolism pathway in pomelo, the carotenoid profiles and the expression patterns of carotenogenic genes were investigated in two genotypes of pomelo during early fruit development. The results showed that a higher carotenoid content was observed in honey pomelo as compared with golden pomelo, which may be related to different gene regulation mechanisms. Lutein, α-carotene, and ß-carotene were the main carotenoids in pomelo young fruit, and lutein was the highest one. The accumulation of carotenoids during fruit early development in honey pomelo is related to the transcriptional regulation of ZISO and LUT5. In golden pomelo, the rate-limiting gene for carotenoids is PDS and ZDS. In addition, the expression of seven genes except CRTISO in honey pomelo was higher than that in golden pomelo. The results are helpful to further clarify the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation during early fruit development and provide a direction for the high-value utilization of young fruits in pomelo.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Luteína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Virus Genes ; 57(5): 469-473, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379307

RESUMO

Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus (CMBV) causes mosaic disease in all economically important citrus cultivars of India, with losses reaching up to 70%. CMBV belongs to the genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae, possessing a circular double-stranded (ds) DNA genome with six open reading frames (ORFs I to VI), whose functions are yet to be deciphered. The RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS) activity has not been assigned to any CMBV ORF as yet. In the present study, it was found that ORFI exhibited RSS activity among all the six CMBV ORFs tested. Studies were done by employing the well-established Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay based on the transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana 16c plant line expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The RSS activity of ORFI was confirmed by the analysis of the GFP visual expression in the agroinfiltrated leaves, further supported by quantification of GFP expression by RT-PCR. Based on the GFP visual expression, the CMBV ORFI was a weak RSS when compared to the p19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus. In contrast, the ORFII, ORFIV, ORFV, ORFVI, and CP gene did not exhibit any RSS activity. Hence, ORFI is the first ORF of CMBV to be identified with RNA-silencing suppression activity.


Assuntos
Badnavirus/isolamento & purificação , Citrus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Badnavirus/genética , Badnavirus/patogenicidade , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrus/virologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Índia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vírus de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , RNA/genética , Interferência de RNA , Tabaco/virologia , Tombusvirus/genética
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