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1.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621018

RESUMO

Autumn senescence is characterised by spatial and temporal heterogeneity. We show that senescing birch (Betula spp.) leaves had lower PSII activity (probed by the F V /F M chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter) in late autumn than in early autumn. We confirmed that PSII repair slows down with decreasing temperature, while rates of photodamage and recovery, measured under laboratory conditions at 20°C, were similar in these leaves. We propose that low temperatures during late autumn hinder repair and lead to accumulation of non-functional PSII units in senescing leaves. Fluorescence imaging of birch revealed that chlorophyll preferentially disappeared from inter-veinal leaf areas. These areas showed no recovery capacity and low non-photochemical quenching while green veinal areas of senescing leaves resembled green leaves. However, green and yellow leaf areas showed similar values of photochemical quenching. Analyses of thylakoids isolated from maple (Acer platanoides ) leaves showed that red, senescing leaves contained high amounts of carotenoids and α-tocopherol, and our calculations suggest that α-tocopherol was synthesised during autumn. Thylakoids isolated from red maple leaves produced little singlet oxygen, probably due to the high antioxidant content. However, the rate of PSII photodamage did not decrease. The data show that the heterogeneity of senescing leaves must be taken into account to fully understand autumn senescence.


Assuntos
Árvores , alfa-Tocoferol , Clorofila A/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , Clorofila , Folhas de Planta
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610546

RESUMO

The study of plant electrophysiology offers promising techniques to track plant health and stress in vivo for both agricultural and environmental monitoring applications. Use of superficial electrodes on the plant body to record surface potentials may provide new phenotyping insights. Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a flexible, optically translucent, and water-vapor-permeable material with low manufacturing costs, making it an ideal substrate for non-invasive and non-destructive plant electrodes. This work presents BNC electrodes with screen-printed carbon (graphite) ink-based conductive traces and pads. It investigates the potential of these electrodes for plant surface electrophysiology measurements in comparison to commercially available standard wet gel and needle electrodes. The electrochemically active surface area and impedance of the BNC electrodes varied based on the annealing temperature and time over the ranges of 50 °C to 90 °C and 5 to 60 min, respectively. The water vapor transfer rate and optical transmittance of the BNC substrate were measured to estimate the level of occlusion caused by these surface electrodes on the plant tissue. The total reduction in chlorophyll content under the electrodes was measured after the electrodes were placed on maize leaves for up to 300 h, showing that the BNC caused only a 16% reduction. Maize leaf transpiration was reduced by only 20% under the BNC electrodes after 72 h compared to a 60% reduction under wet gel electrodes in 48 h. On three different model plants, BNC-carbon ink surface electrodes and standard invasive needle electrodes were shown to have a comparable signal quality, with a correlation coefficient of >0.9, when measuring surface biopotentials induced by acute environmental stressors. These are strong indications of the superior performance of the BNC substrate with screen-printed graphite ink as an electrode material for plant surface biopotential recordings.


Assuntos
Grafite , Agricultura , Transporte Biológico , Carbono , Clorofila , Vapor
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 3037-3046, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629564

RESUMO

Through lettuce potting experiments, the effects of different types of biochar (apple branch, corn straw, and modified sorghum straw biochar with phosphoric acid modification) on lettuce growth under tetracycline (TC) and copper (Cu) co-pollution were investigated. The results showed that compared with those under CK, the addition of biochar treatment significantly increased the plant height, root length, shoot fresh weight, and root fresh weight of lettuce (P < 0.05). The addition of different biochars significantly increased the nitrate nitrogen, chlorophyll, and soluble protein content in lettuce physiological indicators to varying degrees, while also significantly decreasing the levels of malondialdehyde, proline content, and catalase activity. The effects of biochar on lettuce physiological indicators were consistent during both the seedling and mature stages. Compared with those in CK, the addition of biochar resulted in varying degrees of reduction in the TC and Cu contents of both the aboveground and underground parts of lettuce. The aboveground TC and Cu levels decreased by 2.49%-92.32% and 12.79%-36.47%, respectively. The underground TC and Cu levels decreased by 12.53%-55.64% and 22.41%-42.29%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that nitrate nitrogen, chlorophyll, and soluble protein content of lettuce were negatively correlated with TC content, whereas malondialdehyde, proline content, and catalase activity were positively correlated with TC content. The resistance genes of lettuce were positively correlated with TC content (P < 0.05). In general, modified biochar was found to be more effective in improving lettuce growth quality and reducing pollutant accumulation compared to unmodified biochar, with modified sorghum straw biochar showing the best remediation effect.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes do Solo , Cobre , Alface , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Solo , Catalase , Nitratos/análise , Antibacterianos , Tetraciclina/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Clorofila/análise , Malondialdeído , Nitrogênio/análise , Prolina
4.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(3): 44, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630172

RESUMO

Albino tea cultivars have high economic value because their young leaves contain enhanced free amino acids that improve the quality and properties of tea. Zhonghuang 1 (ZH1) and Zhonghuang 2 (ZH2) are two such cultivars widely planted in China; however, the environmental factors and molecular mechanisms regulating their yellow-leaf phenotype remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that both ZH1 and ZH2 are light- and temperature-sensitive. Under natural sunlight and low-temperature conditions, their young shoots were yellow with decreased chlorophyll and an abnormal chloroplast ultrastructure. Conversely, young shoots were green with increased chlorophyll and a normal chloroplast ultrastructure under shading and high-temperature conditions. RNA-seq analysis was performed for high light and low light conditions, and pairwise comparisons identified genes exhibiting different light responses between albino and green-leaf cultivars, including transcription factors, cytochrome P450 genes, and heat shock proteins. Weighted gene coexpression network analyses of RNA-seq data identified the modules related to chlorophyll differences between cultivars. Genes involved in chloroplast biogenesis and development, light signaling, and JA biosynthesis and signaling were typically downregulated in albino cultivars, accompanied by a decrease in JA-ILE content in ZH2 during the albino period. Furthermore, we identified the hub genes that may regulate the yellow-leaf phenotype of ZH1 and ZH2, including CsGDC1, CsALB4, CsGUN4, and a TPR gene (TEA010575.1), which were related to chloroplast biogenesis. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying leaf color formation in albino tea cultivars.


Assuntos
Albinismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Temperatura , Temperatura Baixa , Clorofila
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8633, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622240

RESUMO

The study aimed to find the best Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) strain for cotton growth in Xinjiang's salinity and alkali conditions. Cotton (Xinluzao 45) was treated with Funneliformis mosseae (GM), Rhizophagus irregularis (GI), and Claroideoglomus etunicatum (GE) as treatments, while untreated cotton served as the control (CK). Salinity stress was applied post-3-leaf stage in cotton. The study analyzed cotton's reactions to diverse saline-alkali stresses, focusing on nutrient processes and metabolism. By analyzing the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of plants inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae to evaluate its salt tolerance. Saline-alkali stress reduced chlorophyll and hindered photosynthesis, hampering cotton growth. However, AMF inoculation mitigated these effects, enhancing photosynthetic rates, CO2 concentration, transpiration, energy use efficiency, and overall cotton growth under similar stress levels. GM and GE treatments yielded similar positive effects. AMF inoculation enhanced cotton plant height and biomass. In GM treatment, cotton exhibited notably higher root length than other treatments, showing superior growth under various conditions. In summary, GM-treated cotton had the highest infection rate, followed by GE-treated cotton, with GI-treated cotton having the lowest rate (GM averaging 0.95). Cotton inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus irregularis, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum juvenile showed enhanced chlorophyll and photosynthetic levels, reducing salinity effects. Funneliformis mosseae had the most significant positive impact.


Assuntos
Fungos , Micorrizas , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Plântula , Gossypium/metabolismo , Álcalis , Fotossíntese , Clorofila/metabolismo , Solução Salina
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 282, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In regional wheat trials, when short-stem wheat varieties and high-stem wheat varieties are planted adjacent to each other in small plots, changes in their marginal plot environment can lead to bias in yield evaluation. Currently, there is no relevant research revealing the degree of their mutual influence. RESULTS: In a regional wheat experiment, when high-stem wheat varieties and short-stem wheat varieties were planted adjacent to one another, there was no significant change in soil temperature or humidity in the high-stem wheat variety experimental plot from November to May compared to the control plot, while the soil humidity in the short-stem wheat variety experimental plot was greater than that in the control plot. In May, the soil temperature of the short-stem wheat varieties in the experimental plot was lower than that in the control plot. Illumination of the wheat canopy in the high-stem wheat variety experimental plot had a significant positive effect in April and May, while illumination of the wheat canopy in the short-stem wheat variety experimental plot had a negative effect. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaves in the high-stem wheat variety experimental plots showed an overall increasing trend, while the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaves in the experimental plots of short-stem wheat varieties showed a decreasing trend. The analysis of the economic yield, biological yield, and yield factors in each experimental plot revealed that the marginal effects of the economic yield and 1000-grain weight were particularly significant and manifested as positive effects in the high-stem wheat variety experimental plot and as negative effects in the short-stem wheat variety experimental plot. The economic yield of the high-stem wheat variety experimental plot was significantly greater than that of the control plot, the economic yield of the short-stem wheat variety experimental plot was significantly lower than that of the control plot, and the economic yield of the high-stem experimental plot was significantly greater than that of the short-stem experimental plot. When the yield of the control plot of the high-stem wheat varieties was compared to that of the control plot of the short-stem wheat varieties, the yield of the control plot of the short-stem wheat varieties was significantly greater than that of the control plot of the high-stem wheat varieties. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, it is concluded that plots with high-stem and short-stem wheat varieties are adjacent in regional wheat trials, the plots of high-stem wheat varieties are subject to marginal positive effects, resulting in a significant increase in economic yield; the plots of short-stem wheat varieties are subject to marginal negative effects, resulting in a decrease in economic yield. This study reveals the mutual influence mechanism of environment and yield with adjacent planting of high-stem and short-stem wheat varieties in regional wheat trials, providing a useful reference and guidance for optimizing the layout of regional wheat trials.


Assuntos
Clima , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Solo , Grão Comestível , Clorofila
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298072, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593116

RESUMO

As a result of oat (Avena sativa L.) × maize (Zea mays L.) crossing, maize chromosomes may not be completely eliminated at the early stages of embryogenesis, leading to the oat × maize addition (OMA) lines development. Introgression of maize chromosomes into oat genome can cause morphological and physiological modifications. The aim of the research was to evaluate the leaves' anatomy, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and yield parameter of oat doubled haploid (DH) and OMA lines obtained by oat × maize crossing. The present study examined two DH and two disomic OMA lines and revealed that they differ significantly in the majority of studied traits, apart from: the number of cells of the outer bundle sheath; light energy absorption; excitation energy trapped in PSII reaction centers; and energy dissipated from PSII. The OMA II line was characterized by larger size of single cells in the outer bundle sheath and greater number of seeds per plant among tested lines.


Assuntos
Avena , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Clorofila A , Avena/genética , Haploidia , Fluorescência , Clorofila
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2795: 25-35, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594524

RESUMO

High ambient temperature affects various plant developmental and physiological processes, including senescence. Here, we present a protocol for assaying light-dependent high ambient temperature-induced senescence using whole seedlings. The protocol covers all steps, from inducing senescence by darkness at high ambient temperature to determining the degree of senescence, and includes experimental tips and notes. The onset of senescence is established by quantifying the increased expression of senescence marker genes by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The degree of senescence is determined by measuring the loss of chlorophyll and the increase of ion leakage. This protocol can be adapted to study light-dependent high ambient temperature-induced senescence in other plant species by adjusting the temperature and duration of darkness.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/genética , Temperatura , Escuridão , Clorofila/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(1): e20220413, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597497

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the application of the Phytoplankton Community Index-PCI and Functional Groups-FG in determining the water quality of the Guamá River (Pará, Amazônia, Brazil). Samplings occurred monthly for analyses of phytoplankton and physical and chemical parameters, for two years, at the station where water was collected for human supply consumption. Seasonality influenced electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, transparency, winds, true color, and N-ammoniacal. The ebb tide showed high turbidity and suspended solids. The density varied seasonally with the highest values occurring in September and December (61.1 ind mL-1 and 60.2 ind mL-1, respectively). Chlorophyll-a was more elevated in December (21.0 ± 4.7 µg L-1) and chlorophyll-c higher in relation to clorophyll- b indicated the dominance of diatoms. Functional Group P prevailed in the study months. Through the PCI índex the waters of Guamá River varied from reasonable to excellent and the TSI ranged from oligo to mesotrophic. The use of Functional Groups proved to be a promising tool in the determination of water quality since it covered the most abundant species in the Environment, but the PCI is not adequate to characterize Amazonian white-waters rivers, which have diatoms as the leading dominant group.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Fitoplâncton , Rios/química , Brasil , Clorofila/análise , Estações do Ano , Monitoramento Ambiental
10.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(5): 96, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589730

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A total of 416 InDels and 112 SNPs were significantly associated with soybean photosynthesis-related traits. GmIWS1 and GmCDC48 might be related to chlorophyll fluorescence and gas-exchange parameters, respectively. Photosynthesis is one of the main factors determining crop yield. A better understanding of the genetic architecture for photosynthesis is of great significance for soybean yield improvement. Our previous studies identified 5,410,112 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the resequencing data of 219 natural soybean accessions. Here, we identified 634,106 insertions and deletions (InDels) from these 219 accessions and used these InDel variations to perform principal component and linkage disequilibrium analysis of this population. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) were conducted on six chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (chlorophyll content, light energy absorbed per reaction center, quantum yield for electron transport, probability that a trapped exciton moves an electron into the electron transport chain beyond primary quinone acceptor, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II primary photochemistry in the dark-adapted state, performance index on absorption basis) and four gas-exchange parameters (intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate) and revealed 416 significant InDels and 112 significant SNPs. Based on GWAS results, GmIWS1 (encoding a transcription elongation factor) and GmCDC48 (encoding a cell division cycle protein) with the highest expression in the mapping region were determined as the candidate genes responsible for chlorophyll fluorescence and gas-exchange parameters, respectively. Further identification of favorable haplotypes with higher photosynthesis, seed weight and seed yield were carried out for GmIWS1 and GmCDC48. Overall, this study revealed the natural variations and candidate genes underlying the photosynthesis-related traits based on abundant phenotypic and genetic data, providing valuable insights into the genetic mechanisms controlling photosynthesis and yield in soybean.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Soja , Soja/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fotossíntese/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2798: 27-43, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587734

RESUMO

Singlet oxygen is a reactive oxygen species that causes oxidative damage to plant cells, but intriguingly it can also act as a signalling molecule to reprogram gene expression required to induce plant physiological/cellular responses. Singlet oxygen photosensitization in plants mainly occurs in chloroplasts after the molecular collision of ground-state molecular oxygen with triplet-excited-state chlorophyll. Singlet oxygen direct detection through phosphorescence emission in chloroplasts is a herculean task due to its extremely low luminescence quantum yield. Because of this, indirect alternative methods have been developed for its detection in biological systems, for example, by measuring the changes in the EPR signal or fluorescence intensity of singlet oxygen reaction-based probes. The singlet oxygen chemiluminescence (SOCL) is a chemiluminescence probe with high sensitivity and selectivity towards singlet oxygen and promising use to detect it in living cells without the inconvenience of low stability of the EPR signal of spin probes in the presence of redox compounds, spurious light scattering coming from the light source required for the excitation of fluorescence probes or the light emission of endogenous fluorescent molecules like chlorophyll in chloroplasts. The protocol presented in this chapter describes the first steps to characterizing singlet oxygen production within the biological system under study; this is accomplished through monitoring molecular oxygen consumption by SOCL using a Clark-type oxygen electrode and measuring the chemiluminescence generated by SOCL 1,2-dioxetane using a spectrofluorometer. For singlet oxygen detection within living cells, a version of SOCL with increased membrane permeability (SOCL-CPP) is described.


Assuntos
Luminescência , Oxigênio Singlete , Oxigênio , Clorofila , Corantes Fluorescentes
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612659

RESUMO

Photosystem I (PSI) is one of the two main pigment-protein complexes where the primary steps of oxygenic photosynthesis take place. This review describes low-temperature frequency-domain experiments (absorption, emission, circular dichroism, resonant and non-resonant hole-burned spectra) and modeling efforts reported for PSI in recent years. In particular, we focus on the spectral hole-burning studies, which are not as common in photosynthesis research as the time-domain spectroscopies. Experimental and modeling data obtained for trimeric cyanobacterial Photosystem I (PSI3), PSI3 mutants, and PSI3-IsiA18 supercomplexes are analyzed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of their excitonic structure and excitation energy transfer (EET) processes. Detailed information on the excitonic structure of photosynthetic complexes is essential to determine the structure-function relationship. We will focus on the so-called "red antenna states" of cyanobacterial PSI, as these states play an important role in photochemical processes and EET pathways. The high-resolution data and modeling studies presented here provide additional information on the energetics of the lowest energy states and their chlorophyll (Chl) compositions, as well as the EET pathways and how they are altered by mutations. We present evidence that the low-energy traps observed in PSI are excitonically coupled states with significant charge-transfer (CT) character. The analysis presented for various optical spectra of PSI3 and PSI3-IsiA18 supercomplexes allowed us to make inferences about EET from the IsiA18 ring to the PSI3 core and demonstrate that the number of entry points varies between sample preparations studied by different groups. In our most recent samples, there most likely are three entry points for EET from the IsiA18 ring per the PSI core monomer, with two of these entry points likely being located next to each other. Therefore, there are nine entry points from the IsiA18 ring to the PSI3 trimer. We anticipate that the data discussed below will stimulate further research in this area, providing even more insight into the structure-based models of these important cyanobacterial photosystems.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/genética , Dicroísmo Circular , Transferência de Energia , Temperatura Baixa
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612713

RESUMO

Leaf senescence, a pivotal process in plants, directly influences both crop yield and nutritional quality. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is a C4 model crop renowned for its exceptional nutritional value and stress tolerance characteristics. However, there is a lack of research on the identification of senescence-associated genes (SAGs) and the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms governing this process. In this study, a dark-induced senescence (DIS) experimental system was applied to investigate the extensive physiological and transcriptomic changes in two foxtail millet varieties with different degrees of leaf senescence. The physiological and biochemical indices revealed that the light senescence (LS) variety exhibited a delayed senescence phenotype, whereas the severe senescence (SS) variety exhibited an accelerated senescence phenotype. The most evident differences in gene expression profiles between these two varieties during DIS included photosynthesis, chlorophyll, and lipid metabolism. Comparative transcriptome analysis further revealed a significant up-regulation of genes related to polysaccharide and calcium ion binding, nitrogen utilization, defense response, and malate metabolism in LS. In contrast, the expression of genes associated with redox homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid homeostasis, and hormone signaling was significantly altered in SS. Through WGCNA and RT-qPCR analyses, we identified three SAGs that exhibit potential negative regulation towards dark-induced leaf senescence in foxtail millet. This study establishes the foundation for a further comprehensive examination of the regulatory network governing leaf senescence and provides potential genetic resources for manipulating senescence in foxtail millet.


Assuntos
Setaria (Planta) , Transcriptoma , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Senescência Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Clorofila
14.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 107: 104434, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582069

RESUMO

The potential toxic effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), widely used in commercial detergents and cleaners, on submerged macrophytes remain unclear. We conducted a two-week exposure experiment to investigate LAS toxicity on five submerged macrophytes (four native and one exotic), focusing on their growth and physiological responses. The results showed that lower concentrations of LAS (< 5 mg/L) slightly stimulated the growth of submerged macrophytes, while higher doses inhibited it. Increasing LAS concentration resulted in decreased chlorophyll content, increased MDA content and POD activity, and initially increased SOD and CAT activities before declining. Moreover, Elodea nuttallii required a higher effective concentration for growth compared to native macrophytes. These findings suggest that different species of submerged macrophytes exhibited specific responses to LAS, with high doses (exceeding 5 ∼ 10 mg/L) inhibited plant growth and physiology. However, LAS may promote the dominance of surfactant-tolerant exotic submerged macrophytes in polluted aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Antioxidantes , Clorofila , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 281, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of oxygen in the growth medium is absolutely essential for root development and the overall metabolic processes of plants. When plants do not have an adequate oxygen supply for respiration, they can experience a condition known as hypoxia. In order to investigate the impact of different nitrogen forms and varying oxygen levels in nutrient solutions on the growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of bell pepper plants, a comprehensive study was conducted. The experiment was designed as a factorial experiment, considering two main factors: nitrogen forms (calcium nitrate and ammonium sulfate) with a fixed nitrogen concentration of 5 mM, and the oxygen levels of the nutrient solutions (ranging from 1.8 ± 0.2 to 5.3 ± 0.2 mg. L-1). RESULTS: The study examined the effects of nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-) application on various parameters of vegetative growth. The results demonstrated that the use of ammonium (NH4+) led to a reduction in the most measured parameters, including the fresh and dry mass of both the root and shoot, at low O2 concentrations of 1.8 ± 0.2; 2.6 ± 0.2 and 3.8 ± 0.2 mg. L-1. However, an interesting observation was made regarding the impact of oxygen levels on root growth in plants grown with nitrate (NO3-). Specifically, the highest levels of oxygen significantly increased root growth in NO3--fed plants. Additionally, the application of NH4+ resulted in an increase in chlorophyll concentration in the leaves, particularly when combined with high oxygen levels in the nutrient solution. On the other hand, leaves of plants fed with NO3- exhibited higher photosynthetic rate (A), intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE), and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci) compared to those fed with NH4+. Furthermore, it was found that NO3--fed plants displayed the highest instantaneous carboxylation efficiency at oxygen levels of 3.8 and 5.3 mg. L-1, while the lowest efficiency was observed at oxygen levels of 1.8 and 2.6 mg. L-1. In contrast, NH4+-grown plants exhibited a higher maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), as well as increased variable fluorescence (Fv) and maximum fluorescence (Fm), compared to NO3--grown plants. Interestingly, the NO3--fed plants showed an increase in Fv/Fm, Fv, and Fm with the elevation of oxygen concentration in the nutrient solution up to 5.3 mg. L-1. CONCLUSION: This study showed that, the growth and photosynthesis parameters in bell pepper plants are sensitive to oxygen stress in floating hydroponic culture. Therefore, the oxygen level in the nutrient solution must not be lower than 3.8 and 5.3 mg. L-1 in NH4+ and NO3- -supplied culture media or nutrient solutions, respectively.


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Oxigênio , Hidroponia , Clorofila , Meios de Cultura , Nitrogênio
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299785, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598442

RESUMO

Intense cultivation with narrow row spacing in wheat, a common practice in the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia, renders the crop more susceptible to lodging during physiological maturity. This susceptibility, compounded by the use of traditional crop cultivars, has led to a substantial decline in overall crop productivity. In response to these challenges, a two-year field study on the system of wheat intensification (SWI) was conducted. The study involved three different cultivation methods in horizontal plots and four wheat genotypes in vertical plots, organized in a strip plot design. Our results exhibited that adoption of SWI at 20 cm × 20 cm resulted in significantly higher intercellular CO2 concentration (5.9-6.3%), transpiration rate (13.2-15.8%), stomatal conductance (55-59%), net photosynthetic rate (126-160%), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception (1.6-25.2%) over the existing conventional method (plant geometry 22.5 cm × continuous plant to plant spacing) of wheat cultivation. The lodging resistance capacity of both the lower and upper 3rd nodes was significantly higher in the SWI compared to other cultivation methods. Among different genotypes, HD 2967 demonstrated the highest recorded value for lodging resistance capacity, followed by HD 2851, HD 3086, and HD 2894. In addition, adoption of the SWI at 20 cm × 20 cm enhanced crop grain yield by 36.9-41.6%, and biological yield by 27.5-29.8%. Significantly higher soil dehydrogenase activity (12.06 µg TPF g-1 soil hr-1), arylsulfatase activity (82.8 µg p-nitro phenol g-1 soil hr-1), alkaline phosphatase activity (3.11 n moles ethylene g-1 soil hr-1), total polysaccharides, soil microbial biomass carbon, and soil chlorophyll content were also noted under SWI over conventional method of the production. Further, increased root volumes, surface root density and higher NPK uptake were recorded under SWI at 20×20 cm in comparison to rest of the treatments. Among the tested wheat genotypes, HD-2967 and HD-3086 had demonstrated notable increases in grain and biological yields, as well as improvements in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and chlorophyll content. Therefore, adoption of SWI at 20 cm ×20 cm (square planting) with cultivars HD 2967 might be the best strategy for enhancing crop productivity and resource-use efficiency under the similar wheat growing conditions of India and similar agro-ecotypes of the globe.


Assuntos
Solo , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Água/análise , Clorofila , Biomassa , Grão Comestível/química
17.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14265, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556740

RESUMO

Plant species distribution across ecosystems is influenced by multiple environmental factors, and recurrent seasonal stress events can act as natural selection agents for specific plant traits and limit species distribution. For that, studies aiming at understanding how environmental constraints affect adaptive mechanisms of taxonomically closely related species are of great interest. We chose two Scabiosa species inhabiting contrasting environments: the coastal scabious S. atropurpurea, typically coping with hot-dry summers in a Mediterranean climate, and the mountain scabious S. columbaria facing cold winters in an oceanic climate. A set of functional traits was examined to assess plant performance in these congeneric species from contrasting natural habitats. Both S. atropurpurea and S. columbaria appeared to be perfectly adapted to their environment in terms of adjustments in stomatal closure, CO2 assimilation rate and water use efficiency over the seasons. However, an unexpected dry period during winter followed by the typical Mediterranean hot-dry summer forced S. atropurpurea plants to deploy a set of photoprotective responses during summer. Aside from reductions in leaf water content and Fv/Fm, photoprotective molecules (carotenoids, α-tocopherol and anthocyanins) per unit of chlorophyll increased, mostly as a consequence of a severe chlorophyll loss. The profiling of stress-related hormones (ABA, salicylic acid and jasmonates) revealed associations between ABA and the bioactive jasmonoyl-isoleucine with the underlying photoprotective response to recurrent seasonal stress in S. atropurpurea. We conclude that jasmonates may be used together with ABA as a functional trait that may, at least in part, help understand plant responses to recurrent seasonal stress in the current frame of global climate change.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Ciclopentanos , Ecossistema , Oxilipinas , Estações do Ano , Clorofila , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Água
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 112(4): 52, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565801

RESUMO

The increasing use of copper oxide nano particles (nCuO) as nano-fertilizers and pesticides have raised concerns over their impact on soil environment and agricultural products. In this study, two nCuO with different shapes, namely spherical nCuO (CuO NPs) and tubular nCuO (CuO NTs), were selected to investigate their bioavailability and toxicity to pakchoi in two soils with different properties. At the meantime, CuO bulk particles (CuO BPs) and Cu(NO3)2 were used for comparison. Results showed that all the Cu treatments increased the DTPA extractable (DTPA-Cu) concentrations in GD soil (acidic) more than in HN soil (alkaline). The DTPA-Cu concentrations increased in the order of Cu(NO3)2 ≈ CuO NPs > CuO BPs ≈ CuO NTs in GD soil and Cu(NO3)2 > CuO NPs > CuO BPs ≈ CuO NTs in HN soil. While for the contents of Cu in the aerial parts of pakchoi, the order is CuO NPs > Cu(NO3)2 > CuO NTs ≈ CuO BPs in GD soil and CuO NPs ≈ Cu(NO3)2 > CuO BPs ≈ CuO NTs in HN soil. Only CuO NPs reduced pakchoi biomass in GD soil. There are no significant difference among CuO NPs, CuO BPs, and Cu(NO3)2 in reducing the chlorophyll contents in pakchoi in HN soil, whereas in GD soil, CuO NPs and CuO BPs led to significantly lower chlorophyll contents in pakchoi compared to Cu(NO3)2. Additionally, CuO NPs and Cu(NO3)2 increased Mn and Mo in pakchoi leaf in HN soil, while increased Zn in pakchoi leaf in GD soil. These results indicated that CuO NPs showed higher or comparable toxicity and bioavailability to pakchoi compared with Cu(NO3)2 depending on soil properties, and nCuO are more easily to be transferred from roots to the aerial parts than CuO BPs and Cu(NO3)2.


Assuntos
Brassica , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Cobre/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Solo , Óxidos , Clorofila , Ácido Pentético , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 241, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global growth of pistachio production has prompted exploration into sustainable agricultural practices, on the application of humic substances such as fulvic acid in enhancing the quality of horticultural crops. The present study was carried out in Qom province, Iran, on 20 years old pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Kaleh-Ghoochi) trees and investigated the impact of foliar spraying of fulvic acid at varying concentrations (1.5, 3, and 4.5 g L- 1) on the antioxidant and quality properties of pistachio. The different concentrations of fulvic acid were applied at two key stages: at the initiation of pistachio kernel formation (late June) and the development stage of pistachio kernel (late August), as well as at both time points. Following harvest at the horticulturally mature phase, various parameters, including total phenols, flavonoids, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrate content, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activity, were assessed. RESULTS: Results indicated that foliar application of fulvic acid, particularly at 1.5 g L- 1 during both late June and August, effectively increased phenolic compounds (31.8%) and flavonoid content (24.53%). Additionally, this treatment also augmented antioxidant capacity and heightened the activity of catalase (CAT) (37.56%), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (63.86%), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (76.45%). Conversely, peroxidase (POX) (41.54%) activity was reduced in fulvic acid-treated nuts compared with controls. Moreover, the content of chlorophyll (45%) and carotenoids (46.7%) was enhanced using this organic fertilizer. In terms of mineral elements, the increment was observed in zinc (Zn) (58.23%) and potassium (K) (28.12%) amounts in treated nuts. Additionally, foliar application of fulvic acid led to elevated levels of soluble carbohydrates and proteins in treated nuts. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, application of fulvic acid resulted in enhancement of antioxidant activity and quality traits of pistachio nut through an increase in total phenol, flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, K, Zn, and also activity of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, use of fulvic acid emerges as a promising strategy to enhance the quality and nutritional attributes of pistachios, contributing to sustainable agricultural practices and improved crop outcomes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Benzopiranos , Pistacia , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis , Carotenoides , Valor Nutritivo , Clorofila
20.
Opt Express ; 32(7): 12141-12159, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571046

RESUMO

It is important to determine the relationship between the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chla) and the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of ocean water to develop optical models and algorithms that characterize the biogeochemical properties and estimate biological pumping and carbon flux in this environment. However, previous studies reported relatively large variations in the particulate backscattering coefficient (bbp(λ)) and Chla from more eutrophic high-latitude waters to clear oligotrophic waters, especially in oligotrophic oceanic areas where these two variables have little covariation. In this study, we examined the variability of bbp(λ) and Chla in the euphotic layer in oligotrophic areas of the tropical Western Pacific Ocean and determined the sources of these variations by reassessment of in-situ measurements and the biogeochemical-argo (BGC-Argo) database. Our findings identified covariation of bbp(λ) and Chla in the water column below the deep Chla maximum (DCM) layer, and indicated that there was no significant correlation relationship between bbp(λ) and Chla in the upper layer of the DCM. Particles smaller than 3.2 µm that were in the water column above the DCM layer had a large effect on the bbp(λ) in the vertical profile, but particles larger than 3.2 µm and smaller than 10 µm had the largest effect on the bbp(λ) in the water column below the DCM layer. The contribution of non-algal particles (NAPs) to backscattering is up to 50%, which occurs in the water depth of 50 m and not consistent with the distribution of Chla. Phytoplankton and NAPs were modeled as coated spheres and homogeneous spherical particles to simulate the bbp(λ) of the vertical profile by Aden-Kerker method and Mie theory, and the results also indicated that the backscattering caused by particles less than 20 µm were closer to the measured data when they were below and above the DCM layer, respectively. This relationship also reflects the bbp(λ) of particles in the upper water was significantly affected particle size, but bbp(λ) in the lower water was significantly affected by Chla concentration. This effect may have relationship with phytoplankton photoacclimation and the relationship of a phytoplankton biomass maximum with particle size distribution in the water column according to the previous relevant studies. These characteristics also had spatial and seasonal variations due to changes of Chla concentration at the surface and at different depths. There was mostly a linear relationship between Chla and bbp(700) during winter. During other seasons, the relationship between these two variables was better characterized by a power function (or a logarithmic function) in the lower layer of the DCM. The spatial and vertical relationships between the bbp(λ) and Chla and the corresponding variations in the types of particles described in this study provide parameters that can be used for accurate estimation of regional geochemical processes.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Água , Clorofila A , Oceano Pacífico , Oceanos e Mares , Biomassa , Fitoplâncton/química
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