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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130872, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455324

RESUMO

Tender Coconut water is popular for its deliciousness and nutrition. Mature coconut water, usually discarded as waste in the coconut kernel-based food industry due to its unpleasant flavor, was used as a raw material to make vinegar by liquid-state fermentation. The compounds in fresh coconut water with high odor activity values (OAVs) were isovaleric acid and acetic acid, with pungent sour tastes. The compounds with high OAVs in aged coconut water vinegar were phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and benzaldehyde, with almond, banana or pear-like aromas. Coconut water vinegar was rich in essential amino acids, especially phenylalanine. Through pathway analysis, seventeen key metabolic pathways and three key metabolic substrates (aspartate, glutamate and pyruvate) were found. According to sensory evaluation, the aged vinegar tastes better. Coconut water vinegar is delicious and nutritious, so reprocessing mature coconut water into vinegar is an appropriate way to reuse waste coconut water.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Cocos , Ácido Acético/análise , Fermentação , Metabolômica , Valor Nutritivo , Paladar
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 1): 424-433, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392036

RESUMO

Poor dispersion of metal oxide-biomass carbon composite limits its further improvement in electrochemical properties. The study reports synthesis of highly dispersed RuO2-biomass carbon nanocomposite (HD-RuO2-BC). Octyl ammonium salicylate ionic liquid was combined with Ru3+ ion to form Ru-based ionic liquid. Followed by addition of coconut meat, microwave treatment to form homogeneous solution, thermal reduction in N2 and oxidation in air in sequence. The resulting HD-RuO2-BC shows three-dimensional architecture and high Ru loading of 9.2%. RuO2 nanoparticles of 6.2 nm were uniformly dispersed in biomass carbon sheets. Excellent dispersion and small size of RuO2 nanoparticles achieve to a significant synergy between RuO2 and biomass carbon. HD-RuO2-BC electrode gives high capacitance of 907.7 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. The value is more than that of BC (150.6 F g-1) and RuO2 electrodes (584.7 F g-1), verifying that introduction of RuO2 achieves to an obviously enhanced capacitance. The symmetrical flexible supercapacitor exhibits excellent supercapacitor performances, including high capacitance (403.8 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1), rate-capacity (223.1 F g-1 at 50 A g-1), cycling stability (98.2% capacity retention after 10,000 cycles at 50 A g-1) and energy density (378.7 Wh Kg-1at power density of 5199.2 W kg-1).


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Líquidos Iônicos , Rutênio , Biomassa , Carbono , Cocos , Carne , Salicilatos , Solubilidade
3.
Zootaxa ; 5027(3): 417-428, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811162

RESUMO

A new species of Myxia Bahder Bartlett (Cixiidae: Cixiinae: Oecleini) is established as Myxia hernandezi sp. n. collected from native palms in cloud forest habitat in Costa Rica. Placement in the genus Myxia is supported by molecular analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S loci as well as morphological characters.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Cocos , Costa Rica , Florestas , Los Angeles
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705625

RESUMO

During an investigation of microbes associated with arthropods living in decaying coconut trees, a Pseudomonas isolate, Milli4T, was cultured from the digestive tract of the common Asian millipede, Trigoniulus corallinus. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes found that Milli4T was closely related but not identical to Pseudomonas panipatensis Esp-1T, Pseudomonas knackmussi B13T and Pseudomonas humi CCA1T. Whole genome sequencing suggested that this isolate represents a new species, with average nucleotide identity (OrthoANIu) values of around 83.9-87.7% with its closest relatives. Genome-to-genome distance calculations between Milli4T and its closest relatives also suggested they are distinct species. The genomic DNA G+C content of Milli4T was approximately 65.0 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and fatty acid methyl ester analysis was performed on Milli4T and its related type strains. Based on these data, the new species Pseudomonas schmalbachii sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is Milli4T (=BCRC 81294T=JCM 34414T=CIP 111980T).


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Árvores , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Cocos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499595

RESUMO

A novel cellulase-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-H7T, was isolated from coconut palm rhizosphere soil collected from Wenchang City, Hainan Province, PR China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain NEAU-H7T belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, with highest similarity to Actinoplanes hulinensis NEAU-M9T (99.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The diagnostic sugars in cell hydrolysates were determined to be ribose, galactose and mannose. The major fatty acids (>10%) were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9c and C18 : 0. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and two phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The amino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 71.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain NEAU-H7T formed a stable phyletic line with A. hulinensis NEAU-M9T. However, whole-genome phylogeny showed strain NEAU-H7T formed a stable phyletic line with A. hulinensis NEAU-M9T (99.2%), Actinoplanes campanulatus DSM 43148T (98.6%), Actinoplanes capillaceus DSM 44859T (98.3%) and Actinoplanes lobatus DSM 43150T (97.6%). The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) results between them were 53.6 (50.9-56.2), 54.1 (51.3-56.9), 53.1 (50.3-55.9) and 52.9 % (50.1-55.6 %), and whole-genome average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between them were 93.7, 93.6, 93.5 and 93.5 %. The low dDDH and ANI values demonstrated that strain NEAU-H7T could be distinguished from its reference strains. Moreover, genomic analysis indicated that the strain NEAU-H7T had the potential to decompose cellulose and produce bioactive compounds. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain NEAU-H7T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, with the name Actinoplanes flavus sp. nov. The type strain is NEAU-H7T (=CCTCC AA 2020034T=DSM 112042T).


Assuntos
Actinoplanes , Cocos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinoplanes/classificação , Actinoplanes/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Celulase , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
6.
Br Dent J ; 231(5): 268, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508187

Assuntos
Cocos
7.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 335-340, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483192

RESUMO

We investigated the adsorbed amount of organic solvent vapors and adsorption rate of a new porous carbon material made from rice husk (rice husk activated carbon) in comparison with those of coconut shell activated carbon by the breakthrough curve. The adsorbed amount on the rice husk activated carbon and that on the coconut shell activated carbon were 81.3 ±â€¯3.3 mg/g and 71.7 ±â€¯5.0 mg/g for acetone, 8.0 ±â€¯1.7 mg/g and 6.3 ±â€¯0.2 mg/g for methanol, 196.8 ±â€¯8.8 mg/g and 262.8 ±â€¯10.4 mg/g for ethyl acetate, 234.8 ±â€¯11.9 mg/g, and 364.6 ±â€¯43.8 mg/g for toluene, respectively. These results suggest that the amount of organic solvent vapors adsorbed per unit weight of rice husk activated carbon is slightly larger for high polar compounds and is smaller for low polar compounds than that of coconut shell activated carbon. We compared the adsorption rate of the two materials by using the slope of the breakthrough curves. Even though there are some limitations to the characteristics of the new porous carbon material, it may be possible to use rice husk activated carbon as an alternative to coconut shell activated carbon in occupational and environmental measures.


Assuntos
Oryza , Adsorção , Cocos , Porosidade , Solventes
8.
Planta ; 254(5): 86, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585305

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Kopyor and macapuno are two coconut mutants from Southeast Asia that are often described erroneously or interchangeably mismatched due to a lack of research, so future studies are encouraged. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.; Arecaceae), a widely distributed plant with popular culinary applications, especially of the endosperm, has several nutritional and medicinal benefits. Two coconut mutants are widely recognized in Southeast Asia, namely kopyor and macapuno, specifically in Indonesia and Philippines, respectively. Kopyor coconut is known for its brittle solid endosperm while macapuno coconut is known for its gelatinous solid endosperm. Both mutant types have many other synonyms in other countries. Over many decades, the biology of macapuno coconut, including endosperm anatomy, histology, cytology, physiology, and genetics have been described, while kopyor coconut is still understudied. However, some literature and websites erroneously describe kopyor as macapuno coconut, or consider them interchangeably, which is an unintentional consequence of insufficient scientific research on these coconut mutants. Additionally, in Indonesia, there is another local mutant in Banten called wax coconut ("kelapa lilin") that some researchers claim as the actual Indonesian macapuno coconut due to its strong resemblance to kopyor coconut. Unfortunately, wax coconut is not only understudied, it is rarely documented. Additional evidence of their differences, in terms of morphological, biochemical and genetic characteristics, is needed. Moreover, clear documentation will also be needed for a better comparison. Understanding the differences between kopyor and macapuno coconuts will not only help to further clarify their scientific description in the literature, but will also guide locals, researchers, and industries to characterize similar mutants, if found in specific regions, for future study and bioprospecting.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Cocos , Ásia Sudeste , Cocos/genética , Endosperma
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 433, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386894

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of dietary inclusion of cracked babassu coconut (CBC) in the supplement on nutrient utilization, performance, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of dairy cows grazing Megathyrsus maximus cv. Mombasa. Five multiparous Holstein × Zebu mid-lactation cows (125 ± 16.5 days in milk) were assigned to five dietary treatments (replacement of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of ground corn with CBC, on a dry matter (DM) basis) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The intake of DM from the supplement, crude protein (CP), non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC), fat (ether extract (EE)), and total digestible nutrients (TDNs) decreased linearly (P < 0.05), while the intake of DM from forage increased linearly (P < 0.05), with the increase in CBC inclusion in the supplement. Conversely, total DM intake was unaffected (P > 0.05). The DM, NFC, EE, and TDN digestibility decreased linearly (P < 0.05), while organic matter (OM) digestibility decreased in a quadratic fashion (P < 0.05), as CBC inclusion in the supplement increased. Nevertheless, digestibility of CP was unaffected (P > 0.05). Milk yield and composition (lactose, fat, protein, casein, and majority of FA) showed a linearly decreasing pattern (P < 0.05) with the increasing of CBC inclusion. However, proportions of trans-vaccenic acid, rumenic acid, total monounsaturated FA, and odd- and branched-chain FAs increased linearly (P < 0.05). On the opposite, total saturated FA (SFA) and the n-6:n-3 FA ratio in milk fat decreased linearly (P < 0.01). Hence, replacement of corn meal with CBC up to 80% in the supplement decreases nutrient intake and digestibility, as well as milk yield response in grazing dairy cows. However, CBC inclusion may enhance the nutritional properties of milk fat.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cocos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Feminino , Quênia , Lactação , Nutrientes
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361794

RESUMO

Wheat bread, produced by the single-phase method, is a common food consumed all over the world. Due to changes in lifestyle and nutritional trends, alternative raw materials are sought to increase the nutritional value and improve the taste of daily consumed products. Additionally, customers seek a wide variety of foods, especially when it comes to basic foods. Nuts, such as coconuts or chestnuts, might provide an attractive flavour with benefits to the nutritional quality. In this study, the effect of substituting wheat flour with coconut or chestnut flour (flour contribution level: 5, 10, 15, 30, 50% w/w), was evaluated in terms of the breads specific volume, texture, colour, nutritional composition, and dietary fibre fraction contents. Moreover, a sensory evaluation was conducted to assess potential consumer acceptance. Based on the consumer's perception, the overall acceptance of bread with 15% w/w of coconut and chestnut flour was in privilege compared to the control sample. As a result, taking all of the tested parameters into account, the breads with 5, 10, and 15% supplementation of chestnut or coconut flour were still of good quality compared to the wheat bread and their fibre content was significantly higher.


Assuntos
Aesculus/química , Pão/análise , Cocos/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Triticum/química , Culinária/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(8): 1157-1164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349090

RESUMO

Liquid chicken oil is similar to the human lipid ratio, and is similar to the ideal fatty acids ratio suggested by Hayes, but its benefits remain unclear (Hwang, K.N.; Tung, H.P.; Shaw, H.M. J. Oleo. Sci. 69, 199-206 (2020)). Using soybean oil as a control, liquid chicken oil, coconut oil, lard oil, and olive oil, were tested on SD rats with the rodent diet 5001 plus 1% of high cholesterol addition and moderate 10 % of test oils. Positive results showed that a 10% liquid chicken oil diet reduced LDL and triglycerides, atherogenic index while increasing superoxide dismutase more than the soybean oil control (0.05 ≦ p < 0.10). Moreover, increment of hepatic endogenous glutathione peroxidase was found to be significantly different from the soybean oil control (p < 0.05). In this study, liquid chicken oil had more benefits than vegetable soybean dietary oil, with little evidence of hyperlipidemia. Comparison of the test oils with categories of fatty acids to the idea ratio SFA : MUFA : PUFA = 1 : 1.5 : 1, scored by its average weight implied a parallel trend of lipidemia and hepatic antioxidant activity to its score. It is difficult to use the test of rat to reflect human physiology, it remain 19% different of the fatty acids ratio from human ratio, however, this study reveal that the healthiness of a dietary oil seems relate well to its compatibility to the idea ratio or the host oil ratio, in this case, it is the human ratio.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Galinhas , Cocos/química , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Óleo de Soja/análise , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149666, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428664

RESUMO

The caffeine adsorptive performance and compatibility characteristics (Eisenia foetida Savigny) of rice husk, peanut shell, corn cob and coconut fiber were studied, aiming to assess the suitability of these residues for vermifilter beds. For this purpose, the agro-industrial residues were characterized and the E. foetida Savigny compatibility was determined by acute and chronic toxicity tests. Batch adsorption tests were performed using caffeine solutions. Optimal adsorption conditions, kinetic models, isotherm type and the influence of three particle sizes (120-150, 300-600, 800-2000 µm) in the caffeine removal were determined. Coconut fiber (120-150 µm) proved to be the most efficient residue for the caffeine removal (94.2%), requiring 4 g/L for 30 min. However, coconut fiber was the less compatible for earthworms (14d-LC50 = 82%). The results obtained allow to define adequate strategies, such as mixing highly adsorptive residues with the more compatible ones, to choose the most effective materials for vermifiltration technologies.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Adsorção , Animais , Cafeína , Cocos , Cinética
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 451-461, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216655

RESUMO

An active antioxidant film was fabricated by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and corn starch (ST) and incorporated with and 3, 5, 10, and 20% (v/v) coconut shell extract (CSE) and sepiolite clay (SP) for the first time. The microstructure and physical properties of prepared films were characterized and examined. The addition of sepiolite clay to PVA improved the elongation break 15.57 to 69.24%, and water vapor permeability increased with the addition of CSE. In addition to CSE to films, the antioxidant activity properties of the films were enhanced up to 80%. Further, increasing the amount of CSE slightly affected the color of the active films. The thermal properties of films were enhanced with the addition of CSE and SP. The dispersion of SP in the PVA matrix was affected by an increase in CSE concentration in the PVA matrix. Remarkably, PVA-ST film-based sachets successfully improved the oxidative stability of packaged soybean oil. Our results suggest PVA-ST film containing CSE and sepiolite clay can be utilized as a novel antioxidant packaging material in the food processing industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Argila/química , Cocos/química , Silicatos de Magnésio/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Amido/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Permeabilidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vapor , Resistência à Tração , Difração de Raios X
14.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113136, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214797

RESUMO

This study investigated the effectiveness of Gleditsia sinensis pod powder (GSPP), coconut shell biochar (CSB), rice husk biochar (RHB) and their mixtures on vermicomposting of pig manure and wheat straw using Eisenia fetida. The results indicated that the addition of GSPP or/and CSB and RHB could greatly enhance the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, as well as the activities of celluloses, protease, and alkaline phosphatase. However, the earthworm biomass was increased in the GSPP and/or CSB addition treatments but decreased in RHB addition treatments compared with the control. Compared with the control, addition of 4%GSPP+8%CSB significantly (P < 0.05) accelerated the degradation of organic matter and increased the concentration of nutrients (total N, P, K), NO3--N in final vermicompost. Germination and growth of tomato seedings were also higher (P < 0.05) in vermicompost produced with the addition of 4%GSPP+8%CSB than in control. Consequently, 4%GSPP+8%CSB addition was suggested as an efficient method to improve the vermicomposting of pig manure and wheat straw.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Gleditsia , Oligoquetos , Oryza , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Cocos , Esterco , Pós , Solo , Suínos , Triticum
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 338: 125494, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256219

RESUMO

This study proposed a novel method to enhance short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production from anaerobic algae fermentation by using coconut shell ash. The maximum SCFAs production was 683.0 mg COD/g VS at the ash dosage of 1.2 g/g TS, which was about 1.4-folds that of the control, and the enhancement of acetate production was the main path for the promotion of SCFAs. Coconut shell ash increased the pH and alkalinity of digestate, thereby reducing the use of alkaline reagents and being more resistant to acidic environments. Coconut shell ash promoted the processes of solubilization, hydrolysis and acetogenesis, and enriched hydrolytic microorganisms (e.g., Candidatus Microthrix) and acidifying microorganisms with acetate as substrate (e.g., Caldilinea and Proteiniphilum). Anaerobic fermentation residue with ash containing inorganic elements has the potential to be used as fertilizer, making this waste-control-waste strategy with more economic and environmental benefits for potential practical applications.


Assuntos
Cocos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 338: 125520, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284294

RESUMO

Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and exogenous accelerants can augment anaerobic digestion performance. Herein, MECs and coconut-shell-derived bio-based carbon (CBC) accelerant are adopted to strengthen anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and aloe peel waste. The MEC with the voltage of 0.6 V and CBC accelerant of 0.15 wt.% gained the highest cumulative biogas yield (444.20 NmL/g VS) and chemical oxygen demand removal rate (75.46%), which are 80.25% and 58.33% higher than those (246.44 NmL/g VS, 47.66%) of the blank group, respectively. The digestates embodied a utilization potential with thermogravimetric loss of 37.12%-50.67% and total nutrient content of 35.36-51.58 g/kg. These results benefited from excellent electrocatalytic activity of MECs and physicochemical properties of CBC accelerant. A general strategy for understanding improved methanogenesis was proposed based on integrated effects of MECs and CBC accelerant. This work will shed light on development of anaerobic co-digestion by combining MECs and bio-based carbon accelerants.


Assuntos
Aloe , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono , Bovinos , Cocos , Digestão , Eletrólise , Metano
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112602, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237606

RESUMO

Seagrass habitats at the Cocos (Keeling) Islands (CKI), a remote atoll in the Indian Ocean, have suffered a catastrophic decline over the last decade. Seagrass monitoring (1996-2020) in relation to dredging and coastal development works (2009 to 2011) provide a historical baseline, and document the decline of mixed tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii and macroalgal (predominantly Caulerpa spp.) beds over a decadal scale time series. Attribution of loss to coastal development is confounded by lagoon-wide die-off events in 2007, 2009 and 2012 and high air and water temperatures from 2009 to 2016, with evidence of broad scale changes, visible in satellite imagery between 2006 and 2018. We conclude that up to 80% of seagrass habitats in the CKI lagoon (~1200 ha) have been lost due to multiple stressors including episodic die-off events related to high temperatures and calm conditions, and loss due to sediment disturbance and increased turbidity. Grazing pressure from the resident green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) may have also exacerbated the loss of seagrass, which in turn poses a dire threat to their ongoing health and survival. This study highlights the fragility of tropical seagrass habitats and the cascading effect of system imbalance as a result of anthropogenic pressures and climate drivers. Although small in comparison to global estimates, the loss of seagrass habitats at CKI could change the entire ecosystem of a remote atoll. Due to the significance of the Thalassia beds for coastal stability, as food for an isolated population of green sea turtles and as a fish nursery, rehabilitation efforts are warranted.


Assuntos
Hydrocharitaceae , Tartarugas , Animais , Cocos , Ecossistema , Ilhas do Oceano Índico
18.
Environ Res ; 200: 111717, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302830

RESUMO

Fluoride ions are an important environmental contaminant and pollutant found in a wide variety of environmental conditions. The fluoride in drinking water is evident to induce toxic effects including neurodegeneration, skeletal and dental fluorosis as well as organ damage. Nutraceuticals and functional foods are emerging as possible preventive agents against fluoride toxicity. Hence, the possible use of an emerging functional food-the coconut haustorium is being evaluated against sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in intestinal cells (IEC-6). The cells exposed to fluoride showed significant cell death mediated through the increased lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion. The glutathione biosynthetic enzymes were inhibited by the exposure to fluoride and the apoptotic genes (caspases 3/7 and apaf-1) were upregulated. The CHE pre-treatment improved the activity of enzymes involved in the de novo biosynthesis of glutathione and subsequently improved the intracellular GSH pool. The improved antioxidant defense was also evident from the reduced expression of apoptotic genes (p < 0.05). Overall, the study concludes that fluoride ions induce oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, via inhibiting glutathione biosynthesis. Methanol extract of coconut haustorium increased glutathione biosynthesis and subsequently prevented fluoride toxicity in IEC-6 cells by virtue of its antioxidant potentials.


Assuntos
Cocos , Fluoretos , Antioxidantes , Cocos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Metanol , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
19.
Food Chem ; 365: 130473, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237574

RESUMO

In this study, multivariate methodologies were applied in the optimization of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method, aiming at the determination of Cu and Mn in coconut water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Some extractors (chloroform and CCl4), dispersants (ethanol, methanol and acetonitrile) and complexing agents (5-Br-PADAP and Dithzone) were previously tested in the extraction. A mixture design was used to optimize the component proportions formed by chloroform (10%), acetonitrile (76%), and 0.020% 5-Br-PADAP solution (14%). Doehlert design optimized the variables pH, NaCl, and buffer amounts for the extraction of both metals. The following analytical characteristics, respectively for Cu and Mn, were accessed: limit of quantification (4.83 and 3.32 µg L-1), enrichment factors (11 and 8 fold), and precision (6.6 and 6.0% RSD, n = 10). Addition/recovery tests of the analytes allowed to find values in the range of 96.5-120% for Cu and 99-107% for Mn.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cocos , Cobre/análise , Manganês , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2289: 167-178, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270070

RESUMO

Doubled haploids have a high impact on the improvement of heterozygous crops through hybridization. Anther culture is a doubled haploid technique for producing homozygous lines. In coconut, a tree species reported to be recalcitrant for tissue culture, a successful doubled haploid protocol was established through anther culture. All the factors affecting androgenesis induction have been optimized. In this chapter, a stepwise protocol, from doubled haploid induction including palm selection, anther isolation, pretreatment, and culture initiation, up to plant regeneration and thereafter acclimatization of the regenerated plants, is described. Furthermore, the protocol for testing the anther-derived plants for the ploidy level is also presented.


Assuntos
Cocos/genética , Flores/genética , Haploidia , Hibridização Genética/genética
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