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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17502, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952971

RESUMO

Background: Desserts with vegetable ingredients are a constantly expanding global market due to the search for alternatives to cow's milk. Fermentation of these matrices by lactic acid bacteria can add greater functionality to the product, improving its nutritional, sensory, and food safety characteristics, as well as creating bioactive components with beneficial effects on health. Concern for health and well-being has aroused interest in byproducts of the industry that have functional properties for the body, such as mature coconut water, a normally discarded residue that is rich in nutrients. This study aimed to develop a probiotic gelatin based on pulp and water from mature coconuts and evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, viability of the Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus LR32 strain in the medium, as well as the texture properties of the product. Methods: After collection and cleaning, the physicochemical characterization, mineral analysis, analysis of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mature coconut water were carried out, as well as the centesimal composition of its pulp. Afterwards, the gelling was developed with the addition of modified corn starch, gelatin, sucrose, and probiotic culture, being subjected to acidity analysis, texture profile and cell count, on the first day and every 7 days during 21 days of storage, under refrigeration at 5 °C. An analysis of the centesimal composition was also carried out. Results: The main minerals in coconut water were potassium (1,932.57 mg L-1), sodium (19.57 mg L-1), magnesium (85.13 mg L-1) calcium (279.93 mg L-1) and phosphorus (11.17 mg L- 1), while the pulp had potassium (35.96 g kg-1), sodium (0.97 g kg-1), magnesium (2.18 g kg-1), 37 calcium (1.64 g kg-1), and phosphorus (3.32 g kg-1). The phenolic content of the water and pulp was 5.72 and 9.77 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) 100 g-1, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity was 1.67 and 0.98 39 g of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) mg-1, respectively. The coconut pulp had 2.81 g 100 g-1of protein, 1.11 g 100 g-1 of 40 ash, 53% moisture, and 5.81 g 100 g-1 of carbohydrates. The gelatin produced during the storage period presented firmness parameters ranging from 145.82 to 206.81 grams-force (gf), adhesiveness from 692.85 to 1,028.63 gf sec, cohesiveness from 0.604 to 0.473, elasticity from 0.901 to 0.881, gumminess from 86.27 to 97.87 gf, and chewiness from 77.72 to 91.98 gf. Regarding the viability of the probiotic microorganism, the dessert had 7.49 log CFU g-1 that remained viable during the 21-day storage, reaching 8.51 CFU g-1. Acidity ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 g of lactic acid 100 g-1. The centesimal composition of the product showed 4.88 g 100 g-1 of protein, 0.54 g 100 g-1 of ash, 85.21% moisture, and 5.37g 100 g-1 of carbohydrates. The development of the gelatin made it possible to obtain a differentiated product, contributing to diversification in the food sector, providing a viable alternative for maintaining consumer health and reducing costs compared to desserts already available on the market.


Assuntos
Cocos , Gelatina , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Cocos/química , Cocos/microbiologia , Gelatina/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Fermentação
2.
A A Pract ; 18(7): e01815, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975685

RESUMO

We report the case of a term neonate who was somnolent at birth with ventilatory distress and experienced 2 seizures shortly after delivery. Laboratory tests revealed the neonate had a serum sodium of 113 mmol/L. The seizures stopped after treatment with midazolam, and the sodium was corrected slowly with 3% hypertonic saline without further sequelae. The severe neonatal hyponatremia and seizures were attributed to maternal consumption of excessive amounts of coconut water during labor. This case demonstrates the importance of careful consideration of both fluid volume and fluid electrolyte composition during labor to prevent adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Cocos , Hiponatremia , Convulsões , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Convulsões/etiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Gravidez , Adulto , Trabalho de Parto
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2827: 197-206, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985272

RESUMO

The coconut tree is a crop widely distributed in more than 90 countries worldwide. It has a high economic value derived from the large number of products obtained from the plant, with fast-growing global markets for some of them. Unfortunately, coconut production is decreasing mainly due to the old age of the plants and devastating pests and diseases, such as phytoplasma disease lethal yellowing (LY). Massive replanting is required with phytoplasma-resistant and high-yielding selected coconut plants to keep up with the market demand for fruit. For this purpose, an efficient micropropagation technology via somatic embryogenesis has been established at CICY, yielding fully developed vitro-plants grown within an in vitro environment. Hence, the last stage of the micropropagation process is the acclimatization of the vitro-plants, which are gradually adapted to live in external conditions outside the glass container and the growth room. A protocol has been developed at CICY to acclimate the coconut vitro-plants, and close to 80% survival can be obtained. This protocol is described here.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Cocos , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Phytoplasma
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2827: 323-350, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985280

RESUMO

This chapter describes a step-by-step protocol for rapid serological quantification of global DNA methylation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plant tissue culture specimens. As a case study model, we used the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), from which plumules were subjected to somatic embryogenesis followed by embryogenic calli multiplication. DNA methylation is one of the most common epigenetic markers in the regulation of gene expression. DNA methylation is generally associated with non-expressed genes, that is, gene silencing under certain conditions, and the degree of DNA methylation can be used as a marker of various physiological processes, both in plants and in animal cells. Methylation consists of adding a methyl radical to carbon 5 of the DNA cytosine base. Herein, the global DNA methylation was quantified by ELISA with antibodies against methylated cytosines using a commercial kit (Zymo-Research™). The method allowed the detection of methylation in total DNA extracts from coconut palm embryogenic calli (arising from somatic embryogenesis) cultivated in liquid or solid media by using antibodies against methylated cytosines and enzymatic development with a colorimetric substrate. Control samples of commercially provided Escherichia coli bacterial DNA with previously known methylation percentages were included in the ELISA test to construct an experimental methylation standard curve. The logarithmic regression of this E. coli standard curve allowed methylation quantification in coconut palm samples. The present ELISA methodology, applied to coconut palm tissue culture specimens, is promising for use in other plant species and botanical families. This chapter is presented in a suitable format for use as a step-by-step laboratory procedure manual, with theoretical introduction information, which makes it easy to apply the protocol in samples of any biological nature to evaluate DNA global methylation associated with any physiological process.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epigênese Genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Cocos/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos
5.
Water Environ Res ; 96(7): e11073, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978428

RESUMO

The treatment of raw foul air that could escape to the atmosphere from the head space of the incoming wastewater sewer lines into a Southern California Water Resource Recovery Facility was evaluated by using a 1/20th scale pilot unit consisting of three different granular activated carbon filter technologies, operating side by side, under similar operating conditions, each having an average 3.8-s contact time. The three activated carbon filters contained each 0.07 m3 of coconut, coal, and coconut mixed with permanganate media. The foul air entering the granular activated carbon filters contained 82% to 83% relative humidity. No moisture removal mechanism was used prior to treatment. The removal of six different odor characters from eight chemical odorants present in the foul air were assessed. These were rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide), rotten vegetables (methyl mercaptan), canned corn (dimethyl sulfide), rotten garlic (dimethyl disulfide), earthy/musty (2-methyl isoborneol and 2-isopropyl 3-methoxy pyrazine), and fecal (skatole and indole). This is the first time a study evaluates the removal of specific odors by simultaneously employing sensory analyses using the odor profile method, which defines the different odor characters and intensities, together with chemical analyses of the odorants causing these odors. The results show that the three granular activated carbon filters, before hydrogen sulfide breakthrough, provided significant improvement in odor intensity and odorant removal. Breakthrough was reached after 57 days for the coconut mixed with permanganate, 107 days for the coconut, and 129 days for the coal granular activated carbon filter. Breakthrough (the critical saturation point of the activated carbon media) was considered reached when the hydrogen sulfide percentage removal diminished to 90% and continued downward. The coconut mixed with permanganate granular activated carbon filter provided the best treatment among the media tested, achieving very good reduction of odorants, as measured by chemical analyses, and reasonable removal of odor intensities, as measured by the odor profile method. The coconut mixed with permanganate granular activated carbon is recommended for short-term odor control systems at sewer networks or emergency plant maintenance situations given its shorter time to breakthrough compared with the other granular activated carbons. The coal and coconut granular activated carbon filters are generally used as the last stage of an odor treatment system. Because of the observed poor to average performance in removing odorants other than hydrogen sulfide, the treatment stage(s) prior to the use of these granulated activated carbons should provide a good methyl mercaptan removal of at least 90% in order to avoid the formation of dimethyl disulfide, which, in the presence of moisture in the carbon filter, emit the characteristic rotten garlic odor. The differences observed between the performances based on odorant removal by chemical analysis compared with those based on sensorial analyses by the odor profile method indicate that both analyses are required to understand more fully the odor dynamics. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Three virgin granulated activated carbon media were evaluated in a field pilot unit using raw collections foul air. Coal, coconut, and coconut mixed with permanganate were tested until breakthrough. Samples were analyzed both chemically (odorants) and sensorially (odors). Coconut mixed with permanganate proved to be the media that better reduced odorants and odors.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Filtração , Odorantes , Carvão Vegetal/química , Filtração/métodos , Cocos/química , Carbono/química
6.
J Environ Manage ; 364: 121422, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878572

RESUMO

Biochar is a carbonaceous solid that is prepared through thermo-chemical decomposition of biomass under an inert atmosphere. The present study compares the performance of biochar prepared from Peanut shell, coconut shell and walnut shell in dual chamber microbial fuel cell. The physicochemical and electrochemical analysis of biochar reveals that prepared biochar is macroporous, amorphous, biocompatible, and electrochemically conductive. Polarization studies show that Peanut shell biochar (PSB) exhibited a maximum power density of 165 mW/m2 followed by Coconut shell biochar (CSB) Activated Charcoal (AC) and Walnut shell biochar (WSB). Enhanced power density of PSB was attributed to its surface area and suitable pore size distribution which proved conducive for biofilm formation. Furthermore, the high electrical capacitance of PSB improved the electron transfer between microbes and anode.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Carvão Vegetal , Eletrodos , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cocos , Juglans , Arachis , Biofilmes
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12593, 2024 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824160

RESUMO

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) leaves, an unutilized resource, enriched with valuable bioactive compounds. Spectral analysis of purified pentane fraction of coconut leaves revealed the presence of a squalene analog named 4,4'-diapophytofluene or in short 4,4'-DPE (C30H46). Pure squalene standard (PSQ) showed cytotoxicity after 8 µg/ml concentration whereas 4,4'-DPE exhibited no cytotoxic effects up to 16 µg/ml concentration. On senescence-induced WI38 cells, 4,4'-DPE displayed better percentage of cell viability (164.5% at 24 h, 159.4% at 48 h and 148% at 72 h) compared to PSQ and BSQ (bio-source squalene) with same time duration. Similar trend of result was found in HaCaT cells. SA-ß-gal assay showed that number of ß-galactosidase positive cells were significantly decreased in senescent cells (WI38 and HaCaT) after treated with 4,4'-DPE than PSQ, BSQ. Percentage of ROS was increased to 60% in WI38 cells after olaparib treatment. When PSQ, BSQ and 4,4'-DPE were applied separately on these oxidative-stress-induced cells for 48 h, the overall percentage of ROS was decreased to 39.3%, 45.6% and 19.3% respectively. This 4,4'-DPE was found to be more effective in inhibiting senescence by removing ROS as compared to squalene. Therefore, this 4,4'-DPE would be new potent senotherapeutic agent for pharmaceuticals and dermatological products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Senescência Celular , Cocos , Fibroblastos , Queratinócitos , Folhas de Planta , Esqualeno , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Esqualeno/farmacologia , Esqualeno/química , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Cocos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(27): 15058-15076, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38920018

RESUMO

This review investigates coconut as a sustainable and nutrient-rich plant-based alternative to traditional animal-based food sources. We have explored the nutritional profile, culinary versatility, particularly focusing on the use of coconut meat, milk, cream, and oil in diverse dietary contexts when consumed in balance. Comparative analysis with animal-derived products reveals the high content of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), essential vitamins, and minerals in coconut, contrasted with its lower protein content. Researchers have underscored the environmental sustainability of coconut, advocating for its role in eco-friendly food production chains. We have also addressed challenges like potential allergies, nutritional balance, sensory attributes, and consumer motivations for coconut-based products, in terms of understanding the market dynamics. In conclusion, this review positions coconut as a promising candidate within sustainable diet frameworks, advocating for further research to augment its nutritional value, sensory characteristics, and product stability, thereby facilitating its integration into health-conscious and eco-centric dietary practices.


Assuntos
Cocos , Valor Nutritivo , Cocos/química , Humanos , Animais
9.
Food Chem ; 454: 139748, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805921

RESUMO

This study investigated the relationship between coconut maturity stages and the sugar, amino acid, and mineral profiles of coconut water (CW). Metabolite profiles were analysed using 1H NMR, covering glucose (G), fructose (F), sucrose (S), reducing sugars (RS), total sugars (TS), amino acids, and organic acids. Mineral composition was measured using Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MPAES). The results revealed distinct metabolite and mineral profiles across different maturity stages. Immature CW had high G/F and RS/TS ratios but low S/G ratios. Conversely, mature CW showed decreased G/F and RS/TS ratios but an increase in S/G. Mineral analysis revealed potassium as the predominant mineral in CW, peaking in the youngest stage and declining with maturity. Sodium, magnesium, and calcium showed a similar pattern, with higher concentrations in early than in later stages. The study identifies the age of 9-10 months as optimal stages for selecting tender coconut water.


Assuntos
Cocos , Cocos/química , Cocos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Minerais/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Micro-Ondas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectrofotometria Atômica
10.
J Food Prot ; 87(7): 100284, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692353

RESUMO

Beverage innovation is a growing trend with a reliance on comanufacturing relationships to launch products quickly. A recent comanufacturing relationship is the utilization of dairy processing facilities to process plant-based beverages using high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization. While the shelflife of HTST bovine milk is well established at 21 days, retailers are expecting new refrigerated beverages to achieve a 60-day shelflife. Little is known about the microbial stability of these new beverages, particularly those with complex formulations. Our objective was to identify bacterial taxa leading to the spoilage of four coconut-based creamers and their potential sources (raw ingredients or packaging). We used a multifaceted approach including plate counting and 16S rRNA metabarcoding to monitor microbial growth in products throughout shelflife (60 d, 4 °C), and cold enrichment (7 °C, 11 d) of ingredients and packaging. Nearly all product units (25/26) had elevated microbial loads (>4.3 log CFU/mL) prior to the 60-d target, with early spoilage detected at 21 d. Key spoilage taxa included Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Aerococcus, Paenibacillus, Sphingomonas, and Oceanobacillus. Pseudomonas were responsible for "early" product spoilage (21-32 d), whereas Oceanobacillus were important in products with very "late" spoilage (60-62 d). All key spoilage taxa were identified in cold enrichments of multiple units of waxboard cartons. Paenibacillus was the dominant bacterium in 47% (10/21) of product units. In addition to carton samples, Paenibacillus was also identified in one raw ingredient (mushroom extract). Metabarcoding identified Listeria sensu stricto as a dominant taxon in three individual product units from three distinct production lots. Listeria was also found in 31% (5/16) of cold enrichments of individual cartons. Taxa responsible for spoilage of plant-based beverages were identified as well as demonstrating packaging as an important contamination source.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Cocos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cocos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Animais , Bebidas/microbiologia , Bovinos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos
11.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114353, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763640

RESUMO

The food industry has grown with the demands for new products and their authentication, which has not been accompanied by the area of analysis and quality control, thus requiring novel process analytical technologies for food processes. An electronic tongue (e-tongue) is a multisensor system that can characterize complex liquids in a fast and simple way. Here, we tested the efficacy of an impedimetric microfluidic e-tongue setup - comprised by four interdigitated electrodes (IDE) on a printed circuit board (PCB), with four pairs of digits each, being one bare sensor and three coated with different ultrathin nanostructured films with different electrical properties - in the analysis of fresh and industrialized coconut water. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to observe sample differences, and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) was used to predict sample physicochemical parameters. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were compared to classify samples based on data from the e-tongue device. Results indicate the potential application of the microfluidic e-tongue in the identification of coconut water composition and determination of physicochemical attributes, allowing for classification of samples according to soluble solid content (SSC) and total titratable acidity (TTA) with over 90% accuracy. It was also demonstrated that the microfluidic setup has potential application in the food industry for quality assessment of complex liquid samples.


Assuntos
Cocos , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Análise de Componente Principal , Cocos/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Análise Discriminante , Água/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Nariz Eletrônico
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11542, 2024 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773154

RESUMO

Evidence for seed transmission of phytoplasmas has grown in several pathosystems including coconut (Cocos nucifera). Bogia coconut syndrome (BCS) is a disease associated with the lethal yellowing syndrome associated with the presence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma noviguineense' that affects coconut, betel nut (Areca catechu) and bananas (Musa spp.) in Papua New Guinea. Coconut and betel nut drupes were sampled from BCS-infected areas in Papua New Guinea, dissected, the extracted nucleic acid was used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) used to check for presence of phytoplasma DNA. In a second study, drupes of both plant species were collected from multiple field sites and grown in insect-proof cages. Leaf samples taken at 6 months were also tested with PCR and LAMP. The studies of dissected coconut drupes detected phytoplasma DNA in several tissues including the embryo. Drupes from betel nut tested negative. Among the seedlings, evidence of possible seed transmission was found in both plant species. The results demonstrate the presence of 'Ca. P. noviguineense' in coconut drupes and seedlings, and in seedlings of betel nut; factors that need to be considered in ongoing management and containment efforts.


Assuntos
Areca , Cocos , Phytoplasma , Doenças das Plantas , Plântula , Sementes , Cocos/microbiologia , Phytoplasma/genética , Phytoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Papua Nova Guiné , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular
13.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 138(1): 44-53, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614830

RESUMO

Kopyor is a coconut with unique characteristics from Indonesia, one of the largest coconut producers in the world. Kopyor is an edible mature coconut with soft endosperm. Although this fruit is one of the most popular coconuts in the world, there are limited studies on its properties, including its sensory attributes and metabolite profiles. This study investigates the characteristics of kopyor using sensory evaluation, a widely targeted metabolomics approach, and multivariate analysis. The liquid (water) and solid (flesh) endosperms were collected as the samples. The results showed that kopyor has characteristics that distinguish it from normal mature and young coconuts. Kopyor water has a milky, creamy, nutty, bitter, and astringent taste with an oily aftertaste and mouthfeel. Kopyor flesh is soft and moist and gives a sandy mouth feel. This study analyzed the sensory attributes of the kopyor endosperm for the first time and compared it with those of normal mature and young coconuts. A gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that kopyor contained wider variety of metabolites than normal coconuts of the same age. Based on the differential analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures-regression, kopyor water was characterized by the accumulation of flavor-related metabolites, such as amino acids and organic acids, which contributed to its sensory complexity. This study solidified the effects of maturation and endosperm type on metabolite accumulation in kopyor endosperm. This pioneering information will lead to the future use of kopyor and other unique coconuts worldwide for food, contributing to the sustainability of the coconut industry.


Assuntos
Cocos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Paladar , Cocos/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Indonésia , Endosperma/metabolismo , Endosperma/química , Humanos
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610572

RESUMO

Accurately identifying adulterants in agriculture and food products is associated with preventing food safety and commercial fraud activities. However, a rapid, accurate, and robust prediction model for adulteration detection is hard to achieve in practice. Therefore, this study aimed to explore deep-learning algorithms as an approach to accurately identify the level of adulterated coconut milk using two types of NIR spectrophotometer, including benchtop FT-NIR and portable Micro-NIR. Coconut milk adulteration samples came from deliberate adulteration with corn flour and tapioca starch in the 1 to 50% range. A total of four types of deep-learning algorithm architecture that were self-modified to a one-dimensional framework were developed and tested to the NIR dataset, including simple CNN, S-AlexNET, ResNET, and GoogleNET. The results confirmed the feasibility of deep-learning algorithms for predicting the degree of coconut milk adulteration by corn flour and tapioca starch using NIR spectra with reliable performance (R2 of 0.886-0.999, RMSE of 0.370-6.108%, and Bias of -0.176-1.481). Furthermore, the ratio of percent deviation (RPD) of all algorithms with all types of NIR spectrophotometers indicates an excellent capability for quantitative predictions for any application (RPD > 8.1) except for case predicting tapioca starch, using FT-NIR by ResNET (RPD < 3.0). This study demonstrated the feasibility of using deep-learning algorithms and NIR spectral data as a rapid, accurate, robust, and non-destructive way to evaluate coconut milk adulterants. Last but not least, Micro-NIR is more promising than FT-NIR in predicting coconut milk adulteration from solid adulterants, and it is portable for in situ measurements in the future.


Assuntos
Cocos , Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Leite , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Amido
15.
Food Res Int ; 185: 114288, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658074

RESUMO

In this paper, the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on coconut protein (CP) solubility, surface hydrophobicity, emulsification activity, ultraviolet spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated. Meanwhile, the changes in the in vitro digestive properties of coconut milk were also further analyzed. MSG treatment altered the solubility and surface hydrophobicity of CP, thereby improving protein digestibility. Molecular docking showed that CP bound to pepsin and trypsin mainly through hydrogen bonds and salt bridges. And MSG increased the cleavable sites of pepsin and trypsin on CP, thus further improving the protein digestibility. In addition, MSG increased the Na+ concentration in coconut milk, promoted flocculation and aggregation between coconut milk droplets, which prevented the binding of lipase and oil droplets and inhibited lipid digestion. These findings may provide new ideas and insights to improve the digestive properties of plant-based milk.


Assuntos
Cocos , Digestão , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas , Glutamato de Sódio , Solubilidade , Glutamato de Sódio/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Cocos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Tripsina/metabolismo , Tripsina/química , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Pepsina A/química
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(21): 31028-31041, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619770

RESUMO

Lead is one of the primary pollutants found in water and poses significant toxicity risks to humans; thus, it is necessary to investigate techniques for removing it economically and efficiently. In order to enhance the removal capacity of Pb2+, coconut shell-based activated carbon (AC) was modified with introducing oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) via nitric acid (HNO3) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modification in this study. The characterization results show that after oxidation treatment, the content of OFGs increased, and the textural properties of the samples do not change significantly. This indicates that the modification conditions used in this study effectively introduced OFGs while avoiding the adverse effects on physical adsorption ability of AC caused by oxidation treatment. The Pb2+ adsorption capacities of the AC modified with 10 M HNO3 and 30 wt.% H2O2 were 4.26 and 3.64 times that of the pristine AC, respectively. The experimental data can be well fitted using the Langmuir isotherm model and the Elovich kinetic model, suggesting that the adsorption of Pb2+ on AC belongs to single-layer adsorption, and chemical adsorption dominates the adsorption process. In summary, the hydrothermal-assisted HNO3/H2O2-modified coconut shell-based AC shows great potential in efficiently removing Pb2+ from solutions, offering a solution for utilizing coconut shell waste.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo , Oxigênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Chumbo/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Oxigênio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cocos/química , Cinética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Carbono/química
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 266(Pt 1): 131005, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522705

RESUMO

Carbon dots (CDs) derived from sustainable natural feed-stocks like lignin have gained wide acceptance by virtue of their renewability and promising potential in intelligent sensing applications. The precursor lignin is isolated from agro-biomass waste, coconut husk through sodium hydroxide based extraction process. CDs are synthesised from amine functionalized lignin through solvothermal process and integrated into carrageenan biopolymer matrix (1, 2 and 3 wt%). The composite film with 2 wt% CDs (CARR2CD) showed optimum fluorescent emission intensity, excellent pH dependent fluorescent color change in the food pH range, reasonable tensile strength (46.50 ± 1.32 MPa) and 27 % increase in elongation at break. CDs imparted UV-light blocking properties (70 % UV-light) and enhanced hydrophobicity of the carrageenan matrix. CARR2CD film showed 84 % visible light transparency, 79 % reduction in oxygen transmittance rate (OTR), 81 % reduction in CO2 gas permeability and excellent antioxidant and antibacterial properties (against E. coli and S. aureus). As a practical application, the developed responsive packaging material is used to track pH change associated with milk spoilage via noticeable color change in fluorescent emission of the composite film. Thus, the developed responsive composite film paves a way for use as green and sustainable transparent intelligent food packaging material.


Assuntos
Carbono , Carragenina , Cocos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Lignina , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Carragenina/química , Carbono/química , Lignina/química , Cocos/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Permeabilidade
18.
Food Chem ; 446: 138900, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428074

RESUMO

The fat in coconut milk contributes to unique flavour, while increasing fat content affects stability of the coconut milk. In this study, coconut water and fat were separated, recombined, and homogenized to obtain coconut milk with different fat contents (0-20 %). Emulsifying properties, stability, and digestibility of coconut milk with different fat contents were comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that as the fat content increased from 0 to 20 %, the droplet size increased from 2.18 to 4.70 µm and the viscosity showed an increasing trend. During storage and freeze-thaw, coconut milk with 5 % and 10 % fat content showed excellent stability. In addition, coconut milk with 10 % fat content had superior fat digestibility, which was related to high affinity of pancrelipase. In short, this study revealed that fat content below 10 % can withstand environmental factors such as storage, lipid oxidation, and freeze-thaw, which can be accurately developed as coconut milk products.


Assuntos
Cocos , Leite , Animais , Viscosidade
19.
Food Chem ; 447: 138981, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518613

RESUMO

In the current study, the preservation effect of plasma-activated water (PAW), coconut exocarp flavonoids (CF) and their combination on golden pompano fillets during refrigerated storage was investigated with emphasize on the treating sequence. PAW effectively inactivated spoilage bacteria and inhibited total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) increase, while boosted the TBARS and carbonyl values. PAW+CF exerted synergistic effect on extending the period before total bacterial count and TVB-N content reaching acceptance limit than PAW or CF alone (P < 0.05). In addition, their combined treatment effectively reduced fillets discoloration and texture deterioration. Simultaneously, lipid and protein oxidation were significantly inhibited, which was comparable to CF. It was indicated that the treatment sequence of PAW and CF profoundly impact the preservation effect. Specifically, prior CF marinating followed by PAW was more effective than the opposite sequence. Thus, combination of CF followed by PAW served as promising technique for fish fillets preservation.


Assuntos
Cocos , Conservação de Alimentos , Animais , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Água , Peixes
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133903, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430601

RESUMO

Biochar, an environmentally friendly material, was found to passivate lead (Pb) in contaminated soil effectively. This study utilized spectroscopic investigations and partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) analysis to examine the impact of coconut-fiber biochar (CFB) on the translocation, accumulation, and detoxification mechanisms of Pb in soil-rice systems. The results demonstrated a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in bioavailable Pb concentration in paddy soils with CFB amendment, as well as reduced Pb concentrations in rice roots, shoots, and brown rice. Synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence analyses revealed that CFB application inhibited the migration of Pb to the rhizospheric soil region, leading to reduced Pb uptake by rice roots. Additionally, the CFB treatment decreased Pb concentrations in the cellular protoplasm of both roots and shoots, and enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rice plants, improving their Pb stress tolerance. PLS-PM analyses quantified the effects of CFB on the accumulation and detoxification pathways of Pb in the soil-rice system. Understanding how biochar influences the immobilization and detoxification of Pb in soil-rice systems could provide valuable insights for strategically using biochar to address hazardous elements in complex agricultural settings.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Oryza/metabolismo , Cocos , Chumbo/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cádmio/metabolismo
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