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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 154, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess and compare the effectiveness of propolis mouthwash with chlorhexidine mouthwash in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. METHODS: A single centre, latin-square cross-over, double masked, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 45 chronic generalized gingivitis subjects who were chosen from the dental clinic of MAHSA University, Malaysia. A total of 45 subjects were randomly assigned into one of the three different groups (n = 15 each) using a computer-generated random allocation sequence: Group A Propolis mouthwash; Group B Chlorhexidine mouthwash; and Group C Placebo mouthwash. Supragingival plaque and gingival inflammation were assessed by full mouth Plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) at baseline and after 21 days. The study was divided into three phases, each phase lasted for 21 days separated by a washout period of 15 days in between them. Groups A, B and C were treated with 0.2% Propolis, Chlorhexidine, and Placebo mouthwash, respectively, in phase I. The study subjects were instructed to use the assigned mouthwash twice daily for 1 min for 21 days. On day 22nd, the subjects were recalled for measurement of PI and GI. After phase I, mouthwash was crossed over as dictated by the Latin square design in phase II and III. RESULTS: At baseline, intergroup comparison revealed no statistically significant difference between Groups A, B and C (p > 0.05). On day 21, one-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant difference between the three groups for PI (p < 0.001) and GI (p < 0.001). Bonferroni post-hoc test showed statistically significant difference between Propolis and Chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.001), with higher reduction in the mean plaque and gingival scores in propolis group compared to chlorhexidine and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Propolis mouthwash demonstrated significant improvement in gingival health and plaque reduction. Thus, it could be used as an effective herbal mouthwash alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered on 25/07/2019 at clinicaltrials.gov and its identifier is NCT04032548.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Própole , Humanos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Própole/uso terapêutico , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 38: e031, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597549

RESUMO

This systematic review aimed to answer the focused question: "What are the benefits of subgingival periodontal therapy on blood hematological and biochemical index, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, quality of life, and periodontal pathogen counts in patients with obesity and periodontitis?". A systematic literature search was performed in six databases: PubMed, Embase, LILACS, Web of Science, Cochrane and SCOPUS and other sources, and a manual search was conducted as well. Inclusion criteria were randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, and before-and-after studies on patients with obesity subjected to periodontal therapy. The results were synthesized qualitatively. Risk of bias within studies was assessed using RoB 2 and ROBINS-I tools. The certainty of evidence was evaluated following the GRADE approach. Three randomized controlled trials and 15 before-and-after studies were included. Randomized controlled trials were considered to have a low risk of bias, as compared to before-and-after studies assessed as having low, serious, and critical risks of bias. Non-surgical periodontal therapy plus azithromycin, chlorhexidine, and cetylpyridinium chloride reduced blood pressure and decreased serum levels of HbA1c, hsCRP, IL-1ß, and TNF-α. Salivary resistin level also decreased in patients with obesity and periodontitis after therapy and chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Before-and-after data suggest an improvement in total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, insulin resistance, C3, GCF levels of TNF-α, chemerin, vaspin, omentin-1, visfatin, 8-OHdG, and periodontal pathogen counts after therapy.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Periodontite , Humanos , Clorexidina , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Qualidade de Vida , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/terapia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(13): 16861-16879, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507790

RESUMO

The endotracheal tube (ETT) affords support for intubated patients, but the increasing incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is jeopardizing its application. ETT surfaces promote (poly)microbial colonization and biofilm formation, with a heavy burden for VAP. Devising safe, broad-spectrum antimicrobial materials to tackle the ETT bioburden is needful. Herein, we immobilized ciprofloxacin (CIP) and/or chlorhexidine (CHX), through polydopamine (pDA)-based functionalization, onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces. These surfaces were characterized regarding physicochemical properties and challenged with single and polymicrobial cultures of VAP-relevant bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and fungi (Candida albicans). The coatings imparted PVC surfaces with a homogeneous morphology, varied wettability, and low roughness. The antimicrobial immobilization via pDA chemistry was still evidenced by infrared spectroscopy. Coated surfaces exhibited sustained CIP/CHX release, retaining prolonged (10 days) activity. CIP/CHX-coated surfaces evidencing no A549 lung cell toxicity displayed better antibiofilm outcomes than CIP or CHX coatings, preventing bacterial attachment by 4.1-7.2 Log10 CFU/mL and modestly distressingC. albicans. Their antibiofilm effectiveness was endured toward polymicrobial consortia, substantially inhibiting the adhesion of the bacterial populations (up to 8 Log10 CFU/mL) within the consortia in dual- and even inP. aeruginosa/S. aureus/C. albicans triple-species biofilms while affecting fungal adhesion by 2.7 Log10 CFU/mL (dual consortia) and 1 Log10 CFU/mL (triple consortia). The potential of the dual-drug coating strategy in preventing triple-species adhesion and impairing bacterial viability was still strengthened by live/dead microscopy. The pDA-assisted CIP/CHX co-immobilization holds a safe and robust broad-spectrum antimicrobial coating strategy for PVC-ETTs, with the promise laying in reducing VAP incidence.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Cloreto de Vinil , Humanos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina , Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
6.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 32: e20230381, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Denture biofilm acts as a potential reservoir for respiratory pathogens, considerably increasing the risk of lung infections, specifically aspiration pneumonia, mainly 48h after hospital admission. The establishment of a straightforward, affordable, and applicable hygiene protocol in a hospital environment for the effective control of denture biofilm can be particularly useful to prevent respiratory infections or reduce the course of established lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the anti-biofilm effectiveness of denture cleaning protocols in hospitalized patients. METHODOLOGY: The maxillary complete dentures (MCDs) of 340 hospitalized participants were randomly cleaned once using one of the following 17 protocols (n=20): brushing with distilled water, toothpaste, or neutral liquid soap (controls); immersion in chemical solutions (1% sodium hypochlorite, alkaline peroxide, 0.12% or 2% chlorhexidine digluconate), or microwave irradiation (650 W for 3 min) combined or not with brushing. Before and after the application of the protocols, the biofilm of the intaglio surface of the MCDs was evaluated using two methods: denture biofilm coverage area (%) and microbiological quantitative cultures on blood agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (CFU/mL). Data were subjected to the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=0.05). RESULTS: All 17 protocols significantly reduced the percentage area of denture biofilm and microbial and fungal load (P<0.05). The highest percentage reductions in the area of denture biofilm were observed for 1% hypochlorite solution with or without brushing and for 2% chlorhexidine solution and microwave irradiation only in association with brushing (P<0.05). The greatest reductions in microbial and fungal load were found for the groups that used solutions of 2% chlorhexidine and 1% hypochlorite and microwave irradiation, regardless of the association with brushing (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A single immersion for 10 min in 1% sodium hypochlorite, even in the absence of brushing, proved to be a straightforward, rapid, low-cost, and effective protocol for cleaning the dentures of hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Humanos , Ágar/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Higienizadores de Dentadura/farmacologia , Prótese Total/microbiologia , Dentaduras/microbiologia , Ácido Hipocloroso/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
8.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(4): 217, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of severity of periodontal disease on periapical healing after non-surgical endodontic therapy (NSET). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, subjects (n = 45) requiring NSET in a mandibular molar tooth with the diagnosis of pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis exhibiting radiographic periapical index (PAI) score ≥ 3 and concomitant endodontic periodontal lesion (CEPL) without communication were enrolled. After dividing as per the classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions, subjects were equally allocated into three groups. Group I- only endodontic lesion {control: healthy periodontium (n = 15)}, Group II- CEPL having stage I and II periodontitis (n = 15) and Group III- CEPL having stage III periodontitis (n = 15). Standardized two-visit NSET was performed with 2% chlorhexidine gel as an intracanal medicament. Periodontal therapy was instituted wherever required. Subjects were recalled at 6-and 12-months for clinical and radiographic assessment. Chi-square test was performed to evaluate the difference between the groups. RESULTS: At 12-month follow-up, all teeth in the three study groups were asymptomatic. On radiographic evaluation of the periapical region, healing was observed in 80%, 47% and 50% of teeth in Groups I, Group II and Group III, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant between the groups (p = 0.150). CONCLUSION: The severity of periodontal disease had no influence on periapical healing after NSET in teeth with concomitant endodontic periodontal lesions without communication. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Periodontal disease has significant impact on apical periodontitis however severity of the periodontitis does not negatively impact the apical periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite Periapical , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Periodontite Periapical/terapia , Periodontite Periapical/tratamento farmacológico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização
9.
J Dent ; 143: 104907, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Down Syndrome (DS) adults are at risk for periodontitis. Previous reports indicated difficulties in periodontopathogen reduction or eradication in DS individuals after periodontal treatment. This case series follows the subgingival microbial changes in adult DS individuals with periodontitis who received chlorhexidine adjunct non-surgical therapy plus 12-month recalls. METHODS: Twenty periodontitis DS participants (7 females; 25.5 ± 5.6 years of age; 3 with generalized periodontitis) partook in a study involving non-surgical mechanical periodontal therapy, twice daily chlorhexidine gel toothbrushing, chlorhexidine mouthwash, and monthly recalls. The subgingival microbiota profile was followed at baseline, 6-, and 12-months post-operation. RESULTS: Desulfobulbus, Saccharibacteria (TM7), Tannerella, and Porphyromonas were the major subgingival genera in this DS cohort. Favorable chlorhexidine adjunct non-surgical treatment outcomes were observed, with the relative abundance of Desulfobulbus sp. HMT 041, Saccharibacteria (TM7) [G-1] bacterium HMT 346 or 349, and Tannerella forsythia significantly reduced at the end of the study, but no significant reduction of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans could be observed. Relative abundance of Desulfobulbus sp. HMT 041 and T. forsythia were also found to be significantly associated with plaque, bleeding on probing, and probing pocket depth (PPD, in mm) at a site level, while the relative abundance of Halomonas pacifica was negatively associated with PPD. CONCLUSIONS: Successful chlorhexidine adjunct non-surgical treatment with hygiene care was accompanied by a subgingival microbial shift involving certain periodontopathogenic species, except P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. Further investigations are required to clarify the mechanism underpinning the unchanged relative abundance of the above two pathogens despite favorable clinical responses. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: DS adults face challenges achieving optimal home care or hygiene for periodontal healing and disease prevention. Chemical adjunct mechanical periodontal therapy plus regular recalls appeared promising clinically and microbiologically, with subgingival periodontopathogenic species reduction. The persistence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis in subgingival niches post-treatment warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Síndrome de Down , Periodontite , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Bolsa Periodontal , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 268: 116303, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458107

RESUMO

Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) catalyzes the attachment of l-methionine (l-Met) to tRNAMet to generate methionyl-tRNAMet, an essential substrate for protein translation within ribosome. Owing to its indispensable biological function and the structural discrepancies with human counterpart, bacterial MetRS is considered an ideal target for developing antibacterials. Herein, chlorhexidine (CHX) was identified as a potent binder of Staphylococcus aureus MetRS (SaMetRS) through an ATP-aided affinity screening. The co-crystal structure showed that CHX simultaneously occupies the enlarged l-Met pocket (EMP) and the auxiliary pocket (AP) of SaMetRS with its two chlorophenyl groups, while its central hexyl linker swings upwards to interact with some conserved hydrophobic residues. ATP adopts alternative conformations in the active site cavity, and forms ionic bonds and water-mediated hydrogen bonds with CHX. Consistent with this synergistic binding mode, ATP concentration-dependently enhanced the binding affinity of CHX to SaMetRS from 10.2 µM (no ATP) to 0.45 µM (1 mM ATP). While it selectively inhibited two representative type 1 MetRSs from S. aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, CHX did not show significant interactions with three tested type 2 MetRSs, including human cytoplasmic MetRS, in the enzyme inhibition and biophysical binding assays, probably due to the conformational differences between two types of MetRSs at their EMP and AP. Our findings on CHX may inspire the design of MetRS-directed antimicrobials in future.


Assuntos
Metionina tRNA Ligase , Humanos , Metionina tRNA Ligase/química , Metionina tRNA Ligase/genética , Metionina tRNA Ligase/metabolismo , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , RNA de Transferência de Metionina/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
11.
Biofouling ; 40(2): 114-129, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538551

RESUMO

This study aimed to answer the question formulated according to the PICO strategy: 'Which essential oils show antimicrobial activity against biofilms formed on dental acrylic resin?' composed by population (dental acrylic resin), intervention (application of essential oils), comparison (denture cleansers, antifungal drugs, chlorhexidine, and oral mouthwashes), and outcome (antibiofilm activity). In vitro experimental studies evaluating the activity of EOs on biofilm formed on acrylic resin were included. PRISMA guidelines were followed, and the search was performed in the PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, and Lilacs databases and in the gray literature using Google Scholar and ProQuest in December 2023. A manual search of the reference lists of the included primary studies was performed. Of the 1467 articles identified, 37 were selected for full-text reading and 12 were included. Twelve EOs were evaluated, of which 11 showed activity against Candida spp., 3 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The EOs of Cymbopogon citratus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cymbopogon nardus showed higher action than chlorhexidine, C. nardus higher than Listerine, C. citratus higher than nystatin, and Melaleuca alternifolia higher than fluconazole and nystatin. However, chlorhexidine was more effective than Lippia sidoides and Salvia officinalis, sodium hypochlorite was more effective than L. sidoides, nystatin was more effective than Zingiber officinale, Amphotericin B more effective than Eucalyptus globulus and M. alternifolia. In conclusion, the EOs of C. zeylanicum, C. citratus, C. nardus, and M. alternifolia showed antimicrobial activity to reduce biofilm on dental acrylic resin.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas , Biofilmes , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Nistatina/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
12.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 22(1): 139-144, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the clinical efficacy of a chlorhexidine gargle combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rb-bFGF) gel in the treatment of recurrent oral ulcers and its effects on inflammatory factors, immune function, and recurrence rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six patients with recurrent oral ulcers were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental (treatment with chlorhexidine gargle plus rb-bFGF gel) and control (treatment with chlorhexidine gargle alone) (n = 48 cases). The therapeutic efficacy, clinical improvement of symptoms, and recurrence rate within 3 months were compared between the two groups. Serum inflammatory factor and immune factor levels of patients in the two groups were measured before and after treatment. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher total effective rate was found in patients of the experimental group (95.83%) versus the control group (81.25%) (p < 0.05). The time to onset of pain relief was shortened, the duration of pain relief was prolonged, and VAS scores for pain level were lower in the experimental than the control group (p < 0.05). Among patients in the experimental group, the number of oral ulcers and ulcer area decreased, and faster onset of pain relief and time until normal eating improved in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). Reduced levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were observed in the experimental vs the control group (p < 0.05). Elevated levels of CD3+, CD4+, and NKT and reduced levels of CD8+ were found in the experimental group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The ulcer recurrence rate of patients in the experimental group (8.33%) was notably lower in comparison to the control group (29.17%). CONCLUSION: Chlorhexidine gargle plus rb-bFGF gel can improve the clinical outcome of patients with recurrent oral ulcers. It can reduce the levels of inflammatory factors, improve immune function, and reduce the recurrence rate.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Úlceras Orais , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Úlcera , Antissépticos Bucais , Resultado do Tratamento , Dor
13.
AORN J ; 119(4): 261-274, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536409

RESUMO

Many surgeons request use of 10% povidone-iodine (PI) for vaginal antisepsis; however, when PI is contraindicated, some surgeons request use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) instead. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine any significant differences in self-reported symptoms associated with vaginal antisepsis with either 10% PI scrub or 4% CHG with 4% isopropyl alcohol. The control group comprised 62 participants who underwent vaginal antisepsis with the PI product, and the intervention group comprised 58 participants who underwent vaginal antisepsis with the CHG product. Participants completed surveys immediately before surgery, immediately after surgery, and 48 to 72 hours after surgery. No significant differences were found in the reported vaginal symptoms between the two groups for any survey. One participant in the intervention group reported symptoms consistent with an allergic reaction. Additional studies are needed on the use of CHG for vaginal antisepsis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , 2-Propanol/uso terapêutico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Antissepsia
14.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(1): e839, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess which decontamination method(s) used for the debridement of titanium surfaces (disks and dental implants) contaminated with bacterial, most efficiently eliminate bacterial biofilms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in four electronic databases between January 1, 2010 and October 31, 2022. The search strategy followed the PICOS format and included only in vitro studies completed on either dental implant or titanium disk samples. The assessed outcome variable consisted of the most effective method(s)-chemical or mechanical- removing bacterial biofilm from titanium surfaces. A meta-analysis was conducted, and data was summarized through single- and multi-level random effects model (p < .05). RESULTS: The initial search resulted in 5260 articles after the removal of duplicates. After assessment by title, abstract, and full-text review, a total of 13 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Different decontamination methods were assessed, including both mechanical and chemical, with the most common method across studies being chlorhexidine (CHX). Significant heterogeneity was noted across the included studies. The meta-analyses only identified a significant difference in biofilm reduction when CHX treatment was compared against PBS. The remaining comparisons did not identify significant differences between the various decontamination methods. CONCLUSIONS: The present results do not demonstrate that one method of decontamination is superior in eliminating bacterial biofilm from titanium disk and implant surfaces.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Peri-Implantite , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/prevenção & controle , Implantes Dentários/microbiologia , Titânio , Descontaminação/métodos , Clorexidina , Bactérias
15.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(1): e837, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was the assessment of the efficiency of the ethyl acetate (EthOAc) extract of Thymus serpyllum against Candida albicans and to compare it with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX), as well as their genotoxic effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The antifungal effectiveness of the EthOAc extract of Thymus serpyllum was determined using the agar disk diffusion method. The inhibition zones induced by the EthOAc extract were compared after 5 min, 60 min, and 24 h to those induced by standard solutions (2% CHX and 2% NaOCl). An in vitro genotoxicity assay was performed in cultured lymphocytes from the blood of human volunteers to observe micronuclei formation. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The inhibition zone of combination of CHX with EthOAc extract of Thymus serpyllum against C. albicans was 29.7 mm after 5 min, 28.3 mm after 60 min, and 29 mm after 24 h. The inhibition zone of NaOCl in combination with EthOAc extract of Thymus serpyllum against C. albicans was 0 mm. The EthOAc extract of Thymus serpyllum did not show a genotoxic effect on lymphocyte cells. CONCLUSIONS: The EthOAc extract of Thymus serpyllum in combination with CHX may be a useful root canal disinfection in endodontic therapy.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Antifúngicos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/toxicidade , Clorexidina/toxicidade , Hipoclorito de Sódio/toxicidade
16.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(1): e844, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to synthesize and characterize mesoporous zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and also to evaluate the cytotoxicity of mesoporous ZnO NPs on L929 mouse fibroblast cell lines using 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The synthesized mesoporous ZnO NPs were extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDAX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cytotoxicity of mesoporous ZnO NPs was assessed by MTT assay. The study groups for cytotoxicity assay were normal saline, 0.1% calcined mesoporous ZnO NP solution, 1% calcined mesoporous ZnO NP solution, 0.1% noncalcined mesoporous ZnO NP solution, 1% noncalcined mesoporous ZnO NP solution, 0.1% ZnO NP solution, 1% ZnO NP solution, 2% chlorhexidine, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The percentages of mean ± standard deviation of viable cells were analyzed. RESULTS: Characterization of mesoporous ZnO NPs revealed that all the particles were in a more or less spherical shape with a wide particle size distribution of 70-100 nm. TEM image showed the uniformed and aggregated ZnO NPs with a typical size of 10-15 nm. BET analysis showed a mesoporous structure for the prepared mesoporous ZnO NPs. According to the MTT assay, chlorhexidine had the lowest cell viability percentage. Cell viability percentages of 0.1% mesoporous ZnO NP solutions (calcined and noncalcined) were statistically, significantly higher than 0.1% ZnO NP solution (p < .05). Cell viability percentages of 0.1% calcined and noncalcined mesoporous ZnO NP solutions and 0.1% ZnO NP solution were statistically, significantly higher than the 1% solutions (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Mesoporous ZnO NPs exhibited less cytotoxicity against L929 mouse fibroblast cell lines compared to CHX and ZnO NPs, hence are safe to use.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Camundongos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/metabolismo , Clorexidina , Tamanho da Partícula , Nanopartículas/química , Fibroblastos/metabolismo
17.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 45: 103996, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the effect of antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) with chitosan nanoparticles on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) in the culture medium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vitro, experimental study, chitosan nanoparticles (CHNPs) containing indocyanine green (ICG) were first synthesized and characterized. A. actinomycetemcomitans was cultured on trypticase soy agar. The culture media containing A. actinomycetemcomitans were randomly subjected to the following six decontamination protocols: negative control subjected to sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 5 min, positive control exposed to 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX) for 5 min, exposure to 0.25 mg/mL ICG in the dark at 37 °C for 5 min, aPDT with 0.25 mg/mL ICG and diode laser (808 nm, 250 mW, 14.94 J/cm2, 30 s, 1 mm distance, 8 mm tip diameter), exposure to CHNPs containing 0.25 mg/mL ICG in the dark at 37 °C for 5 min, and aPDT with CHNPs containing 0.25 mg/mL ICG and diode laser. The number of colonies was counted, and analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tamhane test (alpha=0.050). RESULTS: Antimicrobial PDT with CHNPs, and CHX groups comparably showed the highest decontamination efficacy (P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: The results showed optimal efficacy of aPDT with CHNPs containing 0.25 mg/mL ICG and 808 nm diode laser for reduction of A. actinomycetemcomitans colony count. Thus, aPDT appears to be as effective as CHX, but with fewer adverse effects.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Fotoquimioterapia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Quitosana/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorexidina , Meios de Cultura , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia
18.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 45: 104012, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 635 nm diode laser irradiation with an energy density of 6 to 30 J/cm2 and toluidine blue O (TBO) as a photosensitizer on the viability of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans attached to the surface of titanium implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Titanium implants contaminated with A. actinomycetemcomitans were treated with TBO alone or in combination with different exposure parameters (light doses of 6 - 30 J/cm2 at 635 nm) and 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX). After treatment, colony forming units (CFUs)/ml were determined to assess PDT efficacy. The structure of the biofilm of A. actinomycetemcomitans was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). RESULTS: Under optimal conditions, the colony count was reduced by ∼90 %. Treatment with CHX was somewhat more effective (colony formation was reduced by ∼95 %), but this agent has adverse effects that can be avoided with PDT. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the efficacy of PDT against A. actinomycetemcomitans depending on the light dose. Treatment with TBO + 635 nm diode laser has an effect that may be equivalent to that of CHX, but perhaps with fewer adverse effects.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Fotoquimioterapia , Titânio , Cloreto de Tolônio/farmacologia , Lasers Semicondutores , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Biofilmes , Clorexidina
19.
Angle Orthod ; 94(2): 194-199, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess effectiveness of an experimental sterilization method based on the exposure of an O3/O2 gas mixture directly inside the packaging for clear aligners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty samples consisting of pieces of polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PET-G) aligners were contaminated by manual handling and subsequently divided into different groups (n = 30 for exposure to O3/O2 gas at different times, n = 10 for positive control with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, n = 10 for negative control). The measurement of optical densities (OD) of the initial and final microbial cultures was recorded for all groups. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for differences between groups while Wilcoxon test was used to compare initial and final OD values within groups. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: Comparison within the groups showed statistically significant differences for exposure to the gaseous mixture (72 hours), for positive and negative controls. Other significant differences were found in the multiple comparisons between the application of gaseous ozone (48 hours and 72 hours) and the negative control. CONCLUSIONS: The direct exposure of gaseous ozone on the aligners inside their packaging showed microbicidal capacity at 72 hours, which was equivalent to the positive control with immersion in chlorhexidine digluconate. This innovative sterilization procedure could be considered in the final manufacturing processes of clear aligners to eliminate the potentially pathogenic microorganisms that are deposited on surfaces of these orthodontic devices.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Ozônio , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Esterilização
20.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 25(2): 31, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326518

RESUMO

Drug delivery to the buccal mucosa is one of the most convenient ways to treat common mouth problems. Here, we propose a spray-dried re-dispersible mucoadhesive controlled release gargle formulation to improve the efficacy of chlorhexidine. The present investigation portrays an approach to get stable and free-flowing spray-dried porous aggregates of chlorhexidine-loaded sodium alginate nanoparticles. The ionic gelation technique aided with the chlorhexidine's positive surface charge-based crosslinking, followed by spray drying of the nanoparticle's dispersion in the presence of lactose- and leucine-yielded nano-aggregates with good flow properties and with a size range of about 120-350 nm. Provided with the high entrapment efficiency (87%), the particles showed sustained drug release behaviors over a duration of 10 h, where 87% of the released drug got permeated within 12 h. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared formulation was tested on S. aureus, provided with a higher zone of growth inhibition than the marketed formulation. Aided with an appropriate mucoadhesive strength, this product exhibited extended retention of nanoparticles in the throat region, as shown by in vivo imaging results. In conclusion, the technology, provided with high drug retention and extended effect, could be a potential candidate for treating several types of throat infections.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Faringe , Staphylococcus aureus , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Antissépticos Bucais , Tamanho da Partícula
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