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1.
J Dent ; 145: 104989, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To map and summarize the current scientific evidence concerning the active ingredients, effectiveness, and adverse effects of over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching products. DATA AND SOURCE: This study was conducted according to the PRISMA-ScR guidelines for scoping reviews and registered on the Open Science Framework platform. STUDY SELECTION: Database searches were conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus up to January 2024. All in vitro, in situ, and clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness and adverse effects of OTC bleaching products were included. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was performed. RESULTS: A total of 88 studies were included. Most of them were in vitro studies (n = 49), followed by randomized clinical trials (n = 28). The main OTC bleaching products identified were whitening or stain-removing toothpastes (n = 42), followed by whitening strips (n = 39). Most clinical studies indicate that whitening strips are effective in improving tooth color and providing whitening benefits. In contrast, the bleaching effectiveness of toothpastes, mouth rinses and whitening trays was mainly supported by in vitro studies. The main adverse effects associated with OTC bleaching agents were tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. CONCLUSION: A wide variety of OTC bleaching products is available for consumer self-administered use. Clinical studies have mainly confirmed the bleaching effectiveness of whitening strips, while the validation for toothpastes, mouth rinses and whitening trays has mainly relied on in vitro studies. Nevertheless, the use of OTC bleaching products may result in adverse effects, including tooth sensitivity, gingival irritation, and enamel surface changes. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Some over-the-counter bleaching products may have whitening properties supported by clinical studies, particularly those containing hydrogen or carbamide peroxide. Nonetheless, clinicians must be aware of the potential risks associated with excessive self-administration of these products, which may result in adverse effects.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Cremes Dentais , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Humanos , Clareadores Dentários/uso terapêutico , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/efeitos adversos , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/induzido quimicamente , Descoloração de Dente/induzido quimicamente , Descoloração de Dente/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Peróxido de Carbamida/uso terapêutico
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 445, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the extensive use of bleaching agents and the occurrence of side effects such as enamel demineralization, this study aimed to assess the enamel changes of bleached teeth following the experimental application of chitosan-bioactive glass (CH-BG). METHODS: In this in vitro study, CH-BG (containing 66% BG) was synthesized and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thirty sound human premolars were bleached with 40% hydrogen peroxide, and the weight% of calcium and phosphorus elements of the buccal enamel surface was quantified before and after bleaching by scanning electron microscopy/ energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM, EDX). Depending on the surface treatment of the enamel surface, the specimens were divided into three groups (n = 10): control (no treatment), MI Paste (MI), and CH-BG. Then the specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. The SEM/EDX analyses were performed again on the enamel surface. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test and a p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In all groups, the weight% of calcium and phosphorus elements of enamel decreased after bleaching; this reduction was significant for phosphorus (p < 0.05) and insignificant for calcium (p > 0.05). After 14 days of remineralization, the weight% of both calcium and phosphorus elements was significantly higher compared to their bleached counterparts in both MI and CH-BG groups (p < 0.05). Following the remineralization process, the difference between MI and CH-BG groups was not significant (p > 0.05) but both had a significant difference with the control group in this regard (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The synthesized CH-BG compound showed an efficacy comparable to that of MI Paste for enamel remineralization of bleached teeth.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Cálcio , Quitosana/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Esmalte Dentário , Fósforo
3.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(5): 280, 2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of office bleaching of teeth bonded with Transbond XTTM (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) (TRXT) and the use of color change resistant Orthocem (FGM, Joinville, Brazil) in bracket bonding on coffee-induced enamel discoloration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty premolars were distributed in equal numbers (n = 20) to group 1 (TRXT + distilled water), group 2 (TRXT + coffee solution), group 3 (TRXT + coffee solution + bleaching), and group 4 (Orthocem + coffee solution). Color was measured using a SpectroShade Micro (MHT, International, Verona, Italy) device at the beginning (T0), after coloring (T1), after bleaching (T1B), and after debonding (T2). ΔE color change values were calculated as T1-T0, T1B-T0 and T2-T0 differences. The conformity of the data to the normal distribution was examined with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Multiple comparisons were made with Tamhane's T2 test and Tukey's HSD test using one-way analysis of variance in the comparison of normally distributed data, and multiple comparisons were made with Dunn's test using the Kruskal-Wallis H test for comparison of non-normally distributed data. The significance level was set at p < 0.050. RESULTS: A statistically significant (p < 0.001) difference was found between the T1-T0 and T2-T0 stages for group 1-4 ΔE values. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) difference was also found when the T1B-T0 ΔE values of group 3 were compared with the T1-T0 ΔE values of groups 1, 2, and 4. CONCLUSIONS: After coffee-induced enamel discoloration, bleaching of teeth bonded with TRXT produced acceptable color difference of the incisal, middle, and gingival regions of the crown. In teeth bonded with Orthocem, acceptable color difference was seen only in the middle of the crown. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The presented study will guide the clinician on how enamel discoloration side effect of fixed orthodontic appliance can reduce.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Clareamento Dental , Descoloração de Dente , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Descoloração de Dente/induzido quimicamente , Propriedades de Superfície , Dente Pré-Molar , Clareadores Dentários/química , Café , Cimentos de Resina/química , Cor , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Teste de Materiais
4.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(3): 189, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess color change efficacy and the adverse effects of varied over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching protocols. METHODOLOGY: The study included randomized clinical trials evaluating color changes from OTC bleaching agents. Nine databases were searched, including the partial capture of the grey literature. The RoB2 tool analyzed the individual risk of bias in the studies. Frequentist network meta-analyses compared treatments through common comparators (∆Eab* and ∆SGU color changes, and tooth sensitivity), integrating direct and indirect estimates and using the mean and risk differences as effect measures with respective 95% confidence intervals. The GRADE approach assessed the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: Overall, 37 remaining studies constituted the qualitative analysis, and ten composed the meta-analyses. The total sample included 1,932 individuals. ∆Eab* was significantly higher in groups 6% hydrogen peroxide (HP) strips (≥ 14 h). ∆SGU was significantly higher in groups at-home 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) (≥ 14 h), followed by 6% HP strips (≥ 14 h) and 3% HP strips (≥ 14 h). At-home 10% CP (7-13 h) and placebo showed lower risks of tooth sensitivity without significant differences between these treatments. CONCLUSION: Considering the low level of evidence, OTC products presented satisfactory short-term effects on tooth bleaching compared to the placebo, with little to no impact on dentin hypersensitivity and gingival irritation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: OTC products are proving to be practical alternatives for tooth whitening. However, patients should be advised about the possible risks of carrying out such procedures without professional supervision.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Peróxido de Carbamida , Cor , Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ácido Hipocloroso , Metanálise em Rede , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Peróxidos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Clareadores Dentários/farmacologia , Ureia
5.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 32: e20230416, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At low concentrations used for in-office bleaching gels, such as 6% HP, gingival barrier continues to be performed. If we take into account that, in the at-home bleaching technique, no barrier is indicated, it seems that the use of a gingival barrier fails to make much sense when bleaching gel in low concentration is used for in-office bleaching. OBJECTIVE: This double-blind, split-mouth, randomized clinical trial evaluated the gingival irritation (GI) of in-office bleaching using 6% hydrogen peroxide (HP) with and without a gingival barrier in adolescents, as well as color change and the impact of oral condition on quality of life. METHODOLOGY: Overall, 60 participants were randomized into which side would or would not receive the gingival barrier. In-office bleaching was performed for 50 minutes with 6% HP in three sessions. The absolute risk and intensity of GI were assessed with a visual analogue scale. Color change was assessed using a digital spectrophotometer and color guides. The impact of oral condition on quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (α=0.05). RESULTS: The proportion of patients who presented GI for the "with barrier" group was 31.6% and for the "without barrier" group, 30% (p=1.0). There is an equivalence for the evaluated groups regarding GI intensity (p<0.01). Color change was detected with no statistical differences (p>0.29). There was a significant impact of oral condition on quality of life after bleaching (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use or not of the gingival barrier for in-office bleaching with 6% HP was equivalent for GI, as well as for bleaching efficacy, with improvement in the impact of oral condition on quality of life.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Adolescente , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Sensibilidade da Dentina/induzido quimicamente , Géis
6.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 153: 106497, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether coating enamel with a polymeric primer (PPol) containing titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) before applying a bleaching gel with 35% H2O2 (35% BG) increases esthetic efficacy, prevents changes in morphology and hardness of enamel, as well as reduces the cytotoxicity from conventional in-office bleaching. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardized enamel/dentin discs were stained and bleached for 45 min (one session) with 35% BG. Groups 2TiF4, 6TiF4, and 10TiF4 received the gel on the enamel previously coated with PPol containing 2 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, or 10 mg/mL, respectively. No treatment or application of 35% BG directly on enamel were used as negative control (NC), and positive control (PC), respectively. UV-reflectance spectrophotometry (CIE L*a*b* system, ΔE00, and ΔWI, n = 8) determined the bleaching efficacy of treatments. Enamel microhardness (Knoop, n = 8), morphology, and composition (SEM/EDS, n = 4) were also evaluated. Enamel/dentin discs adapted to artificial pulp chambers (n = 8) were used for trans-amelodentinal cytotoxicity tests. Following the treatments, the extracts (culture medium + bleaching gel components diffused through the discs) were collected and applied to odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells, which were assessed concerning their viability (alamarBlue, n = 8; Live/Dead, n = 4), oxidative stress (n = 8), and morphology (SEM). The amount of H2O2 in the extracts was also determined (leuco crystal violet/peroxidase, n = 8). The numerical data underwent one-criterion variance analysis (one-way ANOVA), followed by Tukey's test, at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Regarding the ΔE00, no difference was observed among groups 2TiF4, 6TiF4, and PC (p > 0.05). The ΔWI was similar between groups 2TiF4 and PC (p > 0.05). The ΔWI of group 6TiF4 was superior to PC (p < 0.05), and group 10TiF4 achieved the highest ΔE00 and ΔWI values (p < 0.05). Besides limiting enamel microstructural changes compared to PC, group 10TiF4 significantly increased the hardness of this mineralized dental tissue. The highest cellular viability occurred in 10TiF4 compared to the other bleached groups (p < 0.05). Trans-amelodentinal H2O2 diffusion decreased in groups 2TiF4, 6TiF4, and 10TiF4 in comparison with PC (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Coating enamel with a PPol containing TiF4 before applying a 35% BG may increase enamel microhardness and esthetic efficacy and reduce the trans-amelodentinal cytotoxicity of conventional in-office tooth bleaching. The PPol containing 10 mg/mL of TiF4 promoted the best outcomes.


Assuntos
Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Clareadores Dentários/farmacologia , Dentina , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Esmalte Dentário
7.
Int Endod J ; 57(6): 630-654, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several studies indicate the harmful effects of bleaching on pulp tissue, the demand for this procedure using high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) is high. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of bleaching on the pulp tissue. METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted (PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library and grey literature) until February 2021. Only in vivo studies that evaluated the effects of HP and/or carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching gels on the inflammatory response in the pulp tissue compared with a non-bleached group were included. Risk of bias was performed according to a modified Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies scale for human studies and the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's RoB tool for animal studies. Meta-analysis was unfeasible. RESULTS: Of the 1311 studies, 30 were eligible. Of these, 18 studies evaluated the inflammatory response in animal models. All these studies reported a moderate-to-strong inflammatory response in the superficial regions of pulp, characterized by cell disorganization and necrotic areas, particularly during the initial periods following exposure to 35%-38% HP, for 30-40 min. In the evaluation of human teeth across 11 studies, seven investigated inflammatory responses, with five observing significant inflammation in the pulp of bleached teeth. In terms of tertiary dentine deposition, 11 out of 12 studies noted its occurrence after bleaching with 35%-38% HP in long-term assessments. Additionally, three studies reported significant levels of osteocalcin/osteopontin at 2 or 10 days post-treatment. Other studies indicated an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines ranging from immediately up to 10 days after bleaching. Studies using humans' teeth had a low risk of bias, whereas animal studies had a high risk of bias. DISCUSSION: Despite the heterogeneity in bleaching protocols among studies, High-concentrations of HP shows the potential to induce significant pulp damage. CONCLUSIONS: High-concentrations of bleaching gel increases inflammatory response and necrosis in the pulp tissue at short periods after bleaching, mainly in rat molars and in human incisors, in addition to greater hard tissue deposition over time. However, further well-described histological studies with long-term follow-up are encouraged due to the methodological limitations of these studies. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42021230937).


Assuntos
Peróxido de Carbamida , Polpa Dentária , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Polpa Dentária/patologia , Humanos , Animais , Peróxido de Carbamida/farmacologia
8.
J Dent ; 142: 104875, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The application of anti-inflammatories as topical desensitizers before dental bleaching is an approach to reduce bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity (TS). This randomized controlled trial compared the risk and intensity of TS and the color change resulting from in-office dental bleaching after using an experimental desensitizing gel containing ibuprofen and arginine. METHODS: Sixty-two participants with upper canine shades A2 or darker were randomly assigned to either the ibuprofen-arginine desensitizing group or the placebo group. The desensitizing gel was applied for 15 min before in-office bleaching with 35 % hydrogen peroxide gel for 50 min (2 sessions). To assess the absolute risk and intensity of TS, visual (0-10) and numeric rating (0-5) scales were used, and group comparisons were made using the McNemar test, Wilcoxon test, and paired Student t-test (α = 0.05). Color change was evaluated using Vita Classical, Vita Bleachedguide (ΔSGU), and Vita EasyShade (ΔEab, ΔE00, and ΔWID) before and one month after the bleaching procedure. Group comparisons for color change were done using a paired t-test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The odds ratio for TS was 0.14 [95 % CI 0.02 to 0.6], meaning lower odds of TS for the desensitizing gel. A lower intensity of TS was also observed for the experimental group (p < 0.005) up to 48 h after bleaching. All color evaluation tools demonstrated effective and similar whitening for both groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using the experimental desensitizing gel containing ibuprofen and arginine effectively reduced the risk and intensity of TS without compromising the bleaching efficacy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The topical application of ibuprofen/arginine on the in-office bleaching reduced risk and intensity of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/induzido quimicamente , Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sódio , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 103(1): 16-22, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372602

RESUMO

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Optimization of methods for treating dental discoloration using whitening systems based on hydrogen peroxide by laboratory studying their chemical properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effectiveness of the bleaching system was assessed by quantitatively assessing the color change of model samples of hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the CIE L*a*b* system on a Spectron-M color analyzer after exposure to coloring food media. Safety assessment was carried out on samples made from teeth removed according to indications. RESULTS: The results of laboratory tests allow us to conclude that the Chairside Light Whitening System professional teeth whitening system fläsh. (WHITEsmile GmbH, Germany) has high whitening efficiency with a whitening degree of ~84%, which significantly exceeds the norm of GOST R 702.3.004-2021. the microhardness of the enamel of samples exposed to the whitening gel for 15 minutes changes extremely little. After exposure of the studied samples to the Chairside Light Whitening System fläsh whitening system for 45 minutes, an increase in digital microhardness indicators is observed, which indicates the dynamics of processes demineralizing the hard tooth structure. CONCLUSIONS: Chairside Light Whitening System fläsh professional teeth whitening system has high whitening efficiency with minimal impact on the teeth structure and high safety.


Assuntos
Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Dente , Humanos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Esmalte Dentário
10.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 155(4): 304-311, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors evaluated the synergistic analgesic effect of preemptive administration of 400 mg of ibuprofen (IBU) and potassium fluoride 2% (KF2), both in isolation or combination, on the painful perception of tooth sensitivity after tooth bleaching. METHODS: Fifteen patients participated in this triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study used a crossover design for drug administration and a split-mouth design for desensitizer agent. Four paired groups were formed: IBU plus KF2 (IBU + KF2); IBU (IBU + placebo KF); KF2 (placebo IBU + KF2), and placebo (placebo IBU + placebo KF). The outcome measure was the perception of tooth sensitivity, assessed using a visual analog scale. Data were collected at 4 different times: immediately after tooth bleaching (baseline) and after 6, 30, and 54 hours. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman test and relative risk. RESULTS: IBU plus KF2 was found to be more effective in reducing tooth sensitivity immediately after bleaching (baseline) compared with the placebo group (P < .05). The risk of experiencing moderate or severe tooth sensitivity was approximately 4 times higher in the placebo group than in the IBU plus KF2 group (relative risk, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.01 to 15.81; P = .025). CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of 400 mg of IBU and KF2 appears to be beneficial in managing postbleaching tooth sensitivity. It provides a superior analgesic effect compared with placebo. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The preemptive administration of IBU plus KF2 reduces tooth sensitivity after tooth whitening when compared with placebo. This clinical trial was registered in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The registration number is U1111-1249-8191.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/etiologia , Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos , Método Duplo-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 139, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Light-cured resins are widely used as gingival barriers to protect the gums from highly concentrated peroxides used in tooth bleaching. The impact of barrier brand on clinical outcomes is typically considered negligible. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of different brands on operator experience, barrier adaptation, and patient comfort. OBJECTIVE: This clinical trial assessed the impact of four commercial gingival barrier brands (Opaldam, Topdam, Lysadam, and Maxdam) on operator perception, adaptation quality, and patient comfort. METHODS: Twenty-one undergraduate students placed gingival barriers in a randomized sequence using blinded syringes. Photographs of the barriers were taken from frontal and incisal perspectives. After bleaching procedures, operators rated handling features and safety using Likert scale forms. Two experienced evaluators independently assessed barrier adaptation quality on a scale from 1 (perfect) to 5 (unacceptable). The absolute risk of barrier-induced discomfort was recorded. Data were analyzed using Friedman and Chi-square tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Opaldam and Topdam received the highest scores in most handling features, except for removal, which was similar among all brands. No significant difference was observed in barrier adaptation quality between the evaluated brands. Discomforts were mainly reported in the upper dental arch, with Maxdam having the highest absolute risk (35% for this arch and 24% overall). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that gingival barrier brands can influence operator perception and patient comfort. Opaldam and Topdam were preferred by operators, but all brands demonstrated comparable adaptation quality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was nested in a randomized clinical trial registered in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry under identification number RBR-9gtr9sc.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Dente , Humanos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/induzido quimicamente , Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Conforto do Paciente , Percepção , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Technol Health Care ; 32(1): 285-292, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37270825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undesirable effects of tooth bleaching can alter the biomechanical properties of enamel. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of strontium fluorophosphate bioactive glass (Sr-FPG) on color, microhardness and surface roughness of enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide. METHODS: The labial enamel of 36 extracted intact human anterior teeth were divided into 3 groups (n= 12), group 1 (HP): bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide only, group 2 (Sr-HP): bleaching with Sr-FPG incorporated 35% hydrogen peroxide and group 3 (HP-SrFPG): bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide followed by remineralization with Sr-FPG. Four consecutive eight-minute applications of the bleaching gel were done twice in all the groups. Color change (ΔE), microhardness and surface roughness were evaluated at baseline, post-bleaching and post-remineralization using spectrophotometer, Vickers hardness tester and profilometric analysis respectively. RESULTS: The mean ΔE among the groups was statistically similar (p> 0.05). Bleaching with HP significantly reduced microhardness (p< 0.05), whereas bleaching with Sr-HP and HP-SrFPG did not (p> 0.05). Post-bleaching microhardness in Sr-HP was significantly higher than HP-SrFPG (p< 0.05). An increased surface roughness was seen in Sr-HP bleached samples (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: The addition of Sr-FPG to hydrogen peroxide significantly improved enamel microhardness than its use post-bleaching. An increase in surface roughness was seen post-bleaching with HP and Sr-HP.


Assuntos
Fosfatos , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos , Esmalte Dentário , Clareadores Dentários/farmacologia , Cor
14.
Technol Health Care ; 32(2): 787-798, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37483036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleaching is a highly common method used nowadays to treat tooth discolouration because it is a significant cosmetic issue, particularly with anterior teeth, however bleaching itself results in microleakage. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the impact of in-office bleaching on class V restoration microleakage with type 1 and type 2 composite restorations. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty healthy, caries-free removed human anterior teeth were used in this in-vitro study. All extracted teeth had their buccal and lingual surfaces uniformly prepped for class V cavities. The 120 removed teeth were divided into two groups, with Group 1 receiving Tetric N-Ceram nanohybrid composite restorations and Group 2 receiving 3 M Filtek Z350 XT nanohybrid composite restorations. Groups 1 and 2 were further broken into four more subgroups of four each. The restorations were sealed with a G-Coat Plus resin. The p-value was kept at 0.005 for the data analysis using the Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: Allocating microleakage among 320 study models revealed that 141 (44.1%) study samples had no microleakage, whereas 20 (6.3%), 54 (16.9%), and 105 (32.8%) study samples had microleakage up to, between, and greater than two-thirds of cavity depth. With a statistically significant p-value of 0.001, no microleakage was discovered in 85 (53.1%) lingual surfaces with Tetric N-Ceram nanohybrid composite restoration and 56 (35%) buccal surfaces with 3M Filtek Z350 XT nanohybrid composite restoration. 19.1% of samples of N-Ceram that were sealed and not bleached had no microleakage, according to analysis of microleakage across several groups. With a p-value of 0.001, the distribution of microleakage among various clusters was statistically notable. CONCLUSION: According to the findings of the study, hydrogen peroxide bleaching has an enhanced impact on micro escape during dye dispersion. Both with and without bleaching, resin coating can be utilised to minimise marginal microleakage.


Assuntos
Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Resinas Compostas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
15.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 32(4): 351-355, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044726

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of bleaching combined with Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser on bond strength and microleakage of resin fillings on enamel surface. METHODS: Sixty-four pieces of enamel specimens prepared from isolated teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups(n=16): control group, simple bleaching group, bleaching combined with Er: YAG laser group and bleaching combined with Nd:YAG laser group. Then the shear bond strength and the depth of microleakage were tested, and the fracture mode of the specimen was observed under microscope. SPSS 26.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: After bleaching simply, the bond strength of the restoration was significantly decreased, and the marginal microleakage was significantly increased(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in shear bond strength and microleakage depth between the group bleaching combined with Er: YAG laser and control group(P>0.05). The shear bond strength after bleaching combined with Nd:YAG laser was significantly reduced (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the depth of microleakage compared with unbleached microleakage(P>0.05). Bonding interface fracture was the main fracture mode for all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to traditional bleaching, bleaching combined with laser has certain clinical advantages due to its less influence on bond strength and microleakage of resin fillings.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Clareamento Dental , Dente , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Esmalte Dentário , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
16.
J Dent ; 139: 104743, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in vitro the effects of sodium fluoride (F) and nano-sized sodium trimetaphosphate (TMPnano) added to a 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) bleaching gel on the color alteration, enamel mechanical and morphological properties, and H2O2 transamelodentinal diffusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bovine enamel/dentin discs (n = 180) were divided according to the bleaching gel: 35% H2O2 (HP); 35% H2O2 + 0.1% F (HP/F); 35% H2O2 + 1% TMPnano (HP/TMPnano); 35% H2O2 + 0.1% F + 1% TMPnano (HP/F/TMPnano) and 35% H2O2 + 2% calcium gluconate (HP/Ca). The gels were applied 3 times by 40 min; once each 7-day. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* total color alteration (ΔE), color alteration by CIEDE2000 (ΔE00), whitening index (ΔWID), surface (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (ΔKHN), surface roughness (Ra), and transamelodentinal diffusion were determined. Enamel surfaces were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Dispersive Energy (EDX). Data were submitted to ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p <0.05). RESULTS: ΔE, ΔE00, and ΔWID were similar among the gels that promoted a bleaching effect after treatment (p <0.001). Mineral loss (SH and ΔKHN), Ra, and H2O2 diffusion were lower for HP/F/TMPnano; the HP and HP/Ca groups presented the highest values (p <0.001). For SEM/EDX, surface changes were observed in all bleached groups, but less intense with TMPnano. CONCLUSIONS: Gels containing F/TMPnano do not interfere with the bleaching effect and reduce enamel demineralization, roughness, H2O2 diffusion, and morphological changes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Whitening gels containing F/TMPnano can be used as a new strategy to increase safety and maintain clinical performance.


Assuntos
Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Estudos Transversais , Esmalte Dentário , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Géis/farmacologia , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 758, 2023 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37833672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays bleaching procedures have gained popularity in orthodontic patients. Peroxide and Carbamide acids are the common agents which are used in in-office and at home bleaching techniques. Consequently, the Bonding adhesion to the enamel can be influenced by the orthodontic phase and the residual peroxide might interfere with the polymerization and the adhesion of the brackets. Frequent debonding of the brackets from teeth after the bleaching procedure could cause the lengthening of the therapy and promote irregularities on enamel surface derived from an additional bonding phase of the brackets. The aim of this systematic review is to appraise the influence regarding the effect of the bleaching procedure on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: An electronic database search was performed. Search terms included: bleaching, brackets, adhesion; data were extracted and summarized. Risk of bias was assessed using the Chocrane risk of bias tool, adapted for in vitro studies. RESULTS: A total of 8689 articles were screened and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria of this systematic review. 1000 teeth of human and bovine origin were analyzed for the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless and ceramic brackets after the bleaching treatments. All the authors divided the groups in different subgroups with different bleaching agents and in different concentration. The SBS value allowed to demonstrate the necessity to delay the bonding of the brackets for two weeks after a bleaching treatment and its improvement when tooth mousse or antioxidants agents are used. CONCLUSIONS: The SBS values and the delay of the bonding procedure must be considered in dental practice and clinical strategies are necessary in order to avoid drawbacks which could cause the debonding of the brackets after bleaching due to the alterations of the dental substrate, thus interfering with the orthodontic treatments.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Braquetes Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Peróxidos/uso terapêutico , Peróxidos/química , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Ureia/química , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais
18.
Oper Dent ; 48(6): 627-637, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37881142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the desensitizing effect of toothpaste for sensitive teeth on patient tooth sensitivity and on bleaching efficacy of the 38% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent used for in-office bleaching compared to a regular toothpaste in a randomized clinical trial. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty-eight patients having maxillary right central incisors with darkness greater than A1 were selected for the present double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups: the placebo group, which used regular toothpaste, and the experimental group, which used sensitivity toothpaste. The intervention consisted of applying toothpaste with the aid of an individual tray for a period of 4 minutes daily, starting one week before the first bleaching session and interrupting use immediately after the second session. After allocation to one of the groups, individuals received in-office dental bleaching with a 40-minute application of 38% hydrogen peroxide for two sessions with an interval of one week. The incidence and intensity of sensitivity were assessed using a visual analogue scale and a numeric analogue scale. Sensitivity was measured immediately before each session, 1 hour, 24 hours, and 48 hours after each bleaching session and four weeks after the second bleaching session. Tooth shade was evaluated using a spectrophotometer and by comparison with the VITA Classical Shade Guide (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Tooth shade was evaluated before the first bleaching session, one week after the first bleaching session, one week after the second bleaching session and four weeks after the second bleaching session. Participants and professionals who performed the bleaching, shade, and sensitivity assessments were blinded to the group of patients they were treating or assessing. For the incidence of hypersensitivity, the results were evaluated by comparing the groups at different evaluation times with the Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups, the Friedman test for repeated measures, and the Tukey test for comparison of times. Shade change on the guide was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups and the Wilcoxon test for comparison between times. Shade change by the spectrophotometer was analyzed using the t-test for comparison between groups and the paired t-test for comparison between times. All analyses were performed with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There was no difference in the pattern of dental hypersensitivity between groups. For all shade measures, there was no difference between the bleaching results, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the study groups. CONCLUSION: The use of arginine-based desensitizing toothpaste did not interfere with the bleaching ability of hydrogen peroxide and was not effective in reducing the sensitivity caused by in-office tooth bleaching.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/etiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Clareadores Dentários/uso terapêutico , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Oper Dent ; 48(6): 638-647, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37881145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Negative effects of bleaching on dentin have previously been reported in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of carbamide peroxide bleaching on dentin fatigue resistance using a clinically relevant in situ model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Following research ethics board approval, 60 human teeth requiring extraction were collected. Sterilized human dentin specimens were cut (1.2x1.2x10 mm) and secured into customized bleaching trays to be used by study participants. Participants were randomly assigned to either bleach (10% carbamide peroxide, n=23) or control (gel without bleach, n=26) treatment groups. Treatment was applied to the bleaching trays and worn overnight by participants for 14 days. After treatment completion, dentin specimens were removed from the bleaching trays and subjected to fatigue testing (10 N, 3 mm/s, 2x105 cycles) while submerged in artificial saliva. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted to compare the number of cycles to failure during fatigue testing in both groups. A log rank test was run to determine if there were differences in the survival distribution between the two groups (α<0.05). RESULTS: The median number of cycles to failure was 352 ± 202 and 760 ± 644 for the bleach and control groups, respectively. The survival distributions for the two groups were significantly different (p=0.020). Dentin fatigue resistance was significantly lower in the bleach group compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: Direct bleaching of human dentin using an at-home tray bleaching protocol in situ reduced dentin fatigue resistance. This has implications for tooth fracture risk and longevity.


Assuntos
Peróxidos , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Peróxido de Carbamida/farmacologia , Peróxidos/uso terapêutico , Ureia , Dentina , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia
20.
Lasers Med Sci ; 38(1): 209, 2023 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37698715

RESUMO

The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the safety of using blue diode laser (445 nm) for tooth bleaching with regard to intrapulpal temperature increase operating at different average power and time settings. Fifty human mandibular incisors (n = 10) were used for evaluating temperature rise inside the pulp chamber and in the bleaching gel during laser-assisted tooth bleaching. The change in temperature was recorded using K thermocouples for the five experimental groups (without laser, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 W) at each point of time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 s). As the average power of the diode laser increases, the temperature inside the pulp chamber also increases and that of the bleaching gel was significantly higher in all the experimental groups (p < 0.05). However, the intrapulpal temperature rise was below the threshold for irreversible thermal damage of the pulp (5.6 °C). Average power of a diode laser (445 nm) ranging between 0.5-2 W and irradiation time between 10-60 s should be considered safe regarding the pulp health when a red-colored bleaching gel is used. Clinical studies should confirm the safety and effectiveness of such tooth bleaching treatments. The outcomes of the present study could be a useful guide for dental clinicians, who utilize diode lasers (445 nm) for in-office tooth bleaching treatments in order to select appropriate power parameters and duration of laser irradiation without jeopardizing the safety of the pulp.


Assuntos
Lasers Semicondutores , Clareamento Dental , Humanos , Lasers Semicondutores/efeitos adversos , Cavidade Pulpar , Temperatura , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Incisivo
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